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# Mathematics and Surveying and Transportation

Engineering

PROBLEM 1:
A 1 km x 1 km square lot is divided into 5 equal parts, one
square at the middle, while the other four are right
triangles.

a.) Find the dimensions of the square at the middle.
b.) If this square is further divided, find the dimensions of
the small square at the middle.
c.) Find the percentage ratio of the smallest area to the
biggest area.

SOLUTION :
a.) Dimensions of the square
at the middle.

2
1
) 1000 (
2
1
= A
000 , 200
1
= A
000 , 200
2
1
= x
m 447. 21 =
1
x
b.) Square is further divided, find the dimensions of the
small square at the middle.
) 000 , 200 (
5
1
2
= A
000 , 40
2
= A
000 , 40
2
2
= x
m 200 =
2
x
c.) Percentage ratio of the smallest area to the biggest
area.
) 100 (
) 1000 (
000 , 40
2
= Ratio
4% = Ratio

PROBLEM 2:
A conical water tank with its vertex down has a height of
20 cm., and a radius of 10 cm. at the top. Water leaks such
that the water surface falls at a rate of 0.5 cm/sec.
Compute the rate of change of volume when h = 8 cm.

SOLUTION :

3
h r
V
2
t
=

20
10
h
r
=

2
h
r =

3
h
2
2
h
V
|
.
|

\
|
t
=

12
3
h
V
t
=

dt
dh
2
h 3
12 dt
dV t
=

( )( ) ( ) 5 . 0
2
8 3
12 dt
dV t
=
.
dt
dV
/ s ec
3
cm 2 5 . 1 3 =

PROBLEM 3:
A rectangular prism with dimensions
of 3 x 4 x 6 cm. is inscribed in a
sphere, find the radius of the
sphere.?

SOLUTION :
(2R)
2
= (5)
2
+ (6)
2
R = 3.91 m.

PROBLEM 4:
Find the distance from point (5, 6, 7) to the origin.

SOLUTION :
d
2
= (5-0)
2
+ (6-0)
2
+ (7-0)
2

d = 10.49

PROBLEM 5:
Find the slope of the line that passes through (1,2) if the area is
bounded by this line and the coordinates axes in the 1
st
is a minimum.

SOLUTION :

2
xy
A =

1
2 y
x
y
=

2 y
y
x

=

( )
( ) 2 y 2
y y
A

=

( )( ) ( )
( )
0
2
2 y
1
2
y y 2 2 y
2
1
dy
dA
=

=

2
y y 4
2
y 2 =
y 4
2
y =
4 y =

( )
2
2 4
4
x =

=

1
x x
1
y y
m

=
2

= =
2 0
0 4
m

PROBLEM 6:
Two trains are running in the same direction on two
parallel tracks. The trains are 85 m. and 65 m. respectively
and running at 120 kph and 240 kph. If the trail end of the
first train is 210 m. ahead of the front end of the second
train.

a.) Determine the times required for the front end of the
second train to reach the tail end of the first train.

b.) Determine the total distance traveled by the second
train from the initial position when it has complete
overtaken the first train.

c.) Determine the distance traveled by the first train from
the initial position until both ends of the two trains abreast
each other.

SOLUTION :
a.) Time required for the front end of the second train to
reach the tail end of the first train.

66.67t = 210 + 85 + 33.33t 85
33.33t = 360
t = 6.3 sec.

b.) total distance traveled by the second train from the
initial position when it has complete overtaken the first
train.

210 + 85 + 33.33t = 66.67t 65
33.33t =
t = 10.80 sec.

Total distance traveled by second train to overtake the
first train.
= 66.67 (10.8)
= 720 m.

c.) Distance traveled by the first train from the initial
position until both ends of the two trains abreast each
other.

210 + 85 + 33.33t = 66.67t
t = 8.85 sec.
Total distance traveled by the first train
Until the two train abreast each other.
Distance = 33.33 (8.85)
Distance = 295 m.

PROBLEM 7:
A cylinder is inscribed in a cube. Find the volume of the
solid inside the cube but outside the cylinder.

SOLUTION :

( ) ( ) | |( ) 2
2
1
2
2 V t =
cm. cu. 72 . 1 V =

PROBLEM 8:
A cone is inscribed in a cube such that the base is in one
of the face of the cube 1 cm x 1 cm.

SOLUTION :
( ) ( )
3
1
2
5 . 0
V
t
=
V = 0.262 cu. cm.

PROBLEM 9:
Given the following equations of the curve
x
2
6x + 3y + 11 = 0
4x
2
24x + 4y
2
8y + 15 = 0

a.) Classify the equations above.
b.) Determine the points of intersection of the two curve
c.) Determine the distance between the two points of
intersection.

SOLUTION :

a.) Classify the equations above.
x
2
6x + 3y + 11 = 0 PARABOLA
4x
2
24x + 4y
2
8y + 15 = 0
CIRCLE

b.) Points of intersection of the two
curve.
x
2
6x + 3y + 11 = 0 multiply by 4

4x
2
24x + 12y + 44 = 0
4x
2
24x + 4y
2
8y + 15 = 0

4y
2
20y 29 = 0

4y
2
20y = 29

By completing squares
4y
2
20y + 25 = 29 + 25
(2y 5)
2
= 54

2y 5 = 7.35
y = 6.17
y = 1.174

when y = 6.17
x
2
6x + 3(6.17) + 11 = 0
x
2
6x + 9 = -29.51 + 9
(x - 3)
2
= -20.51
x is complex.

when y = -1.174
x
2
6x + 3(-1.174) + 11 = 0
x
2
6x + 9 = -7.478 + 9
(x - 3)
2
= 1.522
x = 4.233
x = 1.767

When x = 4.233, y = -1.174
When x = 1.767, y = -1.174

Points of intersection:
(4.233, -1.174) and (1.767, -1.174)

c.) Distance between the two points of intersection.
Distance = 4.233 1.767
Distance = 2.466

PROBLEM 10:
A framer owns two square lots of unequal size, together
containing 6568 m
2
. If the lots were contiguous. It would
require 356 m. of fence to enclose them in a single
enclosure of six sides. Find the dimension of the smallest
lot.

SOLUTION :
A = x
2
+ y
2

x
2
+ y
2
= 6568
3x + 3y + y x = 356
2x + 4y = 356
x + 2y = 178
x = 178 2y
x
2
+ y
2
= 6568
(178 - 2y)
2
+ y
2
= 6568
31684 712y + 4y
2
+ y
2
= 6568
5y
2
712y + 25116 = 0
y = 78 m.
x = 178 2(78)
x = 22m.
Dimension of smallest lot is 22 m. x 22 m.

PROBLEM 11:
A sphere has a radius of 15 and its center is at the origin.
Which of the following points is inside the sphere.

I ( 4, 6, -12)
II (-10, -9, 4)
III ( 1, -2, 7)

a.) I and III only
b.) II and III only
c.) III only
d.) I, II and III

SOLUTION :
r
2
= (4 0)
2
+ (6 - 0)
2
+ (-12 0)
2

r = 14 < 15
r
2
= (-10 - 0)
2
+ (-9 - 0)
2
+ (4 0)
2

r = 14.04 < 15
r
2
= (1 - 0)
2
+ (-2 - 0)
2
+ (7 0)
2

r = 7.35 < 15

Since the distance is less than 15, all points are inside the
sphere.

PROBLEM 12:
Francis set out from a certain point at 6 kph. After he had
gone 2 hours, Cruz set out to overtake him and went 4 km.
the first hour, 5 km. the second hour, 6 km. the 3
rd
hour
and so on gaining 1 km. per hour. After how many hours
were they together.?

SOLUTION :

t = time in hours Cruz could overtake Francis.
a = 4
d = 1
n = t

(t +2) total time of travel for Francis
Distance traveled by Francis = 6(t +2)
( ) | | d 1 n a 2
2
n
S + =
( ) ( ) ( )( ) | | 1 1 t 4 2
2
t
2 t 6 + = +
( ) ( ) 1 t 8 t 2 t 12 + = +

t
2
t t 8 24 t 12 + = +
0 24 t 5
2
t =
t = 8 hours

PROBLEM 13:
What point in the curve y2 x2 = 4 is nearest to point (6,0).

SOLUTION :

y
2
x
2
= 4
2yy 2x = 0
y
x
' y =
d
2
= (x - 6)
2
+ (y 0)
2

d
2
= (x - 6)
2
+ y
2

2dd = 2(x 6) + 2yy = 0
( )
y
6 x
' y

=
y
6 x
y
x +
=
2x = 6
x = 3
y
2
(3)
2
= 4
y
2
= 13
13 y =
The point is at ( ) 13 , 3

PROBLEM 14:
Evaluate the following limits
a.
25
2
x 16
5 x
2
x 4
lim
25 . 1 x

b.
x 6
2
x 2
12 x
2
x
lim
3 x

+ +

c.
21 x 10
2
x
x 21
2
x 4 x
lim
3
3 x
+ +
+

SOLUTION :

a.
25
2
x 16
5 x
2
x 4
lim
25 . 1 x

( )
( )
0 . 2 2 9 =

5 . 1 32
1 5 . 1 8
x 32
1 x 8

b.
x 6
2
x 2
12 x
2
x
lim
3 x

+ +

( )
( )
1 . 1 7 =

+
=

+
6 4
1 3
6 x 4
1 x 2
3
2

c.
21 x 10
2
x
x 21
2
x 4 x
lim
3
3 x
+ +
+

( )
( )
= =
+ +
+
0
72
21 ) 3 ( 10
2
3
) 3 ( 21
2
3 4
3
) 3 (

Do not exist

PROBLEM 15:
In a certain Barangay, 80% have cellphones. If you select 2
persons from this Barangay.

a. Find the probability that both have cellphones.
b. Find the probability that one has a cellphone while other
is none.
c. Find the probability that both have no cellphones.

SOLUTION :
a.) Probability that both have cellphones.
P = P
1
P
2

P = 0.8 (0.8)
P = 0.64

b.) Probability that one has a cellphone while the other is
none.
P = P
1
P
2

P = 0.8 (1 - 0.8)
P = 0.16

c.) Probability that both have no cellphones.
P = P
1
P
2

P = (1 0.8)(1 - 0.8)
P = 0.04

PROBLEM 16:
A sphere having a center at the origin has a radius of 15.
Which of the points is outside the sphere?
A. (1, 2, -7)
B. (8, 6, 12)
C. (10, 9, 4)
D. (-4, 8, -7)

SOLUTION :
Using (1, 2, -7)
r
2
= (1 0)
2
+ (2 - 0)
2
+ (7 0)
2

r = 7.34 < 15 (inside the sphere)

Using (8, 6, 12)
r
2
= (8 0)
2
+ (6 - 0)
2
+ (12 0)
2

r = 15.62 > 15 (outside the sphere)

Using (10, 9, 4)
r
2
= (10 0)
2
+ (9 - 0)
2
+ (4 0)
2

r = 14.04 < 15 (inside the sphere)

Using (-4, 8, -7)
r
2
= (-4 0)
2
+ (8 - 0)
2
+ (-7 0)
2

r = 11.36 < 15 (inside the sphere)

therefore point (8, 6, 12) is outside the sphere.

PROBLEM 17 :
In an organization, there are Civil Engineers, Electrical
Engineers, and Mechanical Engineers. The sum of their
ages is 2,160; their average age is 36; the average of the
C.E. and M.E. is 39; of the M.E. and E.E. 32(8/11); of the
C.E. and E.E. 36 (2/3). If each C.E. had been one year, each
E.E. 7 years and each M.E. 6 years older, their average age
would have been greater by 5 years. Find the average age
of the Civil Engineers.
Ans. 45 yrs.

PROBLEM 18 :
A block of copper has a mass of 50 kg. and a density of
8.91 g. per cubic cm.
a.) Find the volume of the copper.
b.) If this block is converted to a cylinder with the
same volume, find the base area if the length is
1500 cm.
c.) Find the diameter of the cylinder.

SOLUTION :
a.) Volume of the copper.

D
W
V =

91 . 8
000 , 50
V =

3
cm 5611. 67 V =

b.) Base area if the length is 1500 cm.

AL V =
( ) 1500 A 67 . 5611 =

2
cm 3. 74 V =

c.) Diameter of the cylinder.

4
D
2
A
t
=
( )
2
D 74 . 3
4
t
=
. cm 2. 18 D =

Hydraulics and Geotechnical
Engineering

PROBLEM 1:
A pump draws water from reservoir A and lifts it to
reservoir B as shown. The loss of head from A to 1 is 3
times the velocity head in the 150 mm pipe and the loss of
head from 2 to B is 25 times the velocity head in the 100
mm pipe. When the discharge is 25 liters/ sec.

1. Compute the horsepower output of the pump in
kilowatts.
2. Compute the pressure head at 1.
3. Compute the pressure head at 2.

SOLUTION :

1. Power output of pump :

( )
2
1
15 0
4
02 0
.
.
t
= V
V
1
= 1.13 m/s

( )
2
2
10 0
4
02 0
.
.
t
= V
V
2
= 2.55 m/s

HL Z
P
2
2
V
HA Z
P
2
2
V
4
4 4
3
3 3
+ +
e

+ = + +
e

+
g g

0 + HA = 240 + HL

g g 2
V 25
2
V 3
HL
2
2
2
1
+ =

( )
( )
( )
( ) 9. 81 9. 81 2
2
55 . 2 25
2
2
13 . 1 3
HL + =
HL = 8.48 m.

HA = 240 + 8.48
HA = 248.48 m
Power output = E
e
Q
E = H. A.
E = 248.48 m.
Power output = 0.02 (9.81)(248.48)
Power output = 48.75 kW

2. Pressure head at 1 :

1 1
1
2
2
1
2
2
Hf Z
P V
A
Z
A
P
A
V
+ + + = + +
e

e
g g

( ) ( )
g g 2
2
13 . 1 3
) 20 (
1
P
2
2
13 . 1
0 0 0 + +
e

+ = + +

. m 74 . 19
1
P
=
e

3. Pressure head at 2 :

2
2
2
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
Z
P V
HA Z
P V
+ + = + + +
e

e
g g

( )
( )
( )
( ) 20
2
P
g 2
2
55 . 2
48 . 248 20 74 . 19
2
2
13 . 1
+
e

+ = + + +
g

. m 95 . 267
P
2
=

e

PROBLEM 2:
A valve is suddenly closed in a 200 mmC pipe. The
increase in pressure is 700 kPa. Assuming that the pipe is
rigid and the bulk modulus of water is 2.07 x 10
9
N/m
2
.

a.) Compute the celerity of the pressure wave.
b.) Compute the velocity of flow.
c.) If the length of the pipe is 650 m. long. Compute the
water hammer pressure at the valve if it is closed in 3 sec.

SOLUTION :

a.) Celerity of pressure wave. :

=
B
E
C

000

9
10
1
C
x 07 . 2
=
c = 1438.75 m/s

b.) Velocity of the flow. :
Increase in pressure
P
h
= CV
700000 = 1000 (1438.75) V
V = 0.486 m/s

c.) Water hammer pressure when it is closed in 3 sec. :

C
L 2
t =

( )
75 . 1438
650 2
t =

sec. 904 . 0 t =

( ) 700
3
904 . 0
Ph =

kPa. 83 . 210 Ph =

PROBLEM 3:
A 0.36 m. square pre stressed concrete pile is to be driven
in a clayey soil as shown in the figure. The design capacity
of the pile is 360 kN, with a factor of safety of 2.

1. Compute the end bearing capacity of the pile.
2. Compute the skin friction expected to develop
along the shaft of the pile.
3. Compute the length of the pile if o = 0.76.

SOLUTION :

1. End bearing capacity of piles :

2
111
2
q
C
u
= =

2
kN/m 5 . 55 C =

tip C
A N c
b
= o
( )( )( ) 36 . 0 36 . 0 9 5 . 55
h
= o
kN 64.74 =
b
Q

2. Skin friction :

b f ult
o + o = o

FS
ult
design
o
= o

( ) 2 360
ult
= o
kN 720
ult
= o

b f ult
o + o = o
74 . 64 720
f
+ o =
kN 655.26 =
f
Q

3. Length of pile :
L P . C
f
o = o
( )( )( ) L 4 0.36 5 . 55 76 . 0 26 . 655 =
m. 10.90 L =

PROBLEM 4:
A confined aquifer has a source of recharge as shown in the
figure. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is 40m/day
and its porosity is 0.25 . The piezometric head in the two
wells 1350 m. apart is 65 m. and 60 m. respectively from a
common datum. the average thickness of the aquifer is 25 m.
and the average width is 4 km.

1. Compute the rate of flow through the aquifer in m
3
/day.
2. Compute the seepage velocity
3. Compute the time of travel from the head of the aquifer to a
point 3 km. downstream in days.

SOLUTION :

1. Rate of flow :

L
h
i =

1350
60 65
i

=

0037 . 0 i =
( ) 4000 25 A=

2
m 000 , 100 A =
A i K Q =
( )( )( ) 100,000 0.0037 40 Q =
/day
3
m 14800 = Q

2. Seepage Velocity :

A
Q
V =

000 , 100
14800
V =

148 . 0 V =

n
V
V
S
=

25 . 0
148 . 0
V
S
=

0. 592 =
S
V

3. Time to travel 3km downstream :

ocity SeepageVel
ce tan Dis
t =

592 . 0
3000
t =

days 5068 = t

PROBLEM 5:
A tank 12 m. high filled with oil having a unit weight of 9.4
kN/m
3
is to be built on a site. The existing soil profile
consists of a 3m. sand layer underlain by a 14 m. clay
layer. The water table is on the ground surface. Neglecting
the weight of the tank.

a.) Compute the compression
index of clay.
b.) Compute the settlement under
the center of the tank.
c.) Find the minimum depth in
the ground to which the tank
must be placed in order to minimize
settlement.

SOLUTION :

1. Compression index :

PL LL
PL
. I . P

e
=

20 LL
20 40
645 . 0

=
% 51 LL =
( ) 10 LL 009 . 0 Cc =
( ) 10 51 009 . 0 Cc =
0. 369 = Cc

b. Settlement under the center of the tank :
( )( ) ( )( ) 7 81 . 9 31 . 17 3 81 . 9 88 . 18 Po + =
71 . 79 Po =
( ) 12 4 . 9 P = A
kPa 8 . 112 P = A

( )
Po
Po P
log
e 1
H
C
C
S
+ A
+
=

( )
( )
71 . 79
71 . 79 8 . 112
log
27 . 1 1
1400 369 . 0
S
+
+
=
mm 87. 15 = S

c. Minimum depth in the ground to which the tank must be
placed in order to minimize settlement.

PROBLEM 6:
A cohesive soil specimen has a shearing resistance equal
to 29 and a cohesion of 31 kPa. If the maximum shearing
stress of the soil sample is equal to 65 kPa.

a.) Compute the lateral pressure in the cell for a failure to
occur.
b.) Compute the maximum principal stress to cause
failure.
c.) Compute the normal stress at the point of maximum
shear.

SOLUTION :

a.) Lateral pressure in the cell :

x
31
28 tan =
93 . 55 x =

65
3
93 . 55
65
28 S
+ o +
= in
kPa 14 . 13
3
= o
(lateral pressure in the cell)

b.) maximum principal stress to cause failure:
65 65
3 1
+ + o = o
30 1 14 . 13
1
+ = o
kPa 14 . 143
1
= o
c.) normal stress at the point of the maximum shear :
0 7
3 N
+ o = o
5 6 14 . 13
N
+ = o
kPa 14 . 78
N
= o

PROBLEM 7:
A rectangular channel 5.6 m. wide by 1.2 m. deep is lined
with a smooth stone. Well laid and has a hydraulic slope
of 0.002. Using n = 0.013.

a.) What is the capacity of the channel in m
3
/s.
b.) What savings in earth excavation could have been
offered by using more favorable proportions but adhering
to the same delivery and slope.
c.) What savings in lining per meter length by using more
favorable proportions but adhering to the same delivery
and slope. ?

SOLUTION :
a.) Capacity of channel :

A = 5.6 (1.2)
A = 6.72 m
2

P = 1.2(2) + 5.6
P = 8 m.
P
A
R =

8
72 . 6
R =
R = 0.84

n
S A
Q
2 1/ 2/3
R
=

( )
013 . 0
002 . 0 ) 84 . 0 ( 72 . 6
2 / 1 3 / 2
Q =
s /
3
m 58 . 20 Q =

2. Savings in earth excavation by using more favorable
proportions. :

Use most efficient section :

b = 2d
2
d
R =
b = b d
b = 2 d
2

n
S A
Q
2 1/ 2/3
R
=

( )
013 . 0
2 / 1
001 . 0
3 / 2
2
d
2
d 2
58 . 20
|
.
|

\
|
=

794 . 1 d =

b = 2d
b = 2 (1.794)
b = 3.578 m.

Savings in excavation :
Savings = 5.6 (1.2) 1.794 (3.587 )
Savings = 0.2849 m
2

3. Savings in lining per meter length :

Lining of old channel = [1.2 (2) + 5.6](1)
Lining of old channel = 8 m
2

Lining of new channel
= [ 1.794(2) + 3.587](1)
= 7.175 m
2

Savings in lining = 8 7.175
Savings in lining = 0.825 m
2
/m.

PROBLEM 8:
A conical having a radius of base equal to 35 cm. and a
height of 65 cm. has its base at the bottom.

a.) If water is poured into the tank, find the total volume to
fill up.

b.) How much additional water is required to fill the tank if
0.025 m
3
of water is poured into the conical tank.

c.) Find the height of free surface if 0.025 m
3
of water is
poured into a conical tank.

SOLUTION :
a.) Total volume to fill up :

3
2
h r
v
t
=

( ) ( )
3
65 0
2
35 0 . . t
= v

3
0834 0 m v . =

b.) Additional water required to fill the tank.

V
1
= 0.0834 0.025
V
1
= 0.0584 m
3

3. Height of free surface :

3
1
3
65 0
1
h
V
V
) . (
=

3
1
3
65 0
0584 0
0834 0
h
) . (
.
.
=
h
1
= 0.577 m.

PROBLEM 9:
A soil has a specific gravity of 2.68 and a void ratio of 0.73
if the degree of saturation is 92%.

a.) Compute the total density of the soil.
b.) Compute the dry density of the soil.
c.) Compute the water content at a degree of saturation of
92% and 100%.

SOLUTION :
a.) Total density of the soil :

( )
w
e
S
G
S

+
+
=
e 1

( )( )
73 .
73 . 0 68 . 2
S
1
0 1+
+
=

3
gr /cm 1.97
S
=

b. Dry density of the soil :

( )
( ) 0.73 1+
=
1 68 . 2
dry

3
gr /cm 655
dr y
=

c. Water content at a degree of saturation of 92% and
100%.
( )
e
Gs
S
e
=

( )
0.73
.68 2
92 . 0
e
=
25 . 0 = e
% 25 = e

At 100%,

( )
0.73
.68 2
100
e
=
27.24% = e

PROBLEM 10:
A saturated clay layer has a thickness of 30 m. with a
water content of 59% and a specific gravity of 2.76.

a.) Determine the saturated density of the clay.
b.) Compute the total stress at the bottom.
c.) Compute the effective stress at the bottom.

SOLUTION :

a.) Saturated density of the clay :

( )
e
Gs
S
e
=

( )
e
.76 2 59
100 =
e = 1.628

( )
w
e
S
G
Sat

+
+
=
e 1

( )
) 1 (
628 . 1
628 . 1 76 . 2
Sat
+
+
=
1

3
gr /cm 6 1
sat
7 . =

b.) Total stress at the bottom :

( )
w
e
S
G
Sat

+
+
=
e 1

( )
) 81 . 9 (
628 . 1
628 . 1 76 . 2
Sat
+
+
=
1

3
kN/m 8 16.
sat
3 =
Total stress = 16.38 (30)
Total stress = 491.40 kN /m
2

c.) effective stress at the bottom:
Effective stress = (16.38 9.81)(30)
Effective stress = 197.10 kN/m
2

Structural Design and Construction

PROBLEM 1:
A 400 mm square column shown is supported by square
footing on 5 piles as shown. Dimensions are a = 0.75 m., b
= 2 m., effective footing depth = 0.6 m., Ultimate pile
capacity = 320 kN

D = 420 kN
L = 360 kN
E = 210 kN

Column moment, ME due to earthquake
= 160 kN.m

Required strength of the footing is based on.:
U = 1.32D + 1.1L + 1.1E

a.) Compute the critical beam shear stress at ultimate
loads. b.) Compute the ultimate punching shear stress.
c.) Compute the maximum design moment.

SOLUTION :
a.) Critical beam shear stress at ultimate loads.

Pu = 1.32D + 1.1L + 1.1E
Pu = 1.32(420) + 1.1(360) + 1.1(210)
Pu = 1181.4 kN
Mu = 1.32(0) + 1.1(0) + 1.1(160)
Mu = 176 kN.m

Ultimate reaction of pile at row (1)
I
C M
A
Pu
u
R + =

I = A d
2

Assume area of one pile = 1
I = 2(1)
2
(2) = 4
C = 1.0
4
) 1 ( 176
5
4 . 1181
R + =

R = 280.28kN < 320 kN (safe)
V
u
= 280.28(2)
V
u
= 560.56 kN
bd |
Vu
= u

( )( ) 600 3500
560560
0.85
= u

MPa 0.31 = u

b.) Ultimate punching shear stress.
I
MC
A
P
R + =

4
) 0 ( 176
5
4 . 1181
R + =

R
u
= 236.28 kN
V
u
= 1181.4 236.28
V
u
= 945.12 kN
d b
o
|
Vu
=

u

( ) . mm 4000 1000 4
o
b = =

( )( ) 600 4000
945120
0.85
=

u

MPa 0.463 =

u

c.) Maximum design moment.

Mu = 2R(0.80)
Mu = 2 (280.28)(0.8)
Mu = 448.45 kN.m

PROBLEM 2:
A beam with width b = 300 mm and depth d = 600 mm is to
be prestressed. Considering a 15% prestress loss,
compute the value of prestressing force P and eccentricity
e.

a.) If the compressive stress of 21 MPa.
b.) If the compressive stress at the bottom fiber is 12 MPa
and the tensile stress at the top fiber is 2 MPa.
c. If the compressive stress at the top fiber is 16 MPa and
zero at the bottom fibers.

SOLUTION :
a.) Value of P and e when the compressive stress of 21
MPa.

A
P
f =

) 600 ( 300
P
21 =

0 e kN 3780 P = =

b.) Value of P and e when compressive stress at the
bottom is 12 MPa and tensile stress at the top is 2 MPa.

I
MC
A
P
f =

2
bd
M 6
bd
P
f =

2
bd
Pe 6
bd
P
f

=

top the at stress
(

=
d
e 6
1
t
f
bd
P

bottom the at stress
(

+ =
d
e 6
1
b
f
bd
P

(1) equation
(

=
600
e 6
1 2
) 600 ( 300
P

(2) equation
(

+ = +
600
e 6
1 12
) 600 ( 300
P

Divide equation (1) by (2)

e 6 600
e 6 600
6
1
+

=

e 36 3600 e 6 600 =
4200 e 30 =
mm 140 e =

( )
( )

(

+ =
600
140 6
1 12
600 300
P

P = 900,000 N
P = 900 kN

c.) Value of P and e when compressive stress at the top
fiber is 16 MPa and zero at the bottom fibers.

I
MC
A
P
f =

At the bottom of the beam :

(

=
d
e 6
1
b
f
bd
P

( )

(

=
d
e 6
1 0
600 300
P

0 1
d
e 6
=

0 1
600
e 6
=

0 6 600 = e

6
600
e

mm 100 e =

PROBLEM 3:
A 9 m. high retaining wall is laterally supported at the top
and fixed at the base. The wall resists active earth pressure
increasing from 0 at the top to 52 kN/m at the base per
meter length along the longitudinal axis.

a.) Determine the design moment at the base. Apply the
fixed end moment equation
30
WL
2
at the top and
20
WL
2
at
the base. EI is constant.

At the top of the beam :

(

+ =
d
e 6
1
b
f
bd
P

( )
( )

(

+ =
600
100 6
1 16
600 300
P

P = 1440,000 N
P = 1440 kN

b.) The lateral support at the top of the wall was removed,
determine the design moment at the base.

c.) Determine the resulting base shear if the wall is free at
the top.

SOLUTION :

a.Design moment at the base when the top is laterally
supported.

20
WL
M
2
=

( )
20
9 59
M
2
=

M = 210.6kN.m

b. Design moment at the base when the support at the top
was removed.

( ) ( ) 1 9
2
52
P =

P = 234
M = 3P
M = 3(234)
M = 702 kN.m

c. Base shearing if the wall if the lateral support is
removed at the top :

V P =

( )

2
9 52
V =

kN. 234 = V

PROBLEM 4:
Two plates each with thickness t = 16 mm are bolted
together with 6 22 mm C bolts forming a lap connection.
Bolt spacing are as follows :
S
1
= 40 mm, S
2
= 80 mm, S
3
= 100 mm
Bolt hole diameter = 25 mm

Allowable stress :
Tensile stress on gross area of the plate = 0.60 Fy
Tensile stress on net area of the plate = 0.50 Fu
Shear stress of the bolt : Fv = 120 MPa
Bearing stress of the bolt : Fp = 1.2 Fu

Calculate the permissible tensile load P under the
following conditions.

a.) Based on shear capacity of bolts.
b.) Based on bearing capacity of bolts.
c.) Based on block shear strength.

SOLUTION :

a.) Based on shear capacity of bolts.

( ) ( )( ) 120 6 22
4
P
2
t
=

P = 273696 N
P = 273.70 kN

b.) Based on bearing capacity of bolts.
P = A
b
F
p

P = 16(22)(6)(1.2)(400)
P = 1013760 N
P = 1013.76 kN

c.) Based on block shear strength.

Av = (200 25- 25- 12.5)(16)
Av = 2200 mm
2

A
t
= (100 12.5 12.5)(16)
A
t
= 1200 mm
2

P = 0.30 Fv Av + 0.50 Fu A
t

P = 0.30(400)(2200) + 0.50 (400)(1200)
P = 504000 N
P = 504 kN

Second possible failure in block shear :

Av = (200 25- 25- 12.5)16
Av = 2200 mm
2

A
t
= (140 12.5 25)(16)
A
t
= 1640 mm
2

P = 0.30 Fu Av + 0.50 Fy A
t

P = 0.30(400)(2200) + 0.5 (400)(1640)
P = 592000 N
P = 592 kN

Use P = 504 kN5.

PROBLEM 5:
A column section shown is reinforced with 8 32 mm C
bars, with a clear concrete cover of 40 mm for the 12 mm
C ties. Due to reversal of lateral forces. The design axial
load due to the reversal effect of DL, LL and WL changes
as follows

Along the positive x direction :
Mu = -420 kN.m
Vu = 370 kN
Nu = 1320 kN

Along the negative x direction :
Mu = +420 kN.m
Vu = 370 kN
Nu = 450 kN

Use fc = 28 MPa and fy = 415 MPa

A. ) Allowable shear strength for simplified calculation.
1.) For members subject to shear and flexure only.
d b ' f
6
1
Vc
w C
=
2.) For members subject to an axial compression.
d b ' f
A 14
Nu
1
6
1
Vc
w C (

+ =
g

B. ) Allowable shear strength for detailed calculation
1.) For members subject to shear and flexure.

d b ' f 3 . 0 d b
M
d V
120 ' f
7
1
Vc
w C w
u
w C
<
(

+ =
u

1.0 than greater be not shall =
u
u
M
d V

Where Nu is negative for tension

2.) For members subject to an axial compression.

d b
M
d V
120 ' f
7
1
Vc
w
u
w C (

+ =
u

Where :

|
.
|

\
|
=
8
d h 4
Nu Mu Mm

1.0 to limited not i s
M
d V
u
u
=

V
c
= shall not be greater than :

d b '
c
f
A
N 3 . 0
1 3 . 0
c
V
w
u

g
+ =

When Mm is negative :

d b '
c
f
A
N 3 . 0
1 3 . 0
c
V Use
w
u

g
+ =

3.) For members subject to significant axial tension.

(

+ = d b '
c
f
A
N 3 . 0
1
6
1
c
V
w
u

g

Min. area of shear reinforcement :

fy 3
S b
A
w
V

=

When factored shear force Vu exceeds the shear strength
C Vc, shear reinforcement shall be provided and the shear
strength Vs shall be computed where shear reinforcement
perpendicular to the axis member :

S
d
y
f
v
A
A
S

=

a.) Determine the concrete shear strength for the positive x
direction using simplified calculation.
b.) Determine the concrete shear strength for the negative
x direction using simplified calculation.
c.) Determine the required spacing of shear reinforcement.
Apply provisions on spacing limits of reinforcement when
applicable.