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TEX Reference Card Relations Accents

(for Plain TEX) ≤ \leq or \le ≥ \geq or \ge ≡ \equiv Type Example In Math In Text
≺ \prec  \succ ∼ \sim hat â \hat \^
Greek Letters  \preceq  \succeq ' \simeq expanding hat d
abc \widehat none
α \alpha ι \iota % \varrho  \ll  \gg  \asymp check ǎ \check \v
β \beta κ \kappa σ \sigma ⊂ \subset ⊃ \supset ≈ \approx tilde ã \tilde \~
⊆ \subseteq ⊇ \supseteq ∼
= \cong expanding tilde g
abc \widetilde none
γ \gamma λ \lambda ς \varsigma
δ \delta µ \mu τ \tau v \sqsubseteq w \sqsupseteq ./ \bowtie acute á \acute \’
 \epsilon ν \nu υ \upsilon ∈ \in ∈
/ \notin 3 \ni or \owns grave à \grave \‘
ε \varepsilon ξ \xi φ \phi ` \vdash a \dashv |= \models dot ȧ \dot \.
ζ \zeta o \o ϕ \varphi ^ \smile | \mid = \doteq double dot ä \ddot \"
η \eta π \pi χ \chi _ \frown k \parallet ⊥ \perp breve ă \breve \u
θ \theta $ \varpi ψ \psi ∝ \propto bar ā \bar \=
ϑ \vartheta ρ \rho ω \omega Most relations can be negated by prefixing them with \not. vector ~a \vec none

Γ \Gamma Ξ \Xi Φ \Phi 6≡ \not\equiv ∈

/ \notin 6= \ne The \skewhnumberi command shifts accents for proper posi-
∆ \Delta Π \Pi Ψ \Psi tioning, the larger the hnumberi, the more right the shift. Com-
Θ \Theta Σ \Sigma Ω \Omega Arrows pare
Λ \Lambda Υ \Upsilon ˆ ˆ
← \leftarrow or \gets ←− \longleftarrow \hat{\hat A} gives Â, \skew6\hat{\hat A} gives Â.
⇐ \Leftarrow ⇐= \Longleftarrow
Symbols of Type Ord → \rightarrow or \to −→ \longrightarrow Elementary Math Control Sequences
ℵ \aleph 0 \prime ∀ \forall ⇒ \Rightarrow =⇒ \Longrightarrow overline a formula x+y \overline{x+y}
h̄ \hbar ∅ \emptyset ∃ \exists ↔ \leftrightarrow ←→ \longleftrightarrow underline a formula x+y \underline{x+y}
ı \imath ∇ \nabla ¬ \neg or \lnot ⇔ \Leftrightarrow ⇐⇒ \Longleftrightarrow √
√ square root x + 2 \sqrt{x+2}
 \jmath \surd [ \flat 7→ \mapsto 7−→ \longmapsto √
` \ell > \top \ \natural ←- \hookleftarrow ,→ \hookrightarrow higher order roots n
x+2 \root n\of{x+2}
℘ \wp ⊥ \bot ] \sharp ↑ \uparrow ⇑ \Uparrow fraction {n+1\over 3}
< \Re k \| ♣ \clubsuit ↓ \downarrow ⇓ \Downarrow 3
= \Im \angle ♦ \diamondsuit l \updownarrow m \Updownarrow fraction, no line {n+1\atop 3}
∂ \partial 4 \triangle ♥ \heartsuit % \nearrow & \searrow n +3 
∞ \infty \ \backslash ♠ \spadesuit - \nwarrow . \swarrow binomial coeff. {n+1\choose 3}
The \buildrel macro puts one symbol over another. The for- nn +3 o
Large Operators mat is \buildrelhsuperscripti\overhrelationi. braced fraction {n+1\brace 3}
P T J αβ hn +3 i
\sum \bigcap \bigodot −→ \buildrel\alpha\beta\over\longrightarrow 1
Q S N bracketed fraction {n+1\brack 3}
` \prod F \bigcup L \bigotimes def
f (x) = x + 1 f(x)\; {\buildrel\rm def\over=} \;x+1 3
R \coprod W \bigsqcup U \bigoplus The following specify a style for typesetting formulas.
H \int V \bigvee \biguplus Delimeters \displaystyle \textstyle \scriptstyle \scriptscriptstyle
\oint \bigwedge
[ \lbrack or [ { \lbrace or \{ h \langle Non-Italic Function Names
Binary Operations ] \rbrack or ] } \rbrace or \} i \rangle
| \vert or | b \lfloor d \lceil \arccos \cos \csc \exp \ker \limsup \min \sinh
± \pm ∩ \cap ∨ \vee or \lor k \Vert or \| c \rfloor e \rceil \arcsin \cosh \deg \gcd \lg \ln \Pr \sup
∓ \mp ∪ \cup ∧ \wedge or \land [[ [\![ (( (\!( hh \langle\!\langle \arctan \cot \det \hom \lim \log \sec \tan
\ \setminus ] \uplus ⊕ \oplus ]] ]\!] )) )\!) ii \rangle\!\rangle \arg \coth \dim \inf \liminf \max \sin \tanh
· \cdot u \sqcap \ominus a \pmod{m} a (mod m) mod with parentheses
× \times t \sqcup ⊗ \otimes Left and right delimeters will be enlarged if they are prefixed
a \bmod m a mod m mod without parentheses
∗ \ast / \triangleleft \oslash with \left or \right. Each \left must have a matching
? \star . \triangleright \odot \right, one of which may be an empty delimeter (\left. or The following examples use \mathop to create function names.
\right.). To specify a particular size, use the following: Example Command Plain TEX Definition
 \diamond o \wr † \dagger lim \lim_{x\to2} \def\lim{\mathop{\rm lim}}
◦ \circ \bigcirc ‡ \ddagger \bigl, \bigr \Bigl, \Bigr \biggl, \biggr x→2
• \bullet 4 \bigtriangleup q \amalg You can also say \bigm for a large delimenter in the middle of a log2 \log_2 \def\log{\mathop{\rm log}\nolimits}
÷ \div 5 \bigtriangledown formula, or just \big for one that acts as an ordinary symbol.
Footnotes, Insertions, and Underlines
Page Layout Every Time Insertions
\footnotehmarkeri{htexti} footnote
\hsize=hdimeni set width of page \everypar insert whenever a paragraph begins
\topinserthvmode materiali\endinsert insert at top of page
\vsize=hdimeni set height of page \everymath insert whenever math in text begins
\pageinserthvmode materiali\endinsert insert on full page
\displaywidth=hdimeni set width of math displays \everydisplay insert whenever displayed math begins
\midinserthvmode materiali\endinsert insert middle of page
\hoffset=hdimeni move page horizontally \everycr insert after every \cr
\underbar{htexti} underline text
\voffset=hdimeni move page vertically
c 1998 J.H. Silverman, Permissions on back. v1.3
Send comments and corrections to J.H. Silverman, Math. Dept., Brown
Univ., Providence, RI 02912 USA. hjhs@math.brown.edui
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Useful Parameters and Conversions Indentation and Itemized Lists Dimensions, Spacing, and Glue
\day,\month,\year the current day, month, year \indent indent Dimensions are specified as hnumberihunit of measurei.
\jobname name of current job \noindent do not indent Glue is specified as hdimeni plushdimeni minushdimeni.
\romannumeralhnumberi convert to lower case roman nums. \parindent=hdimeni set indentation of paragraphs point pt pica pc inch in centimeter cm
\uppercase{htoken listi} convert to upper case \displayindent=hdimeni set indentation of math displays
\lowercase{htoken listi} convert to lower case \leftskip=hdimeni skip space on left m width em x height ex math unit mu millimeter mm
\rightskip=hdimeni skip space on right 1 pc = 12 pt 1 in = 72.72 pt 2.54 cm = 1 in 18 mu = 1 em
Fills, Leaders and Ellipses \narrower make paragraph narrower Horizontal Spacing: \quad (skip 1em) \qquad
Text or Math: . . . \dots \item{hlabeli} singly indented itemized list Horizontal Spacing (Text): \thinspace \enspace \enskip
.. ..
Math: . . . \ldots · · · \cdots . \vdots . \ddots \itemitem{hlabeli} doubly indented itemized list \hskiphgluei \hfil \hfill \hfilneg
\hangindent=hdimeni hanging indentation for paragraph Horizontal Spacing (Math): thin space \, medium space \>
The following fill space with the indicated item. \hangafter=hnumberi start hanging indent after line n. thick space \; neg. thin space \! \mskiphmugluei
\hrulefill \rightarrowfill \leftarrowfill \dotfill If n < 0, indent first |n| lines.
Vertical Spacing: \vskiphgluei \vfil \vfill
The general format for constructing leaders is \parshape=hnumberi general paragraph shaping macro
\strut box w/ ht and depth of “(”, zero width
\leadershbox or rulei\hskiphgluei repeat box or rule \phantom{htexti} invisible box with dim of htexti
\leadershbox or rulei\hfill fill space with box or rule Headers, Footers, and Page Numbers \vphantom{htexti} box w/ ht & depth of htexti, zero width
\nopagenumbers turn off page numbering \hphantom{htexti} box w/ width of htexti, zero ht & depth
TEX Fonts and Magnification \pageno current page number. To get roman nums, \smash{htexti} typeset htexti, set ht & depth to zero
set \pageno=hnegative numberi \raisehdimeni\hbox{htexti} raise box up
\rm Roman \bf Bold \tt Typewriter \folio current page number, roman num if < 0
\sl Slant \it Italic \/ “italic correction” \lowerhdimeni\hbox{htexti} lower box down
\footline material to put at foot of page \movelefthdimeni\vbox{htexti} move box left
\magnification=hnumberi scale document by n/1000 \headline material to put at top of page. To leave \moverighthdimeni\vbox{htexti} move box right
\magstephnumberi √ × 1000
scaling factor of 1.2 space, set \voffset=2\baselineskip, make Skip Space Between Lines: \smallskip \medskip \bigskip
\magstephalf scalling factor of 1.2 room with \advance\vsize by-\voffset. encourage a break \smallbreak \medbreak \bigbreak
\font\FN=hfontnamei load a font, naming it \FN break if no room \filbreak
\font\FN=hfontnamei at hdimeni Macro Definitions Set Line Spacing: \baselineskip = hgluei
load font scaled to dimension \def\cs{hreplacement texti} define the macro \cs single space \baselineskip = 12pt
\font\FN=hfontnamei scaled hnumberi \def\cs#1 · · · #n{hrepl. texti} macro with parameters 1 1/2 space \baselineskip = 18pt
load font scaled by n/1000 \let\cs=htokeni give \cs token’s current meaning double space \baselineskip = 24pt
true hdimeni dimension with no scaling Advanced Macro Definition Commands Increase Line Spacing \openuphdimeni
\long\def macro whose args may include \par use \jot’s 1\jot = 3pt
Alignment Displays \outer\def macro not allowed inside definitions Allow Unjustified Lines \raggedright
\settabshnumberi\columns set equally spaced tabs \global\def or \gdef definition that transcends grouping Allow Unjustified Pages \raggedbottom
\settabs\+hsample linei\cr set tabs as per sample line \edef expand while defining macro Braces and Matrices
\+htext1 i&htext2 i&· · ·\cr tabbed text to be typeset \xdef or \global\edef global version of \edef \matrix rectangular array of entries
\halign horizontal alignment \noexpandhtokeni do not expand token \pmatrix matrix with parentheses
\halign tohdimeni horizontal alignment \expandafterhtokeni expand item after token first \bordermatrix matrix with labels on top and left
\openuphdimeni add space between lines \futurelet\cshtok1 ihtok2 i equals \let\cs=htok2 ihtok1 ihtok2 i \overbrace overbrace, may be superscripted
\noalign{hvmode materiali} insert material after any \cr \csname. . . \endcsname create a control sequence name \underbrace underbrace, may be subscripted
\tabskip=hgluei set glue at tab stops \string\cs list characters in name, \ c s For small matrices in text, use the following constructions:
\omit omit the template for a column \numberhnumberi list of characters in number a b
\thehinternal quantityi list of tokens giving value of quantity {a\,b \choose c\,d}
\span span two columns c d 
\multispanhnumberi span several columns \left( {a\atop c} {b\atop d} \right) cd
\hidewidth ignore the width of an entry Conditionals Displayed Equations
\crcr insert \cr if one is not present The general format of a conditional is
\eqno equation number at right
\ifhconditionihtrue texti\elsehfalse texti\fi
Boxes \leqno equation number at left
\ifnumhnum1 ihrelationihnum2 i compare two integers
\eqalign display several aligned equations
\hbox tohdimeni hbox of given dimension \ifdimhdimen1 ihrelationihdimen2 i compare two dimensions
\eqalignno display aligned equations numbered at right
\vbox tohdimeni vbox, bottom justified \ifoddhnumi test for an odd integer
\leqalignno display aligned equations numbered at left
\vtop tohdimeni vbox, top justified \ifmmode test for math mode
\displaylines display several equations, centered
\vcenter tohdimeni vbox, center justified (math only) \ifhtoken1 ihtoken2 i test if character codes agree
\cases case by case definitions
\rlap right overlap material \ifdim compare two dimensions
\noalign to insert space between lines in displays,
\llap left overlap material \ifxhtoken1 ihtoken2 i test if tokens agree
use \noalign{\vskiphgluei} after any \cr
\ifeofhnumberi test for end of file
Overfull Boxes \openuphdimeni add space between all lines in a display
\iftrue, \iffalse always true, always false
Copyright c 1998 J.H. Silverman, November 1998 v1.3
\hfuzz allowable excess in hboxes \ifcasehnumberihtext0 i\orhtext1 i\or· · ·
Math. Dept., Brown Univ., Providence, RI 02912 USA
\vfuzz allowable excess in vboxes \orhtextn i\elsehtexti\fi choose text by hnumberi TEX is a trademark of the American Mathematical Society
\overfullrule width of overfull box marker. To eliminate \loop α \if. . . β \repeat loop αβα · · · α until \if is false Permission is granted to make and distribute copies of this card pro-
entirely, set \overfullrule=0pt. \newif\ifblob create a new conditional called \ifblob vided the copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on
\blobtrue, \blobfalse set conditional \ifblob true, false all copies.
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