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# INDEX 1. Query for retrieving N highest paid employees FROM each Department. I 2.

Query that will display the total no. of employees, and of that total the number who were hired in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. II 3. Query for listing Deptno, ename, sal, SUM(sal in that dept). III 4. Matrix query to display the job, the salary for that job based on department number, and the total salary for that job for all departments. IV 5. Nth Top Salary of all the employees. V 6. Retrieving the Nth row FROM a table. VI 7. Tree Query. VII 8. Eliminate duplicates rows in a table. VIII 9. Displaying EVERY Nth row in a table. IX 10. Top N rows FROM a table. X 11. COUNT/SUM RANGES of data values in a column. XI 12. For equal size ranges it might be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range), 0, rate_0, 1, rate_1, ...). XII 13. Count different data values in a column. XIII 14. Query to get the product of all the values of a column. XIV 15. Query to display only the duplicate records in a table. XV 16. Query for getting the following output as many number of rows in the table. XVI 17. Function for getting the Balance Value. XVII 18. Function for getting the Element Value. XVIII 19. SELECT Query for counting No of words. XIX 20. Function to check for a leap year. XX 21. Query for removing all non-numeric. XXI 22. Query for translating a column values to INITCAP. XXII 23. Function for displaying Rupees in Words. XXIII 24. Query for deleting alternate even rows FROM a table. XXIV 25. Query for deleting alternate odd rows FROM a table. XXV 26. Procedure for sending Email. XXVI 27. Alternate Query for DECODE function. XXVII 28. Create table adding Constraint to a date field to SYSDATE or 3 months later. XXVIII

29. Query to list all the suppliers who r supplying all the parts supplied by supplier 'S2'. XXIX 30. Query to get the last Sunday of any month. XXX 31. Query to get all those who have no children themselves. XXXI 32. Query to SELECT last N rows FROM a table. XXXII 33. SELECT with variables. XXXIII 34. Query to get the DB Name. XXXIV 35. Getting the current default schema. XXXV 36. Query to get all the column names of a particular table. XXXVI 37. Spool only the query result to a file in SQLPLUS. XXXVII 38. Query for getting the current SessionID. XXXVIII 39. Query to display rows FROM m to n. XXXIX 40. Query to count no. Of columns in a table. XXXX 41. Procedure to increase the buffer length. XXXXI 42. Inserting an & symbol in a Varchar2 column. XXXXII 43. Create Query to restrict the user to a single row. XXXXIII 44. Query to get the first inserted record FROM a table. XXXXIV 45. Concatenate a column value with multiple rows. XXXXV 46. Query to delete all the tables at once. XXXXVI 47. SQL Query for getting Orphan Records. XXXXVII 48. Removing Trailing blanks in a spooled file. XXXXVIII 49. Samples for executing Dynamic SQL Statements. XXXXIX 50. Differences between SQL and MS-Access. XXXXX 51. Query to display all the children, sub children of a parent. XXXXXI 52. Procedure to read/write data from/to a text file. XXXXXII 53. Query to display random number between any two given numbers. XXXXXIII 54. Time difference between two date columns. XXXXXIV

I. (The following query retrieves "2" highest paid employees FROM each Department : SELECT deptno, empno, sal FROM emp e WHERE 2 > ( SELECT COUNT(e1.sal) FROM emp e1 WHERE e.deptno = e1.deptno AND e.sal < e1.sal ) ORDER BY 1,3 DESC; Index

II. Query that will display the total no. of employees, and of that total the number who were hired in 1980, 1981, 1982, and 1983. Give appropriate column headings. I am looking at the following output. We need to stick to this format. Total ----------14 1980 -----------1 1981 -----------10 1982 ------------2 1983 ----------1

SELECT COUNT (*), COUNT(DECODE(TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'),'1980', empno)) "1980", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1981', empno)) "1981", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1982', empno)) "1982", COUNT (DECODE (TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'YYYY'), '1983', empno)) "1983" FROM emp; Index III. Query for listing Deptno, ename, sal, SUM(sal in that dept) : SELECT a.deptno, ename, sal, (SELECT SUM(sal) FROM emp b WHERE a.deptno = b.deptno) FROM emp a ORDER BY a.deptno; OUTPUT : ======= DEPTNO ========= 10 30 10 10 30 30 30 30 30 20 20 20 Index IV. Create a matrix query to display the job, the salary for that job based on department number, and the total salary for that job for all departments, giving each column an appropriate heading. The output is as follows - we need to stick to this format : Job Dept 10 ------------------------ANALYST CLERK 1300 MANAGER 2450 PRESIDENT 5000 Dept 20 ------------6000 1900 2975 Dept 30 ------------950 2850 --------Total 6000 4150 8275 5000

ENAME SAL ======= ==== KING 5000 BLAKE 2850 CLARK 2450 JONES 2975 MARTIN 1250 ALLEN 1600 TURNER 1500 JAMES 950 WARD 2750 SMITH 8000 SCOTT 3000 MILLER 20000

SUM (SAL) ========= 11725 10900 11725 11725 10900 10900 10900 10900 10900 33000 33000 33000

SALESMAN SELECT job "Job", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 10, sal)) "Dept 10", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 20, sal)) "Dept 20", SUM (DECODE (deptno, 30, sal)) "Dept 30", SUM (sal) "Total" FROM emp GROUP BY job ; Index th V. 4 Top Salary of all the employees : SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP A WHERE 3 = (SELECT COUNT(B.SAL) FROM EMP B WHERE A.SAL < B.SAL) ORDER BY SAL DESC; Index VI. Retrieving the 5th row FROM a table :

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SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP WHERE ROWID = (SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM <= 5 MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 5) Index VII. Tree Query : Name Null? Type ------------------------------------------------------------------SUB NOT NULL VARCHAR2(4) SUPER VARCHAR2(4) PRICE NUMBER(6,2)

SELECT sub, super FROM parts CONNECT BY PRIOR sub = super START WITH sub = 'p1'; Index VIII. Eliminate duplicates rows in a table : DELETE FROM table_name A WHERE ROWID > ( SELECT min(ROWID) FROM table_name B WHERE A.col = B.col); Index

IX. Displaying EVERY 4th row in a table : (If a table has 14 rows, 4,8,12 rows will be selected) SELECT * FROM emp WHERE (ROWID,0) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,4) FROM emp); Index X. Top N rows FROM a table : (Displays top 9 salaried people) SELECT ename, deptno, sal FROM (SELECT * FROM emp ORDER BY sal DESC) WHERE ROWNUM < 10; Index XI. How does one count/sum RANGES of data values in a column? A value x will be between values y and z if GREATEST(x, y) = LEAST(x, z). SELECT f2, COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,59), least(f1,100), 1, 0)) "Range 60-100", COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,30), least(f1, 59), 1, 0)) "Range 30-59", COUNT(DECODE(greatest(f1,29), least(f1, 0), 1, 0)) "Range 00-29" FROM my_table GROUP BY f2; Index XII. For equal size ranges it migth be easier to calculate it with DECODE(TRUNC(value/range), 0, rate_0, 1, rate_1, ...). SELECT ename "Name", sal "Salary", DECODE( TRUNC(sal/1000, 0), 0, 0.0, 1, 0.1, 2, 0.2, 3, 0.3) "Tax rate" FROM emp; XIII. How does one count different data values in a column? COL NAME DATATYPE ---------------------------------------DNO NUMBER SEX CHAR SELECT dno, SUM(DECODE(sex,'M',1,0)) MALE, SUM(DECODE(sex,'F',1,0)) FEMALE, COUNT(DECODE(sex,'M',1,'F',1)) TOTAL FROM t1 GROUP BY dno;

Index XIV. Query to get the product of all the values of a column : SELECT EXP(SUM(LN(col1))) FROM srinu; Index XV. Query to display only the duplicate records in a table: SELECT num FROM satyam GROUP BY num HAVING COUNT(*) > 1; Index XVI. Query for getting the following output as many number of rows in the table : * ** *** **** ***** SELECT RPAD(DECODE(temp,temp,'*'),ROWNUM,'*') FROM srinu1; Index XVII. Function for getting the Balance Value : FUNCTION F_BALANCE_VALUE (p_business_group_id number, p_payroll_action_id number, p_balance_name varchar2, p_dimension_name varchar2) RETURN NUMBER IS l_bal number; l_defined_bal_id number; l_assignment_action_id number; BEGIN SELECT assignment_action_id INTO l_assignment_action_id FROM pay_assignment_actions WHERE assignment_id = :p_assignment_id AND payroll_action_id = p_payroll_action_id; SELECT defined_balance_id INTO l_defined_bal_id FROM pay_balance_types pbt, pay_defined_balances pdb,

pay_balance_dimensions pbd WHERE pbt.business_group_id = p_business_group_id AND UPPER(pbt.balance_name) = UPPER(p_balance_name) AND pbt.business_group_id = pdb.business_group_id AND pbt.balance_type_id = pdb.balance_type_id AND UPPER(pbd.dimension_name) = UPPER(p_dimension_name) AND pdb.balance_dimension_id = pbd.balance_dimension_id; l_bal := pay_balance_pkg.get_value(l_defined_bal_id,l_assignment_action_id); RETURN (l_bal); exception WHEN no_data_found THEN RETURN 0; END; Index XVIII. Function for getting the Element Value : FUNCTION f_element_value( p_classification_name in varchar2, p_element_name in varchar2, p_business_group_id in number, p_input_value_name in varchar2, p_payroll_action_id in number, p_assignment_id in number ) RETURN number IS l_element_value number(14,2) default 0; l_input_value_id pay_input_values_f.input_value_id%type; l_element_type_id pay_element_types_f.element_type_id%type; BEGIN SELECT DISTINCT element_type_id INTO l_element_type_id FROM pay_element_types_f pet, pay_element_classifications pec WHERE pet.classification_id = pec.classification_id AND upper(classification_name) = upper(p_classification_name) AND upper(element_name) = upper(p_element_name) AND pet.business_group_id = p_business_group_id; SELECT input_value_id INTO l_input_value_id FROM pay_input_values_f WHERE upper(name) = upper(p_input_value_name) AND element_type_id = l_element_type_id; SELECT NVL(prrv.result_value,0) INTO l_element_value FROM pay_run_result_values prrv, pay_run_results prr,

pay_assignment_actions paa WHERE prrv.run_result_id = prr.run_result_id AND prr.assignment_ACTION_ID = paa.assignment_action_id AND paa.assignment_id = p_assignment_id AND input_value_id = l_input_value_id AND paa.payroll_action_id = p_payroll_action_id; RETURN (l_element_value); exception WHEN no_data_found THEN RETURN 0; END; Index XIX. SELECT Query for counting No of words : SELECT ename, NVL(LENGTH(REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @'),' ',''))+1,1) word_length FROM emp; Explanation : TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @') -- This will translate all the characters FROM A-Z including a single quote to a space. It will also translate a space to a @. REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @'),' ','') -- This will replace every space with nothing in the above result. LENGTH(REPLACE(TRANSLATE(UPPER(RTRIM(ename)),'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ'' ',' @'),' ',''))+1 -- This will give u the count of @ characters in the above result. Index XX. Function to check for a leap year : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION is_leap_year (p_date IN DATE) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS v_test DATE; BEGIN v_test := TO_DATE ('29-Feb-' || TO_CHAR (p_date,'YYYY'),'DD-Mon-YYYY'); RETURN 'Y'; EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN RETURN 'N'; END is_leap_year; SQL> SELECT hiredate, TO_CHAR (hiredate, 'Day') weekday FROM emp WHERE is_leap_year (hiredate) = 'Y';

Index XXI. Query for removing all non-numeric : SELECT TRANSLATE(LOWER(ssn),'abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz- ','') FROM DUAL; Index XXII. Query for translating a column values to INITCAP : SELECT TRANSLATE(INITCAP(temp), SUBSTR(temp, INSTR(temp,'''')+1,1), LOWER(SUBSTR(temp, INSTR(temp,'''')+1))) FROM srinu1; Index XXIII. Function for displaying Rupees in Words : CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION to_word_i (amount IN NUMBER) RETURN VARCHAR2 AS v_length INTEGER := 0; v_num2 VARCHAR2 (50) := NULL; v_amount VARCHAR2 (50) := TO_CHAR (TRUNC (amount)); v_word VARCHAR2 (4000) := NULL; v_word1 VARCHAR2 (4000) := NULL; TYPE myarray IS TABLE OF VARCHAR2 (255); v_str myarray := myarray (' Thousand ', ' Lakh ', ' Crore '); BEGIN IF ((amount = 0) OR (amount IS NULL)) THEN v_word := 'zero'; ELSIF (TO_CHAR (amount) LIKE '%.%') THEN IF (SUBSTR (amount, INSTR (amount, '.') + 1) > 0) THEN v_num2 := SUBSTR (amount, INSTR (amount, '.') + 1); IF (LENGTH (v_num2) < 2) THEN v_num2 := v_num2 * 10; END IF; v_word1 := ' AND ' || (TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_num2, LENGTH (v_num2) - 1,2), 'J'), 'JSP' ))|| ' paise '; v_amount := SUBSTR(amount,1,INSTR (amount, '.')-1); v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_amount, LENGTH (v_amount) - 2,3), 'J'), 'Jsp' ) || v_word; v_amount := SUBSTR (v_amount, 1, LENGTH (v_amount) - 3); FOR i in 1 .. v_str.COUNT LOOP EXIT WHEN (v_amount IS NULL); v_word := TO_CHAR (TO_DATE (SUBSTR (v_amount, LENGTH (v_amount) - 1,2), 'J'), 'Jsp' ) || v_str (i) || v_word;

v_amount := SUBSTR (v_amount, 1, LENGTH (v_amount) - 2); END LOOP; END IF; ELSE v_word := TO_CHAR ( TO_DATE ( TO_CHAR ( amount, '999999999') , 'J'), 'JSP'); END IF; v_word := v_word || ' ' || v_word1 || ' only '; v_word := REPLACE (RTRIM (v_word), ' ', ' '); v_word := REPLACE (RTRIM (v_word), '-', ' '); RETURN INITCAP (v_word); END to_word_i; Index XXIV. Query for deleting alternate even rows FROM a table : DELETE FROM srinu WHERE (ROWID,0) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,2) FROM srinu); Index XXV. Query for deleting alternate odd rows FROM a table : DELETE FROM srinu WHERE (ROWID,1) IN (SELECT ROWID, MOD(ROWNUM,2) FROM srinu); Index XXVI. Procedure for sending Email : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE Send_Mail IS sender VARCHAR2(50) := 'sender@something.com'; recipient VARCHAR2(50) := 'recipient@something.com'; subject VARCHAR2(100) := 'Test Message'; message VARCHAR2(1000) := 'This is a sample mail ....'; lv_mailhost VARCHAR2(30) := 'HOTNT002'; l_mail_conn utl_smtp.connection; lv_crlf VARCHAR2(2):= CHR( 13 ) || CHR( 10 ); BEGIN l_mail_conn := utl_smtp.open_connection (lv_mailhost, 80); utl_smtp.helo ( l_mail_conn, lv_mailhost); utl_smtp.mail ( l_mail_conn, sender); utl_smtp.rcpt ( l_mail_conn, recipient); utl_smtp.open_data (l_mail_conn); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'FROM: ' || sender || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'To: ' || recipient || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, 'Subject:' || subject || lv_crlf); utl_smtp.write_data ( l_mail_conn, lv_crlf || message);

utl_smtp.close_data(l_mail_conn); utl_smtp.quit(l_mail_conn); EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Error'); END; / Index XXVII. Alternate Query for DECODE function : SELECT case WHEN sex = 'm' THEN 'male' WHEN sex = 'f' THEN 'female' ELSE 'unknown' END FROM mytable; Index XXVIII. Create table adding Constraint to a date field to SYSDATE or 3 months later: CREATE TABLE srinu(dt1 date DEFAULT SYSDATE, dt2 date, CONSTRAINT check_dt2 CHECK ((dt2 >= dt1) AND (dt2 <= ADD_MONTHS(SYSDATE,3))); Index XXIX. Query to list all the suppliers who supply all the parts supplied by supplier 'S2' : SELECT DISTINCT a.SUPP FROM ORDERS a WHERE a.supp != 'S2' AND a.parts IN (SELECT DISTINCT PARTS FROM ORDERS WHERE supp = 'S2') GROUP BY a.SUPP HAVING COUNT(DISTINCT a.PARTS) >= (SELECT COUNT(DISTINCT PARTS) FROM ORDERS WHERE supp = 'S2'); Table : orders SUPP PARTS -------------------- ------S1 P1 S1 P2 S1 P3 S1 P4 S1 P5 S1 P6 S2 P1 S2 P2 S3 P2

S4 S4 S4 Index

P2 P4 P5

XXX. Query to get the last Sunday of any month : SELECT NEXT_DAY(LAST_DAY(TO_DATE('26-10-2001','DD-MM-YYYY')) - 7,'sunday') FROM DUAL; Index XXXI. Query to get all those who have no children themselves : table data : id name parent_id ------------------------------1 a NULL - the top level entry 2 b 1 - a child of 1 3 c 1 4 d 2 - a child of 2 5 e 2 6 f 3 7 g 3 8 h 4 9 i 8 10 j 9 SELECT ID FROM MY_TABlE WHERE PARENT_ID IS NOT NULL MINUS SELECT PARENT_ID FROM MY_TABlE; Index XXXII. Query to SELECT last N rows FROM a table : SELECT empno FROM emp WHERE ROWID in (SELECT ROWID FROM emp MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM emp WHERE ROWNUM <= (SELECT COUNT(*)-5 FROM emp)); Index XXXIII. SELECT with variables: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE disp AS xTableName varchar2(25):='emp'; xFieldName varchar2(25):='ename'; xValue NUMBER; xQuery varchar2(100);

name varchar2(10) := 'CLARK'; BEGIN xQuery := 'SELECT SAL FROM ' || xTableName || ' WHERE ' || xFieldName || ' = ''' || name || ''''; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(xQuery); EXECUTE IMMEDIATE xQuery INTO xValue; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(xValue); END; Index XXXIV. Query to get the DB Name: SELECT name FROM v\$database; Index XXXV. Getting the current default schema : SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','CURRENT_SCHEMA') FROM DUAL; Index XXXVI. Query to get all the column names of a particular table : SELECT column_name FROM all_tab_columns WHERE TABLE_NAME = 'ORDERS'; Index XXXVII. How do I spool only the query result to a file in SQLPLUS : Place the following lines of code in a file and execute the file in SQLPLUS : set heading off set feedback off set colsep ' ' set termout off set verify off spool c:\srini.txt SELECT empno,ename FROM emp; /* Write your Query here */ spool off / Index XXXVIII. Query for getting the current SessionID : SELECT SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','SESSIONID') Session_ID FROM DUAL; Index

XXXIX. Query to display rows FROM m to n : To display rows 5 to 7 : SELECT DEPTNO, ENAME, SAL FROM EMP WHERE ROWID IN (SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM <= 7 MINUS SELECT ROWID FROM EMP WHERE ROWNUM < 5); OR SELECT ename FROM emp GROUP BY ROWNUM, ename HAVING ROWNUM > 1 and ROWNUM < 3; Index XXXX. Query to count no. Of columns in a table: SELECT COUNT(column_name) FROM user_tab_columns WHERE table_name = 'MYTABLE'; Index XXXXI. Procedure to increase the buffer length : dbms_output.enable(4000); /*allows the output buffer to be increased to the specified number of bytes */ DECLARE BEGIN dbms_output.enable(4000); FOR i IN 1..400 LOOP DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(i); END LOOP; END; / Index XXXXII. Inserting an & symbol in a Varchar2 column : Set the following to some other character. By default it is &. set define '~' Index

XXXXIII. Create Query to restrict the user to a single row : Index XXXXIV. Query to get the first inserted record FROM a table : Index XXXXV. How to concatenate a column value with multiple rows : Index XXXXVI. Query to delete all the tables at once : Index XXXXVII. SQL Query for getting Orphan Records : Index XXXXVIII. How do you remove

## Trailing blanks in a spooled file :

Change the Environment Options Like this : set trimspool on set trimout on Index XXXXIX. Samples for executing Dynamic SQL Statements : Sample :1 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE CNT(P_TABLE_NAME IN VARCHAR2) AS SqlString VARCHAR2(200); tot number; BEGIN SqlString:='SELECT COUNT(*) FROM '|| P_TABLE_NAME; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE SqlString INTO tot; DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Total No.Of Records In ' || P_TABLE_NAME || ' ARE=' || tot); END; Sample :2 DECLARE sql_stmt VARCHAR2(200); plsql_block VARCHAR2(500); emp_id NUMBER(4) := 7566; salary NUMBER(7,2); dept_id NUMBER(2) := 50; dept_name VARCHAR2(14) := PERSONNEL; location VARCHAR2(13) := DALLAS; emp_rec emp%ROWTYPE; BEGIN EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'CREATE TABLE bonus (id NUMBER, amt NUMBER)';

sql_stmt := 'INSERT INTO dept VALUES (:1, :2, :3)'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING dept_id, dept_name, location; sql_stmt := 'SELECT * FROM emp WHERE empno = :id'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt INTO emp_rec USING emp_id; plsql_block := 'BEGIN emp_pkg.raise_salary(:id, :amt); END;'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE plsql_block USING 7788, 500; sql_stmt := 'UPDATE emp SET sal = 2000 WHERE empno = :1 RETURNING sal INTO :2'; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE sql_stmt USING emp_id RETURNING INTO salary; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE 'DELETE FROM dept WHERE deptno = :num' USING dept_id; EXECUTE IMMEDIATE ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE TRUE; END; Sample 3 CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE DEPARTMENTS(NO IN DEPT.DEPTNO%TYPE) AS v_cursor integer; v_dname char(20); v_rows integer; BEGIN v_cursor := DBMS_SQL.OPEN_CURSOR; DBMS_SQL.PARSE(v_cursor, 'select dname from dept where deptno > :x', DBMS_SQL.V7); DBMS_SQL.BIND_VARIABLE(v_cursor, ':x', no); DBMS_SQL.DEFINE_COLUMN_CHAR(v_cursor, 1, v_dname, 20); v_rows := DBMS_SQL.EXECUTE(v_cursor); LOOP IF DBMS_SQL.FETCH_ROWS(v_cursor) = 0 THEN EXIT; END IF; DBMS_SQL.COLUMN_VALUE_CHAR(v_cursor, 1, v_dname); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE('Deptartment name: '||v_dname); END LOOP; DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR(v_cursor); EXCEPTION WHEN OTHERS THEN DBMS_SQL.CLOSE_CURSOR(v_cursor); raise_application_error(-20000, 'Unknown Exception Raised: '||sqlcode||' '||sqlerrm); END; Index XXXXX. Differences between SQL and MS-Access : Difference 1: Oracle : select name from table1 where name like 'k%'; Access: select name from table1 where name like 'k*'; Difference 2: Access: SELECT TOP 2 name FROM Table1; Oracle : will not work there is no such TOP key word.

Index XXXXXI. Query to display all the children, sub children of a parent : SELECT organization_id,name FROM hr_all_organization_units WHERE organization_id in ( SELECT ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD FROM PER_ORG_STRUCTURE_ELEMENTS CONNECT BY PRIOR ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD = ORGANIZATION_ID_PARENT START WITH ORGANIZATION_ID_CHILD = (SELECT organization_id FROM hr_all_organization_units WHERE name = 'EBG Corporate Group')); Index XXXXXII. Procedure to read/write data from a text file : CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE read_data AS c_path varchar2(100) := '/usr/tmp'; c_file_name varchar2(20) := 'EKGSEP01.CSV'; v_file_id utl_file.file_type; v_buffer varchar2(1022) := This is a sample text; BEGIN v_file_id := UTL_FILE.FOPEN(c_path,c_file_name,'w'); UTL_FILE.PUT_LINE(v_file_id, v_buffer); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(v_file_id); v_file_id := UTL_FILE.FOPEN(c_path,c_file_name,'r'); UTL_FILE.GET_LINE(v_file_id, v_buffer); DBMS_OUTPUT.PUT_LINE(v_buffer); UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(v_file_id); END; / Index XXXXXIII. Query to display random number between any two given numbers : SELECT DBMS_RANDOM.VALUE (1,2) FROM DUAL; Index XXXXXIV. How can I get the time difference between two date columns : SELECT FLOOR((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600) || ' HOURS ' || FLOOR((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60) || ' MINUTES ' ||

ROUND((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600 (FLOOR((((date1-date2)*24*60*60) FLOOR(((date1-date2)*24*60*60)/3600)*3600)/60)*60))) || ' SECS ' time_difference FROM my_table; Index