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BLOCK I INTRODUCTION TO COUNSELLING Unit 1: Overview of Counseling Unit 2: Counseling Process Unit 3: Role of Counselor Unit 4: Application of Counseling BLOCK II COUNSELLING THEORIES Unit 1: Psychoanalytic Theory Unit 2: Behavioural Theory Unit 3: Cognitive Theory Unit 4: Person centered Theory BLOCK III BEHAVIOURAL OBSERVATIONS Unit 1: Group Guidance and Therapy Unit 2: Methods of Behavioral Assessment Unit 3: Psychological Testing and Procedures Unit 4: Modern Trends and Practices BLOCK IV TALENT MANAGEMENT Unit 1: Philosophy of Talent Management Unit 2: Performance Management Cycle Unit 3: Reward Trends Unit 4: Talent Planning (succession Planning) BLOCK V EMERGING TRENDS Unit 1: Virtual Teams Unit 2: Balanced Scorecard Unit 3: HRD Reengineering Unit 4: International Human Resource management RECOMMENDED BOOKS: 1. Personnel Management, Text And Cases, Author: C B Mamoria And S V Gankar, Pub: Himalaya Publications 2. HRD Audit; Author: T. V. Raopub: Response Books Leading HR, 3. Delivering Competitive Advantages Author: Clive Morton, Andrew Newall, Jon Sparkes Pub: Jaico Publishing House 1st Edition 4. Re-Engineering Of Human Resources Author: Lyle Spencer (Jr) Pub: John Wiley And Sons 5. International HRM Managing People In International Context, Author: Dowling, Welch Pub: Thompson Learning, South Western Publications 6. Corey, G. (2005). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (7th Ed.). Scarborough, ON: Brooks/Cole 7. Michael J Scott, Scott, Windy Dryden, Stephen G Stradling, Developing Cognitive Behavioural Counselling, Sage Publications.


Counseling is a process that enables a person to sort out issues and reach decisions affecting their life. Often counseling is sought out at times of change or crisis, it need not be so, however, as counselling can also help us at any time of our life. Counselling involves talking with a person in a way that helps that person solve a problem or helps to create conditions that will cause the person to understand and/or improve his behavior, character, values or life circumstances. Counselling is often performed face-to-face in confidential sessions between the counselor and client(s). However, counselling can also be undertaken by telephone, in writing and, in these days of the Internet, by email or video conferencing. Counselling can and may take many different formats to bring a person to a better understanding of them self and others. It can therefore be seen that counselling can be of benefit to a person experiencing problems in finding, forming, and maintaining relationships. Relationship counselling is not about giving advice. It is about helping and supporting a person to find an understanding and answers that work for that person. Counselling is a friendly, supportive and positive approach to personal development. Many people seeking counselling have problems or past experiences in their life, which they find difficult to overcome. These experiences and problems prevent the person moving forward in their life. Counselling helps the person face the effects of past experiences and seek ways to overcome them. Clients usually find counselling a very liberating and empowering experience. That is not to say that they do not feel nervous or daunted when first approaching a counselor, they do! However, the process and the feeling afterwards, are usually very positive and beneficial. Counselling may take time to work, depending upon the nature and number of problems being presented by the client. Sometimes, a single or a few sessions are all that is needed. At other times, longer periods, possibly months or up to a couple of years may be needed. The counselor is there throughout to assist the client in their development. So if you are facing a crisis in your life, or a period of change, then may be counselling could help you. If you feel things may be going wrong in your life and you want to understand why and do something about it, then may be counselling could help.

Counselling is often a misunderstood approach. People feel that it is just talking and lacks any practical or therapeutic approaches. Whilst talking, or rather communicating, issues is central to the counselling process, it is the listening and the reflecting done by the counselor that helps the client to understand their problem better. In Carl Rogers' approach to counselling, it is believed that the client already has all the skills necessary for them to tackle the issues they present. This latter point is a factor that helps distinguish counselling from 'other forms of therapy which provide an 'expert' to provide a 'cure' or 'treatment' for you This block Contain Unit 1: Overview of Counseling Unit 2: Counseling Process Unit 3: Role of Counselor Unit 4: Application of Counseling

Unit 1: Overview of Counseling

Content: 1.1.1: Introduction 1.1.2: Behavioral counseling Behavior Modification Counseling Techniques. 1.1.3: Talent Management. 1.1.4. Summary 1.1.5. Glossary 1.1.6. Check Your Progress 1.1.7. Reference 1.1.8. Answer to Check your Progress

1.1.1: Introduction
Counseling offers a caring and understanding relationship in which you can explore any areas of personal concern, your feelings, thoughts and attitudes, in an atmosphere of safety, respect and acceptance. Counseling provides an opportunity for you to work towards expanding the development of your own capacities and resources to live in a more meaningful and satisfying way. Who is counseling for? People of all ages, from all walks of life, engage in counseling and bring a wide range of personal worries and concerns. Issues brought to counseling can include stress, anxiety, fears, depression, life-crisis, unhappiness with past influences, low self- esteem, identity, addictions, relationship difficulties, bereavement, emotional or sexual difficulties, confusion, a less defined sense of unhappiness with life, sexual abuse, sexuality, spirituality, self-awareness and personal growth etc. The list is endless. What is counseling? Counseling in its most simple form involves the process of giving advice or guidance. To seek counsel is to seek the advice, guidance or help of someone by talking about what's wrong and getting assistance in finding solutions to problems. The topics of counseling are as varied as there are topics, however, counseling is often categorized in the mental health field and when people refer to "what is counseling" they often are referring to mental health (psychological and emotional) counseling. So let's look at the different aspects of counseling. Counseling and psychotherapy are often used interchangeably. Counseling is a form of therapy for emotional, psychological and/or relationship issues. Having said that, let's take a look at the different reasons for counseling or therapy and then we will look at the different types of counseling. We will close with what one can expect during counseling.

1.1.2: Behavioral counseling

Behavior is constantly being changed, stopped or adjusted; the trick is for the authority figure to apply the correct counseling techniques so the subject will perform the correct behavior. In "Learning Disabilities and Challenging Behaviors: A Guide to Intervention and Classroom Management" (Mather, N., and Goldstein, S. Paul H., Brookes Publishing Co., 2001) the authors state that behavior modification techniques will always be successful, it is only that they need to be applied effectively. Behavior is constantly being changed, stopped or adjusted; the trick is for the authority figure to apply the correct counseling techniques so .the subject will perform the correct behavior. Behavior modification counseling techniques Negative Reinforcement For steps for behavior modification Design Reinforce Prevention

Negative Reinforcement Counseling generally entails speaking with students, children or the subject who has behavioral issues to determine why they are acting as they do. Recommendations must take into account negative reinforcement--where the behavior the counselor is trying to change is actually rewarded. A student who wants attention and acceptance from peers may act out in class. If the counselor brings the student in front of the class and lectures about how wrong the behavior was, he is reinforcing what was done and will very likely have increased acting out from this and other students. Unfortunately, one of the only ways to avoid negative reinforcement is experience and an accurate analysis of the underlying reasons the person is acting out. The Four Steps of Behavior Modification In the above work, the authors explain that effective behavior modification counseling entails four steps: Defining, Designing, Reinforcing and Applying. First, the behavior must be defined. If a student is getting out of her seat to get supplies to share, it must be clarified that the getting out of the seat without permission is the problem, not that the student wants to share or is doing a favor for others. Design

An appropriate method must be designed to reward good behavior and punish or repress bad behavior. Students of different ages, cultures and backgrounds will respond differently to various techniques. Sometimes group punishment is effective, other times it only makes the majority of well-behaved students frustrated. Reinforce A reinforce must be identified. Subjects may respond well to treats, praise, or a point system where good behavior is rewarded and negative behavior has points taken away. Points must be given real value by allowing some sort of exchange or reward for a certain number of points. Some counselors do report success with younger students by just using points without rewards, based simply on the human need to do well. This reinforce must be applied consistently and clearly to shape behavior. If punishments are not handed out equally and in a timely manner, subjects may see prejudice and unfairness, resulting in anger, frustration and reduced trust in the counselor. Prevention One of the most effective counseling techniques in behavior modification is prevention. This is where counselors, teachers, parents and all interested parties share information in an open and honest way, looking to design and apply programs that will stop negative behavior from beginning. Details such as classroom seating plans, clear rules, modeling of pro-social behavior, interpersonal skills training and anger management skills teaching go a long way in preventing issues from arising. In environments with older subjects, an identified grievance procedure allows an outlet rather than acting out.

1.1.3. Talent Management

It is the process of managing the supply and demand of talent in alignment with organizational needs. Attracting and selecting talent, training and development to identify and sharpen the potential, building up skill inventories and performance management fall within the domain of our Talent Management. The term Talent Management is banded around liberally in the Human Resources arena currently. We are not convinced at People Vision HR everyone really knows what the term actually means!


Talent Management needs time and attention to happen; they suggest that it is the responsibility of all in the organization to make it happen. Talent Management needs to have a holistic approach like quality management and health and safety. We cannot give the responsibility to an individual and hope that it happens.

What is it? In the simplest form Talent Management is:

Understanding the skills the business has importantly who are the "high potentials"? Understanding who, how and when you want to develop Developing the relevant people Managing out underperformance Creating a structure of promotion Most importantly recognize that talent comes in many forms, artistic, strategic and great sales people all have talent

The key is to know how to harness this talent to help your business achieve its corporate objectives.

How to Develop Talent in Succession Planning

Succession planning creates a system that finds the right employees for the position. It develops their skills and talents, while preparing them for elevated positions within a company. Furthermore, it is designed to ensure the company will have competent employees throughout the existence of the organization. However, the investment in talent will take time and money to accomplish. The goal is to train the best workers, and retain them to ensure a return on the company's training investment. Determine what kind of succession plan the company will provide to its employee(s). Succession planning must include: guidance, feedback, repetition, testing and the opportunity to act on behalf of the company in an impacting matter. Hands-on or the hands-off approach for training talent will be coordinated by owners/management. Depending on the type of position, one approach may be better than the other. For example, using a software system to train vs. being trained by qualified people may have cost implications to consider. A decision must be made when the talent is selected. A list must be generated of all employees that foster growth, and are interested in the company long-term. Take a general survey to see if the employees goals are congruent with the company's. Look at their overall temperament, maturity and capacity to lead effectively. If these are skills already possessed, it may be appropriate to request participation in planning to serve at a higher level of the company in the future. Establish a program similar to an apprenticeship to provide deeper insight into the company. It should include training for specifics within the area the employee will potentially operate, and offer a general overview of the other areas that will be overseen. Also, shadowing can be done by working in each department for a period to gain knowledge in making improvements. However, one of the most helpful practices when developing talent for a company is to role play using real company situations to enhance analysis building skills. Send employee(s) to outside training opportunities to seek skills not found within the company. Increasing the level of education with an advanced degree may be worth the cost for the company. The skills will be used to make the company more profitable and

the talent being developed may feel an increased stake in continuing to grow the vision. In addition, improving critical thinking along with technical skills must be part of the succession plan to ensure its success. At the conclusion of the program, allow the employee(s) to have hands-on experience in running the daily activities. Provide a test, a written or oral exam that includes topics covered throughout. It will help ensure the knowledge gained will be stored for recall purposes. Then, proceed to remove direction and encourage the talent to make impacting decisions before the transition occurs. Evaluate the decisions made by the employee(s) to determine the success in developing talent through succession planning. Every talent group is different, so revamping may become an ongoing process.

1.1.4: Summary
It is the process of managing the supply and demand of talent in alignment with organizational needs. Attracting and selecting talent, training and development to identify and sharpen the potential, building up skill inventories and performance management fall within the domain of our Talent Management services. Counseling is a process that can provide opportunities for individuals, couples and families to work towards living in a more satisfying and resourceful way. Working through painful or difficult situations with a trained professional can increase our understanding of personal or relationship problems. Counseling provides a safe and supportive environment in which to explore the feelings and emotions you have about your past and present life experiences. The counseling process is natural and not mysterious. You and I will work together in a focused manner to enable you to find solutions to your difficulties. I will not analyze you or offer advice, but aim to help you develop your own strengths and means of coping with present and future life situations. You are in control of what you talk about and part of my role is to work at a pace that suits you. A good counselor will not judge you, but can help you develop more effective ways of coping with those issues which may seem unmanageable at present and to move towards new goals.

1.1.5: Glossary
Consultation Voluntary, non-supervisory relationship between professionals and other pertinent persons for the purpose of aiding the consultee(s) Behavioral strategies A strategy for change based on behavioral theory.

Bargaining - The stage of grieving characterized by the partial belief that the griever could change the situation or loss by good works Counselor A therapist

1.1.6. Check Your Progress

1. Who is counseling for? 2. What are the Four Steps of Behavior Modification? 3. Explain the Simplest form Talent Management 1.1.7. Reference Behavior Modification counseling techniques By Daryn Edelman Talent Management By Thorne and Pellant. Talent Management By Edward

1.1.8Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 1.1.1 2. Read 1.1.2 3. Read 1.1.3

Block 1 Unit 2: Counseling Process

After studying this unit, you will be able to understand Process of counseling Content 1.2.1: Introduction 1.2.2. Process Goals in Counseling o (Three stages of Counseling Process) o Grief Counseling Process o Group Process Techniques for Counseling 1.2.3: Counseling in Organizations 1.2.4: Summary 1.2.5: Glossary 1.2.6: Check Your Progress 1.2.7: Reference 1.2.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

1.2.1: Introduction
People seek the service of professional helpers counselors, social workers, psychologists and psychiatrist - when their capacities for responding to the demands of life are strained, when desired growth seems unattainable, when important decisions elude resolution, and when natural support systems are unavailable or insufficient. Sometimes the person in need of help is urged or required to seek counseling by a third party, spouse, parent, employer, teacher, or judge who believes the individual is failing to manage some important aspects of life effectively. The purpose of counseling, broadly conceived, is to enable the client to cope with life situations, to reduce stress, to engage in growth related activity, and to make effective and important decisions. Counselors increase their control over present adversity and present future opportunity as a consequence of counseling process. Persons of any age, in any walk of life, and with almost any kind of problems can be Helped to gain power over the adversities and opportunities of their lives.Counseling to achieve client empowerment is viewed by some as a generic process that includes same elements inherent of the context in which it is used. It does not matter whether it is performed in an organization, school, and hospital or in a community counseling clinic, the basic structure of the

helping process remains same. Let us examine a few salient processing of counseling in general in the next section.

1.2.2. Process Goals in Counseling

Counseling is an interactive process characterized by a unique relationship between counselor and client. To understand counseling as a process, one must distinguish between outcome goals and process goals. Outcome goals (described in the previous section) are the intended results of counseling. Generally, they are described in terms of what the client desires to achieve as a result of his or her interaction with the counselor. In contrast, process goals are those events the counselors take as helpful and instrumental in bringing about outcome goals. Outcome goals are described in terms of change in the client that will manifest after the counseling and outside the counselor's office. Process goals are plans for events that take place during the counseling sections and in the counselor's office. They are events that the counselor considers helpful and instrumental in achieving outcome goals. Process goals can also be described in terms of the counselor's actions and at other times in terms of effect to be experienced by the client. For example, a counselor may think, "If I am to help this client, I must actively listen to what he is saying and Understand the significance of his concerns for his present and future well-being. I must understand how the attitudes he is describing influences the way he behaves towards significant others. I must understand the surrounding circumstances (including cultural background) that relate to his concerns, and I must understand the reinforcing events that support his behavior". All of these statements are process goals that relate to the counselor's behavior. Another kind of process goal refers to the way the consumer can act as a model for new ways of behaving. By modeling appropriate responses to frustration, disappointment, or negative feelings, the counselors indirectly teaches the client alternatives to accustomed ways of responding. For example, a counselor who deals assertively to a chronically late client are demonstrating to the client an alternative wayto copes with feelings of frustration.

Three Stages of the counseling process

A process is an identifiable sequence of events taking place over time. Usually there is the implication of progressive stages in the process. The 3 phase process is meant to do a few things and they are all things that I feel are important. Proper employee counseling should ultimately end with the issue being resolved and no further counseling being necessary, this of course is not always the case which is exactly why there is a 3 phase process.

The phase of the counseling is discussed below: 1. Stage 1: Initial Disclosure

2. Stage 2: In-depth Exploration. 3. Stage 3: Commitment to Action Stage 1: Initial Disclosure At the beginning of counseling, the counselors and clients typically do not know one another well. Neither participant can know in advance the direction their discussion will not ultimately take, nor is the client probably a bit anxious about disclosing concerns because s/he is not sure how the counselor will receive the disclosures. Without disclosure, counseling is an empty process. In the initial disclosure stage of counseling, clients must be helped to articulate their personal concerns and to place those concerns in a context so that the counselor can understand the personal meanings and significance the client attaches to them. To define the problem is the first step in learning the meaning of the situations of the particular client. To encourage disclosure, the counselor must set conditions that promote trust in the client. The following trust-promoting conditions as the characteristics of the helping relationship. Empathy - understanding another's experience as if it were your own, without ever loosing the "as if" quality. Congruence or genuineness - being as you seems to be, consistent over time, dependable in the relationship. Unconditional positive regard - caring for your client without setting conditions for your caring (avoiding the message "I will care about you if you do what I want"). Concreteness - using clear language to describe the client's life situation.

Effective counseling procedures in the initial disclosure stage lead to sustained self disclosure by the client for the following purposes: to let the counselors know what has been occurring in the client's life and how the client thinks and feels about (hose events; to encourage the client to gain some feeling of relief through the process of talking about his or her problems; to encourage the client to develop a clearer definition of his or her concerns and greater understanding about exactly what is disturbing; to help the client being to connect components of his or her story that may lead to new insight

Stage II: In-depth Exploration In the second stage of counseling, the client should reach clear understanding of his or her life concerns and begin to formulate a new sense of hope and directions. It is a useful rubric to think of emerging goals as the "flip side" of problems. The process that facilitates formulation of a new sense of direction builds on the conditions of the initial disclosure stage and becomes possible only if trust has been built in that first stage and is maintained. But the relationship has become less strenuous and fragile than it was at the beginning and so the counselor can use a broader range of intervention tools without increasing

tension beyond tolerable limits. The first stage merges into the second stage as the counselor perceives the client's readiness. In the second stage, the counselor begins, subtly at first, to bring into the discussion his or her diagnostic impressions of the clients dynamics and coping behavior. The empathic responses of the counselor now include coping behavior. The empathic responses of the counselor now include material from prior sessions and focus more on the client's mind state that the counselor has an understanding of his or her world and provide an impetus for still deeper exploration As the relationship becomes more secure, the counselor also beings to confront the client with observation about his or her goals behavior. Broadly speaking, constructive confrontation provides the client with an external view of his or her behavior, based on the counselor's observations. The client is free to accept, reject or modify the counselor's impression. Immediacy is another quality of the counselor's behavior that becomes important in the second stage of counseling. According to Egan (1988), immediacy can be defined in three different ways. First, it refers to general discussions about the progress of the counseling relationship. The counselor gives the client immediate reaction the clients statements or asks the clients to disclose current thoughts about the counselor. The third kind of immediacy response is a self-involving statement that expresses the counselor's personal to a client in the present. The focus of counseling is clearly on the client by the second stage, the counselor may begin sharing bits of his or her own experience with the client without fear of appearing to oversimplify the client's problems or seeming to tell the client's "Do as I did". Incidents in the counselor's life may be shared if they have direct relevance to the client's concern. The second stage of counseling many a times becomes emotionally stressful, as the client repeatedly faces the inadequacy of habitual behavior and must begin to give up the familiar for the unfamiliar. This stressful task must be accomplished within arcading relationship in which it is clear that the counselor is not criticizing the clients past behavior. The thrust is toward helping clients realize more clearly what they do not like in their responses to present situations or decisions making and to gain a sense of what kinds of responses might be more satisfying. Stage III: Commitment to Action In third and final stage of counseling client resolve how to accomplish any goals that have come over during the previous two stages. Concerns have been defined and clarified on the context of the client's life situation. The clients have to realize how his or her own behavior related to accomplishing the goals that have been clarified through the counseling process. What remains is to decide what, if any, overt actions the client might take to alleviate these problems. If no action is indicated, then the third stage of counseling can focus on increasing the client's commitment to a view that s/he has done everything possible or desirable in the given situation. This stage includes recognizing possible alternative courses of action (or decision) the clients might choose and evaluating each of them in terms of the likelihood of outcomes. Once an action decision is made, the clients usually try some new behaviors are habitual and because new

behaviors while remaining in touch with the counselor. Together, the counselor and client monitor the initial steps of the change process. Often the client needs to be reinforced to behave in new ways, both because the old behaviors are habitual and because new behaviors may not bring about immediate results. Especially when the goals involve improving interpersonal relationships with one or more people, the other parties may not respond instantly to the client new direction, which can be discouraging. Particular actions cannot be evaluated for a goal that has not been defined, and a goal cannot be defined if a concern has not been explored and clarified. Even so, the segments of an individual's life cannot be fully separated and treated as independent problem. Eventually, each sector must fit back into a whole picture of the individual's life, much as the pieces of a jigsaw puzzle fit together to procedure a complete picture. The process of counseling may involve refining the edges of one piece so that it fits the picture. Following a counseling Three Phase process like the one below will also reduce wrongful terminations within your business. Phase I: Verbal Counseling Verbal counseling is any counseling that takes place in the form of a verbal discussion; a verbal counseling session should be documented as such and placed in the employees file. Placing the verbal documentation in an associates file keeps communication between managers consistent in the event there is a need to move into the Written Notice phase this documentation will come in handy. Phase II: Written Notice Once an employee has been verbally informed of an issue and the verbal documentation has been placed into the associates file it leaves the door open for a Written Notice in the event that the associate repeats the same action that earned them the verbal documentation in the first place. This phase requires that you sit down with the associate and present the written documentation; it also requires the associate to sign the document stating that they have been made aware of the contents of the documentation. This documentation should include the date and details of the previous infraction that resulted in the verbal documentation; this shows consistency in the documentation process as well as in the employees actions. Phase III: Final Warning At this point in the game its safe to say that the associate knows about their previous documentations and what actions caused those documentations, at this point the associate needs to walk away with a clear understanding that repeating the same action will now result in immediate termination without further warning.

Grief Counseling Process

Acceptance of Loss It is a normal reaction for a person suffering from grief to deny the loss of a loved one. The first step to grief therapy is to face the fact that there is physical loss. A grief counselor can help the person to realize this, touching more on fact rather than emotion. Identify and Express Pain A bereaved person has the propensity to put up a wall to hide his or her feelings over the loss. If that wall is not torn down and the grief is denied, there can be harsh effects on the body. The grief process can also take longer than it should if there are deterrents to counseling. This second step is crucial to release the different emotions associated with loss including anger, guilt, fear, sorrow or anxiety. Adjusting to Life without a Loved One With pain fully expressed, it is time to work through the feelings of having to continue living without the loved one. Habits will need to be altered, most especially if there were daily activities significantly shared with the loved one. This part may take a long time and in varying periods for different people. The grief counselor will assist the bereaved person in focusing attention towards other people and activities. Allow for More Expression of Grief There are other forms of expressing grief, especially if a fond memory resurfaces. Though it is difficult to put a lid on the longing felt, it is more difficult to be trapped or overtaken by the memories. People suffering from loss are advised to create a special place in which they can return to and remember these memories. This allows for proper withdrawal from the loss, as there is a "real world" that continues outside that grief. Part of counseling is suggesting other ways to express grief. Some of the most popular methods are journaling, creating art forms, scrapbooking and compiling videos about the loved one. Reassurance and Support It is common for those grieving to ponder on the emotions felt for the one gone. As they have accepted the loss physically and emotionally, moving on can be mistaken as forgetting or getting rid of the love felt. Counselors advise grieving persons to take comfort in this love, to see it as a source of strength as they continue with their own lives. Assessing Resistance or Prolonged Grief Some cases of grief counseling may not see results easily, particularly if there are deep-rooted emotions to it. To offer more intensive grief therapy, referrals to other therapists or methods can be undertaken.

Group Process Techniques for Counseling

Group therapy aims to encourage personal development and help people work through potential or current problems, according to the website Group Psychotherapy. This type of therapy helps clients work through relationship problems, as the therapy itself requires that the client

participate in relationships. A counselor who understands effective techniques provides an important element in the development of a therapy group. Six group therapy techniques encourage the group toward personal growth and wellness. Active Listening Active listening requires that whenever a group member shares, the other members listen appropriately and ask questions. This practice encourages open communication and allows each group member to feel safe in the environment. The group members should decide at the beginning of the group whether they will raise hands to ask questions or simply ask them outright. Cutting Off This technique allows the counselor to stop a conversation if it veers off the topic. The counselor should decide when it will benefit the group to use this technique. If a group member veers off the topic but shares something of importance, it may not benefit the group to cut off the conversation. However, if a group member continually veers off onto a different topic, cutting off encourages the group's effectiveness. Eye Contact This group process technique should occur on the first day of the group session. The group members split into groups of two, then each member looks at her partner in the eyes for 30 seconds. After this, the group should rotate until each person partners with everyone in the group. Practicing eye contact helps build trust in the group setting. Dyads The dyad technique pairs members of the group together. One member plays the role of the counselor, and the other plays the role of the client. After 15 minutes, the roles reverse. This practice teaches members of the group empathy as they listen to their partner's problems. Leadership Role Each group member can take on the role of the leader in the group by offering advice or concern to another member. As the group progresses, clients begin to look to their peers for empathy rather than just the counselor. According to the website Mental Help, this practice allows the clients to have a wide range of people helping in their problems. End-of-Group Comments At the end of each meeting, the group should spend five minutes discussing how the group session went. This technique allows group members to feel they participated in their own therapy. Each member should share feedback about the session. The counselors should take each comment into consideration to help improve the next group session.

1.2.3: Summary
The counseling services; within organizations are in further need to review their, aims and objectives as a key focus in the kind of provision needed. A clearer view of these aims and objectives will clarify, in turn, what kind of counseling is best suited to particular organization,

what concepts of change underline such aims, and what roles and responsibilities characterize the professional counselor who works in an organizational setting. This again, will lead to a theory of counseling in organizations which will influence hopefully the training of such counselors.

1.2.4: Glossary
Counselling is a process that enables a person to sort out issues and reach decisions affecting their life. Often counseling is sought out at times of change or crisis, it need not be so, however, as counseling can also help us at any time of our life. Counseling involves talking with a person in a way that helps that person solve a problem or helps to create conditions that will cause the person to understand and/or improve his behavior, character, values or life circumstances. Counselling is often performed face-to-face in confidential sessions between the counselor and client(s). However, counselling can also be undertaken by telephone, in writing and, in these days of the Internet, by email or video conferencing. Counselling can and may take many different formats to bring a person to a better understanding of them self and others. It can therefore be seen that counselling can be of benefit to a person experiencing problems in finding, forming, and maintaining relationships. Relationship counselling is not about giving advice. It is about helping and supporting a person to find an understanding and answers that work for that person. Counselling is a friendly, supportive and positive approach to personal development. Many people seeking counselling have problems or past experiences in their life, which they find difficult to overcome. These experiences and problems prevent the person moving forward in their life. Counselling helps the person face the effects of past experiences and seek ways to overcome them. Clients usually find counselling a very liberating and empowering experience. That is not to say that they do not feel nervous or daunted when first approaching a counselor, they do! However, the process and the feeling afterwards, are usually very positive and beneficial. Counselling may take time to work, depending upon the nature and number of problems being presented by the client. Sometimes, a single or a few sessions are all that is needed. At other times, longer periods, possibly months or up to a couple of years may be needed. The counselor is there throughout to assist the client in their development.

1.2.5: Check Your Progress

1. Explain the significance and process of counseling in organization? 2. What are the Trust-promoting conditions as the characteristics of the helping relationship?

1.2.6: Reference
Counseling Process By Rogers Process of counseling By Egan

Making ethical decisions in Organizational Counseling By Carroll, M.

1.2.7: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 1.2.2 2. Read 1.22

Block 1 Unit 3: Role of Counselor

Counselor is an important figure in the job force. There are many responsibilities and duties a counselor carries out on a daily basis. In this unit you will be able to understand about the career counselor responsibilities. Content 1.3.1. Introduction. 1.3.2: Career Counselor Responsibilities Human resources: Defining the differences between a mentor, counselor, and a coach 1.3.3: Summary 1.3.4. Glossary 1.3.5. Check Your Progress 1.3.6: Reference 1.3.7: Answer to Check Your Progress

1.3.1: Introduction
This individual plays a prime role in helping individuals put their talents to good use in a job position and help them in their journey applying to colleges. There are many responsibilities and duties a career counselor carries out on a daily basis. Substance abuse counselors provide support and encouragement to addiction clients, often those who are in crisis, and their families. These clients may need support in all types of areas ranging from housing to child care to vocational to family issues. A critical part of the training for substance abuse counselors is learning the 12 core functions. These functions involve different aspects of the daily roles substance abuse counselors perform and include: screening, intake, orientation, assessment, treatment planning, and counseling, case management, crisis intervention, client education, referral, report and record keeping, and consultation with other professionals. A counselor is an individual who counsels others in jobs or to help them obtain a job or provide support and encouragement to clients often those who are in crisis and their families. The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of the counselor and to propose a role for the professional counselor of the 21st century. The role of the counselor is compared with the role of other mental health professionals. A distinction between mental health professionals is presented with an emphasis on a new role for the professional counselor.

1.3.2: Counselor Responsibilities

The career counselor has certain jobs and responsibilities which go along with their position. Along with providing counseling for students, the career counselor must also meet with outside

parties such as business owners, parents, teachers and school administrators to adequately fulfill their role as career counselor. The career counselor will keep detailed files on each student that they meet with and review the files during follow-up sessions with the students. Specific Duties of a Career Counselor There are many specific duties a career counselor must fulfill on a daily basis. The first is meeting with students regarding educational and vocational matters. The career counselor will determine what the students desires are with regard to what they wish to pursue once they graduate from their current educational establishment. This will help the career counselor formulate a good plan with regard to looking at schools or job opportunities with the student. The career counselor must also make various items available to the student in order to help them formulate good decisions with regard to their future steps relating to education or vocation. These items may include pamphlets, school applications, job applications, school catalogs and other various documents. These will give the student something to peruse and may in fact help them in the decision-making process. One who is a career counselor must also have contact with outside individuals who may help the student out in their pursuits. Some of these individuals include business owners, college administrators and parents of the students. By maintaining contact with these individuals, the counselor will be able to present the student with the best options possible. A career counselor should also be able to answer questions relating to financial aid. Due to the fact that many students do not have the money to attend colleges or graduate schools, they need to be aware of their financial aid options which make pursuing these educational goals possible. The career counselor should know all about financial aid issues and know the procedure for applying for financial aid so they can adequately explain it to the student. The career counselor will frequently need to make contact with financial aid officers from other schools to see if they can provide documents and information to the student regarding their financial aid policies. A career counselor should also maintain contact with teachers and administrators at their specific school for a few different reasons. One who is a career counselor needs to be in touch with teachers at their school to find out if the student is suited for a particular career goal or college major. The career counselor should consult with the school administrators to inquire about getting programs into the school which will aid in the future careers and goals of the students. The career counselor in some schools may also take on the role of guidance counselor as well. They will provide crisis intervention for the students, sponsor after school activities and provide counseling services for a variety of needs. The career counselor may be the support system for the students in many school districts.

Frequently a career counselor will also be responsible for providing educational group sessions for students where they can learn about their career choices on a variety of different levels. This large-scale group discussion will focus on future education as well as vocational options once the students graduate. Beneficial Traits for a Career Counselor to Possess One who is a career counselor should possess certain traits which will enable them to complete their job responsibilities and duties to the best extent possible. The first trait a career counselor should possess is the ability to research. Since the career counselor will be responsible for providing students with potential job fields and educational pursuits, it is important that they know what the job market is like as well as information about colleges. One needs to have good research skills to excel as a career counselor. Career counselors should also be sympathetic to the students who come to them. Since many students will be coming to the career counselor for help and may have some issues to discuss, the career counselor must be able to lend a sympathetic ear to the students. The career counselor should also possess the positive trait of dedication. If a career counselor is dedicated to their job, they are more likely to pursue all possible avenues with regard to education and career choices for the students. A career counselor who is dedicated is one who will provide a wide range of post-graduation options for the students to reflect upon. Career counselors should also be good listeners. Since they will need to act upon the statements and desires of the student, they need to listen clearly to know exactly what the student is looking for with regard to educational and/or vocational opportunities. A career counselor who is a good listener will make the best career counselor possible.

Human resources: Defining the differences between a mentor, counselor, and a coach
A manager plays many roles, or to use the clich, wears many different hats. They are the boss, the strategist, the facilitator, the coordinator, the coach, the mentor. They also serve two key functions in an organization: 1) Meet or exceed expectations and enhance the bottom-line through employee performance 2) Meet or exceed the individuals need for recognition/achievement through employee development

For a manager to succeed as a leader in these key areas, they need to know when to coach, when to counsel, and when to mentor. The purpose of this article is to distinguish these roles and when to apply the concepts of coaching, counseling and mentoring. The Coach: Train, Direct, Support Employee Performance is based upon job-related objectives and company goals involving quality, quantity, and timeliness. When an employee needs to learn a new skill or is starting to struggle to meet the minimum requirements of the position, this is a great opportunity for a manager to coach. By meeting with them, one on one, the manager can seek clarification, review expectations and provide the necessary tools to help them be successful. Perhaps the employee needs additional support and direction or possible retraining. The role of a coach should not be associated with any type of non-punitive disciplinary or corrective action. Counsel: Identify, Specify, Resolve When an employee fails to improve or continues to struggle in meeting the minimum requirements of their position or there is a repeated or inappropriate behavior that needs to be addressed, the manager should take on a more serious role and counsel the individual. Counseling requires the manager to meet with the employee, one on one, identify the problem, specify what has to be corrected, and work together to resolve the issues. The first meeting may be considered as a verbal warning, depending upon the organizations corrective action policy. Subsequent meetings, the manager may continue to wear the counsel hat if the employee fails to demonstrate improvement or correct the behavior. Notice, counseling is associated with non-punitive disciplinary or corrective action. The objective of the supervisor is to help the employee succeed by identifying, specifying, and resolving the issues. Mentor: Coach, Share, Advocate The first step a manager needs to take before mentoring is to identify whom to mentor. Those individuals should be their top performers. Furthermore, unlike Employee Performance which is based upon measureable expectations and standards, Employee development is subjective. The role of the mentor is more than training. The manager shares their knowledge of the organization and their wisdom to enable their star performers to take on duties beyond their current job. They share their contacts and provide opportunities to their mentees to show others what they are capable of doing. Lastly, there may be times when a manager slips from one role to the next depending upon where the employee is at in terms of their performance and/or achievements. The overall goal of the manager should be to provide their employees with the necessary tools to succeed regardless of the hat they wear.

1.3.3: Summary
It is important to reiterate the crucial role that a career counselor plays in the life of a student. Not only does the career counselor present job opportunities and educational options to the

student but provides moral support for the individual as well. The career counselor lets the student know that there are financial aid possibilities available should the student wish to attend college but not know how to pay for it. By guiding the student in his/her post-graduation endeavors, the career counselor is doing their part to help ensure that the student follows through with their dreams. A career counselor must do their best to help the student know what they want to do after graduation and provide them with the necessary information to follow through with that knowledge.

1.3.4. Glossary
Client: person being listened to in a co-counseling session. The client is free to process whatever is necessary in order to re-emerge, or to do active thinking, planning, etc., and when the time agreed upon is up, roles are exchanged and the client becomes the counselor. Commitment: a statement said by the client to commit or decides to do something or to refrain from doing something. A counseling technique. Usually phrased as: "from this moment on I decide to be / to do / to remember that... and this means that..." the counselor encourages the client to repeat the commitment a number of times in order to bring up discharge. There are a number of general commitments and commitments for most liberation groups which are available in RC publications. It is also good to create specific commitments for a specific client to contradict specific distresses. Sometimes it is only necessary for the counselor to state the commitment and the client will discharge. Counseling Techniques: methods of counseling that have been used many times and found to be effective. These are general guidelines for the counselor, and should not be used as cookbook recipes. The counselor should always trust his/her flexible, creative thinking and adapt the technique to the specific session, client and distress. See some examples (role exchange, understatement, reality agreement). Counselor: the person who is paying loving attention to the client. Always stays present, listens without interruption, notices patterns and underlying distress, provides contradiction to distress (mainly by loving attention, closeness), supports client during Self Estimation: Self-estimation is a tool to be used by a working group such as a community and its leadership. Suggested format: 1. a. Each member has a turn in which s/he speaks to his/her strong points, clear areas of excellence in the work role; 1.b. Speaks to areas which s/he would like to improve; 2.a. Other group members in turn speak to the strong points of the person in the work role; 2.b. Make positive suggestions of directions in the areas they see the person needs to achieve further progress.

Clearly the effectiveness of self-estimation depends on how carefully and awarely we think about each other.

1.3.5. Check Your Progress

1. Specific Duties of a Career Counselor

1.3.6: Reference
Career Counselor Responsibilities By Exforsys. Role of substance abuse counselors By Elizabeth (Liza) Thompson Human Resources By Rosemary Letson

1.3.7: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 1.3.2

Block 1 Unit 4: Application of Counseling

The following information given in this unit will help you with counseling sessions and help you become more aware of some things you can do to help your shipmates. Beware that the use of these techniques will depend on your particular circumstances and may not always be feasible or practical. Nevertheless, you should beware of these techniques and use them whenever possible Content 1.4.1. 1.4.2. 1.4.3. 1.4.4. 1.4.5. 1.4.6. 1.4.7. 1.4.8.

Introduction Basic Approaches to Counseling Beginning a counseling session Summary Glossary Check Your Progress Reference Answer to Check Your Progress

1.4.1. Introduction
For the most part the aim of counseling has been self-improvement intended to resolve a significant personal problem. In other words, counseling has been about change. The theories counselors use to bring about change are varied, encompassing insight, skills training, and problem solving. Office Space: Depending on an individuals problems, you should choose an office or area away from excessive traffic and noise. The office for a counseling session should be easily accessible. A quiet and private space provides a better opportunity for concentration as well as a relaxed atmosphere for both you and the person you are counseling. Planning for the Interview: Knowing in advance what the counseling session will be about allows you to become familiar with the applicable references concerning the nature of the individuals request. Remember, it is better to know in advance what an individual will need before he or she comes to the counseling area for the interview. This keeps you and the other person from wasting time. If you do not know about the members needs in advance, just be prepared to do the necessary research after the member arrives for the interview. Scheduling the Interview: If possible, you should provide the member with an appointment. This keeps the member from having towait a long time before being served. Remember, this person also has other things to do. An individual who has to wait too long for service will hardly be in the mood for a relaxed interview. You should also make sure you allow yourself enough time to conduct the interview or counseling session appropriately.

Conducting the Interview: Always greet the member being interviewed or counseled by his or her rate and name. You should always greet individuals in a friendly, courteous, and respectful manner. Once you begin the interview, you should not be interrupted by your co-workers. Make sure your co-workers and your supervisor know where you are and what you are doing.

1.4.2: Basic Approaches to Counseling

Psychoanalysis attempts to have people recall, interpret, and work through childhood experiences. Childhood experience may dramatically influence adult life. Emotional wounds (especially parental abuse) may influence many areas of the adult life. However, psychoanalysis often over emphasizes the sexual aspect. Furthermore, just recalling a negative childhood experience does not bring emotional healing. Only God through Jesus can accomplish that. Also, false doctrines and concepts learned in childhood may cause inner conflicts in adulthood. However, the lies must be confronted with the truth of the Word. Non-directive Counseling emphasizes the importance of getting the individual to share his problems. The individual may need to unload and air his problems, and it is important the counselor affirms the worth of the client by listening. However, just sharing doesn't bring resolution to the problems. It is also important to allow the individual come to a conclusion; however, it is more important to direct the individual to the correct conclusion. Furthermore, if the individual had the answer within himself he wouldn't really need a counselor. Furthermore, so called "common knowledge" is not always true knowledge and is, in fact, often wrong. Existential Counseling attempts to relate the unfulfilled "needs" and "potential" to issues and to aid the individual to redirect their energy to best fulfill their needs and reach their potential. Every person "needs" to have certain needs met. However, man is not to look at himself to fulfill his needs or potential. God is to be his source. Furthermore, what the individual or even the counselor may consider to be the proper priorities may not be what God considers to be the priorities. Man is to be God-centered, not self-centered. Transactional Analysis emphasizes the proper playing of roles (child, parent, adult). This is a favored approach in communications in the business world. An adult should not treat another adult as a child. Neither should a parent of a child treat the child as an adult. However, even proper role playing may not change a rebellious attitude. Everyone is not O.K. Furthermore, this approach to counseling gives little allowance for the principles of authority. Transactional Analysis normally does not address the truth that God works through authority to teach, correct, discipline, prosper, empower, and protect. Behavioral Counseling says that we are simply a product of our environment; therefore, we need to be reconditioned through the proper training. It is true that society (especially the home environment) exerts pressure on people to behave in a certain way. Furthermore, some relearning may be necessary. However, we are not robots or simply products of our environment. Behavioral counseling often pits reward against punishment. The preferred approach in behavioral counseling is reward because it generally gets better results. However, the combination of both is seldom used as balanced in the Scriptures.

Reality Therapy approaches counseling from a confrontational perspective. The counselor confronts the individual with the facts of life, expecting him to face up to the issues. It is true that we are to confront people with the truth in love as directed by the Holy Spirit. However, the problem is that most troubled people are running from the issues. Some professionals have categorized some forty defense mechanisms that people use to avoid facing the truth. Often people run from the issues because they don't see any solution for their issues; therefore the counselor must also offer true solutions to the issues. Biblical Counseling aspires to the truth that God has an answer for every issue and actively intervenes in the lives of individuals. The answers are found in the Word of God and revealed by the Holy Spirit. When an individual responds correctly in faith to the Word of God, God will bring solutions to his problems, peace of mind, and fulfillment. Each approach to counseling is based upon some truth; however, only the Biblical Counseling approach is based entirely upon the truth which can produce effective, long lasting positive results. Furthermore, the other approaches may lead one even into greater difficulties. One also should note that many Christian counselors, because of their secular training, use primarily one of the secular approaches to counseling along with some Scriptures.

Basic Approaches To Counseling

Counseling Method
Psychoanalysis (psychological) Non-directive Counseling (self-discovery) Existential Counseling (meaning) Transactional Analysis (cognitive) Behavioral Counseling (behavior) Reality Therapy

Causes For Problems

Regression of natural desires with sexual & social maladjustment Lack of selfunderstanding Unfulfilled needs & potential

Treatment Method
Psychotherapy with emphasis on childhood experiences Affirmation of self and self-directed growth Redirecting of priorities to fulfill personal needs with self fulfillment Re-education of mechanics of roles (parent, adult, child) Relearning based primarily upon a reward system omitting punishment Confrontation with facts

Counselor's Approach
Expert Knowledge

Common Knowledge Humanistic Knowledge

Playing out of inappropriate roles from learned past experiences Wrong learned behavior

Educative Knowledge

Experimental Knowledge

Refusal to accept current reality

Authoritative Knowledge

(facing issues) Biblical Counseling (obeying God)

resulting in blame and escapism Sin and a lack of understanding spiritual knowledge, wisdom, and truth Application of the Word of God by hearing and obeying God Revelational Knowledge

Counseling is challenging because many people change slowly if at all, while others change but over time go back to old habits people resist changing; that is because true personality change often requires a change in values, and people resist changes in their values. A new strategy for counseling people instead trying to change people to adjust to current life situations, we teach them to find new life situations in which they can thrive.

1.4.4: Beginning a counseling session

A certain air of mystery surrounds therapeutic sessions like counseling and psychotherapy. Many people believe this form of one-to-one therapy will leave them feeling exposed and uncomfortable; whilst others assume confidence will not be strictly maintained. Although there are many different counseling approaches and disciplines available, there are however, strict guidelines that a counselor, psychotherapist or other therapeutic professional must adhere to at all times. In the Beginning At the start of every counseling relationship some form of client assessment must be made. This evaluation may be done during one appointment with the counsellor or therapist, or over a number of arranged sessions. The reason for this evaluation is to allow the counselor the opportunity to clearly understand the problems the client wishes to address and improve. Once a counselor has been able to evaluate the client, and the presented issues and problems, the counselor will be able to allocate an agreed time for subsequent counseling appointments. The counselor, or therapist, will also be able to review various situations, issues and concerns, throughout the course of their counseling relationship with the client. During the Session Each meeting with a counselor is an opportunity for the client to express emotions, feelings and thoughts in a safe, confidential environment. The client will be encouraged to use freeassociation and free-thinking to explore whatever problem they are experiencing. The counsellor can offer guidance and encouragement, and provide additional support when needed. They can also set the client homework, so that they continue to experience empowerment after the counselling session has finished.

The counsellor will also set an agenda for each one-to-one session, so that the client can identify and acknowledge the progress that is being made week-to-week and session-to-session. Each session will also be reviewed, and discussed with the client at the subsequent counselling appointment. What Sometimes Happens At the evaluation session a potential client may realize a number of things: A client may find that they are unable to express themselves freely, due to fear, lack of confidence or other overwhelming feelings. Some clients realize that all they needed was one session, with a counsellor, in order to clarify thoughts and feelings. They may decide to return for counselling at a later stage, or may opt not to at all. With a counsellors supportive help, a client may also identify and understand that the form of counselling they are seeking may not be the most suitable or appropriate counselling option for them. If this is the case the counsellor may suggest another type of therapeutic counselling and also provide further information resources. What the Counsellor Does Effective counselling requires careful review and planning. Because of the personal nature of the counselling relationship between a counsellor and client, each one-to-one session is an opportunity to explore free-thinking, and therefore each of the counselling sessions cannot be too structured. It is also the counsellors job to provide effective non-verbal communication and to translate the client's body language. They must also encourage and empower the client to make steady progress. This must be done in a caring, supportive and safe environment, at all times.

1.4.5: Summary
Counselling is a process that psychologically empowers individuals to seize back control of their lives, whilst working through issues and problems that have caused them to lose self-esteem, as well as confidence in their own abilities. Counselling increases self-awareness and a sense of well-being, and is often the first step individuals take on their path to discovering a more positive life. Counselors work with different approaches using a theoretical approach or by putting a stronger emphasis on 30ehavior all counselling professionals has the same end goal in mind. Their aim is to help a client make continual progress through the therapeutic treatment, and to ensure their sense of well-being is restored.

1.4.5: Glossary
Psychoanalysis attempts to have people recall, interpret, and work through childhood experiences.

Non-directive Counseling emphasizes the importance of getting the individual to share his problems Existential Counseling attempts to relate the unfulfilled needs and potential to issues and to aid the individual to redirect their energy to best fulfill their needs and reach their potential. Transactional Analysis emphasizes the proper playing of roles (child, parent, adult). This is a favored approach in communications in the business world Behavioral Counseling says that we are simply a product of our environment; therefore, we need to be reconditioned through the proper training Reality Therapy approaches counseling from a confrontational perspective. Biblical Counseling aspires to the truth that God has an answer for every issue and actively intervenes in the lives of individuals

1.4.6: Check Your Progress

1. How to arrange your office for counseling, And How to planning for the interview for the interview & how to conduct the interview? 2. What are the basic approaches for counseling?

1.4.7: Reference
Counseling Methods By Steven Reiss. Ph D. Beginning a counseling session By Anna Martin.

1.4.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 1.4.1 2. Read 1.4.2


Counseling Theories & Techniques Through counseling, individuals can work through their issues and improve their overall quality of life. While the general goal of counseling rarely changes, not all counselors use the same techniques or buy into the same counseling theories. By considering the different types of counseling available, potential patients can select providers most appropriate to their needs. Psychoanalysis Psychoanalysts listen to their patients' concerns and help them develop an understanding of the previous life events that have lead to these difficulties. These individuals work in a diagnostic fashion to help the patient understand the reasons she feels the way she feels. This allows her to see there is nothing wrong with the emotions she is experiencing but that they are, instead, a response to life experiences outside of her control. Unlike some less formal forms of counseling, psychoanalysis should always be performed by a clinically trained professional, as the misuse of this technique could result in serious difficulty for patients.

Communication Facilitation Some counselors work less as advisers and more as facilitators, meeting with two or more members of a family or with spouses who are experiencing marital discord. Individuals working in this fashion simply allow for organized communication between these often-warring factions, allowing them to more effectively work out their issues and overcome their relationship problems. To be effective, individuals working in this capacity must avoid taking sides, as doing so can lead to distrust and breakdown of the relationship as a whole. Cognitive-Behavioral Counseling Cognitive-behavioral counselors use a three-tiered approach to dealing with patient problems. They first work with the patient in a problem-solving capacity, assisting him in identifying the way negative thoughts lead to negative emotional responses, which in turn can lead to difficulties in his daily life. Counselors then move to a change-focused approach, discussing changes the patient could make to improve his overall quality of life. Finally, the counselor works with the patient to ensure that he carries out these planned changes. Individuals working in this capacity act almost as trainers, assisting their clients in dealing with problematic life issues more independently in the future. Humanistic Approach When adopting a humanistic counseling approach, counselors focus their attention upon how effectively patients are fulfilling their creative needs and meeting their human potential. These counselors believe individuals will only be truly happy when they reach their potential and that the most effective way to facilitate this is through self-improvement efforts. Commonly, counselors using this technique will urge patients to continue working toward an ultimate goal as a way of attaining happiness and, ultimately, success and fulfillment. In this Block we are going to study the below topics Unit 1: Psychoanalytic Theory Unit 2: Behavioral Theory Unit 3: Cognitive Theory Unit 4: Person centered Theory

Unit 1: Psychoanalytic Theory

Psychoanalytic therapy is one of the most well-known treatment modalities, but it is also one of the most misunderstood by mental health consumers. This type of therapy is based upon the theories and work of Sigmund Freud, who founded the school of psychology known as psychoanalysis. Content 2.1.1: Introduction 2.1.2: Psychoanalytic Therapy? 2.1.3: The History of Psychoanalytic Therapy

2.1.4: How does Psychoanalytic Therapy works 2.1.5: Benefits of Psychoanalytic Therapy 2.1.6: Downsides to Psychoanalytic Therapy 2.1.7. Summary 2.1.8: Glossary 2.1.9: Check Your Progress 2.1.10: Reference 2.1.11: Answer to check your Progress.

2.1.1: Introduction
"Psychoanalysis is a body of ideas developed by Austrian physician Sigmund Freud and his followers, which is devoted to the study of human psychological functioning and behavior. It has three applications: 1. A method of investigation of the mind; 2. A systematized set of theories about human behavior; and 3. A method of treatment of psychological or emotional illness Psychoanalytic: The original so called "talking therapy" involves analyzing the root causes of behavior and feelings by exploring the unconscious mind and the conscious mind's relation to it. Many theories and therapies have evolved from the original Freudian psychoanalysis which utilizes free-association, dreams, and transference, as well other strategies to help the client know the function of their own minds. Traditional analysts have their clients lie on a couch as the therapist takes notes and interprets the client's thoughts, etc. Many theories and therapies have evolved from the original psychoanalysis, including Hypnotherapy, object-relations, Progoff's Intensive Journal Therapy, Jungian, and many others. One thing they all have in common is that they deal with unconscious motivation. Usually the duration of therapy is lengthy; however, many modern therapists use psychoanalytic techniques for short term therapies. The healing and change process envisioned in long-term psychodynamic therapy typically requires at least 2 years of sessions. This is because the goal of therapy is often to change an aspect of ones identity or personality or to integrate key developmental learning missed while the client was stuck at an earlier stage of emotional development. Practitioners of brief psychodynamic therapy believe that some changes can happen through a more rapid process or that an initial short intervention will start an ongoing process of change that does not need the constant involvement of the therapist. A central concept in brief therapy is that there should be one major focus for the therapy rather than the more traditional psychoanalytic practice of allowing the client to associate freely and discuss unconnected issues. In brief therapy, the central focus is developed during the initial evaluation process, occurring during the first session or two. This focus must be agreed on by the client and therapist. The central focus singles out the most important issues and thus creates a structure and identifies a

goal for the treatment. In brief therapy, the therapist is expected to be fairly active in keeping the session focused on the main issue. Having a clear focus makes it possible to do interpretive work in a relatively short time because the therapist only addresses the circumscribed problem area.

2.1.2: Psychoanalytic Therapy?

Psychoanalytic therapy looks at how the unconscious influences thoughts and behaviors. Psychoanalysis frequently involves looking at early childhood experiences in order to discover how these events might have shaped the individual and how they contribute to current actions. People undergoing psychoanalytic therapy often meet with their therapist at least once a week and may remain in therapy for a number of weeks, months or years.

2.1.3: The History of Psychoanalytic Therapy

Psychoanalytic theory grew out of the work of the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who began developing his therapeutic techniques in the late 1800s. In 1885, Freud began to study and work with Jean-Martin Charcot at the Salptrire in Paris. Charcot used hypnosis to treat women suffering from what was then known as hysteria. Symptoms of the illness included partial paralysis, hallucinations and nervousness. Freud continued to research hypnotism in treatment, but his work and friendship with colleague Josef Breuer led to the development of his most famous therapeutic technique. Breuer described his treatment of a young woman, known in the case history as Anna O., whose symptoms of hysteria were relieved by talking about her traumatic experiences. Freud and Breuer collaborated on a book called Studies on Hysteria and Freud continued to develop his use of this "talk therapy."

2.1.4: How Does Psychoanalytic Therapy Work?

Psychoanalytic therapists generally spend time listening to patients talk about their lives, which is why this method is often referred to as "talk therapy." The therapy provider will look for patterns or significant events that may play a role in the clients current difficulties. Psychoanalysts believe that childhood events and unconscious feelings, thoughts and motivations play a role in mental illness and maladaptive behaviors. Psychoanalytic therapy also makes use of other techniques including free association, role play and dream interpretation.

2.1.5: Benefits of Psychoanalytic Therapy?

While this type of therapy has many critics who claim that psychoanalytic therapy is too timeconsuming, expensive and generally ineffective, this treatment has several benefits as well. The therapist offers an empathetic and nonjudgmental environment where the client can feel safe in revealing feelings or actions that have led to stress or tension in his or her life. Oftentimes, simply sharing these burdens with another person can have a beneficial influence.

2.1.6: Downsides to Psychoanalytic Therapy?

Costs are often cited as the biggest downside of psychoanalytic therapy. Many clients are in therapy for years, so the financial and time costs associated with this treatment modality can be very high. Critics also point out that the effectiveness of psychoanalytic therapy can also be questioned. One study found that there was no difference in therapy outcomes between psychoanalytic therapy clients and a placebo group. Other critics including Noam Chomsky and Karl Popper suggest that psychoanalysis lacks scientific basis.

2.1.7. Summary
In psychology, a psychodynamic theory is a view that explains personality in terms of conscious and unconscious forces, such as unconscious desires and beliefs. In the early 20th century, Sigmund Freud proposed a psychodynamic theory according to which personality consists of the id (responsible for instincts and pleasure-seeking), the superego (which attempts to obey the rules of parents and society), and the ego (which mediates between them according to the demands of reality). Psychodynamic theories commonly hold that childhood experiences shape personality. Such theories are associated with psychoanalysis, a type of therapy that attempts to reveal unconscious thoughts and desires. Not all psychologists accept psychodynamic theories, and critics claim the theories lack supporting scientific data. Other theories of personality include behavioral and humanist theories.

2.1.8: Glossary
Abreaction An emotional release or discharge after recalling a painful experience that has been repressed because it was not consciously tolerable. Often the release is surprising to the individual experiencing it because of it's intensity and the circumstances surrounding its onset. A therapeutic effect sometimes occurs through partial or repeated discharge of the painful affect. Abstract attitude (categorical attitude) This is a type of thinking that includes voluntarily shifting one's mind set from a specific aspect of a situation to the general aspect; It involves keeping in mind different simultaneous aspects of a situation while grasping the essentials of the situation. It can involve breaking a situation down into its parts and isolating them voluntarily; planning ahead ideationally; and/or thinking or performing symbolically. A characteristic of many psychiatric disorders is the person's inability to

assume the abstract attitude or to shift readily from the concrete to the abstract and back again as demanded by circumstances. abulia A lack of will or motivation which is often expressed as inability to make decisions or set goals. Often, the reduction in impulse to action and thought is coupled with an indifference or lack of concern about the consequences of action. acalculia The loss of a previously possessed ability to engage in arithmetic calculation. acculturation difficulty A problem stemming from an inability to appropriately adapt to a different culture or environment. The problem is not based on any coexisting mental disorder. Phobia A persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation (the phobic stimulus) that results in a compelling desire to avoid it. This often leads either to avoidance of the phobic stimulus or to enduring it with dread.

2.1.9: Check Your Progress

1. What is Psychoanalytic Therapy? 2. How does Psychoanalytic Therapy works?

2.1.10: Reference
About Psychotherapy By Jim Haggerty MD. Counseling and self awareness By Anna Martin Psychoanalytic Therapy By Kendra Cherry.

2.1.11: Answer to check your Progress.

1. Read 2.1.2 2. Read 2.1.4

Block 2 Unit 2: Behavioral Theory

Behaviorism, along with several newer variations that have names like information processing theory, emphasize the learning of facts and skills that authorities, such as teachers or school boards, have decided are important. While these theories have many different names we will use the term behaviorism here. Content 2.2.1: Introduction 2.2.2: General Implications of Behavioral Theories 2.2.3: Central Tenets of Behavioral Theories 2.2.4: Benefits of Behavioral Theories 2.2.5: Main Limitation of Behavioral Theories 2.2.6: Summary 2.2.7: Glossary 2.2.8: Check Your Progress 2.2.9: Reference 2.2.10: Answer to check your progress

2.2.1: Introduction
Behavioral theories of leadership do not seek inborn traits or capabilities. Rather, they look at what leaders actually do. If success can be defined in terms of describable actions, then it should be relatively easy for other people to act in the same way. This is easier to teach and learn then to adopt the more ephemeral 'traits' or 'capabilities'. Behavioral is a big leap from Trait Theory, in that it assumes that leadership capability can be learned, rather than being inherent. This opens the floodgates to leadership development, as opposed to simple psychometric assessment that sorts those with leadership potential from those who will never have the chance. A behavioral theory is relatively easy to develop, as you simply assess both leadership success and the actions of leaders. With a large enough study, you can then correlate statistically significant behaviors with success. You can also identify behaviors which contribute to failure, thus adding a second layer of understanding. Behavioral approaches to teaching generally involve the following: 1. Breaking down the skills and information to be learned into small units. 2. Checking student's work regularly and providing feedback as well as encouragement (reinforcement).

3. Teaching "out of context." Behaviorists generally believe that students can be taught best when the focus is directly on the content to be taught. Behavioral instruction often takes the material out of the context in which it will be used. 4. Direct or "teacher centered" instruction. Lectures, tutorials, drills, demonstrations, and other forms of teacher controlled teaching tend to dominate behavioral classrooms.

2.2.2: General Implications of Behavioral Theories

Behavioral teaching and learning tends to focus on skills that will be used later. You learn facts about American history, for example, because it is assumed that knowing those facts will make you a better citizen when you are an adult. You learn basic mathematics computational skills because you may need them when you get a job. Behavioral learning does not, however, generally ask you to actually put the skills or knowledge you learn into use in a "real" or "authentic" situation. That will come later when you graduate and get a job. The behavioral emphasis on breaking down complex tasks, such as learning to read, into sub skills that are taught separately is very common in American schools today. In the elementary school classroom, for example, students may spend many lessons on phonics skills such as consonant clusters, vowel digraphs, and diphthongs. Other literacy skills such as appropriate uses of the comma may also be taught in separate lessons, often by whole class lectures followed by individual drill activities. Behavioral Management Theories As management research continued in the 20th century, questions began to come up regarding the interactions and motivations of the individual within organizations. Management principles developed during the classical period were simply not useful in dealing with many management situations and could not explain the behavior of individual employees. In short, classical theory ignored employee motivation and behavior. As a result, the behavioral school was a natural outgrowth of this revolutionary management experiment. The behavioral management theory is often called the human relations movement because it addresses the human dimension of work. Behavioral theorists believed that a better understanding of human behavior at work, such as motivation, conflict, expectations, and group dynamics, improved productivity.

Types of Behavioral Theories

Psychological behaviorism developed during the mid 19th and early 20th centuries. According to Robert H. Wozniak from Bryn Mawr College, behaviorist researchers saw psychology as a natural science that could be broken down into physical processes. They focused on the physical relationships between environment and behavior. Behaviorist philosophy dominated psychology from the 1920s through the 1960s.

Pavlov's Dogs Ivan Pavlov, a Russian researcher who lived between 1849 and 1936, became famous for his relationship studies between external stimuli and salivation in dogs. Pavlov rang a bell each time he fed his laboratory dogs. The dogs soon began to salivate when the bell was sounded even if there was no food present. He called this response a conditioned reflex. His research was influential in the Behaviorist school of thought. Behaviorism John Watson published the Behaviorism theory in 1913. His theory indicated that introspection and consciousness were not an important part of psychology; rather, the implicit goal was to control behavior. In his mind there was no difference between human and animal behavior. All behaviors were based on nerve pathways that were conditioned by stimuli and responses. Connectionism Edward Thorndike developed the Connectionism theory during the 1920s. Thorndike believed that learning was a result of associations that were formed between a stimulus and response. His Law of Effect stated that if a response to a situation was followed by a positive outcome, the response would become habitual. The Law of Readiness suggested that a person or animal could develop a series of responses to reach a particular goal. He also believed that connections were strengthened if used regularly and weakened if discontinued. He termed this theory the Law of Exercise, according to the Theory into Practice database. Drive Reduction Theory Clark Hull's Drive Reduction Theory of the 1940s proposed that humans and animals have a hierarchy of needs that are activated based on drive and stimulation. He suggested that an organism could respond in a number of different ways to a stimulus depending internal conditions such as inhibitions or external factors such as the reward. He believed that the person's or animal's drive or motivation was a key factor in behavior. Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning methods are based on Watson's behaviorist theories. They are still widely used in classroom-management techniques and clinical settings as a method of controlling behavior. During the 1950s, B.F. Skinner theorized that learning was the result of a change of behavior that occurred as a response to stimuli in the environment. He believed that reinforcement, which is any motivator that elicits the desired response, was a key element in operant conditioning. He felt that behaviors that were positively reinforced through praise, treats or good grades would continue, while negative behaviors that were unrewarded would diminish.

2.2.3: Central Tenets of Behavioral Theories

The central tenets of theory behaviorism are that it is possible to study behavior scientifically. Behaviorism deals with what psychologists and philosophers can actually observe in human and animal behavior. Psychological behaviorism focuses on actions and the consequences of those actions; rather than studying internal thought processes, behaviorists look at behavior as the result of a complex system of causes and effects.

What can be observed The primary focus of behaviorism and behavioral theory in philosophy is to deal with what can be observed. The founder of psychological behaviorism, John B. Watson, believed that psychologists should not study internal thinking processes because those can't be observed, and he criticized other psychological theories that focused on the unobservable, because he considered them less scientific. Explaining Behavior A core belief in behaviorism is that behavior can be described and explained without using references to internal or mental processes. Behaviorists believe that people behave the way they do because of a complex set of external stimuli, which can be studied and observed. For example, a behaviorist studying a misbehaving child would look at how the parents treat him, how the parents reward him to encourage good behavior, and how they punish him to discourage bad behavior. Reinforcement and Punishment Because behavior is the result of external stimuli, behaviorists believe that behavior can be modified through the use of reinforcements and punishments. Reinforcements are stimuli that encourage a person to do the behavior again, while punishments discourage the behavior. For example, preventing your child from using the computer when he breaks curfew would be considered a punishment because you want the behavior of breaking curfew to stop. Behavior modification through reinforcement and punishment is called operant conditioning. Different Types of Behaviorism There are three major branches of behaviorism, and each takes a somewhat different angle on the central ideas in behaviorism. Methodological behaviorism holds that only a person's actions should be studied. Psychological behaviorism says that a person's observable behaviors, and the way those behaviors are linked to previous exposure to stimuli should be studied. Analytical behaviorists believe that a person's internal thoughts are directly linked to his behavior, and that his behavior will help predict his thoughts.

2.2.4: Benefits of Behavioral Theories

Behavioral theories derive from behaviorism, a broad philosophical and psychological theory that explains psychological states with behavioral information. The benefits of behavioral theories help us understand why we behave in certain ways, and how we learn. The benefit of behavioral theories includes applications of abstract concepts of conditioning behavior, persuasion and learning. Behavioral theories can explain ways to deal with things like bad habits, gambling, employees and convincing others to do things. Classical Conditioning

Behavioral theories help us understand classical conditioning. Classical conditioning occurs when a person changes his behavior after experiencing a new stimulus. It affects our motivational and emotional reactions to events. Classical conditioning models describe one way that people respond to relationships among events and how people prepare for likely events in the future. Casinos make money by applying principles of classical conditioning. A person who wins a prize while playing a slot machine usually puts money back in the machine; a person who loses money while playing a slot machine usually stops playing, and the casino generates a profit from the player's loss. Persuasion Behavioral theories explain some kinds of persuasion, which involves changing another person's behavior from the way that he wants to behave to the way that you want him to behave. Behavioral theories support positive gradual persuasion by only reinforcing actions that are desired with positive responses. For example, a teacher may persuade students to raise their hands to ask a question by only acknowledging a student who raises his hand and completely ignoring students who talk out of turn. Observational Learning Behavioral theories explain how people learn some things with a theory of social learning, based on behavior. The behavioral social learning model involves observation, imitation and goal setting. People observe how the behavior of others and the result of that behavior. Individuals set personal goals that are another person's positive results, and imitate the behavior that brought those results. For example, a woman who wants to lose weight may see her husband practice a nutritional diet and lose twenty pounds. Behavioral observational learning theory explains why the woman decides that she wants to lose twenty pounds and adopt the same diet regimen as her husband. Employee Benefits Behavioral theories are the foundation for many employee benefits or reward programs. Companies give benefits and rewards that encourage employee behavior that benefits the company. For example, some companies supply a free gym membership or build in-house exercise facilities, because employees that are healthy and active are generally happier and more focused at work. Employers grant stock options to employees, because an employee that perceives personal some ownership of the company's will likely exhibit behavior that supports company growth.

2.2.5: Main Limitation of Behavioral Theories

Behavioral theories were the main tool of psychologists from the 1960s to the 1980s. These theories attempt to use a person's past and the environment she grew up in as the factors to describe and predict behavior. The basic premise of behavioral theories is that human nature is completely reliant on the environment. Modern psychologies have since

abandoned behavioral theories for the most part, because these theories are severely limited Ignorance of Genetics Behavioral theories completely reject the idea of genetics having an influence on human behavior. Psychology in its modern form, on the other hand, accepts genetic influence on human behavior as a fact. One of the most prominent social psychologists, Kurt Lewin, tried to resolve the limitation of behavioral theories by giving his famous equation: behavior is a function of the person (genetic nature) and the environment. Behavioral theories lack one of the vital factors in Lewin's equation, and cannot completely describe human behavior. Generalization Psychologists that developed behavioral theories backed these theories on experiments containing stimuli that are not easily relatable. In these experiments artificial environments are constructed to condition subjects to associating these normally unrelatable stimuli, such as food and electric shock. The psychologists then generalized their results to all sets of stimuli, no matter how easily the relationships between these stimuli are made. The limitation in this case is that such a generalization cannot scientifically follow such experiments. In short, this generalization by behavioral theories is flawed. Cognitive Issues Behavioral theories also ignore the cognitive aspects of human psychology. Because behavioral theories explain everything in terms of the "outside" (behavior) and discard the "inside" (mental processes, genetic influences, emotions and so on), ideas like memory and though processes cannot enter the behavioral explanations of human actions. However, much research in psychometrics, the field of psychological measurement, has shown that these mental aspects predict much of human behavior. One example is how personality tests correlate to human decisions such as job and mate selection. In this respect, behavioral theories see humans as no different creatures than animals: mental processes are not important. Psychopathology Behavioral theories are useless in explaining mental problems. Because behavioral theories treat the human mind as a "black box," they have no place in explaining diseases that are associated with abnormal thought processes such as schizophrenia and pedophilia. It then follows that behavioral theories cannot assist those with mental diseases in their treatment processes.

2.2.5: Summary
Behaviorist theory states that all human behavior is learned. The theory also states that people can unlearn behaviors that are less desirable and replace them with desirable behaviors. The method of achieving this change is through the "rewarded response." When a student does what the teacher wants, he is rewarded and this reinforces the desired behavior so that it is repeated. The type of reward must be important to the individual student otherwise the method does not work. Business' employees ultimately dictate a company's success or failure. Human resources, or HR, professionals hire, train, reward, discipline, motivate and lead the company's valuable "human

capital." Leading people takes an understating of human behavior and respect for people's needs, skills, personalities and goals. HR managers and representatives use behavioral theory to delicately balance the vast differences between employees, which facilitates an efficient and productive workplace.

2.2.6: Glossary
Backward blocking: The finding (primarily in humans) that little or no conditioning occurs to a conditional stimulus if it is combined, during conditioning trials, with another conditional stimulus that is later paired with the unconditional stimulus. Backward blocking differs from ordinary blocking (i.e., forward blocking) in that conditioning with the other stimulus occurs after (rather than before) the compound conditioning. Backward conditioning: A classical conditioning procedure in which the conditioned stimulus is presented after the unconditioned stimulus has occurred. Can lead to either no conditioning, conditioned excitation, or conditioned inhibition depending on the timing of the two stimuli. Category learning: Learning to identify specific items as members, or not, of a larger group or set of items. Categorization: Arranging items into classes or categories Complements: Two or more commodities or reinforces that go together in the sense that increasing the price of one will decrease the demand for both of them.

2.2.7: Check Your Progress

1. Discuss about the General Implications of Behavioral Theories 2. What are the Benefits of Behavioral Theories 3. Write a short note about the central tenets of theory behaviorism

2.2.8: Reference
Behavioral Theories By B. F. Skinner. Behavioral Theory- Amy Cocke Benefits of Behavioral Theories By Miguel Cavazos Limitation of Behavioral Theories By Damon Verial

2.2.9: Answer to check your progress

1. Read 2.2.2 2. Read 2.2.4 3. Read 2.2.3

Block 2 Unit 3: Cognitive Theory

Cognitive theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes.

Content: 2.3.1: Introduction 2.3.2: Cognitive Theory 2.3.3: Social Cognitive Theory 2.3.4: Summary 2.3.5: Glossary 2.3.6: Check Your Progress 2.3.7: Reference 2.3.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

2.3.1: Introduction
Cognitive theories occupy an important role in the field of psychology, first entering the field in the early-to-mid 1900s and continuing to influence researchers, scientists and psychologists in the 21st Century. Perhaps the greatest influence cognitive theories had on the field was that they shifted the paradigm from the popularized Freudian psychoanalytic theories and those of early behaviorists like Skinner and Watson. This shift resulted in a greater emphasis on how humans think and perceive ourselves, others and the world around us.

2.3.2: Cognitive Theory

The Cognitive Learning Theory explains why the brain is the most incredible network of information processing and interpretation in the body as we learn things. This theory can be divided into two specific theories: the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), and the Cognitive Behavioral Theory (CBT). Cognitive theory focuses on an individual's thoughts as a crucial determinate of his or her emotions and behaviors. Our responses make sense within our own view of the world. Therefore,

according to cognitive theory, it is important to change a persons thoughts and beliefs in order to change his or her behaviors. According to cognitive theory, irrational responses are the result of automatic thoughts and erroneous beliefs. Cognitive reframing is a technique that is used to help the client examine his or beliefs and develop healthier ways of viewing the situation. Techniques such as the STOP method are used to help the individual stop automatic thoughts and replace them with new thoughts. Cognitive theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them. Information processing is a commonly used description of the mental process, comparing the human mind to a computer. Pure cognitive theory largely rejects behaviorism on the basis that behaviorism reduces complex human behavior to simple cause and effect. However, the trend in past decades has been towards merging the two into a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral theory. This allows therapists to use techniques from both schools of thought to help clients achieve their goals. Social cognitive theory is a subset of cognitive theory. Primarily focused on the ways in which we learn to model the behavior of others, social cognitive theory can be seen in advertising campaigns and peer pressure situations. It is also useful in the treatment of psychological disorders including phobias. Cognitive- Behaviorism Cognitive-behaviorism is a blended theory that incorporates both cognitive theory and behaviorism. According to cognitive-behaviorism, our responses are based on a complex interaction between thoughts and behaviors. Modern cognitive-behaviorism also incorporates elements of feeling-based learning theories, such as rational-emotive theory. According to these principles, we are complex human beings whose responses are based on ongoing interactions between our thoughts, feelings and behaviors. It is necessary to address all of these components in order to successfully change our reactions. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is currently the most popular method of therapy for treating phobias in the United States. This is a type of brief therapy in which successful results may sometimes be achieved in only a few sessions. This is important to many people whose health insurance plans may limit the number of visits they can make to a therapist per year.

2.3.3: Social Cognitive Theory

Social cognitive theory is a subcategory of cognitive theory that focuses on the effects that others have on our behavior. It is a form of learning theory, but differs from other learning theories such as behaviorism in several important ways.

Formally introduced by Albert Bandura in 1977, social cognitive theory (SCT) greatly affected many different disciplines. SCT was considered to be a revolution in the field of psychology, and Bandura is considered by many to be one of the greatest psychological minds of our time. This theory, which has been applied across many different disciplines, has been tremendously influential. Expert opinions differ on exactly what separates social cognitive theory from the more general social learning theory. In general, however, these principles can be used to define social cognitive theory. 1. People learn by observing others, a process known as vicarious learning, not only through their own direct experiences. 2. Although learning can modify behavior, people do not always apply what they have learned. Individual choice is based on perceived or actual consequences of behavior. 3. People are more likely to follow the behaviors modeled by someone with whom they can identify. The more perceived commonalities and/or emotional attachments between the observer and the model, the more likely the observer will learn from the model. 4. The degree of self-efficacy that a learner possesses directly affects his or her ability to learn. Self-efficacy is a fundamental belief in ones ability to achieve a goal. If you believe that you can learn new behaviors, you will be much more successful in doing so. About Social Cognitive Theory At the core are four principles, which are shared with social learning theory: 1. People learn by watching others. 2. Learned behavior occurs if a person anticipates rewards. 3. Rewarded behaviors are likely to be repeated. 4. People learn about these rewards by watching others get rewarded or punished. SCT further states that: 5. To learn, a person must pay attention to the behavior that another person is modeling. 6. The model must be someone who the learner values and identifies with. 7. The learner must be able to encode and recall what he has learned. 8. The learner must be able to understand the sequence of steps used to reproduce the behavior. 9. The learner must be motivated to repeat the behavior and feel confidently that he can do so successfully. 10. The learner must be able to eventually perform the behavior without external prodding-without the model--but because he is self-motivated to perform it. Social Cognitive Theory in Action Consider this example of SCT. Traci is new to Roosevelt High School. When she arrives, she notices that the "cool artistic" kids are actively using the latest smart phone. Prior to this, Traci saw herself as an artist with no real interest or aptitude for technology, but she knows that if she

gets the smart phone, her reward will be that it will help her fit in with that clique. She begs her parents for money and purchases it over the weekend. When she brings it to school, James notices and initiates a conversation with her. During the week, he shows her how to download software and invites her to interact with his friends, some of whom are participating in a digital art show on a popular social networking site. Since Traci admires and identifies with this group, she starts using the smart phone and other technological applications more extensively. Soon, Traci starts to see herself as being a technically competent artist. Ten years later, Traci is a young, rising artist who has the reputation of using cutting-edge technology in her work. She is self-motivated in her quest to marry technology with art, even though she no longer communicates with any member of her high school clique.

2.3.4: Summary
Cognitive theory provides an array of composition options that ranges from childhood development to social influences Cognitive theories occupy an important role in the field of psychology, first entering the field in the early-to-mid 1900s and continuing to influence researchers, scientists and psychologists in the 21st Century. Perhaps the greatest influence cognitive theories had on the field was that they shifted the paradigm from the popularized Freudian psychoanalytic theories and those of early behaviorists like Skinner and Watson. This shift resulted in a greater emphasis on how humans think and perceive ourselves, others and the world around us. Cognitive theory is concerned with the development of a person's thought processes. It also looks at how these thought processes influence how we understand and interact with the world. The foremost cognitive thinker was Jean Piaget, who proposed an idea that seems obvious now, but helped revolutionize how we think about child development: Children think differently than adults. Piaget then proposed a theory of cognitive development to account for the steps and sequence of children's intellectual development. Social cognitive theory is frequently used in advertising. Commercials are carefully targeted toward particular demographic groups. Each element of the commercial, from the actors to the background music, is chosen to help that demographic identify with the product. Notice how different the commercials shown during Saturday morning cartoons are from those shown during the evening news or a late-night movie. And who hasn't at one time or another realized the power of peer pressure? We all want to belong, and so we tend to change our behaviors to fit in with whatever group we most strongly identify with. Although we often think of peer pressure as solely a teen phenomenon, how many of us drive a particular car, live in a specific neighborhood, or have our hair done at a certain salon simply because it is expected of someone in our social class or peer group

2.3.5: Glossary
Cognitive - mental processes including thinking, memory, planning, decision making, computing,

Cognitive-behaviorism is a blended theory that incorporates both cognitive theory and behaviorism. Social cognitive theory is one that an individual has adopted based on his experience, environment and interactions with others. Determinism The doctrine that all events-physical, behavioral, and mental-are determined by specific causal factors that is potentially knowable. Developmental age The chronological age at which most children show a particular level of physical or mental development. Developmental psychology -The branch of psychology concerned with interaction between physical and psychological processes and with stages of growth from conception throughout the entire life span. Group dynamics The study of how group processes change individual functioning. Group polarization -The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the decisions that would be made by the members acting alone. Groupthink -The tendency of a decision-making group to filter out undesirable input so that a consensus may be reached, especially if it is in line with the leader's viewpoint. Heuristics Cognitive strategies, or "rules of thumb," often used as shortcuts in solving a complex inferential task Human behavior genetics The area of study that evaluates the genetic component of individual differences in behaviors and traits. Human-potential movement The therapy movement that encompasses all those practices and methods that release the potential of the average human being for greater levels of performance and greater richness of experience. Humanistic perspective A psychological model that emphasizes an individual's phenomenal world and inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to maximum potential. Hypnosis An altered state of awareness characterized by deep relaxation, susceptibility to suggestions, and changes in perception, memory, motivation, and self-control. Hypnotizability The degree to which an individual is responsive to standardized hypnotic suggestion. Hypothalamus The brain structure that regulates motivated behavior (such as eating and drinking) and homeostasis.

Hypothesis A tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two (or more) events or variables; often stated as a prediction that a certain outcome will result from specific conditions.

2.3.6: Check Your Progress

1. What are the four principles, which are shared with social learning theory? 2. What is the Cognitive-behaviorism?

2.3.7: Reference
1. Social Cognitive Theory By Nicole Chantal 2. Cognitive Theory By Lisa Fritscher 3. Introduction of Cognitive Theory By Matthew Schieltz

2.3.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 2.3.3 2. Read 2.3.2

Block 2 Unit 4: Person centered Theory

Person-centered counseling aims to provide three core conditions (unconditional positive regard, empathy and congruence) which help that growth to occur. Content 2.4.1. 2.4.2. 2.4.3. 2.4.4. 2.4.5. 2.4.6. 2.4.7. 2.4.8. 2.4.9.

Introduction Theory of Person Centered Counseling. Therapeutic Approach of Person-Centered Counseling. Criticisms of Person-Centred Counseling Summary Glossary Check Your Progress Reference Answer to Check Your Progress

2.4.1: Introduction
Person Centered Theory is a concept that has been known to help people who are enduring some psychologically or emotionally depressing situation. Through the person centered theory sprouted the idea of therapy on a person to person basis. This gives a counselor or a professional ample time and space to focus on the person rather than on his behavior or any other context clues. Therapy is an effective way to remedy these depressing situations, especially when what they need is attention rather than medicines or any other drastic treatment. To get a better grasp of the person centered theory and the therapy process of the person centered theory, here are a couple of key information about the theory and the therapy process that goes along with it. In this theory, individuals are considered based on their surface personalities and actions. Unlike other psychological sciences such as psychoanalysis, the idea behind the person centered theory is based on what is seen and not on what can be deciphered or analyzed. From this point of view, therapists and counselors provide constructive advice, consolation and counseling to their clients based on what they see, and the client is expected to do this as a way to change their lives. There are a lot of techniques based on the person centered theory. But nonetheless, they all have a basic rule to follow. Providing support and counseling to clients are expected, but therapists have to set their boundaries based on what the client is feeling. There are a lot of things that one must know about the techniques associated with this theory, and it is expected that therapists provide therapy in a professional manner.

2.4.2: Theory of Person Centered Counseling

For many years, psychologists have been devising and testing theories related to human personality. While many of these theories have not found much of a place in contemporary psychological testing, they nonetheless have proven to be stepping stones to more accepted theories. These theories have been some of the most influential in psychology and continue to be studied today. Trait Theories Trait personality theories involve the study of supposed physical and personality traits that affect individual behavior. William Sheldon composed a theory based on body shapes. There are three of them--endomorphic (large and round), mesomorphic (bulky and muscular) and ectomorphic (thin). Each body shape was an indicator of certain behavioral patterns, according to Sheldon's theory. Raymond Cattle composed a trait theory that focused on underlying personality traits, such as outgoing, stable, placid, forthright and shy. These personality traits, rather than physical traits, were supposedly indicators of behavior patterns. Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud created one of the most influential personality theories ever devised and called it the psychoanalytic theory. It states first that there are three levels of consciousness. The conscious makes up the thoughts we are aware of, the preconscious makes up those we are not aware of, but can easily recall, and the unconscious are those thoughts and feelings we are completely unaware of, but that have the most influence on our personality and behavior. The theory also details the id, ego and superego, dividing personality into what we can and can't control. Learning Theories Learning theories were developed as attempts to apply clinical tests and observations to the field of psychoanalysis. The stimulus-response theory posits that personality is composed of behavioral response to needs and desires, such as food, water and warmth. Actions are based on meeting inner needs, and these actions are learned over time. B.F. Skinner theorized that personality is linked with behavior and that the link that bonds them must be learned. Responses that are not appropriate for certain situations can reveal a neurotic personality, for instance, but learning to control behavior and, thus, personality is possible. Person-Centered Theory Carl Rogers created a person-centered theory of personality that emerged from previous selfgrowth theories, which focused on the inherent ability for people to do good. Rogers stated that all people have a shared desire for self-actualization and that personality emerges from the choices they believe will best get them to that point, based on the environment and the people in it. As the environment changes, so do people's actions, which can lead to shifts in dominant personality traits. The person-centered approach views the client as their own best authority on their own experience, and it views the client as being fully capable of fulfilling their own potential for growth. It recognizes, however, that achieving potential requires favorable conditions and that

under adverse conditions, individuals may well not grow and develop in the ways that they otherwise could. In particular, when individuals are denied acceptance and positive regard from others or when that positive regard is made conditional upon the individual behaving in particular ways they may begin to lose touch with what their own experience means for them, and their innate tendency to grow in a direction consistent with that meaning may be stifled. One reason this may occur is that individuals often cope with the conditional acceptance offered to them by others by gradually coming to incorporate these conditions into their own views about themselves. They may form a self-concept which includes views of them like, I am the sort of person who must never be late, or I am the sort of person who always respects others, or I am the sort of person who always keeps the house clean. Because of a fundamental need for positive regard from others, it is easier to be this sort of person and to receive positive regard from others as a result than it is to be anything else and risk losing that positive regard. Over time, their intrinsic sense of their own identity and their own evaluations of experience and attributions of value may be replaced by creations partly or even entirely due to the pressures felt from other people. That is, the individual displaces personal judgments and meanings with those of others. Psychological disturbance occurs when the individuals self-concept begins to clash with immediate personal experience i.e., when the evidence of the individuals own senses or the individuals own judgment clashes with what the self-concept says ought to be the case. Unfortunately, disturbance is apt to continue as long as the individual depends on the conditionally positive judgments of others for their sense of self-worth and as long as the individual relies on a self-concept designed in part to earn those positive judgments. Experiences which challenge the self-concept are apt to be distorted or even denied altogether in order to preserve it.

2.4.3: Therapeutic Approach of Person-Centered Counseling

The person-centered approach maintains that three core conditions provide a climate conducive to growth and therapeutic change. They contrast starkly with those conditions believed to be responsible for psychological disturbance. The core conditions are: 1. Unconditional positive regard 2. Empathic understanding 3. Congruence The first unconditional positive regard means that the counsellor accepts the client unconditionally and non-judgmentally. The client is free to explore all thoughts and feelings, positive or negative, without danger of rejection or condemnation. Crucially, the client is free to explore and to express without having to do anything in particular or meet any particular standards of behavior to earn positive regard from the counsellor. The second empathic understanding means that the counsellor accurately understands the clients thoughts, feelings, and meanings from the clients own perspective. When the counsellor perceives what

the world is like from the clients point of view, it demonstrates not only that that view has value, but also that the client is being accepted. The third congruence means that the counsellor is authentic and genuine. The counsellor does not present an aloof professional facade, but is present and transparent to the client. There is no air of authority or hidden knowledge, and the client does not have to speculate about what the counselor is really like. Together, these three core conditions are believed to enable the client to develop and grow in their own way to strengthen and expand their own identity and to become the person that they really are independently of the pressures of others to act or think in particular ways. As a result, person-centered theory takes these core conditions as both necessary and sufficient for therapeutic movement to occur i.e., that if these core conditions are provided, then the client will experience therapeutic change. (Indeed, the achievement of identifying and articulating these core conditions and launching a significant program of scientific research to test hypotheses about them was one of the greatest contributions of Carl Rogers, the American psychologist who first began formulating the person-centered approach in the 1930s and 1940s.) Notably, person-centered theory suggests that there is nothing essentially unique about the counseling relationship and that in fact healthy relationships with significant others may well manifest the core conditions and thus be therapeutic, although normally in a transitory sort of way, rather than consistently and continually. Finally, as noted at the outset, the person-centred approach takes clients as their own best authorities. The focus of person-centred therapy is always on the clients own feelings and thoughts, not on those of the therapist and certainly not on diagnosis or categorization. The person-centred therapist makes every attempt to foster an environment in which clients can encounter themselves and become more intimate with their own thoughts, feelings and meanings.

2.4.4 Criticisms of Person-Centred Counseling

A frequent criticism of the person-centred approach is that delivering the core conditions is what all good therapists do anyway, before they move on to applying their expertise and doing the real work of making clients better. On the face of it, this criticism reflects a misunderstanding of the real challenges of consistently manifesting unconditional positive regard, empathic understanding and congruence. This is especially true of congruence: to the extent that some therapeutic techniques deployed in some other traditions depend on the counsellors willingness to hold back, mentally formulate hypotheses about the client, or conceal their own personal reactions behind a consistent professional face, there is a real challenge in applying these techniques with the openness and honesty which defines congruence. It may also demonstrate something of a reluctance to take seriously the empirical research on counseling effectiveness and the conclusion that the quality of the client-counsellor relationship is a leading predictor of therapeutic effectiveness although this is somewhat more controversial, since one might argue that providing the core conditions is not the only way to achieve a quality relationship.

At a deeper level, however, there is a more sophisticated point lurking, which many expositions of person-centred theory seem to avoid addressing head-on. Namely, given that the self is the single most important resource the person-centred counsellor brings to the therapeutic relationship, it makes sense to ask: what (if anything) is it important that this self has, apart from the three core conditions? I.e., manifesting of the core conditions does not by itself tell us what experiences or philosophies the counsellor is bringing to the relationship. It tells us that the client will have transparent access to that self because the counsellor is congruent but it doesnt tell us anything else about that self. Whether or not that self should be developed in any particular way or whether that self should acquire any particular background knowledge, seems to me a question which is more often side-stepped than answered within the person-centred tradition. (Another way to understand this point is this: given two counselors, each of whom manifests the core conditions to some specified degree, what else, if anything, matters? Would it be better for a given client to have the one who is an expert at astrophysics or the one who is an economist? Would it be better for a given client to have the one who struggled through a decade of ethnic cleansing in a war-torn country or the one who went to private school in an affluent suburb and subsequently worked as a stockbroker? Aside from academic expertise and personal history, what about personal philosophy, parenthood, and other factors?)

2.4.5. Summary
Person-centered theory has become one of the most popular theories of counseling and therapy since it developed in the 1940s. It was first labeled nondirective by its originator, Carl Rogers. The theory offered a distinct alternative to the behavioral and psychoanalytic theories that dominated psychology at the time. Rogers later broadened the concepts of the process and renamed it client-centered to de-emphasize the nondirective nature and emphasize a full understanding of all the client's dimensions. The person-centered concept evolved as issues relating to equality of participants in the relationship and a focus on the positive health of people became significant issues as opposed to an unhealthier client status. Person-centered theory makes possible the expansion of helping situations. Originally developed as an individual process, it has since become a major group theory. This group focus has expanded into concepts popular in education. Rogers' most recent work emphasized the same concepts as ways of dealing with international conflict resolution in an emphasis on promoting world peace. Person-centered theory places great emphasis on the individual's ability to move in positive directions. Practitioners of the theory have a belief in the trustworthiness of individuals and in their innate ability to move toward self-actualization and health when the proper conditions are in place. Tied to these beliefs is the confidence that individuals also have the inner resources to move themselves in such positive directions. Finally, a core concept in the theory states that individuals perceive the world in a unique phenomenological way so that no two people's perceptions of the world are the same.

The perception of clients as competent, trustworthy, and forward-moving people who have their own unique view of the world places great confidence in the individual's ability to control his/her own positive change. This confidence in the client directs the counselor to provide the conditions for that change. Specifically, there are three basic conditions needed to support an individual's natural inclination for positive growth: a genuine relationship with a relatively congruent individual, acceptance and caring from the counselor, and an accurate understanding on the part of the counselor of the client's phenomenological world. Clients who are provided with these growth conditions will realize their actualizing tendencies for growth. They will explore their difficulties and natural competencies in this productive environment, which will then lead to a clearer picture of themselves and their potential. As clients' pictures of themselves become more accurate, they become better able to act in ways that are most in line with their true self (congruence). This in turn will lead to more self-confidence, self-understanding, and better choices. The role of the counselor in person-centered theory is primarily to promote the conditions for change rather than do things to bring about specific changes. Counselors and therapists are expected to maintain a genuine human relationship in which they provide unconditional positive regard to their clients. This demonstrates their faith in clients and support of the process. Much of the work of the person-centered counselor revolves around developing an accurate empathic understanding of a client, conveying that understanding to the person, and working with him to expand and clarify the understanding and its impact on the client's choices and actions. Rogers' work initiated much research on the helping relationship and client gain. The use of taping and transcriptions to evaluate the necessary conditions of counseling and psychotherapy received emphasis from research on this theory. A great deal of innovative research in the area of clinical growth was also produced in the development of this theory. However, much of this theory has been integrated into the overall body of the theory, and relatively little research is currently being done in the area. Calls are being made for potential expansion of the theory and research into its future development. Person-centered counseling and psychotherapy has given much to the field, and professionals continue to emphasize the need for growth of the theory rather than a stagnant use of the theory's many positive contributions. You could say I have always had an interest in person-centered-counseling. Certainly, I have encountered a lot of professionals linked to this subject thought-out my adult life, as a result of trauma in my teens. I have seen counselors, psychiatrists, psychologists, psychiatric nurses and occupational therapists - all with a central theme of counseling. The internet is a wonderful tool for research, and this site will hopefully be a springboard to inspire one to carry out further research on what is a mesmerizing and all embracing subject.


Person-Centered Theory - Rogers carefully crafted his person-centered theory of personality to meet his own demands for a structural model that could explain and predict outcomes of clientcentered therapy. However, the theory has implications far beyond the therapeutic setting. Awareness People are aware of both their self-concept and their ideal self, although awareness need not be accurate. For example, people may have an inflated view of their ideal self but only a vague sense of their self-concept. Cognitive therapy Any of a variety of techniques in psychotherapy that utilizes guided self-discovery, imaging, self-instruction, symbolic modeling, and related forms of explicitly elicited cognitions as the principal mode of treatment. Active listening Active listening also involves paraphrasing and summarizing the person's emotions back to them, asking questions to help them express what they feel or believe or asking questions to achieve a better understanding of what the worshiper is saying. To listen empathically setting aside as much as we can of our own "stuff" and entering as deeply as possible the perceptual world of the speaker, is actually a form of meditation. What the client needs is to know that they are being heard. This evidence that they are valued as a human being and supported in working through their issues creates the sense of safe space for their deeper internal explorations Empirical Originating in or based on observation or experience <empirical data>. Relying on experience or observation alone often without due regard for system and theory. Genuineness (Congruence) The Person-Centered Therapy relationship must always be an honest one. The counselor needs to be real and true in the relationship. Individuals who cannot accept others (i.e. because of personal values and beliefs they hold rigidly and apply to all), or who will not listen and try to understand ... cannot do Person-Centered Therapy. The therapist must embody the attitudinal quality of genuineness and to experience empathic understanding from the clients internal frame of reference and to experience unconditional positive regard towards the client. When the client perceives the therapists empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard, the actualizing tendency of the client is promoted. Heuristic Modern heuristics is defined as 'Of, relating to, or constituting an educational method in which learning takes place through discoveries that result from investigations made by the student.' In business we call it trial and error. A mostly unconscious journey from one event to another, picking up pieces of knowledge and experience both positive and negative. Each person then filters this data through their own mental set and establishes a pattern of behavior.

Humanistic Counseling Humanistic Counseling is based on the assumption that what fundamentally makes human relatedness, in counselling as well as other contexts, valuable and helpful, is the quality of relationship and contact offered by one person to another. Personal integrity, genuineness, responsiveness, availability are all aspects of what we might call 'presence' or the ability to be there for someone in a contractual way. 'Presence' in this context also involves compassion and awareness. Meta-analysis A meta-analysis is a statistical procedure to combine a number of existing studies. Through such a procedure, effects which are hard or impossible to discern in the original studies because of a too small sample size can be made visible, as the meta-analysis is (in the ideal case) equivalent to a single study with the combined size of all original studies. A weakness of the method is that problems with any of the studies will affect the result of the meta-analysis, so a good metaanalysis of bad studies will still result in bad data. Paraphrasing Paraphrasing what the client has said, or restating the message in simple words, can help the client know that he or she has been heard. It will also ensure that the provider understands what the client is saying. In paraphrasing or restating the message, a provider might pay particular attention to reflecting back the clients feelings. Phenomenological Relating to phenomenology - the study of the development of human consciousness and selfawareness as a preface to philosophy or a part of philosophy. Psychodynamic Psychodynamic (Psychotherapy) uses the basic assumption that everyone has an unconscious mind (this is sometimes called the subconscious), and that feelings held in the unconscious mind are often too painful to be faced. Thus we come up with defences to protect us knowing about these painful feelings. Psychodynamic therapy tries to unravel them. It is assumes that once you are aware of what is really going on in your mind the feelings will not be as painful. Psychopathologies The study of psychological and behavioral dysfunction occurring in mental disorder or in social disorganization; also: such dysfunction. Their issues creates the sense of safe space for their deeper internal explorations

2.4.7Check Your Progress

1. Explain the Therapeutic Approach of Person-Centered Counseling 2. What are the Criticisms of Person-Centered Counseling

2.4.8- Reference

Introduction to Persons Centered Counseling By Dr. Greg Mulhouse

2.4.9Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 2.4.3 2. Read 2.4.4


Observational research requires careful attention to specifying where and how observations are made, what is observed, and how it is recorded. As a result, operational definitions in this type of research may be quite lengthy with multiple components. This Block teaches about the below aspects of behavioral observation Unit 1: Group Guidance and Therapy Unit 2: Methods of Behavioral Assessment Unit 3: Psychological Testing and Procedures Unit 4: Modern Trends and Practices

Unit 1 Group Guidance and Therapy

Content: 3.1.1: Introduction 3.1.2: Group Guidelines 3.1.3: Group Therapy 3.1.4. Group Counseling Techniques/Strategies 3.1.5. Summary 3.1.6: Glossary 3.1.7: Check Your Progress 3.1.8: Reference 3.1.9: Answer to Check Your Progress

3.1.1: Introduction
Group guidance and group counselling are effective means of responding to the varying needs of students. Group guidance or group work in the classroom is typically used to address developmental needs and to implement preventative programs. It is informational and instructional in nature. Group counselling addresses specific, individual needs. It is an efficient and effective way of supporting and helping students to deal with problems and issues in educational, career and personal/social areas. It is healing and therapeutic in nature. Ethically, group counselling requires the counselor to have specific training. Aims of group guidance and counselling include to provide a means of sharing information on topics such as career information and study skills

to help students develop skills for programs such as conflict management, peer helping, and peer tutoring to help students develop knowledge and learn personal management and social skills such coping with feelings, dealing with peer pressure, goal-setting, problem-solving, and communication skills

3.1.2: Group Guidance

Focus on group is an excellent way to gain first hand information of how your target audience feels about a product, project or policy. Advantages and Limitations A focus group can be an excellent tool, but you should consider its benefits and drawbacks before choosing it as a research tool. On the plus side, they are easy to organize, can be implemented quickly and are relatively cheap. Focus groups give you the opportunity to hear participants' comments in their own words, to watch their body language and to probe for deeper insight into their feelings. Focus groups also have limitations. There is the risk that one or two participants will dominate the group and not let other members speak. There is also the risk of participants simply agreeing with other members of the group instead of sharing their own opinions. You also must have a skilled moderator for the group to be successful. Preparation Clearly defining the objective for your focus group is critical. Once you have determined the type of information you are seeking, establish five to six questions that will provide this information. These should be open-ended questions that allow participants to express their thoughts. Participants should be selected from a target group that can provide you with the data you need. If you are seeking opinions on a new active adult complex, select people who are in the age range of your future clients. If you are seeking information on a new baby product, include parents of young children. For the focus group, choose a quiet room that will be free of distractions and invite six to ten people from your target group to participate in the session. Each session should last from 1 hour to 90 minutes.

Moderating the Group The moderator's job is critical. She opens the meeting, sets the agenda, explains the topics to be discussed, keeps the group on track and ensures that no participant dominates the group. Equally important, the moderator should never discuss her own opinions or argue with the participants about their opinions. The moderator's job is to facilitate the free flow of ideas among the participants. The moderator will also record the session for later analysis, and participants must be told the session is being recorded at the beginning of the focus group. At the end of the session, the moderator closes the meeting by thanking the group for their participation and stressing that they have made a valuable contribution to the project.

Reporting Following the focus group, information gathered should be analyzed and reported. The report should include the composition of the group, discussion themes, questions or concerns of the participants and trends that arose during the discussions. If multiple focus groups are held, the report should compare and contrast findings between the various groups.

3.1.3: Group Therapy

Group therapy aims to encourage personal development and help people work through potential or current problem. This type of therapy helps clients work through relationship problems, as the therapy itself requires that the client participate in relationships. A counselor who understands effective techniques provides an important element in the development of a therapy group. Six group therapy techniques encourage the group toward personal growth and wellness. Sometimes when you've been advised to enter therapy, it's easier and less intimidating to join a group. There are a lot of groups available that address just about every type of problem. Group Therapy? Group therapy is a form of counseling in which a small number of people come together under the guidance of a professionally trained therapist to help themselves and one another. The therapy has been widely used and has been a standard and effective treatment option for over 50 years. In group, not only do students receive tremendous understanding, support, and encouragement from others facing similar issues, but they also gain different perspectives, ideas, and viewpoints on those issues. Group therapy, like individual therapy is a powerful vehicle for growth and change, and is intended to help people who would like to gain support, increase selfawareness, and learn new ways to cope with personal or interpersonal challenges. Why Group Therapy? Most personal problems are interpersonal in nature. Very often they stem from our relationships or from our personal patterns of relating. Group therapy offers the rare opportunity to explore and understand how you relate to others and get specific feedback on how others react to you. Who can benefit from Group Therapy? Like individual counseling, group therapy can benefit almost anyone. It can be especially useful for people who want to explore their style of relating to others and enhance their approach to relationships in areas such as trust, intimacy, anger, conflict, assertiveness, risk-taking, and self esteem. Group therapy is a type of psychotherapy that involves one or more therapists working with several people at the same time. This type of therapy is widely available at a variety of locations, including private therapeutic practices, hospitals, mental health clinics and community centers. Group therapy is sometimes used alone, but it is also commonly integrated into a comprehensive treatment plan that also includes individual therapy and medication.

The Principles of Group Therapy In The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, Irvin D. Yalom outlines the key therapeutic principles that have been derived from self-reports from individuals who have been involved in the group therapy process: 1. The instillation of hope: The group contains members at different stages of the treatment process. Seeing people who are coping or recovering gives hope to those at the beginning of the process. 2. Universality: Being in a group of people experiencing the same things helps people see that what they are going through is universal and that they are not alone. 3. Imparting information: Group members are able to help each other by sharing information. 4. Altruism: Group members are able to share their strengths and help others in the group, which can boost self-esteem and confidence. 5. The corrective recapitulation of the primary family group: The therapy group is much like a family in some ways. Within the group, each member can explore how childhood experiences contributed to personality and behaviors. They can also learn to avoid behaviors that are destructive or unhelpful in their real life. 6. Development of socialization techniques: The group setting is a great place to practice new behaviors. The setting is safe and supportive, allowing group members to experiment without the fear of failure. 7. Imitative behavior: Individuals can model the behavior of other members of the group or observe and imitate the behavior of the therapist. 8. Interpersonal learning: By interacting with other people and receiving feedback from the group and the therapist, each individual can gain a greater understanding of himself or herself. 9. Group cohesiveness: Because the group is united in a common goal, members gain a sense of belonging and acceptance. 10. Catharsis: Sharing feelings and experiences with a group of people can help relieve pain, guilt or stress. 11. Existential factors: While working within a group offers support and guidance, group therapy helps member realize that they are responsible for their own lives, action and choices.

How Does Group Therapy Work? Groups can be as small as three or four people, but group therapy sessions generally involve around seven to twelve individuals (although it is possible to have more participants). The group typically meets once or twice each week for an hour or two. According to Oded Manor, the minimum number of group therapy sessions is usually around six, but a full year of sessions is more common.2 Manor also notes that these sessions may either be open or closed. In open sessions, new participants are welcome to join at any time. In a closed group, only a core group of members are invited to participate. So what does a typical group therapy session look like? In many cases, the group will meet in a room where the chairs are arranged in a large circle so that each member can see every other person in the group.2 A session might begin with each member of the group introducing themselves and sharing why they are in group therapy, or members might share their experiences and progress since the last meeting. The specific manner in which the session is conducted depends largely on the goals of the group and the style of the therapist. Some therapists might encourage a more free-form style of dialogue, where each member participates as he or she sees fit. Other therapists might have a specific plan for each session that might include having clients practice new skills with other members of the group. The Effectiveness of Group Therapy Group therapy can be very effective, especially in certain situations. Studies have shown that group therapy can be an effective treatment choice for depression4 and traumatic stress. Reasons to Use Group Therapy The key advantages of group therapy include: Group therapy allows people to receive the support and encouragement of the other members of the group. People participating in the group are able to see that there are others going through the same thing, which can help them feel less alone. Group members can serve as role models to other members of the group. By seeing someone who is successfully coping with a problem, other members of the group can see that there is hope and recovery is possible. As each person progresses, they can in turn serve as a role model and support figure for others. This can help foster feelings of success and accomplishment. Group therapy is very cost effective. Instead of focusing on just one client at a time, the therapist can devote his or her time to a much larger group of people. Group therapy offers a safe haven. The setting allows people to practice behaviors and actions within the safety and security of the group.2

By working in a group, the therapist can see first-hand how each person responds to other people and behaves in social situations. Using this information, the therapist can provide valuable feedback to each client.

3.1.4: Group Counseling Techniques/Strategies

1. Reflection Allow student to understand fully each persons comments and how they can relate to what they just stated 2. Active Listening** - Allow student to be very aware of their listening skills within a group and how important they are. This allows the group to be more open with each other when they know their group members are paying attention to their feedback. 3. Clarification Allow student to be very concrete with others in the group of comments made 4. Summarizing Allow students to see the bigger picture of what was said in the group by doing a recap of what was said. Provides comfort within group. 4. Linking Allow students to see how their problems connect with others in the group and they have the same concerns 4. Encouraging Allow students to be more open with group and makes sharing personal feelings more inviting. 5. Focus Allow counselor and students to give attention to groups concerns 6. Cutting Off Allow counselors to keep the group on topic and give everyone a chance to share. 7. Drawing Out Allow counselor to bring forth quiet group members comments. 8. Rounds Allows each student to share within the group. 9. Dyads Allows students to pair up with a partner and learn more about another student. 10. Word or Phrase Round - Allow students to broaden their vocabulary when describing how they felt about something within the group session. 11. Comment Round - Allow students to share their personal comments about that specific session. 12, Icebreakers - Allow students to warm-up to group members when beginning group. 13. Modeling Allow students to see counselor as a role model in group work and the behaviors that can be applied to them personally. 14. Use of Eyes Allows counselor to have direct eye contact with group members that are sharing. It will allow the counselor to draw out quiet members to speak. Allow them to members that have lost interest in the topic. 15. Tone Setting Allow students to establish a mood for their group. Rather it needs to be a tone that is serious, social, supportive, and formal. 16. Use of Leaders Energy Allow students to see the counselor excitement about their new group, topic, and activities. 17. Therefore allowing them to be put off high energy levels.Non-Judgmental Allow students to see that this is a positive experience and not to make anyone feel down. 18. Empathy Allow students to convey to other group members that they understand and will not make fun of anyone

3.1.5. Summary
In group therapy approximately 6-10 individuals meet face-to-face with a trained group therapist. During the group meeting time, members decide what they want to talk about. Members are encouraged to give feedback to others. Feedback includes expressing your own feelings about what someone says or does. Interaction between group members are highly encouraged and provides each person with an opportunity to try out new ways of behaving; it also provides members with an opportunity for learning more about the way they interact with others. It is a safe environment in which members work to establish a level of trust that allows them to talk personally and honestly. Group members make a commitment to the group and are instructed that the content of the group sessions are confidential. It is not appropriate for group members to disclose events of the group to an outside person.

3.1.6: Glossary
Guidance. In guidance, on the other hand, pragmatic problems and their solutions are considered and, to a limited extent (and perhaps superficially), attitudes and feelings are exposed for consideration. But the underlying unconscious motivations and their sources are not brought to the surface as they are in psychotherapy. What determines the choice between counseling and guidance is the intensity of the affect involved, the chronicity of the problem, and the elements in the syndrome? Some problems of individuals arise from sources beyond ego functioning; they involve strong feelings that are elaborated in the psyche. Problems with one's landlord, for example, can be resolved by counseling, but counseling can hardly be effective in resolving disharmony between marital partners. The emotional charge in the two relations is vastly different and requires different treatment. It is obvious that guidance is a much longer, as well as a deeper, process than is counseling. Counseling. A counselor may or may not be a trained psychotherapist. He helps the counselee either to arrive at or to accept a solution of the difficulty that worries him. This can be achieved by explanation (as differentiated from insight) or advice. The counselor is an active agent, although he usually follows the rule of all good teaching that the learner (in this case, the counselee) should arrive as far as possible at conclusions by himself.

3.1.7: Check Your Progress

1. What is Group therapy? And how does group therapy works? 2. Explain the Group Counseling Techniques/Strategies

3.1.8: Reference
1. Group Process Techniques of counseling By Cassandra 2. What is group therapy By Kendra Cherry.

3. Group Psychotherapy By S. R. Slavson

3.1.9: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 3.1.3 2. Read 3.1.4

Block 3 Unit 2: Methods of Behavioral Assessment

Behavioral Content 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. 3.2.5. 3.2.6. 3.2.7. 3.2.8. 3.2.9. assessment is the process of identifying problem areas of behavior

Introduction The Basis for Functional Behavior Assessment Behavioral Assessment tools. Techniques for conducting the Functional Behavioral Assessment. Summary Glossary Check Your Progress Reference Answer to Check your Progress

3.2.1: Introduction
Behavioral assessment is the process of identifying problem areas of behavior. Different tools and techniques are used to observe report and analyze the problem behavior patterns so the problems can be addressed in specific ways. These tools help teachers and parents identify the triggers behind bad behavior. Addressing these causes, instead of just the behavior itself, can help eradicate the problem. Functional behavioral assessment is generally considered to be a problem-solving process for addressing student problem behavior. Functional behavioral assessment (FBA) is a variation on procedures originally developed to ascertain the purpose or reason for behaviors displayed by individuals with severe cognitive or communication disabilities (e.g., individuals with mental retardation or autism). Because these individuals were unable to fully explain why they were displaying certain inappropriate behaviors, methods were developed to determine why they demonstrated such actions. These investigatory procedures, derived primarily from the orientation and methods of applied behavior analysis were known as "functional behavioral analysis". By gathering data and conducting experiments that evaluated the effects of environmental variables on the behavior, concerned staff members could usually decipher the meaning of the behaviors (i.e., what emotion or message was being communicated through the actions), determine why they were occurring, and develop behavior change programs to help the disabled individual display more appropriate behavior in meeting his or her needs.

3.2.2. The Basis for Functional Behavior Assessment

Many students with disabilities display behaviors that are deemed by school and society to be "inappropriate". These aberrant actions may be the reason why the student was provided with special education services, as in the case of students labeled as having "emotional disturbance" (one of the 12 special education categories of disability). However, other students, for whom different impairments are the main concern, might also display undesirable behaviors. These could include, among many others, refusals to work on tasks viewed as too difficult, angry responses due to frustration of goals or inability to communicate with words, or irritating actions displayed in an attempt to gain attention. Anytime those educators have concerns about the behavior of a student with a disability, they are required by IDEA to undertake the functional behavior assessment process in order to determine why the youngster is showing such actions. By determining the purpose of the behavior, educational personnel can then devise interventions to help the student display more acceptable behaviors that will meet his/her needs or desires (the "why" of the behavior). While educators are required to conduct an FBA when persistent behavioral concerns exist (FBA is commonly a part of the pre-referral and referral activities, and IEP development, review, and revision for misbehaving students) they are also required by law to conduct it within 10 days of any singular offense by a student with a disability that is punishable by: -suspension -removal to an Interim Alternative Educational Setting. An IAES is a placement, outside of the present school building, where kids who have broken the law, violated an important school regulation, or been aggressive can be sent by the school administrator for up to 40 days. All services presently provided by the school must be continued in this new placement, and the behavior that led to the transfer must be addressed (perhaps via counseling or instruction). The FBA is conducted in order to understand the reason for the behavior, and to devise ways to prevent its occurrence in the future when the youngster returns to the home school. In some proactive states, FBA is designated to be conducted as part of an on-going program to identify students in need of specialized services, not only as an isolated practice for severe school code violations. By definition then, FBA is the process of gathering and analyzing information about a student's behavior and accompanying circumstances in order to determine the purpose or intent of the actions. This investigation is designed to help educators: -determine the appropriateness of the students present educational placement and services, and whether changes would help the student to display more acceptable behavior -identify positive interventions that would reduce the undesirable behavior -identify appropriate behaviors to be substituted in the place of the inappropriate ones. Functional behavior assessment is based upon the following assumptions: -challenging behaviors do not occur in a vacuum; there is a reason for their occurrence

-behaviors occur in response to identifiable stimuli (event) -behaviors are governed (weakened or strengthened) by the consequences that follow them -behavior is a form of communication (i.e., educators need to figure out what a particular behavior is communicating. The displayed action might be saying, in a non-verbal fashion; "I am tired.", "I am bored.", "I'm still upset at what happened earlier", etc.) -"misbehavior" might actually be adaptive (justifiable and understandable) given the circumstances. For example, in a classroom in which the teacher is a ineffective manager of student behavior, the student of concern might engage in "inappropriate" actions designed to bond with, and offer protection from bullies. In this particular case, the "misbehavior" could be designed to avoid victimization by other students in the presence of the non-protective teacher. It is believed that all behaviors demonstrated by all persons serve a function and have a purpose. If benefits didnt result from showing certain behavior, then individuals would stop doing them. Usually, our behaviors are meant to do one of two things: -obtain something desirable (e.g., attention, money, good grades), or -avoid or escape something unpleasant or punishing (e.g., penalties, embarrassment, pain, fear) Functional Behavioral Assessment A Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) is an attempt to look beyond the obvious interpretation of behavior as "bad" and determine what function it may be serving for a child. Truly understanding why a child behaves the way he or she does is the first, best step to developing strategies to stop the behavior. Schools are required by law to use FBA when dealing with challenging behavior in students with special needs, although you may need to specifically push for it. The process usually involves documenting the antecedent (what comes before the behavior), behavior, and consequence (what happens after the behavior) over a number of weeks; interviewing teachers, parents, and others who work with the child; evaluating how the child's disability may affect behavior; and manipulating the environment to see if a way can be found to avoid the behavior. This is usually done by a behavioral specialist, and then becomes the basis for a Behavior Intervention Plan.

3.2.3. Behavioral Assessment tools

Behavior assessments are used mostly in the classroom to monitor students who are actively engaged in certain troubling behavior patterns. By using behavior assessment tools, the teacher is able to document the behavior of the student and keep a record in several different forms of what's being done about it. Anecdotal Record

An anecdotal record is a type of behavior assessment that enables teachers to keep up with events involving student behavior that take place in the classroom. The teacher records the event, being sure to note the time, date, and any other students involved. The student responsible for the misbehavior is then asked to sign the record. This not only serves as a warning to the student, but gives the teacher the necessary documentation as well. Checklist The checklist is another type of behavior assessment tool. The teacher records the behavior of the student and the steps taken to alleviate the problem, such as detention or a phone call to the parent. The teacher goes through the checklist of measures taken, and keeps an accurate record of what has been done. While you are conducting a functional behavior assessment, concentrate on collecting concrete data. Make note of when the behavior happens, whether during a particular class, a particular subject or around a specific time of day. Examine what happens before the behavior occurs, as well as what does the behavior looks like, what are the consequences or results of the behavior and how often does it occur, whether daily or weekly. Collecting data about all of these factors will help you to identify the pattern of the behavior and why it happens. Conference A parent conference is a behavior assessment tool in which the teacher has a chance to talk with the parent about behavior problems displayed by the student in the classroom and the actions taken so far to deal with it. During the conference, the teacher and parent work together to figure out steps to be taken to stop problem behavior and the consequences if the behavior doesn't change. Observation Observation involves the parent, administrator or other education staff sitting in the classroom to watch the student and to determine what means of intervention is needed to stop problem behavior. At this point, behavior specialists may conduct observations of a student to see if the problem is beyond that of simple misbehavior, and if further study and remedies are required. Any functional behavior assessment starts with careful observation of the student in question. In order to attempt to change a behavior, you must understand what exactly the behavior is, when it occurs and why it happens. Keep in mind that all behavior serves a purpose for the student so you need to try to determine what purpose the undesirable behavior in question is serving. Decide if the behavior is out of the ordinary for the situation and if it is interfering with the education happening inside the classroom. Behavior Intervention Team Although this group of people may go by different names, there are generally multiple professionals involved in conducting a functional behavior assessment. In the case of a student who is served by an Individualized Education Plan, the IEP team may have the teacher conduct the functional behavior assessment, or they may decide to involve the school psychologist or another professional. For students not served by IEPs the psychologist or a teacher may conduct

the functional behavior assessment. Once the observations are completed, a team approach is the best way to draw conclusions and create an action plan based on the information gathered. Interventions Once the team has conducted a functional behavior assessment, they can draw conclusions about the purpose of the undesirable behavior. Since identical behaviors can serve different purposes, it is important to understand why a behavior is happening before attempting to change it. The interventions will vary depending on both the nature and purpose of the behavior. The responsible team should consider interventions that involve helping the student to replace the undesirable behavior with one that is more academically and socially acceptable. Behavioral intervention plans (BIP) are detailed plans that include data gathered during the FBA such as function, frequency, severity, consequence, etc. The BIP also includes specific information regarding the target behavior, behavior goals, etc., in addition steps are proposed to decrease occurrences of inappropriate behavior and to increase occurrences of desired or replacement behaviors. The plan should also include information on progress monitoring and review of the plan.

3.2.4: Techniques for conducting the Functional Behavioral Assessment

Indirect assessment In direct or informant assessment relies heavily upon the use of structured interviews with students, teachers, and other adults who have direct responsibility for the students concerned. Individuals should structure the interview so that it yields information regarding the questions discussed in the previous section, such as:

In what settings do you observe the behavior? Are there any settings where the behavior does not occur? Who is present when the behavior occurs? What activities or interactions take place just prior to the behavior? What usually happens immediately after the behavior? Can you think of a more acceptable behavior that might replace this behavior?

Interviews with the student may be useful in identifying how he or she perceived the situation and what caused her or him to react or act in the way they did. Examples of questions that one may ask include:

What were you thinking just before you threw the textbook? How did the assignment make you feel? Can you tell me how Mr. Smith expects you to contribute to class lectures? When you have a "temper tantrum" in class, what usually happens afterward?

Commercially available student questionnaires, motivational scales, and checklists can also be used to structure indirect assessments of behavior. The district's school psychologist or other

qualified personnel can be a valuable source of information regarding the feasibility of using these instruments. Direct assessment Direct assessment involves observing and recording situational factors surrounding a problem behavior (e.g., antecedent and consequent events). An evaluator may observe the behavior in the setting that it is likely to occur, and record data using an Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) approach. The observer also may choose to use a matrix or scatter plot to chart the relationship between specific instructional variables and student responses. (See Appendix B for examples). These techniques also will be useful in identifying possible environmental factors (e.g., seating arrangements), activities (e.g., independent work), or temporal factors (e.g., mornings) that may influence the behavior. These tools can be developed specifically to address the type of variable in question, and can be customized to analyze specific behaviors and situations (e.g., increments of 5 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, or even a few days). Regardless of the tool, observations that occur consistently across time and situations, and that reflect both quantitative and qualitative measures of the behavior in question, are recommended. Data analysis Once the team is satisfied that enough data have been collected, the next step is to compare and analyze the information. This analysis will help the team to determine whether or not there are any patterns associated with the behavior (e.g., whenever Trish does not get her way, she reacts by hitting someone). If patterns cannot be determined, the team should review and revise (as necessary) the functional behavioral assessment plan to identify other methods for assessing behavior. Hypothesis statement Drawing upon information that emerges from the analysis, school personnel can establish a hypothesis regarding the function of the behaviors in question. This hypothesis predicts the general conditions under which the behavior is most and least likely to occur (antecedents), as well as the consequences that serve to maintain it. For instance, should a teacher report that Lucia calls out during instruction, a functional behavioral assessment might reveal the function of the behavior is to gain attention (e.g., verbal approval of classmates), avoid instruction (e.g., difficult assignment), seek excitement (i.e., external stimulation), or both to gain attention and avoid a low-interest subject. Only when the relevance of the behavior is known is it possible to speculate about the true function of the behavior and establish an individual behavior intervention plan. In other words, before any plan is set in motion, the team needs to formulate a plausible explanation (hypothesis) for the student's behavior. It is then desirable to manipulate various conditions to verify the assumptions made by the team regarding the function of the behavior. For instance, the team working with Lucia in the example above may hypothesize that during class discussions, Lucia calls out to get peer attention. Thus, the teacher might make accommodations in the environment to ensure that Lucia gets the peer attention she seeks as a consequence of appropriate, rather than inappropriate behaviors. If this manipulation changes Lucia's behavior, the team can assume

their hypothesis was correct; if Lucia's behavior remains unchanged following the environmental manipulation, a new hypothesis needs to be formulated using data collected during the functional behavioral assessment.

Functional Assessment/Behavioral Intervention Checklist

Teams can use this checklist to guide them through the process of conducting a functional behavioral assessment and writing and implementing a positive behavioral intervention plan. Student: ________________ Date: __________________________ Team leader: ______________________ Grade: __________________________ Behavior(s) of concern: _______________________________________________ Yes No 1. Is the student behavior of concern clearly defined? 2. Have replacement behaviors that serve the same function (or result in the same outcome) for the student been identified, along with the circumstances under which they should occur (e.g., when threatened by peer in hallway)? 3. Are multiple sources of information available that have been collected from various individuals (e.g., teachers, parents, classmates, student)? At least two separate indirect measures and multiple direct measures (e.g., ABC charts, scatterplots) that capture multiple occurrences/non-occurrences of the behavior (and its context) should be in agreement. 4. Has the team produced an acceptable convergent database? 5. Is the hypothesis statement written according to the three-term contingency (i.e., under x conditions, the student does y, in order to achieve z) so that an intervention plan can easily be produced? 6. Is the plan aligned with student needs and assessment results? 7. Does the plan address all aspects of the social/environmental contexts in which the behavior of concern has occurred? 8. Is there a strategy to verify the accuracy of the hypothesis statement (e.g., analogue assessment)?

9. Does the plan address both short-term and long-term aspects of student behavior (and its social/environmental context), including procedures to eliminate reliance on unacceptable behavior? 10. Does the plan include practical ways to monitor both its implementation (e.g., checklist, treatment scripts) and its effectiveness as a behavioral intervention plan? 11. Does the plan include ways to promote the maintenance and generalization of positive behavior changes in student behavior (e.g., selfmonitoring)? 12. Is the plan consistent with building-level systems of student behavior change and support?

Tips for Behavioral Assessment Tests

Behavioral assessments help predict future behaviors. These tools offer insights into whether an employee will succeed in his new job or an offender will break more laws. Educators, parents and childcare specialists rely on various instruments to delve into behavioral or developmental issues among children. Professionals who use these mechanisms offer various tips for behavioral assessment tests, most notably to use only trained specialists in administering and interpreting results to avoid any misleading conclusions. Employers Human resource professionals administer preemployment behavior assessments that measure a candidate's attitudes and motivators. Managers spare themselves a lot of headaches by watching how they phrase behavioral assessment questions, according to the Leadership Answers website. Asking a candidate how she would handle a scheduling glitch elicits a radically different response than asking how she managed a similar issue in the past. The second question asks for behavioral proof based on experiences, not hypothetical theories based on what the candidate thinks she would do. Criminal Mental health professionals use assessments to measure a criminal's propensity toward future violence. Tips for using behavioral assessments include clarifying objectives states Mary Alice

Conroy of Sam Houston State University in Texas in the online Applied Psychology In Criminal Justice. Telling a specialist to look for signs that an offender might commit spousal or sexual abuse is more effective than referencing overall violent tendencies. Also, administrators should stay within their areas of expertise because an overall psychology background does not qualify someone to evaluate juvenile or sex offenders. Children Children repeat their bad behaviors when they continue to achieve their objectives. Behavioral assessments pinpoint the reasons behind those actions. For example, a kid makes noises in classes to direct attention away from a classmate. Or, he throws tantrums to escape work. A behavioral assessment looks at patterns occurring before and after the inappropriate behavior. This process requires patience and collaboration between professionals and parents so the child can be coached into achieving the same outcomes by using acceptable behaviors, according to Teach-Nology website. Development Diagnosing developmental delays in children requires detailed behavioral assessments, not quick screenings, according to the Autism Speaks website. Assessments involve direct observations by an experienced clinician and a lengthy questionnaire that is completed by the parents. One helpful technique requires both parents to flip through the child's baby book to refresh their memories of past behavioral themes they may have noticed years earlier but forgotten. The more the parents can recall the more accurate history they will offer to clinicians who oversee the diagnosis.

3.2.5: Summary
Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) is a commonly used term in special education when dealing with behavior. It is conducted after significant and pervasive behavioral concerns arise in a student with a disability and it is completed prior to determining a need for an individualized behavior intervention plan. According to the Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA), "an FBA focuses on identifying the function or purpose behind a child's behavior." Although it varies depending on the child, the function of a behavior could be to gain attention, escape, and possess something tangible or to satisfy a sensory need. The components of Behavioral and functional assessments are two different yet related fields. Behavioral assessments concern themselves with how the employee interacts with others; while functional assessment is more concerned with the how the employee handles their work. Both of these categories are part of the broader topic of employee assessment and review. Attitude The attitude of an employee is both related to behavioral and functional review. The employee may be performing the job well, but if the employee dislikes the work or has a bad attitude about it, this can be causing problems or may cause them in the future. The employee's attitude about the company, the work and other employees also can be evaluated in part by how well they integrate with each component and their level of ease in doing so.

Competency Competency is a functional assessment. Its primary objective it to determine if the employee is actually doing the job to the minimum standard required. Competency also looks at performance and how well the employee performs in relation to her peers. It is noted whether she exceed expectations, is at par or behind her peers and if the employee may be more suited to higherskilled work. Efficiency Efficiency also is a component of functional assessment. Efficiency is measured by how quickly and accurately the employee is able to achieve goals. For example, someone who has a high output but low quality of work would not be considered efficient. Efficiency is often measured in relation to company standards. Interpersonal Relations Interpersonal relations are function behavioral assessments. This includes how the employee interacts with others, both above and below her. For example, the employee may be the nicest person to her boss but the worst person to those below her. The behavior of the person is often evaluated based on interviews other employees.

3.2.6: Glossary
A-B-C chart - This form allows you to document the occurrence of antecedents, problem behavior, and consequences that immediately follow problem behavior. "A" refers to antecedent, which means the stimulus that immediately precedes a problem behavior. The "B" refers to the behavior that is observed and "C" refers to the consequence, which is the stimulus that follows the response. Behavior - Any action that an individual demonstrates. Behavior is observable, and measurable. Behavior can be quantified and measured. Behaviors are learned. Behaviors occur for a specific reason. Direct Observation - Observing the student to clearly identify when problem behaviors occur, what happens right before a problem behavior, what the problem behavior looks like, and how people respond to the occurrence of problem behavior. Direct observation data help you develop a hypothesis statement about why problem behavior occurs, and confirm that your hypothesis is correct.

3.2.7: Check Your Progress

1. What is the Basis for Functional Behavior Assessment? 2. What are the Techniques adopted for the Functional Behavioral Assessment

3.2.8: Reference
Behavioral Assessment tools By Nancy Hayden.

Behavioral Assessment tools By Kimberly Scoot.

3.2.9: Answer to Check your Progress

1: Read 3.2.2 2: Read 3.2.4

Block 3 Unit 3: Psychological Testing and Procedures

Psychological testing also called psychological assessment Content 3.3.1: Introduction 3.3.2: Psychological Testing 3.3.3: Seven Types of Test 3.3.4: Psychological Tests for a Job Interview. 3.3.5: Summary 3.3.6: Glossary 3.3.7: Check Your Progress 3.3.8: Reference 3.3.9: Answer to Check Your Progress

3.3.1: Introduction
Psychological testing also called psychological assessment is the foundation of how psychologists better understand a person and their behavior. It is a process of problem solving for many professionals to try and determine the core components of a persons psychological or mental health problems, personality, IQ, or some other component. It is also a process that helps identifies not just weaknesses of a person, but also their strengths. Psychological testing measures an individuals performance at a specific point in time right now. Psychologists talk about a persons present functioning in terms of their test data. Therefore psychological tests cant predict future or innate potential. Psychological testing is not a single test or even a single type of test. It encompasses a whole body of dozens of research-backed tests and procedures of assessing specific aspects of a persons psychological makeup. Some tests are used to determine IQ, others are used for personality, and still others for something else. Since so many different tests are available, its important to note that not all of them share the same research evidence for their use some tests have a strong evidence base while others do not. A psychological assessment is the attempt of a skilled professional, usually a psychologist, to use the techniques and tools of psychology to learn either general or specific facts about another person, either to inform others of how they function now, or to predict their behavior and functioning in the future.

3.3.2: Psychological Testing

Psychological testing is an imperative branch of psychology that deals with creating and using several psychological tests in order to determine various aspects of psychology like brain function, behavioral patterns, attitudes, intelligence and emotions. There exist a variety of psychological testing methods used for various purposes. Here are some of the commonly used psychological testing methods: Norm-referenced Tests Norm-referenced tests are a part of psychological testing which compare an individual's test performance with the statistical representation of the population. Norms are available for standardized psychological testing, which allows a comparison of an individual's scores with those in the group norms. One of the common examples of norm-referenced tests are the IQ tests or the graduate record examination (GRE). IQ Tests IQ testing is a type of psychological testing used to measure intelligence. Alfred Binet introduced the idea of IQ tests in 1904. The 'Intelligence quotient' is defined as Mental Age divided by Chronological Age. IQ tests are a kind of norm-referenced test employed for assessing various abilities of the candidates. Generally the IQ tests include series of tasks presented to candidate and the responses for which are graded according to prescribed guidelines. Most of the IQ tests comprise tests measuring factual knowledge, memory skills, abstract reasoning, visual-spatial abilities, and most importantly the common sense of the candidates. Neuropsychological Tests Neurological tests are a part of neuropsychological assessment. Neuropsychological tests are distinctively designed tests used to assess the psychological function known linked to a particular brain pathway. Usually the neurological tests require an examiner to conduct the test for a single person at a time. Also the test needs to be conducted in a quiet atmosphere devoid of distractions. The Luria-Nebraska and Halstead-Reitan test batteries are the most popular and most commonly used neuropsychological tests. The neuropsychological tests help to detect and localize brain impairment, and also help in development of rehabilitation programs for mentally impaired individuals.

Vocational Testing There exist a range of psychological tests that help to define a person's aptitude for a specific vocation; these are called the vocational tests. These tests are very helpful for people who are trying to figure out their interest or are confused about specific career options. A majority of the vocational tests make use of the Holland codes, which divides the vocational interests into six categories which are:

Realistic (Hands-on and outdoor occupations) Investigative (Scientific/ Forensic/Research based) Artistic (creative professions) Social (counseling, social work or teaching) Enterprising (Business/ Management or Sales) Conventional (clerical).

Personality Tests Personality tests can be of various types and they aim to assess or describe several facets of a person's character including the behavioral patterns, thoughts and feelings. The earliest references to personality tests are seen in the Greek Philosopher Hippocrates' works. Today, there exist several types of personality traits that focus either on specific aspects of the personality or the personality as a whole. There are objective personality tests, projective personality tests, forensic personality tests or even personality tests that define a person's specific habits and attitudes regarding subjects like money, education or life in general. Quite often in life, we tend to have misconceptions about ourselves, or sometimes rely too much on other people's opinions to fathom our own abilities. The psychological testing methods are effective tools for us to discover our own abilities and limitations as well.

3.3.3: Seven Types of Test

There are basically seven types of tests: Group educational tests such as the California Achievement Test Ability and preference tests such as the Myers-Briggs LD and neuropsychology tests such as the Halstead Reitan Battery Individual intelligence tests such as the WAIS and WISC Readiness tests such as the Metropolitan Readiness Tests Objective personality tests such as the MMPI2 or PAI Self-administered, scored, and interpreted tests, such as data base user qualification tests There are generally three parties involved in testing according to the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, though this could become four:

Test Developer - This may be a company, an individual, a school.... The Test Developer has certain responsibilities in developing, marketing, distributing tests and educating test users. Test User - This may be a counselor, a clinician, a personnel official.... The Test User has certain responsibilities in selecting, using, scoring, interpreting, and utilizing tests. Test Taker - This may be the client in many cases. The Test Taker has certain rights regarding tests, their use, and the information gained from them. Test Utilizer - may be the test taker, but in other cases however, a business or organization may send a person to be tested. Thus, the organization also has certain rights regarding tests, their use, and the information gained from them.

The Test Developer should Construct a manual containing all relevant information, such as o The development and purpose of the test o Information on standardized administration and scoring o Data on the collection and composition of the standardization sample o Information on the test reliability and validity o Adequate information for the educated consumer to determine the appropriate and inappropriate use of the test o References to relevant published research regarding the test and its use o Information on correct interpretation and application and possible sources of misuse, as well as any bias in test construction or use Support the information provided with data. Adhere to all ethical guidelines regarding advertising, distributing, and marketing testing material. The Test User should Be aware of the limits of tests, in regards to reliability, validity, standard error of measurement, confidence intervals, as well as appropriate interpretation and use of the instrument. If you have any questions about tests, consult the Mental Measurement Yearbook, Tests in Print, or the 1984 Joint Technical Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. Read the manual and understand all relevant information Be responsible for o Assessing your own competence regarding use of a test or the competence of those you employ for that purpose o Adhering to the appropriate use of the test as stated in the manual o Being aware of any test bias or client characteristics that might decrease the validity of the test results or interpretation and report it with the testing report of selection, data, interpretation, and application. Protect test security where such security is vital to test reliability and validity. Be aware of the dangers of automated testing services and realize that they are to be used only by professionals Inform the client to be tested as to the purpose and potential use and applicability of the testing materials and results, as well as who will potentially have access to the results. The test user has the responsibility to see that the results are made available and used only for and by those specified in the consent agreement. Obsolete information should be regularly purged from records. Good Test Use Good test use requires: Comprehensive assessment using history and test scores Acceptance of the responsibility for proper test use Consideration of the Standard Error of Measurement and other psychometric knowledge Maintaining integrity of test results (such as the correct use of cut-off scores)

Accurate scoring Appropriate use of norms Willingness to provide interpretive feedback and guidance to test takers

A good test is both reliable and valid, and has good norms. Reliability, briefly, refers to the consistency of the test results. For example, IQ is not presumed to vary much from week to week, and as such, test results from an IQ test should be highly reliable. On the other hand, transient mood states do not last long, and a measurement of such moods should not be very reliable over long periods of time. A measurement of transient mood state may still be shown reliable if it correlates well with other tests or behavior observations indicative of transient mood states. Validity, briefly, refers to how well a test measures what it says it does. In a simple way, validity tells you if the hammer is the right tool to fix a chair, and reliability tells you how good a hammer you have. A test of intelligence based on eye color (blue eyed people are more intelligent than brown eyed people) would certainly be reliable, because eye color doesn't change, but it would not be very valid, because IQ and eye color have little to do with each other. Norms are designed to tell you what the result of measurement (a number) means in relation to other results (numbers). The "normative sample" should be very representative of the sample of people who will be given the test. Thus, if a test is to be used on the general population, the normative sample should be large, include people from ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds, and include people from all levels of income and educational status.

Test Taker Rights The Test-Taker has the right: To have the directions of testing as well as the results of an evaluation explained in language that they can understand. To have the confidentiality of that information maintained within the limits promised during informed consent. To have the results of the testing explained to them in a meaningful way, and in most cases to know to whom and how these results were shared.

3.3.4: Psychological Tests for a Job Interview.

Landing a job is hard work. You must create a resume that will entice a hiring manger to bring you in for an interview. During the interview, you must show the hiring manger why you are an indispensable asset to his department. Then you may need to pass a psychological test to be offered the

job. Psychological tests are increasingly part of the recruiting process. Why Companies Use Psychological Tests Businesses want to ensure they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. So how can a business be sure it picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work? The answer is psychological tests. These tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reducing turnover and lowering training costs. What the Tests Measure Three types of psychological tests may be administered by a company: personality, aptitude and skills. These multiple choice tests gauge an applicant's ability to handle certain situations. Applicants may be given one or a combination of these tests. Often, they are unaware tests are part of the screening process. This increases the chance that a company will obtain a truer picture of applicants. Companies determine the test scores they will accept. Employee Personality Tests Personality tests are the most popular of the psychological tests. They are designed to measure five traits: openness, emotional stability, extroversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness. Questions also may test your propensity for aggression or hostility, which are viewed as negative factors in the workplace. These tests are usually given for positions that require a high level of interaction with other people. Intelligence Aptitude Tests Intelligence aptitude tests are considered excellent predictors of job success. Studies show they are better indicators than interviewing a candidate or considering a candidate's experience or education. These short multiple choice tests measure a candidate's problem-solving skills, critical thinking skills and reasoning abilities. Many companies administer Harvard University's MiniCog Rapid Assessment Battery (MRAB). This 30-minute test measures a candidate's cognitive aptitude on attention, memory, reasoning and processing information. Skills Tests Some jobs require a specific skill set in order for employees to be successful. Companies want to make sure potential employees are able to perform certain job skills. A variety of skills tests are available for different positions, including tests to measure a candidate's verbal and math skills, typing skills, computer skills and data entry skills. These tests measure a candidate's basic intelligence and ability to think logically.

Psychological Tests Used in Employee Selection

Some large corporate companies spend millions of dollars on employee selection alone. This sector of the psychological testing industry by employers is increasing even though there are many controversies surrounding it. Nevertheless, it is important for employers to be able to

adequately assess an individual's work ethic, motivation and mindset when applying for the job to combat high rates of employee turnover or disgruntled employees that are unhappy happy in their career.

Types There are two types of employee selection tests used to screen candidates before the formal selection and interview process. A psychological personality test measures such things as honesty in the workplace, ability to work in a team, motivation, interests and one's work ethic. An aptitude test that measures one's skills and abilities. This is more of an objective testing method, measuring the potential employee's processing speed, math skills, reasoning and analytical skills, and spatial abilities.

Controversies Two main controversies surround the use of psychological tests in employee screening. The first controversy involves the fairness of the tests. The concern for many people is that there is no "right" or "wrong" answers on a psychological personality test so there is no reason to use them for screening potential employees. The second controversy concerns impression management. Potential employees can try to "cheat" on a psychological test by answering the questions that they think would be correct even though it is not how they would answer in real life. This can cause confusion and trouble for the employer trying to select the right candidate. Benefits An employer who uses psychological tests to screen employees is better off in most cases. Employers have the chance, if using the correct tools, to match their company with the right candidate for an open position. For example, employers can find out if someone has a strong or weak work ethic, is able to work well in a team environment, and has any problems with authority as well. In addition, the skills that are needed by an employer can easily be quantified through the use of specific tests that measure those abilities in a potential employee. Interpreting Tests There is a lot of room for error when it comes to making inferences about a potential employee based on a psychological test. Even though many companies spend millions of dollars on testing instruments and properly use them with the help of a trained psychologist, some companies may not have the money or resources available. It is this lack of training on a company's or human resources' part that could lead to misuse and misguided interpretations of psychological tests. That being said, a trained professional such as a research psychologist should always be responsible for helping interpret the results of tests for companies to gain the maximum benefit.

Locating Tests Many test publishers make their tests available in kits or packets that include all the resources needed to administer, score and interpret a psychological test for employee screening purposes. Screening tests can be found in the Mental Measurements Yearbook, which is the primary testing reference book in the industry. Commercially available psychological tests can also be found and purchased directly through a test publisher and the majority of test publishers have their own website to expedite the process.

3.3.5: Summary
Psychological testing is a field characterized by the use of samples of behavior in order to assess psychological construct(s), such as cognitive and emotional functioning, about a given individual. The technical term for the science behind psychological testing is psychometrics. By samples of behavior, one means observations of an individual performing tasks that have usually been prescribed beforehand, which often means scores on a test. These responses are often compiled into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the individual being tested to the responses of norm group. Psychological tests are written, visual, or verbal evaluations administered to assess the cognitive and emotional functioning of children and adults. Psychological tests are used to assess a variety of mental abilities and attributes, including achievement and ability, personality, and neurological functioning. Psychological tests are only one element of a psychological assessment. They should never be used alone as the sole basis for a diagnosis. A detailed history of the test subject and a review of psychological, medical, educational, or other relevant records are required to lay the groundwork for interpreting the results of any psychological measurement.

3.3.6: Glossary
Abnormal psychology the area of psychological investigation concerned with understanding the nature of individual pathologies of mind, mood, and behavior. Absolute threshold The minimum amount of physical energy needed to produce a reliable sensory experience; operationally defined as the stimulus level at which a sensory signal is detected half the time. Accommodation The process by which the ciliary muscles change the thickness of the lens of the eye to permit variable focusing on near and distant objects. Accommodation According to Piaget, the process of restructuring or modifying cognitive structures so that new information can fit into them more easily; this process works in tandem with assimilation.

Acquisition The stage in a classical conditioning experiment during which the conditioned response is first elicited by the conditioned stimulus. Behavioral rehearsal Procedures used to establish and strengthen basic skills; as used in social-skills training programs, requires the client to rehearse a desirable behavior sequence mentally. Behaviorism A scientific approach that limits the study of psychology to measurable or observable behavior. Behaviorist perspective The psychological perspective primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded and with the relationships of observable behavior to environmental stimuli. Belief-bias effect A situation that occurs when a person's prior knowledge, attitudes, or values distort the reasoning process by influencing the person to accept invalid arguments. Between-subjects design A research design in which different groups of participants are randomly assigned to experimental conditions or to control conditions. Case study Intensive observation of a particular individual or small group of individuals. Catharsis The process of expressing strongly felt but usually repressed emotions.

3.3.7: Check Your Progress

1. Why Companies Use Psychological Tests 2. What are the two types of employee selection tests used to screen candidates before the formal selection and interview process?

3.3.8: Reference
Psychological Testing By Uttara Manohar. Psychological Tests for a Job Interview By Leslie Webb.

3.3.9: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 3.3.4 2. Read 3.3.4

Block 3 Unit 4: Modern Trends and Practices

Content 3.4.1: Introduction 3.4.2: Current Trends in the Practice of counseling Cognitive approaches & Cognitive Motivation Affective approaches, and Behavioral approaches 3.4.3: Telephone Interview tips 3.4.4: Summary 3.4.5: Glossary 3.4.6: Check Your Progress 3.4.7: Reference 3.4.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

3.4.1: Introduction
Counseling in its widest connotation existed in one form or the other from time immemorial. In all cultures the elders not only set the norms of behavior within that culture but also counseled the youngsters to follow the norms. In India, elders especially parents and teachers thought that imparting counseling in the form of advice and guidance was one of their fundamental, and seared duty. The oft repeated adage; "Mata, Pita, Guru, Deivam" (Mother, Father, Teacher, God) reminded the youngsters not only of the agents of counseling but also of the priority as to who should impart counseling at various stages of life. Ancient epics of India are replete with depictions of counseling. Elders were only too ready to take up the role of counselors and youngsters sought counseling with prompt compliance. Many such incidents could be explained away as mere acts of 'giving advice'. But in most of those ancient transactions it is not difficult to see the scientific practice and ethics of modern counseling techniques. The most widely acknowledges counseling situation in the epics is that of the dialogue between Krishna and Arjuna in the battlefield of Kurukshetra. Whether this dialogue had all the characteristics of modern counseling may have to be answered by committed researchers in this area. Many often ask questions regarding the relevance and suitability of modern counselling techniques in all cultures. Experts in this field are of the opinion that the culture of India with the above heritage is potentially oriented to the modern techniques of counseling.

3.4.2: Current Trends in the Practice of counseling

Prospective counselors should be aware of major approaches to counseling so as to enable them to acquire a sound basis for developing their own personal brand of counseling. The current trends in this area can be broadly classified into three approaches. They are: 1. cognitive approaches 2. affective approaches, and 3. Behavioral approaches. It may be observed that the approaches closely parallel the three aspects of personality viz., cognition, affection and conation (i.e. knowing, feeling and doing as given by the ancient Philosophers). Cognitive approaches

As Feorge and Cristiana (1981) have pointed out, in the cognitive approaches, the process of counseling is the curing of unreason by reason; i.e., to help clients eliminate most emotional disturbances by learning to think rationally, to help them get rid of illogical, irrational ideas and attitudes and substitute logical, rational ideas and attitudes. It is believed that this process helps the client to attain rational behavior, happiness, and self-actualization. For example Transactional Analysis (TA) aims at the internal dialogues of individuals, which occurs between the various ego states and the struggles between the real parts of their behavior (whether the same is productive or counterproductive) and the behavior of others by identifying which ego state is in power at any given time. TA thus gives the clients information about the various types of transactions that occur among individuals and to help them identify the kinds of behavior in which they are involved. The goal of TA is to help clients review their past decisions and make new decisions about their present behavior. It is assumed that this would change their life direction into developing an autonomous life style characterized by awareness, spontaneity. This, it is believed that would; eliminate a life style characterized by manipulative game playing a self-defeating neurotic tendencies. Directive teaching is the core in all the cognitive approaches. For example in Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) the counselor takes up an active teaching role to educate clients. The RET counselor makes the client understand that the latters internationalized sentences are quite illogical and especially the current illogical thinking are self-defeating verbalizations of the client. The success if the counselor lies in bringing illogical thinking forcefully to the clients attention. He must also show to the counselee how these thoughts are maintaining his unhappiness and how a rethinking and maintenance of logically and rationality make him happy and contented. In reality therapy, the meaning of reality and the necessity to act responsibly are taught by the counselor.

Cognitive Motivation
Cognitive motivation is a theory of motivation that states that behavior is an active result of the analysis and processing of available information, rather than an innate and mechanical set of rules that the mind uses to respond to situations. The

theory assumes that behavior is based on a process of thought rather than on a preprogrammed set of mental instructions. The term cognition refers to any process of thought, and motivation is the activation of behavior or action. There are several different theories of motivation; cognitive motivation is but one of many explanations of why exactly people and animals do what they do. Most theorists that do not support the idea of cognitive motivation state that motivation is need-based or drive-reducing. Need-based motivations assume that people and animals act based on their needs for food, reproduction, water, or anything else they may need. Drive-reducing theories are similar, and state that people and animals all have powerful drives for food, sex, and other things and those they are motivated to take action only to reduce these drives. Cognition may have a place in these theories, but it is not thought of as the basis of motivation and behavior. There are two different forms of cognitive motivation: intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation refers to tasks that are rewarding in and of themselves, such as the pleasure of solving a puzzle, learning, or playing a game. The motivating factors for taking such actions are not external, but internal. Extrinsic motivation is the opposite and involves engaging in a task because of external factors. This can mean working for money and food, or it can involve taking actions to avoid harm. Cognition is the process of weighing the costs and benefits of any task, whether it is undertaken for internal reasons, external reasons, or some mix of the two. Need-based motivation theories would state that a person chooses the job that best allows him to provide for his needs, which usually involves making money to obtain food, shelter, and to provide for children. Cognitive motivation theories explain why people choose jobs that they like more even though they pay less and provide less. There is an intrinsic motivation factor that drives people to do things just for the enjoyment it provides them, even if that means sacrificing their needs to some degree. Cognitive motivation is based on two primary things: information available and past experience. A person will think about a situation based on what sensory input is available. He will also refer to his past and try to relate past experience to the situation at hand. Affective approaches,

As the term suggests the affective approaches in counseling focus their attention to what is going on inside the individual, and particularly what the individual is experiencing at a given time. Client-centered counseling of Rogers is perhaps the most well-defined technique in the affective approaches. It also highlights an issue in counseling; namely, how much responsibility can be placed on the client for his own problem solving? Rogers believed that when the individual perceived himself as behaving in a manner consistent with his 'picture' of himself, he generally experiences feelings of adequacy, security, and worth. If on the other hand, he acts in a manner different from the way he defines himself, he experiences what is known as "threat" and feels insecure, inadequate, or worthless. Under

pressure and with no other alternative, he may then defend himself against this threat using one or more of the commonly described "defense mechanisms". Unless counseling eliminates this defensive chain reaction and strengthens his self-concept, the defensive behavior would increase vulnerability to further threat, guilt, thereby creating more distortion and more self-defeating mechanisms. The role of the therapist is not just eliminating the defense mechanisms. Rogers highlights the importance of 'Congruence'. It means the close 'matching of awareness and experience'. In this context, the client centered counselors emphasizes the importance of accurate communication. If a client is aware of communicating a feeling which he is genuinely experiencing, his behavior is said to be congruent or integrated. In incongruent communication the awareness and experience of the client are two different if not opposing things. So also the recipient may experience an awareness of phony communication. The implication here for the counselor is that the counselor should help the client to face courageously the incongruence between awareness and experience so that communication of his real experiences is in full awareness and not distorted with defense mechanisms and neurotic constrictions. The 'self-theory' of Rogers also assumes a perspective called 'phenomenology'. According to this perspective, people's 'reality' is that which they perceive. The way to understand individuals is to infer the 'phenomenological field' from their behavior. In other words, the 'internal frame of reference' of the client is used in counseling with the implication that counselors must attempt to perceive client's perceptual worlds as closely as they can. This is known as the empathic skill of the counselor. Individual client's need to strive for wholeness is the focus in Gestalt therapy and counseling. This school of counseling gives importance to the internal world of the individual. Striving for the gestalt or the wholeness is actually a striving for an integration of thinking, feeling, and behaving. The key concept here is awareness. It is believed that the counselors help the clients work toward a total awareness of his experiences. Gestalt psychologists point out that such awareness permits self-regulation and self-control in the direction of increased integration and creativity. Recently, one of the major forces that have come to occupy an important place in psychology is 'Existentialism'. Unlike Psychoanalysis, existentialism is a temperamental way of looking at life. It is basically a philosophy of experiences which need not necessarily be categorized into cognitive compartments. Man is essentially an emotional being rather than a rational animal! The existence of man is unique because he is the only being who reacts to the fact of his existence. The awareness of one's own existence and the possibility of non-existence alters the inner world or the phenomenology. These new premises create new experiences and needs that are yet to be known. The predicament of human beings is such that it includes the individual's capacity for increased self-awareness, the search for unique meaning in a meaningless world, being alone and being in relation with others, freedom to choose one's fate, responsibility, anxiety, finiteness and death, and a basic urge for self-actualization. As a theory existentialism is sound and appealing, but the practice of counseling on the basis of this theory is difficult. However, the existential counselor tries to understand the client as 'a being' and as 'a being in the world'. Counselors are supposed to expose his own inner reality and at the same time be human. This according to existentialists enables clients to become aware of similar conditions and qualities in themselves. It is pointed out that through this process clients come to recognize their potentialities and

achieve self-growth by accepting it as their responsibility. In a nut shell, it can be said that making the client accept responsibility for him is the aim of existential counseling. Behavioral approaches

While the dynamically oriented theorists try to understand conscious and unconscious through inference, the behavioral counselors concentrate on objective study of client behavior and the learning process. As the emphasis is primarily on overt behavior, the first emphasis is to discover how the behavior was acquired and how it can be changed. The second emphasis, which is a later addition, is on precondition for behavior change. This approach is characterized by (1) A focus on overt and specified behavior; (2) A precise and well spelt out target behaviors called goals; (3) A formulation of a specific and objective treatment procedure to the problem at hand; and (4) an objective assessment of the outcome of counseling in terms of the degree of approximation to the target behavior. In the behavioral approaches well defined counseling goals are of central importance. The much talked about counselor-counselee relationship in other approaches is of secondary importance only. The main aim of this relationship to the behaviorist counselor is to facilitate greater understanding of the client's view of the problem. This helps to formulate a more successful behavioral plan for bringing about change in the client's maladaptive behavior to one of adaptive behavior (target behavior). As the behavioral approaches base their understanding of human behavior through the theories of learning, they use very specific techniques like behavior contracts, social modeling, systematic desensitization and assertive training. All these techniques are well known to counselors.

3.4.3: Telephone Interview tips

Growing trend in the job seeker world is the telephonic interview. Many companies schedule a telephone interview first to help determine if scheduling a personal interview is necessary. In most cases, the telephonic interview is the first contact you will have with the company, so take the necessary steps to make the interview a success. Speaking Efficiently Answer only the questions that you are asked in a telephone interview. Do not feel the need to fill any quiet time with talking. The interviewer is waiting on the other end to ask the next question, so give a brief answer and move on. Speak slowly and articulate words so that you can be clearly heard. Make sure you are awake and alert, and always speak with a smile on your face. A positive attitude can be heard over the phone, and an experienced human resources representative wants to hear that you are enthusiastic when talking about their company and the available position. You can add energy and enthusiasm to your tone of voice by standing up during the interview as opposed to reclining in a comfortable chair.

Take time prior to the interview to practice answering standard interview questions such as where you heard about the position and where you plan on being in your career five years from now. The interviewer is listening to the way you are answering questions as much as the answers themselves, so practice being positive and confident in your answers. Setting the Right Mood Take a telephone interview seriously because the company does, otherwise they would not use it. Schedule the interview for a time when you will be alone and will not have any distractions from other people. Be sure to confirm if you are calling the company or they are calling you. If you are calling them then confirm the phone number, contact's name and phone extension. If they are calling you, then confirm the person's name along with proper spelling so that you recognize them when calling. Turn off all background noise, including televisions, computers and radios. Do not distract yourself by checking email or doing something else during the interview. If it is possible to be in a room with just a chair and the phone in it with the door closed then use that. If someone knocks on your door then excuse yourself and make your trip to the door brief. Take a deep breath prior to getting on the call to allow yourself to slow down and relax when you speak. Basic Approaches To Counseling Counseling Method Psychoanalysis (psychological) Non-directive Counseling (self-discovery) Existential Counseling (meaning) Transactional Analysis (cognitive) Behavioral Counseling (behavior) Reality Therapy Refusal to accept current reality Playing out of inappropriate roles from learned past experiences Wrong learned behavior Unfulfilled needs & potential Causes For Problems Regression of natural desires with sexual & social maladjustment Lack of selfunderstanding Treatment Method Psychotherapy with emphasis on childhood experiences Affirmation of self and self-directed growth Redirecting of priorities to fulfill personal needs with self fulfillment Re-education of mechanics of roles (parent, adult, child) Relearning based primarily upon a reward system omitting punishment Confrontation with facts Experimental Knowledge Humanistic Knowledge Common Knowledge Counselor's Approach Expert Knowledge

Educative Knowledge

Authoritative Knowledge

(facing issues) Biblical Counseling (obeying God)

resulting in blame and escapism Sin and a lack of understanding spiritual knowledge, wisdom, and truth Application of the Word of God by hearing and obeying God Revelational Knowledge

3.4.4: Summary
Cognitive psychology focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would call stimuli), and how this treatment leads to responses. In other words, they are interested in the variables that mediate between stimulus/input and response/output. Cognitive psychologists study internal processes including perception, attention, language, memory and thinking.

3.4.5: Glossary
Psychoanalysis attempts to have people recall, interpret, and work through childhood experiences. Childhood experience may dramatically influence adult life. Emotional wounds (especially parental abuse) may influence many areas of the adult life. However, psychoanalysis often over emphasizes the sexual aspect. Furthermore, just recalling a negative childhood experience does not bring emotional healing. Only God through Jesus can accomplish that. Also, false doctrines and concepts learned in childhood may cause inner conflicts in adulthood. However, the lies must be confronted with the truth of the Word. Non-directive Counseling emphasizes the importance of getting the individual to share his problems. The individual may need to unload and air his problems, and it is important the counselor affirms the worth of the client by listening. However, just sharing doesn't bring resolution to the problems. It is also important to allow the individual come to a conclusion; however, it is more important to direct the individual to the correct conclusion. Furthermore, if the individual had the answer within himself he wouldn't really need a counselor. Furthermore, so called "common knowledge" is not always true knowledge and is, in fact, often wrong. Existential Counseling attempts to relate the unfulfilled "needs" and "potential" to issues and to aid the individual to redirect their energy to best fulfill their needs and reach their potential. Every person "needs" to have certain needs met. However, man is not to look at himself to fulfill his needs or potential. God is to be his source. Furthermore, what the individual or even the counselor may consider to be the proper priorities may not be what God considers to be the priorities. Man is to be God-centered, not self-centered.

3.4.6: Check Your Progress

1. Write a short note about the three approaches practiced in current trends in counseling? 2. What are the steps to be follow in telephonic interview make success?

3.4.7: Reference
Basic Approaches to counseling By Dr. Basil Frasure. Current Trends in the Practice of Counseling By Dr. Krishna Prasad Sridhar

3.4.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 3.4.2. 2. Read 3.4.3


Talent management is the proven practice of using interconnected human resources processes to provide a simple fundamental benefit for any organization. In this block we are studying the below topics in talent management. Unit 1: Philosophy of Talent Management Unit 2: Performance Management Cycle Unit 3: Reward Trends Unit 4: Talent Planning (succession Planning)

Unit 1: Philosophy of Talent Management

Talent management systems consist of a philosophy, a strategy, and a system. Talent management philosophy involves making sure that every employee is provided with the guidance and support to achieve their full potential. This aids them to do their best, every day. Content: 4.1.1: Introduction 4.1.2: What is Talent Management? 4.1.3: Talent Management Managing People. 4.1.4: Five Steps to select a Talent Management system 4.1.5: Summary 4.1.6: Glossary 4.1.7: Check Your Progress 4.1.8: Reference 4.1.9: Answer To Check Your Progress

4.1.1: Introduction
Talent Management, often times referred to as Human Capital Management, is the process recruiting, managing, assessing, developing and maintaining an organizations most important resource-its people! In present talent-hungry marketplace, one of the greatest challenges that organizations are facing is to successfully attract, assess, train and retain talented employees. Talent Management is the end-to-end process of planning, recruiting, developing, managing, and compensating employees throughout the organization. The 4 pillars of talent management

are: recruiting, performance management, learning management, and compensation management. As larger Human Resource Management System (HRMS) vendors have shied away from providing rich functionality in these areas, numerous best-of-breed technology solutions have evolved. These 4 industries have now begun to converge, providing end-to-end talent management solutions that enable organizations to better recruit, get more out of the employee appraisal process, manage learning to develop employees' strategically-critical competencies, and compensate employees fairly. Talent management solutions relieves the stress of writing employee performance reviews by automating the task and using your exact workflow. Organizations can establish and communicate critical corporate goals, measure employee performance improvement, and ensure that all levels of the organization are aligned all working towards the same goals.

4.1.2: What is Talent Management?

TALENT AND GOOD MANAGEMENT DRIVE BUSINESS PERFORMANCE. We all know that teams with the best people can perform at a higher level. We also know that to deliver top line growth even the best people need to be engaged, developed, and rewarded. Leading organizations know that exceptional business performance is driven by superior talent thats managed with consistent processes. PEOPLE ARE THE DIFFERENCE. TALENT MANAGEMENT IS THE STRATEGY. Analyst research has proven that organizations using this business strategy powered by talent management software exhibit higher performance than their competitors and the market in general. From Fortune 100 enterprises to small and medium businesses, companies that invest in talent management achieve significant returns. They know success is powered by the total talent quality of their workforce. HR professionals and line managers need talent management insights to know more about their people and make better decisions faster. They have information that they need to know: How can we align individual goals to team and organizational goals? Who are my highest performers and what are their career paths? What is my best source of hire and how can I better focus my recruiting efforts? Who are my future leaders and how can I effectively foster their development? Who requires a higher merit increase to avoid turnover risk and business disruption? Who are my top internal and external candidates if my VP of operations leaves? Who needs additional development before they can assume greater responsibility?

TALENT INTELLIGENCE KNOWS. Talent management is the last major business function to be automated with comprehensive data capture and analytics. As a result, many companies know more about their laptops than their people.

According to the McKinsey Quarterly article why multinationals struggle to manage talent, companies that have overcome this knowledge gap are out-performing their competitors by as much as 40 percent higher profitability per employee. Talent intelligence is the insight companies need to capitalize on their most critical asset their people. Talent intelligence gives companies the ability to capture meaningful information on people so managers gain the insight they need to act on it and drive better business performance. TALENT MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS AND PROCESSES Workforce cost is the largest category of spend for most organizations. Optimization of your talent management processes provides the immediate workforce visibility and insights your company needs to significantly improve your bottom line. Recruiting, performance, compensation, learning and development, and succession management solutions tied to analytics provide the processes and information to attract, engage, reward, and develop a high performance workforce. Many organizations struggle to achieve talent intelligence because of disconnected HR processes and technology. Advanced talent management software uses integration on a single talent management platform to provide line managers with the information they need on a web browser.

LEADING ORGANIZATIONS USE TALENT MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS Leading organizations rely on talent management solutions and services to acquire, onboard, manage, engage, develop, and reward talent while significantly reducing process costs, improving quality of hire, reducing risk, and achieving higher levels of performance. Here is the bottom line:

Your organizations success is powered by your people. The quality of your people is a competitive differentiator. Talent management software drives higher business performance.

Talent management systems and processes with talent intelligence provide the insights managers need to have the right talent doing the right work at the right time. Thats how talent truly drives better business performance.

4.1.3: Talent Management Managing People.

People Excellence involves developing everybody that works for your organization not just the high-fliers. Talent management philosophy involves making sure that every employee is provided with the guidance and support to achieve their full potential. This aids them to do their best, every day. Everyone works together to achieve the organizations objectives as well as meeting their own personal goals. Everyone shares the same vision and dreams. Within this culture they are able to progress and take on greater responsibility within the company. Everyone has talent. For matching talent with tasks produces competitive advantage. Each individual can make best use of their talents, whatever they may be. Talent Management enables both: Job enrichment, where individuals are encouraged to take on extra tasks and Responsibilities within an existing job role to make work more rewarding and Job enlargement, where the scope of the existing job is extended to give a broader range of responsibility, plus extra knowledge and skills development.

Talent Management is a global philosophy that is a key part of supporting each of the elements of the business strategy. Talent Management enables Siemens' managers to engage and motivate employees throughout the organization. The benefits of talent management By applying talent management to all staff: All customer-facing staff are engaged, so all customers benefit Everyone has the opportunity and choices to achieve their full potential The pipeline of highfliers is sustained. Performance management To created a standard process for managing the performance and development of all employees. This is referred to as the Performance Management Process. The process creates a direct link between the strategy of the whole organization and plans for each individual. Every individual is given targets based on their role and responsibility within the organization. It is through meeting personal targets that the individual is best able to help the organization to achieve its targets. Performance management is a systematic process that creates trust and open communication by: Setting objectives Monitoring progress made Creating an ongoing dialogue between each team member and his/her manager Enabling forthright discussion.

Performance management is the engine that drives Talent Management. It is the cornerstone of its high performance culture. When carried out in a consistent way, this system makes sure that everyone is told honestly about their performance. Employees are clear about the impact of their performance and what the consequences are for their development. Everyone within the organization is pulling together to achieve the business strategy.

4.1.4: Five Steps to select a Talent Management system

In the face of a struggling economy, the last things companies want to do is waste money and hinder operations with a poorly performing talent management system. This can cause them to miss out on crucial business insight on their talent strategies, which can result in talent gaps and decreased ROI. (Return on Investment) Still, studies show that many companies are not maximizing their current talent management investments to best suit their specific organizational needs. The longer a company goes without an optimized talent management system, the more difficulty it will face in acquiring the talent needed to execute business objectives. With that in mind, here are five steps to consider before selecting a talent management system: Assess current gaps and document all requirements and goals. The first step is to evaluate the current talent management system to determine where it is underperforming. Its important to start by gathering feedback from recruiters, hiring managers, executives and employees to develop a clear set of items that should be improved as well as the requirements and business-driven goals the organization needs from its talent management system. Its also beneficial to document the processes that are working well so such procedures can continue after making the switch. Exhaust opportunities with current providers. As the current provider will want to maintain the business relationship, consider presenting them with the list of gaps to see if they can fix the problem areas. If considering staying with the current provider, make sure they clearly demonstrate how they will meet the companys new needs and put in writing how and when they will make the necessary changes. Look for a partner, not a provider. In developing a talent management strategy, HR should seek to work with a partner to build an ongoing relationship, not just a provider or vendor. Present the list of gaps, requirements and goals to prospective new vendors and ensure they can fulfill the companys needs and commit to

key performance goals in writing. A true partner should be willing to agree to penalties for not meeting specific performance goals. Negotiate setup costs to minimize the financial impact of switching. Economic pressures have left many HR organizations with little reserves for the large upfront investment required to implement a new talent management system. Thats why its a good idea to find a partner that will spread some or even all of the setup costs over part of the lifecycle of the contract. Be sure to review the contract with the current provider for any costs associated with contract termination and data transition. Prepare to make the business case to the executive team. After completing due diligence and identifying potential partners that can help meet the companys goals, its time to make a clear business case to executives about why the change is needed. Clearly outline the deficiencies of the current system and the impact they have had on operations as well as the steps taken to mitigate the issues. The discussion should be open and honest and focus on the benefits of implementing the new strategy. Given the dynamic status of the economy, its understandable why companies may be unwilling to dedicate resources to identifying and implementing a new talent management system. However, having the wrong system in place can foster the underperformance and underutilization of talent. Adopting a new system thats the right fit for the organization will help put the right people in the right positions, ensuring short- and long-term success.

4.1.5: Summary
Managing and developing talent is beneficial for both the manager and the individual, such as an employee. A talented individual can certainly help a business, but over time, if that talent is not managed well or developed, the work may start to feel stale for the employee, who might then look for other work. But, if you develop that talent to let it grow over time, the employee may feel empowered and grateful, and will continue to use her talents at your place of business. Talent management goes beyond basic day-to-day management tasks. In todays competitive talent market, talent management is about leaders throughout the organization taking accountability for all aspects of the employee lifecycle. Talent leadership accountability encompasses hiring, on-boarding, developing, managing, challenging, promoting, motivating and more. When done well, it ensures that the right employees are in the right jobs with the skills and motivation to succeed. Many managers view talent management as the responsibility of their Human Resources department. And while HR does play an important role, it is up to individual managers to be involved at a deeper level with their employees. For example, when sourcing an open position, whose job is it to scope the job requirements, interview the candidate and ensures the selected candidate is successfully oriented to the position and company? HR can provide processes and resources to assist, but as talent leaders, managers have that accountability.

To be successful, managers must fully understand and embrace their role as talent leaders in the areas of: Attracting employees Retaining employees Transitioning employees To be effective in todays challenging marketplace, managers must embrace talent management holistically. When organizations encourage and reward their leaders to address all phases of an employees life cycletaking action to attract, retain, and transition the best employees they realize big payoffs. From the top down, leaders manage their talent with a build for the future mind-set and employee actions are aligned to strategies and expectations.

4.1.6: Glossary
Talent management is just another one of those pesky Human Resources terms. Right? Wrong. Talent management is an organization's commitment to recruit, retain, and develop the most talented and superior employees available in the job market. Talent management is a business strategy and must be fully integrated within all of the employee related processes of the organization. Attracting and retain talented employees, in a talent management system, is the job of every member of the organization, but especially managers who have reporting staff (talent). Talent Management: Talent Management is usually associated with competency-based human resource management practices. It includes recruitment, assessment and development, succession planning, performance management, career management and exit planning for top talent. Talent Management decisions are often driven by a set of organizational core competencies as well as position-specific competencies Talent Planning: The careful planning and implementation of strategy to attract talented people and ensure they will thrive and contribute to the organizations success. A process of identifying, optimizing, developing, rewarding, promoting and maintaining talent. Turnover: The percentage of employees who leave or are removed from the workforce of an organization, typically measured on an annual basis. Separation may be voluntary or not. High voluntary turnover is typically regarded as a negative indicator for a company. Various estimates put the cost of turnover at anywhere from one-half to 2.5 times the annual salary per employee, including both its direct (costs to rehire) and indirect (e.g., loss of productivity and ripple effects on other employees) impact.

4.1.7: Check Your Progress

1. What are the benefits of talent management? 2. Explain the Five Steps to select a Talent Management system

4.1.8: Reference
Talent Management & Development By Chris Newton Current Trends in the Practice of Counseling By Dr. Krishna Prasad Sridhar

4.1.9: Answer To Check Your Progress

1. Read 4.1.3 2. Read 4.1.4

Block IV Unit 2: Performance Management Cycle

Performance management is a program that corporate management uses to evaluate the current performance of employees and to help improve the performance in the future. Employee performance management is a never-ending process to help the company and its workers excel. Content 4.2.1: Introduction 4.2.2: Definition of Employee Performance Management. 4.2.3: Four Stage Performance Management Cycle 4.2.4: Summary 4.2.5: Glossary 4.2.6: Check Your Progress 4.2.7: Reference 4.2.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

4.2.1: Introduction
A performance management cycle (PMC) is a technique used by company managers and executives to encourage employee growth and job satisfaction. Within a PMC, the employer evaluates an employees skills and job performance. The employer typically will set goals, as well, to help careers develop in a manner consistent with company goals for the employee. If an employee is not able to meet the goals and expectations outlined by the company, a performance management cycle usually offers a built-in system for improvement, typically beginning with direct counseling for problem areas. Though initial goals may be set by the company when an employee is hired, the performance management cycle usually will not officially begin until the first performance review typically after the first year of employment, but sooner in some cases. While each company usually develops its own plan for performance management cycles, the basic cycle typically includes three phases: planning and goal setting, progress reporting, and review assessment. When it is time for the first performance review, the employer will assess the

employees work as executed during the specified time frame. After providing the employee with a comprehensive evaluation of his job performance, the employer usually will advise him of the company goals for him over the next review period.

4.2.2: Definition of Employee Performance Management.

Definition Employee performance management is a process that companies use to ensure their employees are contributing to producing a high quality product or service. Employee performance management encourages the employee to get involved in the planning for the company, and therefore anticipates by having a role in the process the employee will be motivated to perform at a high level. The Planning Process The planning process is the first step in employee performance management. It allows employees to have input into how the company should structure its policies and procedures in anticipation of producing a final product or service. The planning process defines what is expected of the employee and his goals as a team member in producing the final product of the company. Monitoring Performance Monitoring performance of the employees and the process is the second step in employee performance management. It is an ongoing process, that involves checking the progress of the product or the service at predetermined and random times in the process. Based on the analysis of the progress made, the employee is given continual feedback on what he is doing well and what he can improve in to improve the company's product or service. Developing Employees The third step of employee performance management is development. This is very important for a company as it can improve the employee's performance and show the company has an interest in the employee's success. It is important to determine areas that the employee needs to improve in, and also opportunities for the employee to advance within the company. An employee should be offered the opportunity to attend training both to improve in his current role and to expand his future opportunity with the company for promotion. Rating Rating an employee is the fourth step in employee performance management. Rating an employee goes hand-in-hand with the monitoring process. The rating step is more formal though, as it involves a written review of the employee's performance. The employee is allowed to provide input on how he feels he is doing in the job and to rate himself as well. The manager and the employee then review the ratings provided and address any areas where their ratings are significantly different so that the employee can understand why he was rated in that manner. Rewards Providing a reward is the final step in the employee performance management cycle. The reward an employee receives can vary greatly. It could include a promotion or a raise; it might

also just include a verbal acknowledgment of the good job the employee is doing at the time. The presentation of the reward can occur after a formal rating, but can also be offered at any time during the employee performance management cycle that management feels is appropriate

4.2.3: Four Stage Performance Management Cycle

"What gets measured, gets managed; what gets managed gets done," so said famed strategic management expert Peter Drucker. The gist of his statement is that firms must measure performance to achieve results. The question for managers, however, is how to effectively measure performance. The performance management cycle is one method that offers managers a way to effectively measure performance. Plan Planning is the initial stage of the performance management cycle. During the planning phase, managers develop an overall strategic plan for the business. It is important, during this stage, that the desired goals and outcomes be clearly identified, as well as the indented means of achieving them. For example, a firm might set the objective of increasing revenues by $500,000 and specify that it intends to do so by increasing production levels. Do The "do" stage is the implementation phase of the performance management cycle. During this stage, managers must take their plans and actually apply them to the business. An important component of this stage is communication. Manages must communicate their plan to all employees and make clear the specific goals and objectives that they are supposed to achieve. Managers may want to provide employees with a set of written procedures that explains new methods of conducting business. Review After a plan has been implemented, it is essential that it is reviewed. The actual results of the plan should be measured against the intended results. For example, if the plan had a goal of increasing sales by 25 percent then the manager responsible will need to measure the actual sales growth to see if it has reached the target level. Managers should review plans regularly according to a predetermined schedule, for example reviewing results annually, quarterly or monthly. Revise Based on the review of the plan, it may be necessary to revise it. If a firm fails to meet its expected goals then the managers that are held responsible need to adjust the plan to attain the goals. After the plan has been revised, it will return to the initial planning stage and the cycle will continue. As a result, plans will be constantly revised, making it possible to adapt them continually and to make constant improvements.

4.2.4: Summary
The Performance Management tool manages and administers the complete performance management or evaluation process, facilitates the dialogue between employee and manager, and creates total transparency of the process for all parties involved (employee, hierarchical manager, functional manager, HR department). Flexibility is a key word in the Performance Management tool. You can easily configure the tool to automate your performance management process. You determine the evaluation cycle, the available document roles, which fields are visible, which actions should be taken, how many objectives should be evaluated and so on Evaluation cycle Set up the company, team and/or individual objectives at the beginning of and follow up during the evaluation cycle. You have instant access to the job description and the job related responsibilities as well to determine objectives and targets. Keeping the flexibility of the tool in mind, you can easily configure how the employee and manager should evaluate the objectives. Define and assess the competences Depending on how competences are used within your company, the Performance Management tool can be configured to use competence profiles linked to the job, competence profiles linked to a role (e.g. management), or an individual competence profile which is created by the employee and/or manager. Based on the rating and the required level of the competences, the application will calculate the competence gap which can be taken into account for the personal development plan to start working on the development of the employee. Development plan Performance Management does not only include setting and evaluating objectives, but it also includes working on the development of them. The personal development plan offers a platform to create SMART development objectives and define and manage actions to help your employees reach a higher level of performance.

4.2.5: Glossary
Performance management is the process of creating a work environment or setting in which people are enabled to perform to the best of their abilities. Performance management is a whole work system that begins when a job is defined as needed. It ends when an employee leaves your organization. Many writers and consultants are using the term performance management as a substitution for the traditional appraisal system. I encourage you to think of the term in this broader work system context. A performance management system includes the following actions. Develop clear job descriptions.

Select appropriate people with an appropriate selection process. Negotiate requirements and accomplishment-based performance standards, outcomes, and measures. Provide effective orientation, education, and training. Provide on-going coaching and feedback. Conduct quarterly performance development discussions. Design effective compensation and recognition systems that reward people for their contributions. Provide promotional/career development opportunities for staff. Assist with exit interviews to understand WHY valued employees leave the organization.

4.2.6: Check Your Progress

1. Write a short note about the Four Stage Performance Management Cycle. 2. What is mean by Employee Performance Management

4.2.7: Reference
Employee Performance Management By Alan Kirk. Four stage Performance Management Cycle By Wendell Clark Performance Management By Susan M. Heath field.

4.2.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 4.2.3 2. Read 4.2.2

Block 4 Unit 3: Reward Trends

Reward management is about the design, implementation, maintenance, communication and evolution of reward processes which help organizations to improve performance and achieve their objectives. Content 4.3.1: Introduction 4.3.2: The Key Issues facing reward management 4.3.3: Key Reward Management Trends 4.3.4: Purpose and Aim. 4.3.5: Criteria for pay structures 4.3.6: Summary 4.3.7: Glossary 4.3.8: Check Your Progress 4.3.9: Reference 4.3.10: Answer to Check Your Progress

4.3.1: Introduction
Reward processes are based on reward philosophies and strategies and contain arrangements in the shape of policies and strategies and contain arrangements in the shape of policies, guiding principles, practices, structures and procedures which are devised and managed to provide and maintain appropriate types and levels of pay, benefits and other forms of reward. This constitutes the financial reward aspect of the process which incorporates processes and procedures for tracking market rates, measuring job values, designing and maintaining pay structures, paying for performance, competence and skill, and providing employee benefits. However, reward management is not just about money. It is also concerned with those non-financial rewards which provide intrinsic or extrinsic motivation.

4.3.2: The key issues facing reward management

How to ensure that reward management strategies support the achievement of the organizations business strategies and satisfy the needs and aspirations of employees for security, stability and career development? How to achieve internal equity and external competitiveness? How to respond to a fragmenting pay market and maintain a reasonably coherent pay structure? How to concentrate on rewarding for output and maintain, indeed enhance quality standards? How can we reward individual performance and contribution and promote teamwork? How to introduce sophisticated performance management process and ensure that Managers are committed and have the skills required getting the best out of them?

How can we give high rewards to high achievers and motivate the core of the employees upon whom we ultimately have to rely? How to achieve consistency in managing reward processes and provide for the flexibility needed in ever-changing circumstances? How can we devolve power to the line managers to manage their own reward processes and retain sufficient control to ensure that corporate policies are implemented? How to continue to provide motivation for those who have reached the top of their pay range and maintain the integrity of the grading system and contain costs? How to introduce more powerful pay-for-performance schemes and ensure to get value of money from them? How to deliver the message that improved performance brings increased reward and cap bonus earnings to cater for windfall situations or a particularly loose incentive scheme? How to operate enterprise-wide bonus scheme and ensure that they increase motivation and commitment? How to reward people for their outputs and their inputs? How to operate job evaluation schemes as a means of allocating and controlling grading in a formal hierarchy and cater for the role flexibility which is increasingly required in the organization?

4.3.3: Key Reward Management Trends

Following are the key reward management trend in todays scenario. Greater sensitivity to sector and functional market practice to enable more effective market positioning to help with attracting and retaining high caliber employees. The implementation of increasingly focused performance awards starting at the top and working down through organizations as performance orientation increases. Pay increases linked to market worth and individual or team performance-not service and/or cost of living. More attention given to achievement or success-oriented individual bonuses rather than payment increases in base pay. A move towards team pay as the importance of teamwork increases. More flexible pay structures based on job families and using broader pay bands or pay curves. More integrated pay structures covering all categories of employees. A growing linkage between pay practice and training and development initiatives through the design and implementation of skills and competency based pay processes which reward the acquisition and use of new skills and behaviors. The development of integrated performance management systems with the emphasis on coaching development, motivation and recognition through the identification of opportunities to succeed. A search for simpler and more flexible approaches to job evaluation which enable a move away from the control of uniformity to the management of diversity. This will make use of techniques such as job family modeling and computer assisted job evaluation.

Increased awareness of the need to treat job measurement as a process for managing relativities which, as necessary, has to adapt to new organizational environments and much greater role flexibility and can no longer be applied rigidly as a system for preserving existing hierarchies. More emphasis on the choice of benefits and clean cash rather than a multiplicity of perquisites. Greater creativity and sensitivity in benefit practice.

4.3.4: Purpose and Aim

The purpose of a pay structure is to provide a fair and consistent basis for motivating and rewarding employees. The aim is to further the objectives of the organization by having a logically designed framework within which internally equitable and extremely competitive reward policies can be implemented, although the difficulty of reconciling often conflicting requirements for equity and competitiveness has to be recognized. The structure should help in the management of relativities and enable the organization to recognize and reward people appropriately according to their job role size, performance, contribution, skill and competence. It should be possible to communicate with the aid of the structure the pay opportunities available to all employees. The pay structure should also help the organization to control the implementation of pay policies and budgets.

4.3.5: Criteria for Pay Structures

Pay structure should: Be appropriate to the characteristic and needs of the organization: its culture, size and complexity, the degree to which it is subjected to change and the type and level of the people employed. Be flexible in response to internal and external pressures, especially those related to market rates and skills shortages. Facilitate operational and role flexibility so that employees can be moved around the organization between jobs of slightly different sizes without the need to reflect that size variation by changing rates of pay. Give scope for rewarding high level performance and significant contributions while still providing appropriate rewards and recognition for the effective and reliable core employees who form majority in most organizations. Facilitate rewards for performance and achievement. Help to ensure that consistent decisions are made on pay in relation to job size, contribution, skill and competence. Clarify pay opportunities, development pathways and career ladders.

Be constructed logically and clearly so that the basis upon which they operate can readily be communicated to employees. Enable the organization to exercise control over the implementation of pay policies and budgets.

Reward management has an important part to play in the development of cultures in which individuals and teams take responsibility for continuous improvement. It affects organizational performance because of the impact it has on peoples expectations as to how they will be rewarded Organization must reward employees because in return, they are looking for certain kind of behavior; they need competent individuals who agree to work with a high level of performance and loyalty. Individual employees, in return for their commitment, expect certain extrinsic rewards in the form of salary, promotion, fringe benefits, perquisites, bonuses or stock options. Individuals also seek intrinsic rewards such as feelings of competence, achievement, responsibility, significance, influence, personal growth, and meaningful contribution. Employees judge the adequacy of their exchange with the organization by assessing both set of rewards.

4.3.6: Summary
Human resources strategies, compensation and reward strategies and the culture the company has built are critical to maintaining the environment needed to attract the types of workers who will allow the firm to stay on the cutting edge of changing technologies and markets in its industry. Its social contract therefore focuses on providing a financially and psychologically rewarding place to work. Reward systems help in increasing performance and creating happier employees. The greatest management principle is that the things that get rewarded get done. All reward systems are based on the assumptions of attracting, retaining and motivating people. Financial rewards are an important component of the reward system, but there are other factors that motivate employees and influence the level of performance. That organization which gives the maximum reward attracts and retains most people. Higher rewards will give higher satisfaction. This will lead to lower turnover and more job applicants. It is difficult to retain the best performers in any organization. They will get higher offers from competitive organizations and may leave the company. For retaining the best performers, the organization needs to reward people at a level above the reward standards in similar organizations. In some organization, reward system is based on performance and skills of the employees. So higher rewards will motivate skilled employees to perform better. In hierarchical organizations, reward system acts as a motivation for lower cadre employees to learn those skills which will lead to promotion to the higher levels. The reward system contributes to the overall culture and climate of organizations.

4.3.7: Glossary

Reward systems are a major cost factor in many organizations. There are some criteria for building effective reward systems.* Give Value for the employees preference in the reward system. Employees prefer rewards in different ways like cash awards, plaques, recognition in award ceremonies and company newsletters. Reward systems should simple and specific. Easy understanding of the system will make the system work effectively. Elaborate procedures, evaluations and review by different levels will lead to confusion among people. A line of sight should be maintained between rewards and actions. Rewards should be timely. The recognition/rewards should be provided frequently enough to make performers feel valued for their efforts. Reward systems should be fair and effective. It should be reliable, that is, the program should operate according to its principles and purpose. Involve people in the formulation of the reward system. By ensuring the participation of the people in the reward system, the company can empower them to do the needful.

For most people, the most important reward is the pay they receive for their work. Effectively planned and administered reward systems will enhance motivation thus performance also. Employees who work hard and produce better quality products should get higher pay than the poor performers. The employees should be satisfied with the rewards they receive for their good work. They should be given extrinsic rewards like pay, promotion and other status symbols. This will give them a feeling of competence, achievement, personal growth and self-esteem. In India, rewards are given in the form of financial benefits, incentives, profit sharing, and gain sharing and stock options. Financial rewards are given to employees for their achievements. Pay is of many types like Competence related pay, Skill-based Pay, Team-based pay and merit pay

4.3.8: Check Your Progress

1. What are the key reward management trend in todays scenario 2. Discuss about the Criteria for Pay Structures 3. Write the key issues facing reward management

4.3.9: Reference
Consultation Voluntary, non-supervisory relationship between professionals and other pertinent persons for the purpose of aiding the consul tee(s)

Behavioral strategies A strategy for change based on behavioral theory. Bargaining - The stage of grieving characterized by the partial belief that the griever could change the situation or loss by good works Counselor A therapist

4.3.10: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 4.3.3 2. Read 4.3.5 3. Read 4.3.2

Block 4 Unit 4: Talent Planning (succession Planning)

Talent management is a way to collectively describe the recruitment, selection, retention and promotion of employees. Human capital is the most important aspect of any business and its human resources department. Human capital represents the resources a company has available for achieving business objectives such as productivity, quality and variety of products and services offered, workplace safety and, most of all, profitability. Human resources staff recruits qualified applicants, determines which candidates are best suited for specific roles, provides professional development opportunities and evaluates personnel. Content 4.4.1: Introduction 4.4.2: Succession Planning & Talent Management 4.4.3: Steps for succession Planning & Succession Management Tools. 4.4.4: Summary 4.4.5: Glossary 4.4.6: Check Your Progress 4.4.7: Reference 4.4.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

4.4.1: Introduction
Succession planning for upper-level management is one of the most critical tasks an organization can perform, and yet it is often the most neglected task. Many companies have comprehensive plans and procedures for replacing front-line supervisors and middle managers, most often referred to as replacement planning. But true succession planning that focuses on critical management positions is most often inadequate or nonexistent in many corporations. The most effective succession planning occurs when the potential successors for key positions are identified and developed from within the organization. Planning for expected and unexpected openings within key ranks should be part of every companys strategic plan and updated regularly to address changes in the organizations cultural dynamics.

The benefits of promoting qualified, competent and right-fit internal candidates to fill key openings are many. Qualified internal candidates: Understand and buy in to the organizational culture, minimizing the learning curve and expediting the time to productivity. Have spent their time building relationships within and between departments, creating a smooth transition to the leadership change. Are familiar with the inner workings of the operations, including policies, processes and procedures. Have the benefit of historical experience, having observed various phases of organizational and operational processes over time that has yielded both success and failure.

4.4.2: Succession Planning & Talent Management

In business terminology, talent management refers to the recruiting, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of individuals of particular value to an organization. Succession planning, sometimes referred to as leadership development, is the identification and development of internal personnel to fill critical positions. Talent as an Organizational Concept Talent is a complex combination of an individuals skills, knowledge, cognitive ability and potential. Personal values and work preferences are also relevant. Organizations approach the management of talent from varying standpoints: to some it is about the management of the elite few, while to others it is about how talent is managed generally and inclusively among the overall employee pool. Talent Management in Practice Talent management is generally the responsibility of the human resources department. Talent management has four core components. Performance management is the ongoing assessment of individual performance against strategic organizational targets. Leadership development and succession planning describes the process of grooming talented individuals from within an organization to fulfill key strategic or leadership roles. Workforce monitoring identifies and forecasts gaps in talent across an employee base. Finally, recruiting involves the strategic hiring of talented or high-potential individuals. Succession Planning In Succession Planning Demystified, W. Hirsh defines succession planning as a process where one or more successors are identified for key posts (or groups of similar key posts) and career moves and/or development activities planned for these successors. Succession planning tends to focus on developing plans to replace the most senior staff, such as the CEO or board members, if an unexpected event occurs.

4.4.3: Steps for Succession Planning & Succession Management Tools

Tacit knowledge loss is a very real factor in determining the worth of a business. As the work

force ages and skill sets walk out the door with retirement plans in hand, succession planning has become a critical area in talent management. Companies are being forced to seek out ways to make succession planning more effective by leveraging industry best practices. The following will review the steps some firms are taking to develop better talent management programs through succession planning. Replacement vs. Succession The main force behind the need for succession planning is the aging work force. The biggest mistake most senior managers make is confusing replacement planning with succession planning. Replacement planning has an external focus and is not concerned with tacit knowledge loss. Succession planning is a form of replacement planning; however, it is more strategic. Strategic Replacement Planning Focus planning efforts on developing people rather than replacing them. Build enough knowledge and depth throughout the organization so that when a need arises you will have inhouse candidates. Succession planning encourages managers of all types to identify a broad group of people, not just one specialized silo, to promote to the next level. Establish a succession planning team to map out the current process and make changes where needed. The team should include a senior advocate and report out to senior management on a regular basis. Tracking Improvements Determine where you need to start by conducting a risk analysis to estimate the projected departure rate for the work force as an average. This is a good performance indicator for managing progress. Look at the "time to fill" metric to see how long it takes managers to be replaced. Concentrate on bringing transparency and fairness into the selection process. If workers feel as though the hiring process is dubious, they will look for employment elsewhere. Establish a metric for critical turnover to monitor the percentage of high potential workers leaving. Use these metrics to build a scorecard to monitor results. The scorecard should be easy to read and understand with improvements directly related to cost or productivity savings.

Succession Management Tools.

Succession management refers to the plans of a business to provide continual leadership for the entire company. This is especially important as top executives retire and must be replaced by new talent but most modern succession management planners believe that succession management is a holistic process and should be constantly maintained no matter how close key business leaders are to retirement. Several different tools are used by succession management groups to pinpoint areas of talent and encourage businesses to develop for the future. Mentoring Mentoring is one of the most vital forms of succession management, because it allows older leaders to pass on knowledge directly to younger leaders who will replace them. In a mentoring relationship, a company leader personally meets with a talented professional (or a

number of them) to discuss company values and specific skills that are necessary to fill their position and similar positions in the company. The goal is to pass along tips and skills that might otherwise be lost in a more simple transition. Charts and Graphs Succession management systems use charts and graphs to help chart not only the success of different branches of the company, but also the ways the employees enter and leave the company, and how often they are promoted. With this data, the succession management team can pinpoint any succession problems the business has, find out where its most talented employees go, and locate key positions in the company that must be filled in order to maintain business practices. Educational Activities Succession teams use educational activities to train large numbers of employees as whole, specifically employees who have been pinpointed as talented or ideal for promotion. This is very helpful when the company has a number of executives currently in important roles who will be assuming more responsibility in the future. Many large companies also offer college classes or training programs for those who want to become managers or leaders in specific departments of the company. Feedback Companies with the best succession management programs encourage feedback and try to be open with all their employees. Traditional succession management has been a secretive process that has hidden leadership choices from employees as a whole, but this limits the ways that succession systems can improve. The best systems ask employees which are part of the mentoring and training for ways in which the system can be improved, making all employees aware of their potential for further career opportunities.

Succession Planning Target

Targeting a succession planning strategy that brings fiscal value to the organization includes identifying current and future leaders and building on that talent accordingly. Identifying target groups, designing a simple process, pinpointing talent gaps, encouraging involvement, and deploying the most efficient performance management technology, enables value-added organizational outcomes. According to "Human Resources Magazine," a best practice succession plan ensures "the right people are moving into the right jobs at the right time. Top Management Participation Sustaining a working succession plan requires the active involvement of executive management. It is imperative that top management view a succession planning strategy as an investment to attract and retain top talent. Without this commitment, long-term success will be limited. Executives first need to determine the key competencies that top talent must possess, and then identify the skill gaps that exist throughout the organization. A performance management system will allow executives to monitor the progress of talented individuals, to identify candidates capable of filling gaps, or to replace employees that leave the company.

Targeting Individual Development Plans Competency development is critical to ensuring there are educated individuals equipped to develop the skills that meet the organization's needs. Typically, best practice development plans include both internal and external education. Organizations should assess employees' interests, skills, values, aptitude and attitude. This assessment will help to identify an individual's development needs and strengths that can predict future placement. Having convergent methods to assess development, such as 360-degree feedback data, offers further insight into the individual development needs. Targeting Developmental Activities On-the-job-training via special assignments is one of the most common and effective informal mediums for growing talent in-house. Furthermore, it allows successors the opportunity to debrief and learn from experienced executives. Other activities include mentoring, coaching and small group forums where sharing best practices among constituents transpires. Training modules that support competency development allow for a more structured approach. Formal classroom training provides an interactive element. However, due to time constraints, web-based training platforms are becoming more popular because they provide a learning opportunity personnel can access when time permits. Targeting What is Measured Measuring the effectiveness of succession planning, both qualitative and quantitative metrics, informs the organization about their return on investment. Qualitative measures assess softer issues such as constituents' satisfaction with the process and if the education has been valuable. Quantitative measures have their basis in hard data. For instance, filling key jobs internally, internal promotions, ethnic and gender diversity, retention and attrition rates, benchmarks attained in performance reviews, and documented operational improvements are a few key measures. Considerations Organizations need to view succession-planning strategies as a daily way of life, not a one-time process. In short, a fully integrated process helps organizations meet their target financially and from a sustainability perspective. Furthermore, adaptation, refining, and a willingness to make changes are paramount to successful succession planning.

4.4.4: Summary
Succession planning helps organizations develop and select successors for critical positions. Organizations often select leadership positions to manage through a succession management plan. The responsibility of managing succession planning often falls on human resources with the executive team as the primary stakeholders. Both human resource planning and succession planning are of paramount importance to an organization, and are usually the responsibility of the human resources (HR) department.

HR planning is the process of finding and placing the right candidates in the right numbers in the appropriate departments at the right time. It encompasses all the organization's employees regardless of their status. Succession planning is the process of selecting, training and honing one particular employee to take up a job that entails more responsibility at the management level.

4.4.5: Glossary
Planning The first step in succession planning involves creating a strategic plan. This plan will provide an outline of the steps necessary to implement succession planning throughout the organization. One planning activity, leadership bench strength, involves assessing a group of employees for a particular position to determine their strengths and weaknesses. This helps the organization identify gaps in knowledge or experience. During the planning phase, human resources also determine their goals for the plan. This will later help them measure the outcome. Talent Assessment Organizations take a talent assessment to identify high potential employees in the company. To measure, they use tools such as performance evaluations and multi-rater feedback. Organizations identify the skills needed for the key leadership roles and then evaluate a pre-determined talent pool against the required skills. They also rate employees on other aspects such key behaviors, advancement potential, and time with the company and educational background. Some organizations utilize a nine-box chart during the talent assessment. The chart provides a graphical comparison of the employees potential and performance. Each attribute receives a rating within one of nine boxes on a low to high rating scale. Talent Review After the talent assessment, organizations then conduct talent review sessions. These sessions provide human resources and the executive team with a forum to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of their talent pool. They discuss current and future open positions and identify gaps. During this session, participants can create development plans and make changes to the succession plan strategy. The group may discuss individual employees and create specific action plans for potential successors to critical roles within the company. Development Planning Once an organization has determined any gaps within the talent pool; the next step involves creating development plans. These plans contain a list of skills and goals an employee needs to develop for consideration of a key role. The development plan can include leadership skills and additional training courses the employee needs to take. Human resources administer the plan and monitor the employees progress against the plan. Employees can receive development plans throughout the year or once. The timeline depends on the companys succession plan strategy. Measurement Once the company has implemented a succession plan, they measure the results of the plan. Measuring the plan helps them determine whether they achieved their desired results. Human resources align the originally set goals with key metrics such as the time to fill for open positions. Once they complete gathering and analyzing the succession data, human resources communicate the results to the executive team and managers involved in the process.

4.4.6: Check Your Progress

1. Talent as an Organizational Concept How? 2. What are the different tools are used by succession management?

4.4.7: Reference
Succession planning & Talent Management By Ben Crispin Steps for succession Planning By Bradley James Bryant Succession Management Tools By Tyler Lacoma

4.4.8: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 4.4.2 2. Read 4.4.3


The management has to recognize the important role of Human Resource Department in order to successfully steer organizations towards profitability. It is necessary for the management to invest considerable time and amount, to learn the changing scenario of the HR department in the 21st century. In order to survive the competition and be in the race, HR department should consciously update itself with the transformation in HR and be aware of the HR issues cropping up. With high attrition rates, poaching strategies of competitors, there is a huge shortage of skilled employees and hence, a company's HR activities play a vital role in combating this crisis. Suitable HR policies that would lead to the achievement of the Organization as well as the individual's goals should be formulated. HR managers have to manage all the challenges that they would face from recruiting employees, to training them, and then developing strategies for retaining them and building up an effective career management system for them. Just taking care of employees would not be enough; new HR initiatives should also focus on the quality needs, customer-orientation, productivity and stress, team work and leadership building. This book is divided into two sections that throw light on the emerging HR trends and discusses HR issues in various industries like financial services, IT, Power, Healthcare, to name a few. This book should be valuable for practicing HR managers of every organization and also for those who have a significant interest in the area of Human Resource Management, to realize the growing importance of human resources and understand the need to build up effective HR strategies to combat HR issues arising in the 21st century. This block covered the below topics. Unit 1: Virtual Teams Unit 2: Balanced Scorecard Unit 3: HRD Reengineering Unit 4: International Human Resource management

Block V Unit 1: Virtual Teams

Virtual teams are teams of people who primarily interact electronically and who may meet faceto-face occasionally. Examples of virtual teams include a team of people working at different geographic sites and a project team whose members telecommute Content: 5.1.1: Introduction 5.1.2: Reason for Virtual Teams 5.1.3: Types of Groups 5.1.4: Strategies for Virtual Teams 5.1.5: Technology Supporting Virtual Teams 5.1.6: Summary 5.1.7: Glossary 5.1.8: Check Your Progress 5.1.9: Reference 5.1.10: Answer to Check Your Progress

5.1.1: Introduction
A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable. Generally, teams have from two to twenty-five people. More than that, they tend to break into sub teams. Teams need complementary skills or the right mix of skills to do the job assigned. These skills fall into three categories: technical or functional expertise, problem-solving and decision-making skills, and interpersonal skills. A team's purpose and performance goals go together. Both must be clear or confusion will likely result. It is important that the team own and commit to the purpose and shape it if necessary. In addition, teams need to develop a common approach or method on how they will work together to accomplish their purpose. Finally, groups become teams when they hold themselves accountable for the outcome. What is a virtual team? There are several different definitions of virtual teams, but what these definitions have in common is that, in addition to being a team, virtual team members are physically separated (by time and / or space) and that virtual team members primarily interact electronically. This researcher defines virtual teams as teams of people who primarily interact electronically and who may meet face-to-face occasionally.

5.1.2: Reason for Virtual Teams

Reasons for virtual teams center on the differences in time and space for team members. Team members may not be physically collocated. It may not be practical to travel to meet face-to-face.

Team members may work different shifts

Specifically, teams may be distributed because of the new realities facing organizations such as:

organization-wide projects or initiatives alliances with different organizations, some of which may be in other countries mergers and acquisitions emerging markets in different geographic locations the desire of many people and government organizations for telecommuting the continuing need for business travel and information and communications technologies available to support this travel a need to reduce costs a need to reduce time-to-market or cycle time in general (the increasing velocity in business)

5.1.3: Types of Groups

Four basic types of groups of people exist:

Task groups Friendship groups Command groups Interest groups

These groups also can exist as virtual groups. For example, an example of a virtual command group would be a national sales team distributed throughout the United States. An example of a virtual task group could be a small software development group of people telecommuting to their office. A virtual interest group could be a group of investors sharing strategies and outcomes. A friendship group might be represented by a virtual community.

5.1.4: Strategies for Virtual Teams

The following tips come from research into virtual teamwork. Hold an initial face-to-face startup Have periodic face-to-face meetings, especially to resolve conflict and maintain team cohesiveness Establish a clear code of conduct or set of norms and protocols for behavior Recognize and reward performance Use visuals in communications Recognize that most communications will be non-verbal -- use caution in tone and language

5.1.5: Technology Supporting Virtual Teams

Virtual teams are supported by both hardware and software. General hardware requirements include telephones, PCs, modems or equivalent, and communication links such as the public switched network (telephone system) and local area networks. Software requirements include groupware products such as electronic mail, meeting facilitation software, and group time management systems. See the section on Technology for more examples. One way to think about teams is that teams are a network organization -- a set of nodes and links -- wherein the nodes are of course the team members and the links are the communications channels or primarily face-to-face interaction. In virtual teams, the nodes are the same -- team members -- whereas the links are primarily virtual (electronic) and software is used to mediate the interactions. In simple terms, then Virtual teams = teams + electronic links + groupware

Benefits of Virtual Teams

Several benefits of virtual teams include the following: People can work from anywhere at any time. People can be recruited for their competencies, not just physical location. Many physical handicaps are not a problem. Expenses associated with travel, lodging, parking, and leasing or owning a building may be reduced and sometimes eliminated. There is no commute time

5.1.6: Summary
Virtual team is now a hugely accepted and a fast evolving concept. You don't need to have people around you to make a successful team; teams can be formed with members from far flung areas. The challenges of a virtual team are very big. It requires the dynamic leadership and team building skills of the captain to run the show. Virtual teams use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common. goal. They allow people to collaborate online-using communication links like wide-area networks, video conferencing, or e-mail-whether theyre only a room away or continents apart. Virtual teams can do all the things that other teams do-share information, make decisions, and complete tasks. And they can include members from the same organization or link an organizations members with employees from other organizations (Le. suppliers and joint partners). They can convene for a few days to solve a problem, a few months to complete a project, or exist permanently. The three primary factors that differentiate virtual teams from face-to-face teams are: (1) The absence of preverbal and nonverbal cues; (2) Limited social context; and

(3) The ability to overcome time and space constraints. In face-to-face conversation, people use preverbal tone of voice, inflection, voice volume) and nonverbal (eye movement, facial expression, hand gestures, and other body language) cues. These help clarify communication by providing increased meaning, but arent available in online interactions. Virtual teams often suffer from less social rapport and less direct interaction among members. They arent able to duplicate the normal give and take of face-to-face discussion. Especially when members havent personally met, virtual teams tell to be more task-oriented and exchange less social-emotional information. Not surprisingly, virtual team members report less satisfaction with the group interaction process than do face-to-face teams. Finally, virtual teams are able to do their work even if members are thousands of miles apart and separated by a dozen or more time zones. It allows people to work together who might otherwise never be able to collaborate. Companies like Hewlett-Packard, Boeing, Ford, VeriFone, and Royal Dutch/Shell have become heavy users of virtual teams. VeriFone, for instance, is a California based maker of computerized swipe machines that read credit card information. Yet the use of virtual teams allows its 3,000 employees, who are located all around the globe, to work together on design projects, marketing plans, and making sales presentations. Moreover, VeriFone has found that virtual teams provide strong recruiting inducements.

5.1.7: Glossary
Virtual HR: The use of various types of technology to provide employees with self-serve options. Voice response systems, employee kiosks are common methods. Workforce Planning: The assessment of the current workforce in order to predict future needs. This can consist of both demand planning and supply planning. Many e-recruitment software providers include modules for workforce planning. Training and development: Providing information and instruction that equips employees to better perform specific tasks or attain a higher level of knowledge. In face-to-face conversation, people use preverbal tone of voice, inflection, voice volume) and nonverbal (eye movement, facial expression, hand gestures, and other body language) cues

5.1.8: Check Your Progress

1. What are the four basic types of groups in virtual team? 2. Benefits of Virtual Teams?

5.1.9: Reference
Virtual Team By David Gould. Ed.D.

5.1.10: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 5.1.3 2. Read 5.1.5

Block V Unit 2: Balanced Scorecard

The balanced scorecard is a strategic planning and management system that is used extensively in business and industry, government, and nonprofit organizations worldwide to align business activities to the vision and strategy of the organization, improve internal and external communications, and monitor organization performance against strategic goals. Content: 5.2.1: Introduction 5.2.2: HR Scorecard 5.2.3: How to create a HR Balanced Scorecard. 5.2.4: Balanced Scorecard in HR Management. 5.2.5: Summary 5.2.6: Glossary 5.2.7: Check Your Progress 5.2.8: Reference 5.2.9: Answer to Check Your Progress

5.2.1: Introduction
What exactly is a Balanced Scorecard? A definition often quoted is: 'A strategic planning and management system used to align business activities to the vision statement of an organization'. More cynically, and in some cases realistically, a Balanced Scorecard attempts to translate the sometimes vague, pious hopes of a company's vision/mission statement into the practicalities of managing the business better at every level. A Balanced Scorecard approach is to take a holistic view of an organization and co-ordinate MDIs so that efficiencies are experienced by all departments and in a joined-up fashion. To embark on the Balanced Scorecard path an organization first must know (and understand) the following: The company's mission statement The company's strategic plan/vision Then The financial status of the organization How the organization is currently structured and operating The level of expertise of their employees Customer satisfaction level

5.2.2: HR Scorecard

The Balanced Scorecard gives CEOs, business owners, and managers an indication of the performance of a business organization based on the degree to which various stakeholder needs are satisfied; it presents the organization from the perspective of internal and external customers, employees, and shareholders. The Balanced Scorecard is important because it brings together most of the features that a company needs to focus on to be competitive. These include being customer-focused, improving quality, emphasizing teamwork, reducing new product and service development times, and managing for the long term. The Balanced Scorecard differs from the traditional measures of company performance by emphasizing that the critical indicators chosen are based on the organization's business strategy and competitive demands. Organizations need to customize their balanced scorecards based on different market situations, products, competitive environments, including the current state of the global economy Scorecard is a methodology to look at how an organization is performing by measuring the performance. How an organization performs is based on the mission and vision created into a road map. For example, a scorecard determines if you are meeting your financial goals and customer satisfaction. Human resource (HR) departments are not directly tied to profits and customer satisfaction, yet the department can be measured for performance goals that meet the organization's standards by using a scorecard. Typical Metrics A scorecard typically measures a businesss performance in areas such as customer satisfaction and customer loyalty as well as financial issues such as market share and profits. This data is gathered by various means such as customer surveys to determine if customers feel loyal to your brand. For human resources, the job function is internal to the organization and what is measured is focused on metrics such as how well processes are managed. Productivity can be measured, process improvement can be measured and turnover rate can be documented. The measurements are given a score depending on the method of scoring created. With this score, your organization has a visual way of improving weak areas and a measure to show where goals are on track. HR Role Human resources originally focused more on administrative duties. As a professional, the role was to perform the hiring process, benefits and sometimes payroll. Scorecard measurements might have included the number of employees hired, reduction in hiring processes and the cost of operating the department. More recently the HR role has shifted. HR is changing in many organizations to a more core role to align with the strategy of a company. The scorecard can be performed on the HR department as a whole and each person in the department. For example, if the company wants to innovate products, the HR department can align its focus to gain talent that is inventive and embraces innovation. Adding these types of measurements to a scorecard can be challenging without deliberate intention to find ways of measuring HR's impact on the overall organization. Each organization will need to decide how to evaluate and score metrics that seem more intangible. For example, a company that wants more innovation over the next two years gives the task to HR to hire creative people. Perhaps over the two-year period five new patents

were developed and two new products were developed because of the employees hired. This is a metric that reflects back on the HR talent search as it meets the company's needs. Creating a Scorecard According to Work Info, an HR resource, organizations must look at two primary issues for creating a scorecard for HR. One issue is external influences to the HR department. This is how the overall organization works. The other issue is internal issues with how the company sees HR's role. A good way to strategically align more with the company is by showing with metrics how HR is improving the overall business. For example, HR might develop continuing education elements for employees. The scorecard would show the increase or decrease of employee satisfaction after attending an educational course. If the scores show that employees are satisfied by increasing skills, this shows the HR program is successful. It also shows that the HR has value to the strategy of the company. Example Scorecard An example of basic data to collect on an HR scorecard includes several areas. Under finance, you might decide to measure employee turnover costs and use a measurement of the number of employees who quit within one year of hire. Or, you might want to reduce the number of sick days taken. Other types of measures you might track are to be an industry leader as a "great place to work." You can score your HR technology and improved tools. Or, you can create a communication strategy to connect more closely with employees.

5.2.3: How to create a HR Balanced Scorecard

According to Robert Kaplan and David Norton, the balanced scorecard is a strategic management tool or system that allows a company to evaluate future efforts for growth and performance improvement. The balanced scorecard may be divided into four different perspectives (views of the business operations) as recommended by Kaplan and Norton. These four perspectives are financial, customers, internal processes, and learning and growth. Building a perspective in a balanced scorecard requires knowledge, planning, and cooperation across department. Instructions 1. Assess the present performance of the human resources department using record keeping data. Human resources departments may be required by federal and state laws to maintain certain records regarding employment. For example, the EEOC (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that prohibits discrimination based on age, race, sex, religion, or country of origin) requires that companies maintain hiring and staffing records including resumes, any skills tests administered, or personality or psychological tests. Other records contain recruiting (search for candidates) and hiring (applications, number hired reports). Reviewing these reports can provide an overall picture of how the human resources department is functioning. 2. Determine what areas of human resources require performance improvement and growth. The four major perspectives (views of the core business functions) included in a balanced

scorecard are financial (how the company is making money), customer (how well customers are retained and serviced), internal processes (are enough people doing the right things at the right time and how well are they performing) and learning and growth (hiring, training, and retaining employees). The decision makers of the company may decide the areas of human resources that should be included and what perspectives will be involved. 3. Utilize the key performance indicators (indicators that can be measured) for human resources, to create the human resource balanced scorecard. For example, the main key performance indicators may be the costs per person hired (what costs are incurred for running ads, going to schools for job fairs, paying internal employees to refer potential employees) and time to fill positions (time that passes from the initial request for a new employee until the employee is hired). If these areas are not performing according to department goals, a scorecard can be created to monitor and measure new goal achievements. 4. Set new human resources department goals (what company intends to achieve). Goals should be SMART (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and timely). Example of a human resources goal in the financial perspective could be lowering the cost per hire by a certain percentage in a designated period of time. Objectives (tasks required to achieve goal) can be to hold a job fair at the company site to save travel expenses and initiate a company-wide employee referral program. 5. Measure the human resources goals to determine if the goals are being met. Measurements of the costs of hire decrease can be determined through the review of the hiring reports. If the costs of the on site job fair and employee referral program are lowered by the required percentage, the goals have been achieved.

5.2.4: Balanced Scorecard in HR Management

Effective roll out and implementation of Balanced Scorecard can only be made if the organization is able to cascade its mechanics, importance, and objectives to the employees. Therefore, doing, this will give them a concrete framework that helps them see the goals and strategies of the organizations, how these goals and strategies are measured, and how they influenced the critical KPIs. The HRM department should be in the forefront in this respect, and in providing the necessary training or orientation. Moreover, the Balanced Scorecard should be used to link HRM activities with the organizations strategy and evaluate the extent to which its functions add value to business strategies and goals. Measure of HRM practices primarily relate to productivity, people, and process. Productivity measures involve determining output per employee (such as revenue per employee). Measuring people includes assessing employees' behavior, attitudes, skills, and/or knowledge. While process measures focus on assessing employees' satisfaction with how the organization compensate, reward, and develop them so that they continue to add value to organizational competitiveness as a whole

5.2.5: Summary
Balanced Scorecard in HRM 1. Using BSC or Balanced Scorecard in performance management is actually a holistic approach; because it does not leave any key functional area in the organization unturned. Also, because it focuses on the most essential things needed to produce the maximum results. It actually follows closely the Pareto Principle, where 80% of productive organizational performance comes from focusing on the 20% most important KPIs. 2. BSC links organizational units into a more cohesive entity towards a common goal while they continue to strive to meet their own personal and departmental goals. More so, with BSC, individual performance is tied-up with departmental performance. Each members goals and performance is integrated with that of the unit or department. This is where the principle of the sum of the parts is greater than the whole. In short, BSC impels employees to synergize. 3. Lastly, the best part of implementing BSC is you get the results of what you measure; because Balanced Scorecard enables the organization to link its performance measures with its business strategies and goals.

5.2.6: Glossary
The HR balanced scorecard is what is being applied in many organizations, both private and even governmental so as to help in making the management of the respective organization to be more goal oriented. The main aim of this whole process is to ensure that the aims and the goals of the organization are in line with the strategies that are being put in place so that you get close to achieving those goals, and not to do things that would get you farther and farther away from what you had been hoping to achieve. Absolute ratings -A rating method where the rater assigns a specific value on a fixed scale to the behavior or performance of an individual instead of assigning ratings based on comparisons between other individuals. Balanced Scorecard- A popular strategic management concept developed in the early 1990's by Drs. Robert Kaplan and David Norton, the balanced scorecard is a management and measurement system which enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them into action. The goal of the balanced scorecard is to tie business performance to organizational strategy by measuring results in four areas: financial performance, customer knowledge, internal business processes, and learning and estimating growth. Behavioral based interview- An interview technique which focuses on a candidates past experiences, behaviors, knowledge, skills and abilities by asking the candidate to provide specific examples of when they have demonstrated certain behaviors or skills as a means of predicting future behavior and performance.

Behavioral competency - The behavior of the employee which is the subject of measurement and appraisal in terms of whether or not the behaviors shown by an employee are those identified by job analysis/competency profiling as those contributing to team and/or organizational success.

5.2.7: Check Your Progress

1. How to create a HR Balanced Scorecard? 2. Write a short note about Balanced Scorecard in HR Management

5.2.8: References
How to create a HR Balance Scorecard By Marcia Moore. M.S.S.W. Balanced Scorecard in HR Management By Nor Franco. HR Scorecard By Debbie Mcrill

5.2.9: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 5.2.3 2. Read 5.2.4

Block 5 Unit 3: HRD Reengineering

HR Process Re-engineering is the fundamental Rethinking and radical redesign of business process to bring about dramatic improvements in Performance. There are four key words in this definition: Content 5.3.1: Introduction 5.3.2: What is HR Optimizations & Process Re-engineering? 5.3.3: Why Process Re-engineering Projects Fail? 5.3.4: Requirements of a Successful HR Optimization Project 5.3.5: Summary 5.3.6: Glossary 5.3.7: Check Your Progress 5.3.8: Reference 5.3.9: Answer to check your progress

5.3.1: Introduction
HRs Role in Reengineering Processes: Reengineering, it must be remembered would yield fruitful results only when the company tunes its HR practices in line with its radically transformed business processes. HR can contribute to reengineering processes by its effect on building commitment to reengineering, team building, changing the nature of work and empowering jobs. HR plays a great role in improving commitment of employees by hiring competent people, offering the right incentives and installing effective two way communication practices. HR can hire people who can work in process oriented teams sharing their skills and expertise freely. It can also offer additional training to employees so as to improve their team related skills and make them capable of handling multiple cross functional enriched tasks in a competent way. HR Process Re-engineering is the fundamental Rethinking and radical redesign of business process to bring about dramatic improvements in Performance. There are four key words in this definition 1. Rethinking it refers to total rethinking. Beginning with the proverbial clean slate and reinventing how you would do your HR work. 2. Radical means going to the root of things and not about improving what already exists. 3. Process refers to a group of related tasks that together create a value for internal customers 4. Dramatic significantly increased labour productivity; simplifying the work; reduced cost; rapidly reduced cycle time; greater accuracy and management of information, reduce non-value added activity in the organization; creating internal customer and enduser awareness; increased internal customer satisfaction.

5.3.2: What is HR Optimizations & Process Re-engineering?

Reengineering the Human Resource Hammer and Champy recognize the importance of the human resource when they state "companies are not asset portfolios, but people working together to invent, sell and provide service." However, they fail to demonstrate how to reengineer the human resource in conjunction with reengineering processes. Of the four cases presented in Reengineering the Corporation, only the case of Capital Holding addresses this area. Capital Holding performed a "cultural audit" which revealed that the unwritten code of conduct encouraged information hoarding and barely acknowledged the customer. In order to combat these tendencies, senior management provided a constant flow of information throughout the company regarding reengineering expectations and successes, and revised the performance appraisal system to emphasize the new values of team work and cooperation. Although Hammer and Champy provide a long list of why reengineering fails, nowhere do they include the prerequisite that no reengineering effort will succeed without first reeducating and retraining the people who will ultimately work with the new process. According to Meg Wheatley, "If you're going to move information and responsibility down to the local level, then the key question is how can you be sure that people will behave appropriately? You need to make sure that everyone is playing by the same rule book." CSC Index identifies principle obstacles to BPR include the fear among employees that their jobs are endangered and that years of experience will account for nothing. To overcome these apprehensions, managers must constantly communicate their plans and expectations. Although companies which are seeking to reengineer may work on revamping the performance appraisal system to support new values, this can be problematic. When bonuses are linked to profits or even the performance of a team, this may lead to a situation where the individual is judged on factors beyond his or her control. Human Reengineering Case Study: The Conquering Power of the Small GTO Inc. is a small company which manufactures automatic gate openers based in Tallahassee, Florida. When the founder died suddenly, the company was appeared to be in desperate need of reengineering: GTO was losing money on a monthly basis; it lacked a line of credit and suppliers shipped only on a COD basis. Employees were required to work twenty-four hour shifts to fill important orders and salesmen were reduced to writing minuscule orders to supplement their incomes. The new CEO, Chuck Mitchell, adopted "...a strategy made up of small gestures rather than sweeping moves." These gestures consisted of creating an atmosphere of trust and optimism among GTO's harried employees by listening to and adopting their suggestions and improving their health and disability insurance. When things started to turn around, pay was increased and bonuses distributed from a profit sharing plan. The salesman was put on salary with incentives. Acts such as fixing the leaky roof, allowing ten minute breaks, and keeping the coffee machine stocked convinced the employees that Mitchell was "genuine." The following year, GTO witnessed a cultural and company turnaround. Net profits moved from the red to nearly $500,000. This was accomplished by a 9% increase in gross sales along with a 33% decrease in

total operating and administrative costs. Employee turnover decreased equally dramatically. As employees began to seek outside education and were promoted from within, the number of returned goods fell. GTO's dramatic turnaround was a result of many small steps which could be said to foster precisely the "culture of incrementalism" that Hammer and Champy warn against. The focus was on human resources rather than on processes. There are many widespread misconceptions about the nature of HR process re-engineering. HR process re-engineering is not down-sizing HR process re-engineering eliminates work, not jobs; HR process re-engineering is not restructuring- moving boxes around an organizational chart; HR process re-engineering is not automation; HR process re-engineering is not re-engineering a department but rather a process in an organization.

HR optimization and HR process re-engineering is about re-thinking work from the ground up in order to eliminate work that is not necessary and to find better ways of doing work. HR process re-engineering eliminates work, not jobs or people

5.3.3: Why Process Re-engineering Projects Fail?

The most common reasons for failure are: Lack of focus and priority trying to do too much; Lack of strategic relevance; Lack of leadership Lack of focus on processes; Lack of perseverance; Placing some aspects of HR activity off limits; Lack of planning; Lack of effective project risk management; Lack of effective change management; Ignoring the concerns of your people.

Before an organization undertakes a HR optimization project, it is important to recognize the most typical obstacles preventing the smooth completion of the project, for instance: Management not buying into the idea; No clear owner of the programme; Failure to consider end user and internal customer requirements; Change of project sponsor before completion of the programme; Programme taking too long; loss of interest;

Not involving the right staff in the HR process re-engineering; Conflicting objectives of the organisation; Project team not measuring issues it agreed to address; Programme causing too much disruption of work; not seen as relevant work.

5.3.4: Requirements of a Successful HR Optimization Project

There are a number of critical success factors that have been identified by leading HR practitioners: Listen to the voice of the internal customers and end user; Introduce service quality values and behavior; Recognize and articulate an extremely compelling need to change; Start with and maintain executive level support; Understand the organizations readiness to change; Communicate effectively to create buy-in then communicate more; Create a powerful project and internal customer team; Use a structured HR re-engineering framework; Select the right processes for re-engineering; Use consultants effectively to access essential skills; Maintain focus on the issues that matter most to the internal customers and end-users; dont try to re-engineer too many processes; Maintain teams as the key vehicle for change; Quickly come to an As-Is understanding of the HR processes to be re-engineered; Position information technology as an enabler; Choose and use the right HR process and people outcome metrics; Understand the project risks and develop contingency plans; Be willing to change based on customer needs and ongoing feedback; Be prepared to learn and continuously improve.

5.3.5: Summary
Human Resources will face many challenges in 2010. The pressure for building slimmer and cheaper global organization will continue and Human Resources will be asked to deliver its parts of the goal of the reengineered global organization. Or the local organization able to win the battle with the global players. This will be the main goal and priority for many Human Resources around the globe to help building a new global organization able to predict the issues in different countries and utilizing the strong growth potential at different local markets. The global economy goes through a dramatic change and new products and services will be born as the recession changed the behavior of the customers for many years. We all carry a lot of debts and we cannot continue in our spending habits. We have to find a new way of living and it will hardly impact many organizations.

The recession 2009 was the recession of the global organizations. They have learned several lessons, which have to be solved and they will be a major improvement to the future: 1. Too big to manage globally 2. Keeping local risks under global supervision 3. Global management of talents The big organizations found it extremely difficult to manage the whole organization globally. The local management was not loyal to the global decisions and the local law was their main argument. The global organization will spend a lot of time investigating the possibilities to manage the organization efficiently and using more centralized power over the local entities. The global organization will set a new management best practice for the international organizations. The local risks are extremely dangerous for the global organizations; they cannot build their healthiness on the global level. The banks were a good learning story, which the risks have to be managed locally as the organization can be healthy on the global level. It is will be a huge challenge for the organization and it will be the next best practice for many organizations. It gives a chance to the local organization, as the rules of the global competition will change completely. The global organization discovered again, how difficult it is to build a real global team. They spent a lot of time and money into special global training sessions, but they were not able to react quickly in the coming recession and the entities used their local approach, which was extremely hard to coordinate on the global level. The real global organization is still a dream to come; it is not working right now. The Human Resources will be asked to be a part of the global team, bringing the solution, which will be suitable for all the different nations working for the global organization. Hard task, but the work in the team will be inspiring all. The HR will have to reengineer itself again to be successful. The recession changed the view of the top managers and the leaders on their organizations. The organizations are vulnerable and they are not that strong as they expected. Many big organizations failed in the recession and the governmental help was needed for them. Building the independent and strong global organization will be a challenge of 2010. Human Resources has to be closely attached to the initiative as it is about the people, nothing more.

5.3.6: Glossary
HR process re-engineering is about re-thinking work from the ground up in order to eliminate work that is not necessary and to find better ways of doing work. Rethinking it refers to total rethinking. Beginning with the proverbial clean slate and reinventing how you would do your HR work. Radical means going to the root of things and not about improving what already exists.

Process refers to a group of related tasks that together create a value for internal customers Dramatic significantly increased labour productivity; simplifying the work; reduced cost; rapidly reduced cycle time; greater accuracy and management of information, reduce non-value added activity in the organization; creating internal customer and enduser awareness; increased internal customer satisfaction.

5.3.7: Check Your Progress

1. What is HR Optimizations & Process Re-engineering?

5.3.8: Reference
HR Optimization and Reengineering By Dr. Uwe H Kaufmann

5.3.9: Answer to check your progress

1. Read 5.3.2

Block V Unit 4: International Human Resource management

Aims & Scope Human Resource Development International management promotes all aspects of practice and research that explore issues of individual, group and organizational learning and performance. In adopting this perspective Human Resource Development International management is committed to questioning the divide between practice and theory; between the 'practitioner' and the 'academic' between traditional and experimental methodological approaches and between organizational demands of scholarship. Human Resource Development International management is committed to a wide understanding of 'organization' - one that extends through self-managed teams, voluntary work, or family businesses to global enterprises and bureaucracies. Human Resource Development International management also commits itself to exploring the development of organizations and the life-long learning of people and their collectivity (organization), their strategy and their policy, from all parts of the world. In this way Human Resource Development International management will become a leading forum for debate and exploration of the interdisciplinary field of human resource development. Content: 5.4.1: Introduction to International HRM - Implement of Global HRM 5.4.2: 7Cs of International HRM 5.4.3: Convergence & Divergence of International HR Polices 5.4.4: Types of Global Governance 5.4.5: Challenges to International HRM 5.4.6: Summary 5.4.7: Glossary 5.4.8: Check Your Progress 5.4.9: Reference 5.4.10: Answer to Check Your Progress

5.4.1: Introduction to International HRM

The world has become more competitive than ever. Organizations now need to manage globally as if it were one vast market. Operations are being internationalized by overseas expansions, joint ventures, strategic partnerships as well as mergers & acquisitions. Hence, it becomes imperative to have good policies & practices which make management of people across boundaries efficient. This is where International HRM comes in.

International Human Resource Management is the process of the employment & development of people in international organizations. It is simply Human Resource Management on a larger, varied and more complex scale involving coordination across national boundaries. The same basic techniques of resourcing, development and career management are applied to an international workforce, keeping in mind adaption to different cultures as well as local requirements. The workforce may include local country nationals, parent country nationals working on short term assignments or for long periods as expatriates and third country nationals who are not parent country nationals but work for the corporation in a local country

Implement a Global HR System

New technological advancement in the world gets a little smaller. Multinational companies find it easier to grow their business into regions they would have never imagined a century ago. All the growth means adding new employees. Regional differences used to call for regional human resources systems. New employees from different regions of the world see the corporation through regionally tainted goggles. The future growth of the global corporation may be dependent on managing the people more efficiently and creating one global identity. Instructions 1. Assign a global HR systems team. Choose members from each of your top performing locations to be in charge of creating the infrastructure of your new system. It may make the transition easier across the globe if all employees are aware that members of their region were involved in creating this new system. 2. Evaluate all your HR system standards from all your branches. Comb through them item by item and ask yourself and your staff why this particular item cannot be implemented globally. Discuss what cultural and ideological conditions would interfere. 3. Involve your managers. Get their feedback about what they believe cannot work in their region. Address resistance to changes in policies that you receive. 4. Cross-reference any resistance by studying the local legal issues that may also be a roadblock. Involve a legal team familiar with international law to verify that you remain legal with your provisions. 5. Upgrade your communications systems. Implement cost-effective solutions such as video chat, Web conference capabilities, and basic phone systems that keep employees in touch as if they were in the same building. 6. Get your employees on board to support the globalization of your company. A Manage Wise study shows that it easier to accept a global system if your employees believe in the global brand. 7. Create your global corporate culture. Develop a system that transcends geographic location. Keep the culture consistent throughout the entire company. For example, create a uniform reward system, recruitment system, advancement opportunities and shared values of commitment to the company and the customer.

8. Test the new HR tools in several regions before introducing them company-wide. Refer to local managers for progress and issues that arise from the system. 9. Inform the members of the corporation months before the new policies are implemented. Provide them with the information over and over again. Print it in the company newsletter or the corporate magazine. Send weekly emails with updates and benefits of the new system. 10. Get the employees talking about the new system before it's implemented. Create incentive programs that will encourage them to take interest, such as a daily corporate contest for those who can answer pop quiz questions about the new HR system. 11. Roll out the new HR system. Keep the HR Development team intact to monitor progress over time.

5.4.2: 7Cs of International HRM

The 7Cs to define International Human Resource Management. These were1. Culture 2. Cosmopolitan 3. Competence 4. Consultancy 5. Coordination 6. Compensation 7. Communication Simply put, the 7Cs characterize the nature of International HRM and help differentiate it from general Human Resource Management. Cultural differences form the background of International HRM making it mandatory that this cosmopolitan quality is dealt with by maintaining good communication between all departments of an organization worldwide. What helps is good expertise in devising methods to co-ordinate working of different parts of the business. This involves developing a wide range of competences as employees work across boundaries and may differ at all levels-not just politically or culturally- but also as there may be expatriates who relocate after a long time interval & face adjustment problems on repatriation or there are people involved in high level co-ordination who are constantly on the move. Good consulting mechanisms and due attention given to special requirements for pay & benefits help smooth flow of management across borders.

5.4.3: Convergence & Divergence of International HR Polices

One situation which global corporations often face is the extent to which their policies should converge i.e. be more or less the same in every location, or diverge i.e. be different according to local requirements. Usually it is easier for organizations to have convergent policies or a universalistic approach as it helps maintain uniformity & does away with the cost & effort of designing place specific policies. However, this is hardly ever possible incase of remuneration which differs universally. Divergences to respect cultural differences are more appropriate if the full potential of an

overseas company has to be realized as adopting a convergent approach to Human Resource policies may mean taking insufficient account of local cultural diversity. Example: In Europe, different Human Resource functions are carried out differently in different countries with different weight age. This may prove significantly problematic to a US corporation which uses a universalistic approach in the US and tries to use the same approach in Europe

5.4.4: Types of Global Governance

Organizational forms are no longer traditional i.e. centered geographically, management dominated or one-size-fits-all. Global competition has changed and polarized the organization types to such that lay emphasis on local commercial partnering wherein regional customer service is important while at the same time large scale investment is made for global brand recognition and multinationals with insider knowledge. Broadly there are 4 types of organizational models1. Decentralized- This type of model is typical of a Multinational Corporation in which each national unit is managed as a separate entity & optimizes its performance in the respective local environment 2. Coordinated-This type of model considers the management in the parent company as the central unit reaching out to its national units via sophisticated management techniques. Local market conditions however demand adoption of some practices specific to a particular place and national units have some management scope there. 3. Centralized-This form of organizational model has its origin from Japanese firms. Centralized control & decision making allow a truly global mode to the organization as it has a worldwide approach rather than focusing on local markets. It is also known as the Hub Model 4. Transnational-Spanning across different countries, this type of corporation gives local responsiveness to markets at the same time as implementing a multi-dimensional strategic plan for global capabilities

5.4.5: Challenges to International HRM

Considering how the work processes as well as people management & development has to be dealt with not only within an organization but also outside it, outside the country and with all possible types of people, International Human Resource Management could be posed with

challenges more often than as they occur within an organization which is content to manage its staff only. Some of the common problems encountered are

Managing Diversity-An international organization deals with diversity not only in case of people but also social systems, legal requirements, remuneration etc Managing Effective Communication-Clear communication is a valuable tool for employee involvement & motivation. Nothing beats face-to-face communication- not even the most sophisticated electronic mediums- which might not always be possible very often in a global organization Managing Effective Resourcing-With a worldwide reach, it becomes even more imperative for an organization to attract & retain staff of a high calibre to manage international operations so as to maintain a competitive edge. Maintaining Uniformity & Fairness-Employment practices & remuneration are often the soft targets of unfairness amidst the workforce of a global organization. This gets more mixed up especially incase of a joint venture or strategic alliance leading to divided loyalties among workers of the parent company, host country nationals, third country nationals and consultants.

Hence, there are quite a few complexities associated with the overall management in a multinational organization but if planned well & executed effectively with emphasis on good communication, the running can be smooth and fair

International HR Issues
As businesses grow and expand into other countries, there are several issues to consider, many of which fall under the Human Resources (HR) category Safety and Labor Differences One of the major international HR issues that companies face is the differing rules and regulations that countries have with regard to workforce safety and labor. In some countries, safety standards are different than in the United States, and employees may require certain equipment and training that is different from what the company has in place. Additionally, workers' protections vary

greatly from country to country. For instance, in Germany, asking employees to participate in a survey, a common U.S. business practice can be against local labor laws. Language Barriers One main issue facing international HR departments is the language barrier between the U.S. workforce and overseas employees. Often times, the mistake that companies make is to simply translate U.S. employee materials, thinking that they will apply to audiences worldwide. International HR teams need to consider "localization" when communicating to international employees. Employee communications that are filled with U.S. analogies, such as football or references to U.S. culture, won't make sense outside of U.S. borders. To better communicate with your international audience, you must get to know what makes sense to them. Cultural Differences In addition to language barriers, international HR teams must consider cultural differences and how to address them. In certain countries, such as those in Latin America, it is still relatively uncommon for women to be in high-ranking positions. This may make it difficult for a female executive to gain the trust of the employees there. It's important to discuss openly with employees the fact that in the United States, discrimination is illegal. Additionally, it may be common in some countries for officials to accept gifts and gratuities in exchange for favorable business workings. Since U.S. businesses are accountable to U.S. law no matter where they operate, extensive business ethics training might be required in some international locations.

Global HR Certification
Human-resources management (HRM) is a key business operations practice for managing personnel within a company. Utilizing skills including communication, business administration, workforce planning and technical proficiency, HRM is an important part of business planning and development, encompassing more than 10 areas of focus. Human-resources and laborrelations jobs in general are expected to grow by 17 percent from 2006 through 2016, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics People are considered one of the most important assets in any business. HRM strategy is focused on the effective use of that asset. HRM tools and practice control a company's ability to recruit, hire, track, promote and compensate employees. Providing HR metrics or HR trends and analysis, this department projects the future growth of a company by managing the workforce practice for all departments across the organization. The Society of Human Resource Management (SHRM), is the world's largest HR professional organization. SHRM lists 13 disciplines or areas of focus for the HRM function, demonstrating the level of HR impact on business planning. Some of those areas include benefits, business leadership, compensation, consulting, diversity, ethics, global management, organizational development and technology. Benefits HRM keeps a company appropriately staffed with qualified employees. According to SHRM metrics reports, companies that have a strong, talented workforce typically see improved employee work efficiency, increased sales productivity, decreased organization turnover and increased job development. HR management also protects an organization from the threat of

legal intervention as a result of illegal or inappropriate hiring by implementing established talentmanagement practices that can save a large organization millions of dollars in legal damages. Facts In 2006, the Bureau of Labor statistics indicated approximately 860,000 jobs for HRM and the related business disciplines like training, compensation and labor relations. Salary ranges can vary widely depending on education and certification requirements. The median average annual salary for human-resources managers is nearly $90,000. Considerations HRM careers usually require a college degree with a focus in HR or HR administration. In some cases, employers will consider applicants with a liberal arts or technical degree if their previous professional experience includes work and achievement in an HR function. Labor relations, compensation, technology, training and other specialized areas of HRM may require additional certifications. Professional organizations like SHRM provide post-graduate learning opportunities. The Human Certification Institute (HCI) offers recertification programs for human resources. Potential HRM offers growth and diversity as a career. The broad array of disciplines allow career seekers to identify the element of HR that most interests them. Skilled analysts, business managers, communicators, teachers and sales professionals can find fulfilling roles in HR management. Academically, HRM features several post-graduate degree programs. It is not uncommon for advanced HRM professionals to go on to executive leadership roles in small, large and global companies. HR professionals who have international HR responsibilities or who want to be equipped for their organization's global growth can apply for the Global Professional in Human Resources (GPHR) certification. The GPHR is a credential that attests to the HR professional's depth of knowledge and experience in the global workplace. Benefits The GPHR certification demonstrates the HR professional's knowledge of global HR principles and core practices, and measures his commitment to the profession. It raises the individual's professional confidence and makes him more marketable for higher HR positions. Employers expect certified HR staff to keep the organization competitive and current with HR issues. Eligibility Candidates must have two years of professional HR experience to be eligible for the exams. Experience refers to supervisory responsibility and creative or original work requiring advanced HR knowledge. Exam Content

The HR Certification Institute administers the three-hour GPHR exam, which consists of 165 multiple-choice questions. The exam contains five functional areas: strategic HR management, global talent acquisition and mobility, global compensation and benefits, organizational effectiveness and talent development, and workforce relations and risk management. It also includes questions on local employment laws in Canada, China, United States, India, United Kingdom and the European Union. Application Candidates can submit an application online or in paper for any of the two certification exams held each year. Early applicants have a wider choice of exam date, time and location. As of 2010, there are 380 test centers in the United States, Canada and internationally.

5.4.6: Summary
Human resource management (HRM or simply HR) is an organization's workforce, or human resources. It is the attraction, selection, training, assessment, and rewarding of employees, while also overseeing organizational leadership and culture, and ensuring compliance with employment and labor laws. In circumstances where employees desire and are legally authorized to hold a collective bargaining agreement, HR will typically also serve as the company's primary liaison with the employees' representatives the management of responsible for

Safety and Labor Differences One of the major international HR issues that companies face is the differing rules and regulations that countries have with regard to workforce safety and labor. In some countries, safety standards are different than in the United States, and employees may require certain equipment and training that is different from what the company has in place. Additionally, workers' protections vary greatly from country to country. For instance, in Germany, asking employees to participate in a survey, a common U.S. business practice can be against local labor laws. Language Barriers One main issue facing international HR departments is the language barrier between the U.S. workforce and overseas employees. Often times, the mistake that companies make is to simply translate U.S. employee materials, thinking that they will apply to audiences worldwide. International HR teams need to consider "localization" when communicating to international employees. Employee communications that are filled with U.S. analogies, such as football or references to U.S. culture, won't make sense outside of U.S. borders. To better communicate with your international audience, you must get to know what makes sense to them.

Cultural Differences In addition to language barriers, international HR teams must consider cultural differences and how to address them. In certain countries, such as those in Latin America, it is still relatively uncommon for women to be in high-ranking positions. This may make it difficult for a female executive to gain the trust of the employees there. It's important to discuss openly with employees the fact that in the United States, discrimination is illegal. Additionally, it may be common in some countries for officials to accept gifts and gratuities in exchange for favorable business workings. Since U.S. businesses are accountable to U.S. law no matter where they operate, extensive business ethics training might be required in some international locations.

5.4.7: Glossary
Country-specific Human Resources As many businesses expand operations into global markets, human resources may attempt to manage all details from its headquarters. Successful companies need a full range of human resources services in country markets, according to "Strategic Human Resource Management" authors Randall S. Schuler and Susan E. Jackson. Acquisitions, joint ventures and myriad needs in the external market require the attention of on-site human resources professional. Companies benefit from an earlier rather than later human resources addition in the foreign market, according to the authors. Talent Management In "The Future of Human Resource Management," author David Ulrich synthesizes the sage advice of 64 corporate experts. As companies move into the competitive global arena, they typically hire professional services consultants to streamline human resources databases and information management systems. Streamlining global information helps the company to operate more effectively and with greater efficiency. However, managing talent acquisition from a distant location may be more difficult. Meeting and evaluating individuals requires a local human resources professional for optimal hiring results. Cultural Sensitivities Global workforce human resource management requires a solid and sensitive understanding of cultural differences, according to "Managing the Global Workforce." Human resource professionals may believe they've got everything sorted out when an "unplanned" holiday or important event occurs in an external labor pool. For example, a U.S.-based engineering firm receives a massive aluminum contract in Oman. The business is aware of the importance of local religious days but forgets about adding Moloud, the celebration of the Birth of the Prophet, in February. The project manager from Britain shows up on-site and panics. None of the workforce has arrived to work on that day. Human resources hastily add the day to the paid holidays. Global Mobility Challenges Global mobility doesn't just involve the many complex tasks involved in moving an individual or family from one country to another, remark authors George Bolander and Scott Snell of "Managing Human Resources." Human resources may hire specialized vendors to assist the employee's move. Evaluating taxes, planning the movement of household goods, arranging international schools and leasing suitable, safe housing and necessary visas must occur. An

inexperienced human resources partner may not understand the time table necessary to move a new hire from France to the United States. The former employer's contract requires a waiting period of three months prior to accepting a new job. Visa arrangements may take longer than three months. Waiting to initiate the visa process will delay the employee's start date. All of these factors must be taken into account by the human resources department.

5.4.8: Check Your Progress

1. Define 7Cs of International Human Resource Management 2. What are the 4 types of organizational models? 3. Discuss about the common problems encountered in International HRM

5.4.9: Reference
International HRM By Karishma Daswani International HR Issues By Kristen Bennett Effect of Globalization on HR By Laura Lemay

5.4.10: Answer to Check Your Progress

1. Read 5.4.2 2. Read 5.4.4 3. Read 5.4.5

Glossary of Psychological Terms Anxiety Anxiety is one of the most troubling of human emotions. It is a state of ongoing, gnawing agitation and restlessness, usually accompanied by a churning feeling in the stomach, tight muscles, sweaty palms, shallow breathing and feelings of light-headedness. Anxiety is different from fear in that it usually originates from an inner conflict that the person may not be consciously aware of and therefore is not easily resolved. Anxiety can leave a person feeling immobilised and useless. Fear on the other hand is directed at a specific object such as an oncoming car and is useful because it mobilises a person to take immediate action: eg, getting out of the way. Action based on fear is sometimes described as "fight or flight". Cognitive Behaviour Therapy Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) is a type of therapy that involves addressing a person's problematic thinking styles and behaviour. Given that the way we think can have a large influence on our mood, a CBT therapist will challenge dysfunctional thinking styles and encourage you to think in more producting and functional ways. Similarly behaviour is challenged so as to bring about the change you desire. Therapy typically involves quite a lot of reading and written homework such as completing thought diaries and behaviour monitoring sheets. CBT is a useful but sometimes limited therapy because changing thinking doesn't always change how a person feels. Other therapies aimed at regulating emotion may be used to augment the effectiveness of CBT. Counselling . Counselling generally involves addressing concerns with your relationship, marriage, alcohol or drug use, anger management, grief or depression. Many people use the word "counselling" interchangeably with "therapy", but counselling tends to involve helping someone through a difficult life transition whereas therapy tends to involve a deeper level of personal change and transformation. Marriage Counselling and Relationship Counselling: All couples go through difficult phases in their relationships, especially after the initial glow of romance has died down and there is a settling into the realities of daily life. There are a number of important relationship challenges that all couples face and each one of these challenges can potentially bring conflict. For example, issues with power struggles, intimacy versus autonomy and independence, differing communication styles, personality clashes and conflicting life directions can all impact the couple and produce potential for conflict. Counselling will gently guide you and your partner through these difficult patches, give you better relationship skills and resources and help you achieve the resolution that you seek. Alcohol and Drug Counselling: Using alcohol or drugs excessively to help you cope with life's pressures is very common in our culture. Unfortunately, this use or overuse can have unwanted and detrimental effects on your physical and mental health. Lifestyle, relationships, work performance and life satisfaction are all eventually negatively impacted by substance

dependency. Counselling will help you to address your drug and alcohol issues in a nonjudgemental and safe environment so that you can find the strength to make beneficial life choices and overcome your tendency to self-sabotage. Anger Management Counselling: Anger is a normal human emotion, however, if inappropriately expressed it can be quite a destructive force in your life. Because anger is such a high intensity, high energy emotion, many people struggle with expressing it effectively. In our culture, men and women are socialised differently with regards to what is acceptable and unacceptable when it comes to expressing anger. Generally our culture expects that men are more likely to express anger with aggression, violence and loud angry outbursts. Problems such as domestic violence, getting into fights, reckless driving and destroying property can be unwanted consequences of this kind of anger. Alternatively, our culture expects women to be more relationship oriented and careful about hurting people's feelings so women might be more likely to bottle up their rage and smile sweetly, be polite or cry but secretly be seething underneath. Anyone involved in a relationship with someone who cannot express anger directly may feel uncomfortable, unhappy, manipulated, irritable, impatient or even enraged, such is the toxic nature of supressed anger. Because anger is such a powerful emotion, when it is expressed inappropriately it can eventually lead to all sorts of physical and mental health problems such as depression, trauma, chaos and even heart disease. Counselling will be of great benefit in helping you work through your anger issues and learn how to express it in a way that can enhance (yes it can!) rather than destroy your life. Grief Counselling: A loss of someone important to us (eg, a spouse, child or parent) or something we value (eg, a job, relationship or financial independence) can all bring about a grief reaction. In our death-denying culture, many people suffering a bereavement can be utterly bewildered and devastated by these new feelings and find that they can't discuss how they feel with loved ones. The reality is that many people feel awkward around a bereaved person: they don't know what to say or how to be supportive, they don't understand and some may even be downright avoidant because they can't deal with painful, sad feelings. Therefore at a most difficult time, many people facing a loss will also feel isolated and alone. Counselling will help you to understand your grief process: how to deal with intense feelings coming in waves and how to make meaning of and understand the loss as well as how to remain connected in relationships throughout the grieving process. Then how to carry on and move forward in life whilst remembering and honouring the memory of who or what has passed. Depression Counselling: Depression is characterised by a heavy, lifeless feeling in which a person feels very little energy or motivation to do anything at all. Feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness and guilt are aspects of depression and can become as severe as feeling suicidal. Depressed people can have difficulty crying or feeling any other emotions at all. Loss of interest in pleasurable activities and sex, disturbance in sleep or appetite are also common. Some symptoms of depression may overlap with symptoms of anxiety and quite often people have a mixture of both. Depression usually involves a repression of feelings, quite often anger, that can be turned against the self in quite destructive ways. Counselling involves helping you to reconnect with feelings and express them in appropriate ways. Depression

Depression is characterised by a heavy, lifeless feeling in which a person feels very little energy or motivation to do anything at all. Feelings of hopelessness, worthlessness and guilt are aspects of depression and can become as severe as feeling suicidal. Depressed people can have difficulty crying or feeling any other emotions at all. Loss of interest in pleasurable activities and sex, disturbance in sleep or appetite are also common. Some symptoms of depression may overlap with symptoms of anxiety and quite often people have a mixture of both. Depression usually involves a repression of feelings, quite often anger, that can be turned against the self in quite destructive ways. Treatment involves helping the afflicted person to reconnect with feelings and express them in appropriate ways. Emotional Freedom Techniques Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) is a type of therapy developed by Gary Craig that aims to help people overcome their anxieties and other difficulties in a short period of time. It is an "East-meets-West" amalgam: a combination of accupuncture but without the needles and traditional talk-type therapy. The process involves tapping on a sequence of accupressure points while focussing on a specific problem so as to dissipate the negative emotions surrounding an event. It is a highly effective technique, easy to learn and use on all sorts of issues. Hakomi Hakomi is a type of therapy that was initially developed by Ron Kurtz and his associates in the 1970's in the USA and continues to evolve. The word itself is a Hopi Indian word meaning "where do I stand in relation to all these realms". It is a body-centred psychotherapy which means that the emphasis is on how our experience and our emotions get stored in the body and can be accessed extremely effectively by focusing on physical sensations. Hakomi emphasises self-study because self-awareness is the most potent healing force there is. It is a particularly gentle and respectful kind of psychotherapy and it relies on 5 principles: Mindfulness, Organicity, Mind-Body Holism, Non-Violence and Unity. Personality Disorder A personality disorder is characterised by long term, rigid patterns of thinking and behaviour that create problems in daily living, relationships and ability to function in the world. Distressing symptoms can include depression, anxiety, overwhelming emotion, short term volatile and intense relationships, self harm or suicidal gestures, aggressiveness, impulsivity, drug and alcohol use and other distressing symptoms. Because personality characteristics develop in childhood and are a stable feature of the person, they typically take a long time to treat, often 2 years or more. A combination of individual and group therapy work very well to help alleviate the distress of afflicted persons. Psychology Psychology is the study of human behaviour. Psychologists aim to predict, then help change problematic behaviours of individuals, groups or organisations. Psychology is a vast discipline and covers many different areas such as Clinical (the application of psychology to mental health

problems), Sports, Organisational, Educational and Community, to name but a few. The science of psychology is not a medical science, therefore psychologists cannot prescribe drugs, which is the province of psychiatrists who are medically trained. However in some parts of the USA, the discipline of psychology is experimenting with training psychologists in pharmacology so that they can prescribe drugs for common mental health problems. Therapy, Therapist and Counsellor The term "therapy" encompasses a myriad of different interventions aimed at helping people deal with mental health difficulties. Therapy is an active and directed process that aims to change problematic emotions, thinking and behaviour whereas counselling aims to provide a supportive environment in which a person can explore their issues and make the changes they see as necessary. Therapists often require more training than counsellors because the assessments interventions they use are more complex. Other terms for therapy are psychotherapy, psychological therapy or treatment. Other terms for therapist are psychotherapist, clinical psychologist, psychologist and clinician. Trauma A trauma is what happens when faced with an overwhelmingly distressing event that exceeds the person's resources to cope with what is happening. The resultant traumatic symptoms are a normal response to an abnormal event. Post-Traumatic-Stress Disorder can develop if the trauma is left untreated and the symptoms persist for months, even years. Symptoms of this disorder are anxiety based and involve having nightmares and flashbacks of the event, high anxiety triggered by stimuli that remind the person of the event, avoidance of reminders and quite often loss of trust in relationships and chaotic attachment to others. Symptoms of trauma can underlie clinical depression, mood and anxiety disorders.