Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 27

The Tehenu By Dr. Clyde Winters

The Tehenu By Dr. Clyde Winters 1 | P a g e

Copyright© Clyde Winters 2012 Uthman dan Fodio Institute Chicago,Illinois 60643

Preface

Welcome. In this monograph we will discuss the history of the Tehenu People. Information about this ancient African population is sparse and mainly based on the idea that the original Tehenu people were Berbers. In this monograph we put this myth to rest and explain the origin and spread of the Tehenu from Africa to Anatolia.

Clyde Winters, PhD

Table of Contents

Preface

Page

Introduction………………………………………………………4

Chapter 2: Tehenu were the C-Group and Niger-Congo Speakers…………………………………………8

Chapter 3: Origin of Tehenu………………………………

..

10

Chapter 4: The Tehenu in Anatolia……………………….13 Chapter 5: The Tehenu and the Meshwesh…………….15

Introduction

The Tehenu are also called Kushites. The Kushites were mainly speakers of Dravidian, Elamite, Niger-Congo and Sumerian languages. They formerly lived in the highland Sahara. We call these people the Proto-Saharans, they founded the River Valley Civilizations 6- 5kya. Their ancestors belonged to the Ounanian culture that dates back to 12kya.

The Ounanians were members of the Capsian population.There was continuity between the population in the Maghreb and southern Sahara referred to as Capsians, Iberomaurusians, and Mechtoids . The Niger-Congo speakers are decendants of the Capsian population.

Using craniometric data researchers have made it clear that the Dravidian speakers of South India and the Indus valley were primarily related to the ancient Caspian or Mediterranean population. Lahovary and Sastri maintains that this population was unified over an extensive zone from Africa, across Eurasia into South India. Some researchers maintain that the Caspian civilization originated in East Africa.

The Kushites early settled Libya and the Sudan. The inhabitants of Libya were called Tmhw (Temehus). The Temehus were organized into two groups the Thnw (Tehenu) in the North and the Nhsj (Nehesy) in the South . A Tehenu personage is depicted on Amratian period pottery. Some Tehenu wore a pointed beard, phallic-sheath and feathers on their head. But , if you look at the second figure in the Table of Nations you will notice that his dress is Middle Eastern he represents an ancestor of the Arabs, no way he can be associated with the C-Group peoples ( which included Proto-Dravidians , Mande speakers Fulani and etc.).

The Temehus are called the C-Group people by archaeologists . The central Fezzan was a center of C-Group settlement. Quellec [15] discussed in detail the presence of C-Group culture traits in the

Central Fezzan along with their cattle during the middle of the Third millennium BC.

Phylogeography Kushites

The mtDNA haplogroups L1, L2, L3 and U5 are associated with Niger-Congo speakers. Phylogenetically all the Eurasian mtDNA branches descend from L3.

The Pan-African haplotypes are 16189,16192,16223, 16278,16294, 16309, qnd 16390. This sequence is found in the L2a1 haplotype which is highly frequent among the Mande speaking group and the Wolof.

There is mtDNA data uniting Africans and Dravidians. Some researchers attempt to portray the Dravidians as Caucasoid people and try to link these people to western Eurasian populations.Other researchers in India attempt to postulate an Indian origin for Dravidians because they mainly belong to the M haplogroup (HG)

[40-41].

The M lineages are not found only in East Africa. Rosa et al [46] found a low frequency of the M1 HG among West Africans who speak the Niger Congo languages, such as the Balanta-Djola. Gonzalez et al [47] found N, M and M1 HGs among Niger-Congo speakers living in Cameroon, Senegambia and Guinea Bissau.

The phylogeography of y-Chromosome haplotypes shared among the Niger-Congo speakers include A,B, Elb1a, E1b1b, E2, E3a and R1 [57] (See: Figures 1-2). The predominate y-Chromosome among the Niger-Congo is M2, M35, and M33.

Haplogroup E has three branches carried by Niger-Congo populations E1, E2 and E3. The E1 and E2 clines are found exclusively in Africa. Haplogroup E3 is also found in Eurasia. Haplogroup E3 subclades are E3b, E-M78, E-M81 and E-M34.

The majority of Niger-Congo speakers belong to E1b1a, Elb1b, E2 and R1. Around 90% belong to y-Chromosome group E (215,M35*).

Y-Chromosome haplogroup A is represented among Niger- Congo speakers. In West Africa, under 5% of the NC speakers belong to group A. Most Niger-Congo speakers who belong to group A are found in East Africa and belong to A3b2-M13: Kenya (13.8) and Tanzanian (7.0%).

The Bantu expansion is usually associated with the spread of y- Chromosome E3a-M2. In Kenya the frequentcy for E3a-M2 is 52%; and 42% in Tanzania. In Burkina Faso high frequentcies of E-M2* and E-M191* are also represented. It is interesting to note that among the Mande speaking Bisa and Mandekan there are high frequentcies of E-M2*. This is in sharp contrast to the Marka and South Samo who have high frequencies of E-M33.

The pristine form of R1-M173 is found in Africa. Y-Chromosome R is characterized by M207/ V45. The V45 mutation is found among NC speakers. The R1b mutations include V7, V8, V45, V69 and V88.

The frequency of R1-M173 varies among Niger-Congo speakers. The frequentcy of R-M173 range between 3-54%. The most frequent subtype in Africa is V88 (R1b1a). Haplogroup R1b1a ranges between 2-20% among the Bantu speakers.The highest frequentcy of R1 is found among Fulbe or Fulani speakers.

The Tehenu are often associated with the C-Group people. Dravidians and Niger-Congo speakers can trace their descent back to these groups.The Tehenu used red-and-black pottery.

Amratian Pottery

Amratian Pottery The Tehenu are often associated with the C-Group people. Dravidians and Niger-Congo speakers can

The Tehenu are often associated with the C-Group people. Dravidians and Niger-Congo speakers can trace their descent back to these groups.

The Egyptians and West Africans formerly lived together in the highland areas of Africa, I call "The Fertile African Cresent", until they moved into the Nile delta (the Egyptians) and West Africa (Niger-Congo speakers).

These Proto-Saharans were called Ta-Seti and Tehenu by the Egyptians. Farid(1985,p.82) noted that "We can notice that the beginning of the Neolithic stage in Egypt on the edge of the Western Desert corresponds with the expansion of the Saharian Neolithic culture and the growth of its population" (emphasis that of author).

A Tehenu personage is depicted on Amratian period pottery (Farid 1985 ,p. 84). The Tehenu wore pointed beard, phallic-sheath and feathers on their head.

Tehenu on Amratian Pottery The red-and-black pottery was probably created by the C-Group people. They spread

Tehenu on Amratian Pottery

The red-and-black pottery was probably created by the C-Group people. They spread this ceramic style throughout Asia and Middle Africa.

The inhabitants of the Fezzan were round headed black Africans (Jelinek, 1985,p.273). The cultural characteristics of the Fezzanese were analogous to C-Group culture items and the people of Ta-Seti . The C-Group people occupied the Sudan and Fezzan regions between 3700-1300 BC (Jelinek 1985).

The inhabitants of Libya were called Tmhw (Temehus). The Temehus were organized into two groups the Thnw (Tehenu) in the North and the Nhsj (Nehesy) in the South (Diop 1986).

The Temehus are called the C-Group people by archaeologists (Jelinek,1985; Quellec, 1985). The central Fezzan was a center of C-Group settlement.

Members of the C-Group probably entered Egypt and founded some of the Southern nomes associated with the Inyotefs.

Quellec (1985, p.373) discussed in detail the presence of C-Group culture traits in the Central Fezzan along with their cattle during the middle of the Third millennium BC.

The Temehus or C-Group people began to settle Kush around 2200 BC.

The kings of Kush had their capital at Kerma, in Dongola and a sedentary center on Sai Island. The same pottery found at Kerma is also present in Libya especially the Fezzan. There are similarities between Egyptian and Saharan motifs (Farid,1985). It was in the Sahara that we find the first evidence of agriculture, animal domestication and weaving (Farid ,1985, p.82).

Chapter 3: Origin of Tehenu

10 | P a g e

The inhabitants of Libya were called Tmhw (Temehus). The Temehus were organized into two groups the Thnw (Tehenu) in the North and the Nhsj (Nehesy) in the South(Diop 1986). A Tehenu personage is depicted on Amratian period pottery. Some Tehenu wore a pointed beard, phallic-sheath and feathers on their head. But , if you look at the second figure in the Table of Nations you will notice that his dress is Middle Eastern he represents an ancestor of the Arabs, no way he can be associated with the C- Group peoples ( which included Proto-Dravidians , Mande speakers Fulani and etc.).

The Temehus are called the C-Group people by archaeologists (Jelinek, 1985; Quellec, 1985). The central Fezzan was a center of C-Group settlement. Quellec (1985, p.373) discussed in detail the presence of C-Group culture traits in the Central Fezzan along with their cattle during the middle of the Third millennium BC.

The Temehus or C-Group people began to settle Kush around 2200 BC. The kings of Kush had their capital at Kerma, in Dongola and a sedentary center on Sai Island. The same pottery found at Kerma is also present in Libya (and even India) especially the Fezzan the ancient homeland of the Mande speaking people. The C-Group founded the Kerma dynasty of Kush. Diop (1986, p.72) noted that the "earliest substratum of the Libyan population was a black population from the south Sahara". Kerma was first inhabited in the 4th millennium BC (Bonnet 1986). By the 2nd millennium BC Kushites at Kerma were already worshippers of Amon/Amun and they used a distinctive black- and-red ware (Bonnet 1986). Amon, later became a major god of the Egyptians during the 18th Dynasty.

Refereferences

Bonnet,C. (1986). Kerma: Territoire et Metropole. Cairo: Instut Francais D'Archeologie Orientale du Caire.

Anta Diop.(1986). "Formation of the Berber Branch". In Libya Antiqua. (ed.) by Unesco, (Paris: UNESCO) pp.69-73.

Jelinek,J. (1985). "Tillizahren,the Key Site of the Fezzanese Rock Art". Anthropologie

(Brno),23(3):223-275.

Quellec,J-L le. (1985). "Les Gravures Rupestres Du Fezzan (Libye)". L'Anthropologie, 89

(3):365-383.

Chapter 4: The Tehenu in Anatolia

Some of the Tehenu or Kushites settled Anatolia. Some of the major Anatolian Kushite tribes were the Kaska and Hatti speakers who spoke non-IE languages called Khattili. The gods of the Hattic people were Kasku and

Kusuh (< Kush).

The Hattic people, may be related to the[b] Hatiu, one of the Delta Tehenu tribes. Many archaeologist believe that the Tehenu people were related to the C-Group people. The Hattic language is closely related to African and Dravidian languages for example:

English ……Hattic …

..

Egyptian……

..

Malinke (Mande language)

powerful ……ur………. wr'great,big' ………fara

protect……

..

$uh……… swh …………………solo-

head …………tup ………tp ……………tu 'strike the head'

up,upper…

..

tufa ………

tp………………

dya, tu 'raising ground'

to stretch put… pd ………pe,………………

..

bamba

o prosper …….falfat …

..

--

…………………

find'ya

..

pour ……………duq …….---…………………

..

du 'to dispense'

child …………

..

pin………,pinu…………………

den

13 | P a g e

Mother ………

..

………--……………………

na-a

..

na

lord …………….sa ………

--……………………….

sa

place ………….-ka………… -ka

The languages have similar syntax Hattic le fil 'his house'; Mande a falu 'his father's house'. This suggest that the first Anatolians were Kushites, a view supported by the Hattic name for themselves: Kashka.

Chapter 5: The Tehenu and the Meshwesh

Chapter 5: The Tehenu and the Meshwesh The use of different names to describe the Tehenu
Chapter 5: The Tehenu and the Meshwesh The use of different names to describe the Tehenu

The use of different names to describe the Tehenu and Asian in the Ramses III Table of Nations is understood in relation to the political and ethnic conditions in Egypt and Western Asia during this period. The research appears to indicate that the physiognomy of the Libyans had changed by this time . This resulted , for the most part from the invasion of Egypt by Sea Peoples in association with the Libu (Libyans).

The figures on Ramses III Table of nations are associated with the nations Ramses was dealing with iduring his reign. The Libyans attacked Egypt during the 5th and 11th years of Ramses III's reign. Beginning around 1230 Sea People began to attack Egypt. In 1180 Ramses III had his decisive battle with the Libyans. Among the warriors fighting with the Libu were Sea People.

The figures on Ramses III Table of nations are associated with the nations Ramses was dealing

Ramses III made multiple versions of his campaigns against the Libyans. To understand the naming method for Ramses III Table of Nations you have to understand that the term Tehenu was a generic term applied to the Libyans, who by this time were mixed with Palestinian-Syrian people (who were descendants of the Gutians), and People of the Sea (Indo-Europeans).

The attack against Egypt in 1188 was a coalition of tribal groups led by the Meshwesh, who are believed to be a Tamehu nationality. As a result, we find that the Meshwesh were referred to as Tehenu\Tamehu. This may not be correct because the Meshwesh are not mention in Egyptian text until the 14th Century BC.

The members of the coalition were led by Meshesher the wr 'ruler' of the coalition.Each group was led by a "great one" or a magnate. The Meshwesh were semi-nomads that lived both in villages and dmi'w 'towns'.The Tehenu lived in the Delta between the Temehu and the Egyptians. The Egyptians referred

16 | P a g e

to all of the people in this area most often by the generic tern "Tehenu".

The TjemhuTemehu which included the Meshwesh controled an area from Cyrenaica to Syria. As a result, in textual material from the reign of Ramses II, there is mention of Temehu towns in Syria. David O'Connor makes it clear that Ramses III referred to these Temehu by the term Tehenu/Tjehnyu (p.64). The Temehu were very hostile to the Tehenu/Tjehnya. In fact, the first mention of the Meshwesh in Ramses III inscriptions relating to 1188, was the attack of the Tehenu, by the Meshwqesh, Soped and Sea People . David O'Connor makes it clear that the the records of Ramses III make it clear that the Meshweshy "savagely" attacked the Tehenu and looted their cities during their advance to Egypt (p.35 &

105).

The coalition of the Meshweshy had each unit of the army organized into "family or tribal ' units under the leadership of a "great one". As result to understand why the fAsian and Tehenu figures on the Table of Nations are identified differently you have use both the pictorical and textual material from the reign of Ramses III to understand the representations. As a result, Palestianian -Syrian personage or figure D, is labled Tehenu because he was probably a member of one Meshwesh units, thus he was labled Tehenu.

The personage that is second from the Egyptians which is labled an Asian, eventhough he is clearly a Tehenu, was probably a member of a Syrian Palestinian unit when he was captured by the Egyptians thusly he was labled Asian. You can find out more about this reality if you check out: David O'Connor, "The nature of Tjemhu (Libyan) society in later New Kingdom; in Libya and Egypt c1300-750 BC, (Ed.) by Athony Leahy (pp.29-113), SOAS Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies and the Society for Libyan Studies, 1990.

In the Table of Nation figure B we see the traditional depiction of a Tehenu, the sidelock, shoulder cape and clean face. The Temehu, called Meshwesh are different from the Tehenu and the original Tamehu recorded by the Egyptians prior to the New Kingdom. Below is a Meshwesh

In the Table of Nation figure B we see the traditional depiction of a Tehenu, the

The Meshwesh wore Tehenu traditional costumes but they are not believed to be real Tehenu. The Tehenu and the Temehu usually wore different costumes. In the New Kingdom depictions of the Temehu, the Meshwesh have "long chin beards", like the Syrian-Palestinians and Peoples of the Sea. They wear kilts, sheaths and capes open at the front tied at one shoulder. Like the

earlier Tehenu they wore feathers as a sign of High Status.

David O'Connor makes it clear that there was "marked hetergeneity of the Tjemhu" (p.41). The first attack by Libyans on Egypt were led by the Libu during the 5th year of Ramses III's reign. Diop has provided convincing evidence that the Libu, later migrated into Senegal, where they presenly live near Cape Verde The difference in dress among the Meshwesh and their hostility toward the Tehenu, have led many researchers to see the Temehu of the New Kingdom as a different group from the original Temehu of Egyptian traditions. O'Connor (p.74) in the work cited above makes it clear that the Temehu in Ramses III day--"[have] hairstyles, dress and apparently ethnic type [that] are markedly different from the Tjehnyu/tjemhu of the Old Kingdom (Osing, 1980,1018-19). Various explanations have been offered:

Wainwright, for example, concluded that 'Meshwesh was a mixed tribe of Libu like tribesmen with their native chiefs who become subject to a family of Tjehnu origin'(1962,p.92), while Osing suggested that the New Kingdowm Tjemhu had displaced or absorbed the earlier Tjehnyu but had selectively taken over or retained some Tjehnyu traits, in the case of the rulers for Meshwesh (1980,1019-1020). Dr. O'Connor is of the opinion "that some rulers of the later New Kingdom Tjemhu deliberately adopted traits they discovered from the Egyptians to be chracteristic of ancient Tjehnyu/Tjemhu, so as to increase there prestige, or in some way had these rtraits imposed upon them by the Egyptians" (p.74).

It is my opinion that given the organiztion of the Libyans into mhwt "family or tribal groups', sometime prior to 1230 BC over an extended period of time Indo-European speaking people later to be known as Peoples of the Sea entered Western Asia and Libya and were adopted by Tehenu families. This adoption of

the new immigrants by Tehenu/Tamehu probably led to the Meshwesh and Soped adopting Tehenu customs but maintaining their traditional beards,. The original Temehu, like the Libu probably saw the integration of Sea Peoples into Temehu society as a way to increase their number and possibily conquer Egypt. It is interesting to note that the Meshwesh were very sure they might be able to conquor the Egyptians because they brought their cattle and other animals with them when they invaded the country. Moreover whereas the Meshwesh, were semi-nomadic, the Sea Peoples:

Akawashu, Lukki, Tursha., Sheklesh, and Sherden remained nomadic. and used the spear and round shield.

The Nehasyu were ancient members of the Tehenu/Temehu. This would explain the reason why the Meshwesh and Nehasyu were mainly bowman. In conclusion, the names for the personages in the Table of Nations from Ramses III tomb were labled correctly. These personages were recorded in the the Tables based on the military and family units were attached too, not the country identifiable by their dress.

Annotated Bibliograpy

Adler,J.(1991 September 23). "African Dreams", Newsweek, pp.42- 45. This magazine articles discussed the controversey surrounding Afrocentrism.

Anselin,A.(1984). "Zeus, Ethiopien Minos Tamoul", Carbet Revue Martinique de Sciences Humaines,no. 2:31-50. This articles explains the African origin of the Libyans. It has several very good illustrations of Blacks in ancient Sahara.

_______.

(1989).

"Le Lecon Dravidienne",Carbet Revue Martinique de Sciences

Humaines, no.9:7-58. This paper discussed the origins of the Dravidian and their

relationship to Africans.

Asante,M.K. (1990) Kemet,Afrocentricity,and Knowledge. Trenton ,NJ:Africa World Press. This book provides the theoretical foundations for africalogical studies.

_________

(1991). "The Afrocentric idea in Education",Journal of Negro

Education,60(2):170-180. The author explains the importance of the Afrocentric field of study for enrichment of the social studies curricula.

(December

1991/January 1992). "Afrocentric Curriculum".Educational

__________. Leadership, pp.28-31. This article explains the practical reasons supporting the institution of an Afrocentric curriculum within the context of multiculturalism.

Baines,J. (11 August,1991). "Was Civilization made in Africa?" The New York Times Review of Books,pp.12-13. This article attempts to review the work of Bernal and Diop in a negative light.

Bernal,M. (1987). Black Athena. New York. Volume 1. Here the author explains his theory that there is need for a new historiography for the Mediterranean which recognizes the multicultural origins of Greece. The author also returns to the ancient model which claimed that the Egyptians were "Blacks".

(1991). Black Athena. New York. Volume 2. In this volume Bernal outlines

________. his theory that the founders of Greece were Hyksos (Semitic) people from Egypt.

Bonnet,C. (1986). Kerma: Territoire et Metropole. Cairo: Instut Francais D'Archeologie Orientale du Caire. This is a fine examination of the Kerma culture of Nubia which existed in Nubia before the Egyptians established rule in this area.

Diop,C.A. (1974). The African Origin of Civilization. (ed. & Trans) by Mercer Cook, Westport:Lawrence Hill & Company. This book outlines Diop's theory of the African origin of Egyptian civilization.

_________.

(1977).

Parente genetique de l'Egyptien Pharaonique et des Languaes

Negro-Africaines. Dakar: IFAN ,Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines. This is a very good

discussion of the extensive morphological and phonological evidence of unity between Wolof and Egyptian.

__________.

(1978)

The Cultural Unity of Black Africa. Chicago: Third World Press.

This book details the precolombian character of African civilizations, and explains the common cultural expressions they share.

___________.

(1986).

"Formation of the Berber Branch". In Libya Antiqua. (ed.) by

Unesco,(Paris: UNESCO) pp.69-73. In this article Diop explains that the original

inhabitants of Libya were Blacks.

____________.

(1987).

Precolonial Black Africa. (trans.) by Harold Salemson,

Westport: Lawrence Hill & Company. In this book Diop explains the origin and connections between the major Western Sudanic empires and states. These states are compared to European states.

____________.

(1988).

Nouvelles recherches sur l'Egyptien ancient et les langues

Negro-Africaines Modernes. Paris: Presence Africaine. This book provides a number of

Diop's theories regarding the relationship between Black-African and Egyptian languages.

(1991).

Civilization or Barbarism: An Authentic Anthropology.

_____________ (trans.) by Yaa-Lengi Meema Ngemi and (ed.) by H.J. Salemson and Marjoliiw de Jager, Westport:Lawrence Hill and Company. This book details Diop's theory of the genetic model for the study of African civilization. It also gives a fine discussion of the architecture, mathematics and philosophy of the ancient Egyptians and other African people.

Farid,El-Yahky. (1985). "The Sahara and Predynastic Egypt an Overview".The Journal for the Society for the Study Egyptian Antiquities, 17 (1/2): 58-65. This paper gives a detailed discussion of the affinities between Egyptian civilization and the Saharan civilizations which we call Proto-Saharan. The evidence presented in this paper support the Saharan origin of the Egyptians.

Galassi, . (1942). Tehenu. Rome. Galassi explains the history of the Tehenu people forerunners of the Libyans.

Graves, Robert. (1980). The Greek Myths. Middlesex:Peguin Books Ltd. 2 volumes. In this volume we see a detailed account of the founding Myths of the ancient Greeks as recorded in Greek literature.

Hopper, R.J. (1976). The Early Greeks. New York:Harper & Row Pub. Hopper gives an informative narative on the history of the ancient Greeks.

Hochfield,S. & Riesfstahl,E.(1978). (Eds.) Africa in Antiquity: The Arts of Nubia and the Sudan. New York: Brooklyn Museum. 2 vols. This is a fine source of information on the Kushite and Meroitic empires. It also provides many well researched articles and photographs of the Kushites. The evidence in this book shows that the Egyptians and Kushites were one.

Hughes,R. (1992, February 3). "The Frying of America". TIME ,pp.44-49. Hughes discussed the threat of multiculturalism to unity of the American people.

Jelinek,J. (1985). "Tillizahren,the Key Site of the Fezzanese Rock Art". Anthropologie (Brno),23(3):223-275. This paper gives a stimulating account of the rock art of the Sahara and the important role the C-Group people played in the creation of this art.

Levine,M.M. (April 1992). "The use and abuse of Black Athena", American Historical Review,pp. 440-460. This articles attacks Bernal and the use of Black Athena to estabish a new paradigm for ancient history.

Lefkowitz,M. (1992,February 10). "Not out of Africa". The New Republic, pp.29-36. This text deals with the hyptohesis that Greek civilization came from Africa. Lefkowitz contends that Africans failed to play an important role in Greecian civilization.

Marriott,M. (1991,August 11). "As a Discipline Advances, Questions Arise on Scholarship". The New York Times. Marriott gives an excellent discussion of the controversey surrounding Afrocentrism. It provides a good discussion of the players pro and against this field of intellectual inquiry.

Martel, E. (December 1991/January 1992). "How valid are the Port-land Baseline Essays". Educational Leadership, pp.20-23. Martel gives reasons in this article why he believes that many of the claims of Afrocentrists are wrong.

__________.

(1991).

"Teachers's Corner:Ancient Africa and the Port-land Curriculum

Resource",Anthro Notes: National Museum of Natural History(Smithsonian) Bulletin for Teachers 13, pp.2-6. This text explains why Afrocentrism should be kept out of the schools until it conforms with accepted Eurocentric views about Africana affairs and history. He does argue that the Egyptians were a multiculutural society.

Moitt,B. (1989). "Chiekh Anta Diop and the African Diaspora: Historical Continuity and Socio-Cultural Symbolism". Presence Africaine, no. 149-150:347-360. This is an excellent analysis of the influence of Diop on africalogical studies and the European attacks against his research.

Nicholson,D. (1992, September 23). "Afrocentrism and the Tribalization of America". The Washington Post, B-l.Nicholson makes the claim that Afrocentrism is causing the fragmentation of America.

Okafor,V.O. (1991). " Diop and the African Origin of Civilization:An Afrocentric Analysis". Journal of Black Studies 22(2):252-268. This book offers excellent guidelines on implimenting the research methods of Diop in africological studies.

Parker,G.W. (1917) . "The African Origin of Grecian Civilization ".Journal of Negro

History, 2(3):334-344. This short article provides a wealth of historical and lexical evidence for the African origination of Greccian heroes, literature and civilization.

(1981). The Children of the Sun. Baltimore,Md.: Black Classic Press.

___________. This book provides a short discussion of the important role of Blacks in the rise of civilization around the world.

Petrie,W.M.F. (1921). Corpus of Prehistoric Pottery. London.Petrie provides the first detailed categorization of Egyptian pottery and an informative account on the origination of Egypt.

Pounder, R.L. (1992,April) "Black Athena 2:History without Rules" American Historical Review, 461-464. This articles attacks the credibility of Bernal's ,Black Athena.

Quellec,J-L le. (1985). "Les Gravures Rupestres Du Fezzan (Libye)". L'Anthropologie, 89 (3):365-383. This text deals comprehensively with the dates and spread of specific art themes in the ancient Sahara.

Raphael, . 1947. Prehistoric Pottery . New York: Pantheon Book. Raphael provides a thorough explanation of the ceramics of the predynastic Egyptians.

Ravitch,D. (1990,Summer). "Multiculturalism:E Pluribus Plures". The American Scholar, pp.337-354. Ravitch argues that multiculturalism is causing America to become ethnically polarized, while we abandon many of the values that unite Americans.

Schlesinger,A.M. (1992). The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society. New York: Norton. Schlesinger argues that multiculturalism is bringing about the rise of ethnocentrism in the United States.

Snowden,F. (1976). "Ethiopians and the Greco-Roman World". In The African Diaspora. Washington: Howard University Press. In this paper Snowden discusses the role of Ethiopian slaves in Grecce.

(1992, March 4). "Blacks as seen by Ancient Egyptians, Greek and

___________. Roman Artists". (Lecture) Chicago: Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. In this lecture Snowden continues his theory that the only Blacks in Egyptian and Classical art were slaves.

Tounkara,B. (1989). "Problematique du comparatisme egyptien ancien/langues africaines (wolof)". Presence Africaine,nos. 149-150: 313-320. This book discusses the linguistic relationship of wolof and Egyptian.

Trigger,B.G. (1987). "Egypt: A Fledging Nation". The Journal of the Society for the Study Egyptian Antiquities, 17 (1/2): 58-65. Trigger documents the rise of Egyptian civilization in the Sahara and Nubia.

(1992). "Brown Athena: A Post Processual Goddess". Current

____________. Anthropology, 33(1): 121-123. This article focuses on the misuse of the book Black

Athena as a tool to claim the Egyptians were Blacks.

Vandier,J. (1952). Manuel d'archeologie Egyptienne. Paris. This is a fine examination of the archaeology of Egypt.

Williams,B. (1987). The A-Group Royal Cemetery at Qustul: Cemetery L. Chicago: The Oriental Institute University of Chicago. This excellent text reviews the important Qustul cemetery, which provides a detailed account of the rise of the first world empire in Nubia.

Winkler, H.A. (1938). Rock Drawings of Southern Upper Egypt. London. 2 volumes. This book gives numerous examples of rock art which point to an Egyptian origin in Nubia.

Winters, C. Afrocentrism: Myth or Reality. Lulu.com. 2005.

(1983a). "The Ancient Manding Script". In Blacks in Science:Ancient

__________. and Modern. (ed.) by Ivan van Sertima,(New Brunswick: Transaction Books) pp.208- 215. This paper discusses the Manding origin for many of the so-called Libyco-Berber inscriptions and explains how these inscriptions can be read. It makes it clear that literacy was widespread in Africa 5000 years ago.

(1983b). "Les Fondateurs de la Grece venaient d'Afrique en passant par

__________. la Crete". Afrique Histoire (Dakar), no.8:13-18. This rich historical account refutes the idea that Greece was founded by the Indo-European speakers. Winters argues that credit should be given to the African settlers of Anatolia from Libya, Egypt and Palestine.

(1983c) "Famous Black Greeks Important in the development of Greek

_________. Culture". Return to the Source,2(1):8. In this article Winters' discussed the famous

Greeks like Socrates, that were of African/Pelasgian origin.

25 | P a g e

(1984). "Blacks in Europe before the Europeans". Return to the Source,

________. 3(1):26-33. This paper provides insights into the long history of Blacks in Europe,

including the Old Europeans, Danubians and other groups.

_________.

(1985a).

"The Indus Valley Writing and related Scripts of the 3rd

Millennium BC". India Past and Present, 2(1):13-19. The author describes the unity of the writing systems used by the Sumerians, Minoans, Egyptians and Harappans. He shows that these scripts have a common ideological origin and that they can all be read due to the genetic unity of the langauges spoken by these people.

(1985b). "The Proto-Culture of the Dravidians, Manding and

__________. Sumerians". Tamil Civilization,3(1):1-9. Winters uses linguistics , historical and archaeological evidence to argue that the Dravidian, Manding and Sumerian speakers originated in the highland regions of the Sahara which he called the "Fertile African Crescent". Many of the culture terms of these groups are discussed and the proto- terms are reconstructed. It also provides numerous maps to delienate the migrations of these people from their archetype homeland.

(1988). "Common African and Dravidian Place Name Elements". South

__________. Asian Anthropologist, 9(1):33-36. This paper provides an analysis of the common roots

toponyms found in Asia of African origin.

(1989a). "Tamil, Sumerian, Manding and the Genetic Model".

__________. International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 18(1):98-127. Winters discusses the genesis of the common culture of the founders of ancient civilizations in Africa and Asia.

It also refutes the myth that the Sumerian and Dravidian languages are unrelated to any other languages on earth. Here you will find a detailed explanation of the morphological, semantic and lexical affinities shared by these langauges that indicate their genetic unity.

(1989b). "Review of Dr. Asko Parpola's 'The Coming of the Aryans'

__________. ,International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics, 18(2):98-127. This anthropological and linguistic account of the prehistoric linguistic-history of South and Central Asia outlines the fallacy of Parpola's theory for an Indo-European founding of the Harappan civilization. He provides numerous examples of the Dravidian and African influences on the Indo-European languages.

(1990). "The Dravido-Harappan Colonization of Central Asia". Central

__________. Asiatic Journal, 34(1/2):120-144. This paper discussed the settlement of Asia by African people 4500 years ago. Special attention is placed on the type and expression of African civilization in ancient Asia.

(1991). "The Proto-Sahara". The Dravidian Encyclopaedia,

___________. (Trivandrum: International School of Dravidian Linguistics) pp.553-556. Volume l. This is a detailed account of the Proto-Saharan origin of the Elamites, Dravidians, Sumerians , Egyptians and other Black African groups. We also find here a well developed illumination of the cultural features shared by these genetically related groups.

Yurco,F. (1989,September/October). "Were the ancient Egyptians Black?". Biblical Archaeological Review, 15(5):24-29,58.Yurco argues that the Egyptians have always been "light skinned", and that they got darker as you went south into Nubia.

Wainwright, G. 1962. The Meshwesh", JEA 48, 89-99.