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DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY UTILIZATION MANAGEMENT BUREAU

Manuals and Guidelines for Micro-hydropower Development in Rural Electrification Volume I

June 2009

Through the Project on Sustainability Improvement of Renewable Energy Development for Village Electrification in the Philippines under technical assistance of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), this manual was developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) reviewing the Manual for Microhydropower Development in March 2003.

Manuals and Guidelines for Micro-hydropower Development in Rural Electrification

Volume I MHP-1 Manual for Design, Implementation and Management for Micro-hydropower

Volume II MHP-2 Guideline for Selection of Potential Sites and Rehabilitation Sites of Micro-hydropower MHP-3 Project Evaluation Guideline for Micro-hydropower Development MHP-4 Micro-hydropower Plant Site Completion Test Manual MHP-5 Micro-hydropower Operator Training Manual MHP-6 Training Manual for Micro-hydropower Technology

MHP 1

DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY UTILIZATION MANAGEMENT BUREAU

MANUAL for Design, Implementation and Management For Micro-hydropower Development

June 2009

Through the Project on Sustainability Improvement of Renewable Energy Development for Village Electrification in the Philippines under technical assistance of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), this manual was developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) reviewing the Manual for Microhydropower Development in March 2003.

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Contents

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Table of Contents


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 2 3 4 Background User of Manual Applicable Range of Micro-Hydropower How to use this Manual INTRODUCTION S-1 S-1 S-1 S-2 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-5 1-7 2-1 2-1 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-14 2-21 3-1

Chapter 1

1.1 Purpose of the Manual for Micro-Hydro Development 1.2 Components of Micro-Hydro Power 1.3 Concept of Hydropower 1.4 The Water Cycle Chapter 2 IDENTIFICATION OF THE POTENTIAL SITES 2.1 Basic Reference Materials 2.2 Radius of Site Identification 2.3 Calculation of River Flow 2.4 Identification of Potential Sites 2.4.1 Map Study 2.4.2 Identification Based on Local Information 2.4.3 Selection of Potential Development Sites [Ref.2-1 Transmission and distribution line distance and voltage drop] [Ref.2-2 Relationship between voltage drop and distribution line distance [Ref.2-3 Considerations in the indirect estimation of discharge at the project site using data from gauging stations in the vicinity. [Ref.2-4 Method of river flow calculation by water balance model of drainage area] [Ref.2-5 Example of Micro-hydro Development Scheme Using Natural Topography and Various Man-made Structures] Chapter 3 SITE RECONNAISSANCE
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Contents

3.1 Objective of Site Reconnaissance 3.2 Preparation for Site Reconnaissance 3.2.1 Information gathering and preparation 3.2.2 Planning of preliminary site reconnaissance 3.2.3 Necessary equipment for preliminary site reconnaissance 3.3 Survey for Outline the Project Site 3.4 Validation of Geological Conditions Affecting Stability of Main Civil Structures 3.5 Survey on Locations of Civil Structures 3.6 Measurement of River Flow 3.7 Measurement of Head 3.8 Demand Survey 3.8.1 Demand survey 3.8.2 Factors to consider in the Demand survey items 3.9 Actual Field Survey [Ref.3-1 Method of Stream Flow Measurement] [Ref.3-2 Method of Head Measurement] [Ref.3-3 Sample Form Sheet for Potential Site Survey] [Ref.3-4 Questionnaire for households of non-electrified barangays] Chapter 4 PLANNING

3-1 3-1 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-3 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-9 3-10 3-10 3-10 3-12 3-13 3-18 3-22 3-26 4-1 4-1 4-3 4-3 4-4 4-6 4-6 4-8 4-8 4-9 4-12 4-13 4-14 4-14

4.1 Scheme of Development Layout 4.2 Data and Reference to Consider for Planning 4.2.1 Hydrograph and Flow Duration Curve 4.2.2 Plant Factor and Load Factor 4.3 Selection of Locations for Main Civil Structures 4.3.1 Location of Intake 4.3.2 Headrace Route 4.3.3 Location of Head Tank 4.3.4 Penstock Route 4.3.5 Location of Powerhouse 4.3.6 Location of Tailrace 4.4 Supply and Demand Plan 4.4.1 Selection of Power Demand Facilities
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Contents

4.4.2 Scheme of Development based on Supply and Demand 4.4.3 Daily Supply and Demand Plan Chapter 5 DESIGN FOR CIVIL STRUCTURES 5.1 Basic Equation for Civil Design 5.2 Intake Weir (Dam) 5.2.1 Types of Intake Weir 5.2.2 Weir Height Calculation 5.3 Intake 5.3.1 Types of Intake 5.3.2 Important Points for Intake Design (for Side-Intake) 5.4 Settling basin 5.5 Headrace 5.5.1 Types and Structures of Headrace 5.5.2 Determining the Cross Section and Longitudinal Slope 5.6 Headtank 5.6.1 Headtank Capacity 5.6.2 Important Points for Headtank Design 5.7 Penstock 5.7.1 Penstock Material 5.7.2 Calculation of Steel Pipe Thickness 5.7.3 Determining Diameter of Penstock 5.8 Foundation of Powerhouse 5.8.1 Foundation for Impulse Turbine 5.8.2 Foundation for Reaction Turbine [Ref. 5-1 Simple Method for Determining the Cross Section] [Ref.5-2 Simple Method for Determining the Diameter of Penstock] [Ref.5-3 Calculation of Head Loss] Chapter 6
DESIGN FOR MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL STRUCTURES

4-15 4-22 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-1 5-5 5-9 5-9 5-12 5-14 5-17 5-17 5-21 5-24 5-24 5-26 5-30 5-30 5-30 5-30 5-34 5-34 5-35 5-37 5-41 5-42 6-1 6-1 6-5 6-5 6-8

6.1 Fundamental Equipment Components for Power Plant 6.2 Turbine (Water turbine) 6.2.1 Types and Output of Water Turbine 6.2.2 Specific Speed and Rotation Speed of Turbine
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Contents

6.2.3 Design of Crossflow Turbine 6.2.4 Design of Reverse Pump Type Turbine (Pump As Turbine) 6.3 Generator 6.3.1 Types of Generator 6.3.2 Output of Generator 6.3.3 Speed and Number of Poles of Generator 6.4 Power Transmission Facility (Speed Increaser) 6.5 Control Facility of Turbine and Generator 6.5.1 Speed Governor 6.5.2 Exciter of Generator 6.5.3 Single Line Diagram 6.6 Control, Instrumentation and Protection of Plant 6.6.1 Control Method of Plant 6.6.2 Instrumentation of Plant 6.6.3 Protection of Plant and 380/220V Distribution Line 6.6.4 Protection of 20kV Distribution Line 6.7 Inlet Valve Annex 6.1 Brief Design of Cross Flow Turbine (SKAT T-12,13 & 14) Annex 6.2 Brief Design of Reverse Pump Turbine (PAT) Annex 6.3 Technical Application Sheet of Tender for for Rural Electrification Annex 6.4 Breif Design for Electro-mechanical Equipment of Micro-hydropower Plant Chapter 7 DESIGN OF DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES 7.1 Concept of Electricity 7.2 Selection for Distribution Route 7.3 Distribution Facilities 7.4 Pole 7.4.1 Span Length of Poles 7.4.2 Allowable Minimum Clearance of Conductors and Environment 7.4.3 Height of Poles 7.4.4 Size of Poles 7.5 Guy wire
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6-12 6-13 6-14 6-14 6-16 6-17 6-19 6-20 6-20 6-21 6-23 6-24 6-24 6-24 6-25 6-25 6-26 6-28 6-33 6-46 6-49 7-1 7-1 7-3 7-5 7-6 7-6 7-7 7-7 7-8 7-9

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Contents

7.6 Conductors and Cables 7.6.1 Advantages/Disadvantages of Conductors and Cables 7.6.2 Sizes of Conductors 7.6.3 Allowable Sag of Conductors 7.6.4 Allowable Load per Phase 7.6.5 Application of 3-Phase Line 7.7 Distribution Transformers 7.7.1 Types of Distribution Transformer 7.7.2 Necessity of Transformers 7.7.3 Application of Distribution Transformers 7.7.4 Selection of Unit Capacity 7.7.5 Location 7.8 House Connection (HC) 7.8.1 Application of House Connection 7.8.2 In-house Wiring [Ref.7-1 Standard of Steel poles] [Ref.7-2 Construction of house connection crossing village road] Chapter 8 PROJECT COST ESTIMATION 8.1 Rough Cost Estimation During Planning Stage 8.2 Cost Estimation During Detail Design Stage 8.2.1 Items 8.2.2 Quantity 8.2.3 Unit Cost [ Ref. 8-1 Cross-sectional method to calculate quantity] [Ref.8-2 Example of Bill of Quantities] Chapter 9 CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT 9.1 Construction Management for Civil Facilities 9.1.1 Purpose 9.1.2 Progress Control 9.1.3 Dimension Control 9.1.4 Quality Control

7-12 7-12 7-12 7-12 7-12 7-12 7-13 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-15 7-15 7-16 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 8-1 8-1 8-3 8-3 8-5 8-6 8-11 8-13 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-3

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Contents

9.2 Construction Management for Turbine, Generator and their Associated Equipment 9.2.1 Installation 9.2.2 Adjustment during Test Run Operation Chapter 10 OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Operation 10.2.1 Basic Operation 10.2.2 Operation in case of Emergency 10.2.3 Others 10.3 Maintenance 10.3.1 Daily Patrol 10.3.2 Periodic Inspection 10.3.3 Special Inspection 10.4 Recording Chapter 11 MANAGEMENT 11.1 Establishment of Organization 11.2 Management System 11.3 Reporting and Monitoring 11.4 Decision-Making System 11.5 Accounting System 11.6 Roles and Responsibilities of BAPA 11.6.1 BAPA Officials 11.6.2 Consumers 11.6.3 Local Government Unit (LGU) 11.6.4 Department of Energy (DOE) 11.7 Training 11.8 Collection of Electricity Charges and Financial management 11.8.1 Tariff Setting 11.8.2 Tariff Collection 11.8.3 Financial Management 9-5 9-5 9-6 10-1 10-1 10-2 10-2 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-6 10-8 10-8 10-9 11-1 11-1 11-1 11-2 11-2 11-3 11-3 11-3 11-5 11-5 11-5 11-5 11-6 11-6 11-6 11-7

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Executive Summary

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1. Background The first micro-hydropower plant was constructed in the 1930s in San Pablo City, Laguna Province. Although the Philippines has more than 60-year history in micro-hydro development, most of the micro-hydropower plants, particularly those that are recently installed, are not operational or have some problems in their operation. Some identified issues or problems are the results of insufficient site assessment, poor quality of power plant facilities and electro-mechanical equipment, and inadequate operation and maintenance. In order to provide solution to these issues, as well as to ensure sustainable development, it is required to use a guide and/or manual for micro-hydro development. This manual was provided as a technical supplement of the Guide on Micro-hydro Development for Rural Electrification which was developed under JICA Expert Dispatch Program for Rural Electrification utilizing Micro-hydro Technology. 2. User of Manual This manual is intended to assist prospective micro-hydropower developers/proponents for rural electrification in the off-grid and/or isolated barangays, such as local government units (LGUs), cooperatives and NGOs. This manual mainly deals with technical aspects of micro-hydropower technology to facilitate the community based micro-hydro development. 3. Applicable Range of Micro-Hydropower The selection of best turbines depends on the site characteristics, the dominant factor on the selection process being the head available and the power required. Selection also depends on the speed at which it is desired to run the generator or other device loading the turbine. It should be considered that whether or not the turbine will be expected to produce power under part-flow conditions, also play an important role in the selection. In the micro-hydropower scheme, turbines could be classified and grouped according to operating principle as shown in the table below.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Executive Summary

Table S.1 Classification and applicability range of turbines


HEAD (pressure) Turbine Type Impulse High < 40 m. Pelton Medium 20-40 m. Crossflow (Banki) Turgo Pelton Francis Pump-as-turbine (PAT) Kaplan Propeller Low 5-20 m. Crossflow (Banki)

Turgo Reaction

Propeller Kaplan

4. How to use this manual This manual is composed of eleven (11) chapters in relation with the Project Cycle of Sustainable Rural Electrification by Utilizing Micro-Hydro Technology. The conduct of site assessment and investigation in the study for a proposed micro-hydropower development are necessary to upgrade its level of accuracy. However, high precision survey or detailed investigation for preliminary design during the planning stage is not recommended due to practical and economic reasons. The development scale of micro-hydro is small and the cost of survey work is relatively high. The stages of mini-hydropower development project cycle are as follows. Project Planning Stage Project Implementation Stage Project Operation Stage In the first stage of the project cycle, termed as the Project Planning Stage, the major activities are Selection of Potential Sites, Site Reconnaissance, Planning of the Potential Sites and Formulation of the Project Development Plan in the target area utilizing decentralized power generation. Several potential sites will be considered in this stage in order to formulate the electrification plan for the whole target area. Chapter 3 through Chapter 4, Chapter 8-1 and Chapter 11 of this manual will comprise the pre-implementation stage.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Executive Summary

Community

Proponent (LGUs/NGOs)
for LGU/NGO request Data Collection

Dept. of Energy / Other Donors


List of unenergized sites identified for NRE

Request consultant

Project Planning Stage Project Implementation Stage Project Operation Stage

Data Analysis Site Reconnaissance

Layout and Design Proposal preparation

Technical Assistance, if necessary

BAPA Formulation

Approval

Mobilization

House wiring/Construction/ Installation

Periodic

O & M Training Commissioning

Technical A i t

Monitoring and Management and O & M of the project Technical advice for the Project

Figure S.1 Flowchart of Micro-hydropower Development (DOEs BEP Projects)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Executive Summary

The second stage is the Project Implementation Stage. This stage covers the Detail Design and Construction of the particular site. Chapter 5 through Chapter 9 of this manual will be used in the project implementation stage. The final stage is the Project Operation Stage. In this stage, Operation and Maintenance and Management will be discussed. These activities are described in Chapter 10 through Chapter 11 of this manual. The descriptions in each chapter are follows, Chapter 1 Introduction Introduces the concept of the micro-hydropower. Chapter 2 Selection of Potential Sites Deals with the technical aspects for site selection on the topographical map and local information. Chapter 3 Site Reconnaissance Provides procedural activities on how to conduct the survey on social condition as well as technical aspects of the potential site that were revealed in the above activities. In site reconnaissance, it is important to consider the possibility and capacity of the power generation and the demand in the area concerned. Chapter 4 Planning Shows the technical aspects for the planning of the project as shown in Figure S.2. Chapter 5 Design of Civil Structures The main problem for the development of a small-scale hydropower plant is the high upfront cost. In this chapter, various techniques were described to possibly reduce the construction cost of civil structures. Chapter 6 Design of Mechanical and Electrical Structures Provides the technical aspects for Mechanical and Electrical Structures such as Inlet valve, Turbine and Generator.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Executive Summary

Site Reconnaissance Reconnaissance on Potential Site (Refer to Chapter 3) Reconnaissance on Demand Site

Identification of System Layout (refer to 4.1) Confirmation of Design Discharge (refer to 4.2)

Selection of the Civil Structures Location (refer to 4.3)

Confirmation of the Head (refer to Ref.5-3) Selection of Power Demand Facilities (refer to 4.4.1)

Selection of the Generating System


Crossflow Turbine System or Pumps as Turbine System

Examination of Demand and Supply Balance (Refer to 4.4.2)


Unbalanced Balanced Unbalanced

Rough Estimation of the Project Cost (Refer to 8.1)

Project Implementation Stage


:There are the description in Chapter 4

Figure S.2 Flowchart for the Planning of the Project

Chapter 7 Design of Distribution Facilities Provides the technical aspects to be considered for Distribution Facilities such as a pole, cable, and transformer. Chapter 8 Project Cost Estimate Shows example and formula of cost estimate per item of work. It also shows

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Executive Summary

how to calculate quantity per work item. Chapter 9 Construction Management Refers to the purpose of Construction Management. It also includes progress control, dimension control and quality control. Chapter 10 Operation and Maintenance Shows the necessity of a manual for operation and maintenance and the importance of daily and periodic inspection. Chapter 11 Management In this chapter, the importance of establishing an association in the barangay for smooth performance in the management of the Micro-hydropower system was clarified.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 1

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Purpose of the Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Usually, Micro-Hydroelectric Power, or Micro-Hydro, are used in the rural electrification and does not necessarily supply electricity to the national grid. They are utilized in isolated and off-grid barangays for decentralized electrification. There is an increasing need in many developing countries for rural electrification purposely to provide illumination at night and to support livelihood projects. Also, the government is faced with the high costs of extending electricity grids. Often, Micro-Hydro system offers an economical option or alternative to grid extension. The high cost of transmission lines and the very low load factor in the rural areas contributes to the non-viability of the grid extension scheme. On the contrary, Micro-Hydro schemes can be designed and built by the local people and smaller organizations following less strict regulations and using local technology like traditional irrigation facilities or locally fabricated turbines. This approach is termed as the Localized Approach. Fig 1.1.1 illustrates the significance of this approach in lowering the development cost of Micro-Hydro systems. It is hoped that this Manual will help to promote the Localized Approach.

Fig 1.1.1 Micro-Hydros Economy of Scale ( based on 1985 data)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 1

1.2 Components of Micro-Hydro Power Figure1.2.1 shows the major components of a typical micro-hydro development scheme.

Headrace Headtank

Fig. 1.2.1 Major components of a micro-hydro scheme - Diversion Weir and Intake The diversion weir a barrier built across the river used to divert water through an opening in the riverside (the Intake opening) into a settling basin.

- Settling Basin The settling basin is used to trap sand or suspended silt from the water before entering the penstock. It may be built at the intake or at the forebay.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 1

- Headrace A channel leading water to a forebay or turbine. The headrace follows the contour of the hillside so as to preserve the elevation of the diverted water.

- Headtank Pond at the top of a penstock or pipeline; serves as final settling basin, provides submergence of penstock inlet and accommodation of trash rack and overflow/spillway arrangement.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 1

- Penstock A close conduit or pressure pipe for supplying water under pressure to a turbine.

- Water Turbine and Generator A water turbine is a machine to directly convert the kinetic energy of the flowing water into a useful rotational energy while a generator is a device used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.

There are of course many variations on the design layout of the system. As an example, the water is entered directly to the turbine from a channel without a penstock. This type is the simplest method to get the waterpower. Another variation is that the channel could be eliminated, and the penstock will run directly to the turbine. Variations like this will depend on the characteristics of the particular site and the requirements of the user of system.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 1

1.3 Concept of Hydro Power A hydro scheme requires both water flow and a drop in height (referred to as Head) to produce useful power. The power conversion absorbs power in the form of head and flow, and delivering power in the form of electricity or mechanical shaft power. No power conversion system can deliver as much useful power as it absorbs some power is lost by the system itself in the form of friction, heating, noise, etc.

Fig. 1.3.1 Head is the vertical height through which the water drops

The power conversion equation is : Power input = Power output + Loss or Power output = Power input Conversion Efficiency The power input, or total power absorbed by the hydro scheme, is the gross power, (Pgross). The power output is the net power (Pnet). The overall efficiency of the scheme (Fig.1.3.2) is termed Eo. Pnet = Pgross Eo in kW

The gross power is the product of the gross head (Hgross), the design flow (Q) and a coefficient factor (g = 9.8), so the fundamental hydropower equation is:

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 1

Pnet = g Hgross Q Eo kW (g=9.8) where the gross head is in meters and the design flow is in cubic meter per second. Eo is derived as follows: Eo = Ecivil work Epenstock Eturbine Egenerator Edrive system Eline Etransformer Usually Ecivil work Epenstock Eturbine Egenerator Edrive system Eline Etransformer : 1.0 - (Channel length 0.002 0.005)/ Hgross : 0.90 0.95 (its depends on length) : 0.70 0.85 (its depends on the type of turbine) : 0.80 0.95 (its depends on the capacity of generator) : 0.97 : 0.90 0.98 (its depends on the transmission length) : 0.98

Ecivil work and Epenstock are usually computed as Head Loss (Hloss). In this case, the hydropower equation becomes: Pnet= g (Hgross-Hloss) Q (Eo - Ecivil work - Epenstock ) kW

This simple equation should be memorized: it is the heart and soul of hydro power design work.

Fig 1.3.2 Typical system efficiencies for a scheme running at full design flow. Fig 1.3.2 Typical system efficiencies for a scheme running at full design flow. Fig 1.3.2 Typical system efficiencies for a scheme running at full design flow. Fig 1.3.2 Typical system efficiencies for a scheme running at full design flow.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 1

1.4

The Water Cycle

The volume of the river flow or discharge depends on the catchment area and the volume of rainfall. Figure 1.4.1 shows how the rainfall is divided on both sides (A and B) of the watershed. For example, there is an existing Hydropower Plant at A-side, the rainfall at B-side cannot be used for power generation at this Hydropower Plant. Therefore, the catchment area of a proposed hydropower plant should be known at the first step of the study of hydro scheme.

Fig 1.4.1 The hydrological cycle The broken lines in Fig 1.4.2 indicate the watershed of Point-A and Point-B. The catchment area is the area enclosed by broken lines.

Fig 1.4.2 The catchment area and the watershed

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

Chapter 2 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL SITES

It is necessary to roughly examine (i) whether or not the construction of a small-scale hydropower plant near the power demand area is feasible and (ii) how much power capacity can be generated sufficiently and where, and then (iii) how to select a potential site among the candidate sites. The initial examination is basically a desk study using available reference materials and information and the procedure involved and important issues to be addressed are explained below.

2.1

Basic Reference Materials

The basic reference materials required are the following: 1) Topographical map: scale: 1/50,000 Topographical map provides important information, such as landform, location of communities, slope of the river, catchment area of proposed sites, access road, etc. In the Philippines, topographical maps of scale 1/50,000 are available at the National Mapping & Resources Information Authority (NAMRIA) 2) Rainfall data: isohyetal map and others (cf. Fig 2.1.1) Although it is unnecessary to gather detailed rainfall data at this stage, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of the rainfall characteristics of the project area using an isohyetal map for the region and existing rainfall data for the adjacent area. Isohyetal map provides the interpolation and averaging will give an approximate indication of rainfall.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

Figure 2.1.1 (a)

Fig 2.1.1(b) An example of isohyetal map for micro-hydro scheme

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

2.2

Radius of Site Identification

As most of the electric energy generated by a small-scale hydropower plant is basically intended for the consumption of the target area, it is important to consider that the plant site should be as nearer as possible to the load center. In the case of highly dispersed communities, which are distributed over a relatively large area, it may be more advantageous to construct individual micro-hydropower plants, rather than to supply power to all groups by a single plant, due to lower transmission cost, easier operation and maintenance and fewer impacts due to unexpected plant stoppage, etc. To be more efficient in planning individual-type micro-hydropower plants, it is recommended to gradually widen the scope of the survey, starting from the geographical area of each group. The transmission distance from the potential site to the target site should depend on various parameters, the power output, demand level, topography, accessibility conditions, transmission voltage and cost of transmission lines. In Japan, the transmission distance to the demand site is set to ensure a voltage drop rate which does not exceed 7%. [Reference 2-1: Transmission and distribution line distance and voltage drop] In case of Micro-hydro Scheme in the Philippines, the rough estimate for the maximum allowable transmission distance is 1.5 kilometers (km) from the load center. This distance is based on the premise that the voltage at the end of distribution line should be kept at not less than 205 volts (V) or the permissible voltage drop is only 15V on the regulated voltage of 220V, without using a transformer. [Reference 2-2 Relationship between voltage drop and distribution line distance] If a good potential site is not found within the above distance, the radius of identification should be expanded over a larger area with the provision that the transformer should be installed.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

2.3

Calculation of River Flow

Among the river flow data mentioned earlier, historical records of flow data in the area surrounding the project site should be used to estimate the river flow, taking the rainfall distribution characteristics into consideration. Qp = RrQoAo Where, Qp : river flow per unit catchment area in project area (m3/skm2) Rr : rainfall ratio between catchment area of the proposed site for micro-hydro project and of existing gauging station Qo : observed river flow at existing gauging station or existing hydro-power station (m3/s) Ao : catchment area of existing gauging station (km2) [See Reference 2-3: Considerations when estimating river flow at the project site (indirectly from existing data of vicinity gauging stations) for the important points to note for river flow based on the existing gauging station nearby.] Particularly in the micro-hydro scheme, it is important to note that the firm discharge, which is the flow during the driest time of the year, should be estimated accurately. If no flow data is available, it is possible to estimate the rough flow duration curve referring to Reference 2-3: Simple calculating method of river flow by the water balance model of drainage area.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

2.4 Identification of Potential Sites 2.4.1 Map Study Potential sites are identified on the topographical map with a scale of 1/50,000 by interpreting the head. The following parameters should be considered in the map study: (1) Site identification considering river gradient and catchment area Sites with high head, shortest waterway and high discharge level are naturally advantageous for hydropower generation. The information on the river gradient (elevation difference and river length) and the drainage area could be obtained in the map study. While some experience is required to identify potential sites from a topographical map, if the diagrams shown Fig 2.4.1 are prepared in advance for the subject river, the identification of potential sites is much easier. (2) Identification based on waterway construction conditions As far as the basic layout of a micro-hydro scheme is concerned, most civil structures are planned to have an exposed structure. Because of this, the topography at any potential site must be able to accommodate such exposed civil structures. (Refer to Chapter 4, 4.1 System Layout )

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

Suitable

section

for

power

Elevation

River

Catchment Area

Confluence

Change in Catchment Area Distance

Fig 2.4.1 River Profile and Changes in Drainage Area of River to consider in the Identification of Promising Sites for Hydropower Development

2.4.2 Identification Based on Local Information In cases where potential sites cannot be interpreted on the topographical map because of the small usable head or the presence of a fall or pool, etc. as well as existing infrastructures like intake facilities for irrigation and forest roads, potential sites are identified on the basis of information provided by a local public body and/or local residents organization. [Reference 2-5: Example of Natural Topography and Various Infrastructures]

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

2.4.3 Selection of Potential Development Sites The potential sites identified in the previously described study are then examined for their suitability in hydropower development. (1) Level of firm discharge

While it is difficult to judge the suitability for development based on the absolute volume of firm discharge, a potential site with a relatively high level of firm discharge is more favourable site for a micro-hydro plant designed to supply power throughout the year. Figure 2.4.2 shows the relation of specific firm discharge and the ratio of firm discharge to maximum discharge (Qmax/QF: refer to the figure below) in existing small-scale hydropower plants. Generally, the Qmax/QF values of micro hydropower plant for rural electrification are shown about 1.0. This is meaning that the maximum discharges of micro hydropower plants are the same as the firm discharge. This is because constant electric power through a year is required to the micro hydropower plant for the rural electrification program. And the specific firm discharge in the Qmax/QF range are 0.8~2.0 m3/s100km2. The difference of vegetation of the catchment area and the annual precipitation cause this difference. For the initial identification of potential site, the maximum discharge/firm discharge will be set as 1.0 m3/s100km2 . However, the discharge set up in here should be reviewed at the time of site reconnaissance.

River flow (m3/s)

Qmax Duration Curve QF


Days

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

Maximum and Firm Discharge in Hydropower Plant


2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 Mini Micro

Small

Unit Firm Discharge (m 3/s/100km 2)

Large 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110

Percentage of Firm/Maximum Discharge (%)

Fig 2.4.2 Relationship between firm discharge/maximum discharge ratio and specific firm discharge

(2)

L/H [ratio between waterway length (L) and total head (H)]

A site with a smaller L/H value is more advantageous for small-scale hydropower. Figure 2.4.3 shows the relation of the ratio between the total head (H) and the waterway length (L) (L/H) among existing small-scale hydropower sites where the total head is not less than 10 m (the minimum head which can be interpreted on an existing topographical map). As clearly indicated in the figure, the L/H of existing sites is generally not higher than 40 or is an average of 25. Figure 2.4.4 shows the relation of firm discharge and L/H, the sites with smaller firm discharge has smaller L/H. The L/H of sites with less than 0.2m3/s firm discharge is approximately below 15.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2

Head and Waterway Length


100 90 80 70 L/H=10 L/H=25 Small/Large L/H<50

Head (m) H

60 50 40 30 20 10 0
0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000

L/H=50 Mini L/H<25 Micro L/H<25

Waterway Length (m) L

Fig2.4.3

Relation between head and waterway length

0.5 Firm discharge (m3/s) 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 10 20 30 40 50

Waterway length / Head

Fig2.4.4

Relation between firm discharge and L/H

- 2-9 -

Diameter of line Diameter of line

Permissible voltage drop ratio Permissible voltage drop

ratio

Voltage drop ratio (%)

[Ref. 2-1 Relationship between transmission line distance and voltage drop]

Voltage drop ratio (%)

- 2-10 Aluminum Conductor

Distance (km)

Distance (km) Relation of transmission line distance and voltage drop II

Relation of transmission line distance and voltage drop I


11kV, 300kW Aluminum Conductor

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference)

6.6kV, 300kW

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference) [Ref. 2-2 Relationship between distribution line distance and voltage drop]

Permissible voltage drop ratio

Distance (m) Relation of transmission line distance and voltage drop III Voltage drop ratio (%)

Diameter of line

- 2-11 -

400V, 50kW

Aluminum Conductor

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference)

Ref. 2-3 Considerations in the estimation of discharge at the project site using data from gauging stations in the vicinity. If there are multiple gauging stations near the project site, the following parameters should be considered in selecting the gauging station to be used. 1. Drainage Area Ratio In estimating the discharge based on data of existing gauging stations, the drainage area should be taken into consideration. From the discharge characteristic curve, as shown in the following figure, and drainage area ratio between existing gauging station and project site is large, the flow duration curves may be crossing each other which will make the discharge computation is unreliable.

Specific drainage area

Large drainage area

Small drainage area

2. Rainfall

Day

The flow-duration and the rainfall characteristic in the upper portion of the river that has close correlation with the long term discharge must be regarded as close correlation between rainfall and discharge. The available rainfall data from gauging stations in both small and large drainage areas are useful information to evaluate the discharge at the project site. The simplest method in estimating the rainfall around the project site is to use the isohyetal maps. This map shows contour lines of average rainfall, and can be compared to the amount of rainfall in the project site and the gauging station.

Specific drainage area

Big amount of rainfall

Small amount of rainfall

Day

- 2-12 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference)

3. Geological conditions The evaluation of the discharge in the project site based on the presence of gauging stations in the area is not enough to establish the correlation of flow duration curves. Geological rock area. A quaternary volcanic rock is considered to have high water retention capability. Flow duration curves influenced by this type of geology is relatively flat, wherein the discharge in wet season is only slightly higher during the dry season, as compared with the flow duration curves of those that are not influenced by this type of rocks, as shown in the figure below: condition also influenced the similarity of flow duration curves aside from the drainage areas such as the existence of quaternary volcanic

Specific drainage area

Existence of Quaternary volcanic rock in the drainage area

Not existence of Quaternary volcanic rock

Day

It is possible to know the distribution of quaternary volcanic rocks from existing geological map, however, it is difficult to analyze quantitatively its share in the drainage area and the characteristic or general pattern of discharge. Therefore, when quaternary volcanic rocks in the project area exists, it is recommended to select gauging stations with equivalent geological characteristic. Aside from the quaternary volcanic rock, limestone also affects the runoff and the river discharge. It is also very difficult to measure its influence qualitatively and quantitatively. Generally the river with limestone shows irregular discharge. Therefore, in case the drainage or catchment area is characterized with limestone formation, it is suggested to conduct the stream flow measurement at the intake point of the project site. 4. Geographical condition Geographical condition is also considered to have a significant influence in the estimation of discharge. Generally, it is recognized that the amount of rainfall is larger at higher altitude and steeper mountain. Hence, selection of gauging stations with similar geographical conditions, such as altitude, features, and direction of drainage area is considered as one of the methods that raise the accuracy of discharge estimation. In case no dissecting plain exist in the drainage area of the project site and its outline falls down, the runoff may flow out of the drainage area through seepage.

- 2-13 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference)

[Ref. 2-4 Method of river flow by the water balance model of drainage area] If there are no discharge observation data and only rainfall data is available, it is possible to estimate river discharge from the water balance data of the drainage area. 1. Calculation method (1) Water balance of the drainage area The relation of rainfall, runoff (direct runoff, base runoff), and evaporation is indicated by the viewpoint of annual water balance as shown in the formula below. In this case, pooling of drainage area and inflow and runoff from/to other drainage area are not necessary. P = R + Et = Rd + Rb + Et where, P : Annual rainfall (mm) R : Annual runoff (mm) Rd : Annual direct runoff (mm) Rb : Annual base runoff (mm) Et : Annual evaporation (mm) Runoff (R) is obtained from calculated evaporation (Et) by the presumption formula and observed rainfall (P). A pattern figure of the relation of rainfall (R), possible evaporation (Etp), and real evaporation (Et) is shown Figure 1-1. Indicated as diagonal line is real evaporation, and area above line b-c is river runoff including sub-surface water. Possible evaporation (a-b-c-d) is obtained by presumption formula. (2) Direct runoff and base runoff A pattern of annual runoff is shown Figure 1-2. The runoff is provided from sub-surface water, and it contained base runoff with less seasonal fluctuation and direct runoff wherein the rainfall immediately becomes the runoff. The ratio of sub-surface water to annual runoff (R) is shown in Table 1-1. Where, Rg = Rb, Rb / R = 0.25 constant, and the base runoff is taken as constant.

- 2-14 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference)

Amount of rainfall

Amount of rainfall, evaporation (mm)

Possible evaporation (Etp)

Runoff (R)

Amount of real evaporation (Et)

Month
Figure 1-1 Pattern figure of amount of rainfall and evaporation

Amount of direct runoff

Amount of runoff (m3/s)

Amount of base runoff

Month
Figure 1-2 Pattern figure of runoff

- 2-15 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference)

Table 1-1
Area Rainfall (P) Runoff (R) Direct runoff (Rd) Subsoil water Evaporation (Et) Rg / R Asia 726 293 217 76 433 26 Africa 686 139 91 48 547 35

World water balance model


Europe 734 319 210 109 415 34 Australia 736 226 172 54 510 24 Japan 1788 1197 597 -

North America South America

670 287 203 84 383 32

1648 583 373 210 1065 36

(Note) Source: Lvovich 1973 Data of Japan from Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport

(3) Calculation of possible evaporation The calculation formulas are Blaney-Criddle formula, Penman formula, and Thornthwaite formula etc. Herein, Blaney-Criddle formula was used which is the simplest method using the longitude and temperature of the project site. The observed value of evaporation from free water surface was also considered. (a) Calculation method Blaney-Criddle formula ( 45.7t + 813 ) u = KP where, u : Monthly evaporation (mm) K : Monthly coefficient of vegetation P : Monthly rate of annual sunshine (%) t : Monthly average temperature () Monthly average temperature and monthly rate of annual sunshine Monthly average temperature ; Using temperature at the drainage area of dam site Monthly rate of annual sunshine ; Obtained by the latitude at the drainage area of dam site In the northern hemisphere, use Table 1-2, and in the southern hemisphere, use Table 1-3. K value depends on the vegetation condition. Herein, a constant of 0.6 was used. (b) Example of calculation Conditions : Position of drainage area lat. 16N Calculation of possible evaporation : Table 1-4 100

- 2-16 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference)

(4) Calculation of evaporation It is shown in Table 1-4, the monthly evaporations are obtained by lower value of rainfall or possible evaporation.

(5) Computation of monthly runoff data a) Computation by the procedure shown in Table 1-5. b) Derivation of the monthly mean discharge data at the dam site by the following formula.
Monthly runoff (of Table 1-5 )

Q (i) = where,

CA106

1 86,400n (m3/s)

1000

Q (i) : Monthly mean discharge at dam site in i (month) CA : Drainage area (km2) n : Number of days in the month

The discharge for the drainage area of 300 km2 is shown in Table 1-5. In addition, the ratio of the base runoff to the total runoff (25%) and the monthly distribution of base runoff (constant) can be analyzed with regards to the characteristic of runoff at the area.

- 2-17 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference) Table 1-2 Monthly rate of annual sunshine (Northern Hemisphere)
North Latitude 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan. 3.52 3.81 4.07 4.31 4.51 4.70 4.86 5.02 5.17 5.31 5.44 5.56 5.68 5.79 5.89 5.99 6.17 6.33 6.48 6.61 6.75 6.87 6.98 7.10 7.20 7.31 7.40 7.49 7.58 7.67 7.75 7.83 7.91 7.98 8.06 8.14 8.21 8.28 8.36 8.43 8.50 Feb. 5.13 5.27 5.39 5.49 5.58 5.67 5.76 5.84 5.91 5.98 6.04 6.10 6.16 6.22 6.27 6.32 6.41 6.50 6.57 6.65 6.72 6.79 6.85 6.91 6.97 7.02 7.07 7.12 7.16 7.21 7.26 7.31 7.35 7.39 7.43 7.47 7.51 7.55 7.59 7.63 7.67 Mar. 7.96 8.00 8.04 8.07 8.09 8.11 8.13 8.14 8.15 8.17 8.18 8.19 8.20 8.21 8.23 8.24 8.26 8.28 8.29 8.30 8.32 8.33 8.35 8.35 8.36 8.37 8.37 8.38 8.39 8.40 8.41 8.41 8.42 8.43 8.44 8.45 8.45 8.46 8.47 8.49 8.49 Apr. 9.97 9.92 9.86 9.80 9.74 9.69 9.64 9.59 9.53 9.48 9.44 9.40 9.36 9.32 9.28 9.24 9.17 9.11 9.05 8.99 May 12.72 12.50 12.29 12.11 11.94 11.78 11.64 11.50 11.38 11.26 11.15 11.04 10.94 10.85 10.76 10.68 10.52 10.38 10.25 10.13 Jun. 14.15 13.63 13.24 12.92 12.66 12.41 12.19 12.00 11.83 11.68 11.53 11.39 11.26 11.14 11.02 10.92 10.72 10.53 10.39 10.24 Jul. 13.59 13.26 12.97 12.73 12.51 12.31 12.13 11.96 11.81 11.67 11.54 11.42 11.30 11.19 11.09 10.99 10.81 10.65 10.49 10.35 Aug. 11.18 11.08 10.97 10.87 10.77 10.68 10.60 10.52 10.44 10.36 10.29 10.22 10.16 10.10 10.05 9.99 9.89 9.79 9.71 9.62 9.55 9.47 9.41 9.34 9.28 9.21 9.17 9.11 9.06 9.01 8.95 8.90 8.85 8.80 8.76 8.71 8.66 8.62 8.58 8.53 8.49 Sep. 8.55 8.56 8.56 8.55 8.55 8.54 8.53 8.53 8.52 8.52 8.51 8.50 8.49 8.48 8.47 8.46 8.45 8.43 8.41 8.40 8.39 8.37 8.36 8.35 8.34 8.33 8.32 8.32 8.31 8.30 8.29 8.29 8.28 8.27 8.26 8.25 8.25 8.24 8.23 8.22 8.21 Oct. 6.53 6.63 6.73 6.80 6.88 6.95 7.00 7.06 7.13 7.18 7.23 7.28 7.32 7.36 7.40 7.44 7.51 7.58 7.64 7.70 7.75 7.80 7.85 7.90 7.95 7.99 8.02 8.06 8.10 8.13 8.17 8.20 8.23 8.27 8.31 8.34 8.37 8.40 8.43 8.46 8.49

(%)
Nov. Dec. 4.08 4.32 4.52 4.70 4.86 5.02 5.17 5.30 5.42 5.52 5.63 5.74 5.83 5.92 6.00 6.08 6.24 6.37 6.50 6.62 6.73 6.83 6.93 7.02 7.11 7.20 7.28 7.36 7.44 7.51 7.58 7.65 7.72 7.79 7.85 7.91 7.98 8.04 8.10 8.16 8.22 2.62 3.02 3.36 3.65 3.91 4.14 4.35 4.54 4.71 4.87 5.02 5.16 5.30 5.42 5.54 5.65 5.85 6.05 6.22 6.39 6.54 6.68 6.81 6.93 7.05 7.16 7.27 7.37 7.47 7.56 7.65 7.74 7.83 7.93 8.01 8.09 8.18 8.26 8.34 8.42 8.50

8.93 10.01 10.09 10.22 8.89 9.90 9.96 10.11 8.85 9.80 9.82 9.99 8.80 9.71 9.71 9.88 8.75 9.62 9.60 9.77 8.71 8.67 8.64 8.60 8.56 8.53 8.50 8.47 8.43 8.40 8.37 8.34 8.31 8.28 8.25 8.22 9.54 9.46 9.37 9.30 9.22 9.15 9.08 9.01 8.94 8.87 8.81 8.74 8.68 8.62 8.55 8.49 9.49 9.39 9.29 9.19 9.11 9.02 8.93 8.85 8.77 8.69 8.61 8.53 8.45 8.37 8.29 8.22 9.67 9.58 9.49 9.40 9.32 9.24 9.16 9.08 9.00 8.92 8.85 8.78 8.71 8.64 8.57 8.50

- 2-18 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference) Table 1-3 Monthly rate of annual sunshine (Southern Hemisphere)
South Latitude 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 Jan. 8.50 8.55 8.64 8.71 8.79 8.85 8.91 8.97 9.09 9.18 9.25 9.36 9.44 9.52 9.61 9.69 9.76 9.88 10.06 10.14 10.24 10.39 10.52 10.68 10.85 11.03 Feb. 7.67 7.71 7.76 7.81 7.84 7.86 7.91 7.97 8.02 8.06 8.09 8.12 8.17 8.28 8.31 8.33 8.36 8.41 8.53 8.61 8.65 8.72 8.81 8.88 8.98 9.06 Mar. 8.49 8.49 8.50 8.50 8.51 8.52 8.53 8.54 8.56 8.57 8.58 8.58 8.59 8.60 8.61 8.63 8.64 8.65 8.67 8.68 8.70 8.71 8.72 8.73 8.76 8.77 Apr. 8.22 8.19 8.17 8.12 8.11 8.09 8.06 8.03 7.98 7.93 7.92 7.89 7.87 7.81 7.79 7.75 7.70 7.68 7.61 7.59 7.54 7.49 7.44 7.39 7.32 7.25 May 8.49 8.44 8.39 8.30 8.24 8.18 8.15 8.07 7.96 7.89 7.83 7.74 7.65 7.56 7.49 7.43 7.34 7.25 7.16 7.07 6.96 6.85 6.73 6.61 6.45 6.31 Jun. 8.22 8.17 8.08 8.00 7.91 7.84 7.79 7.70 7.57 7.50 7.41 7.30 7.24 7.07 6.99 6.94 6.85 6.73 6.59 6.46 6.33 6.20 6.04 5.87 5.69 5.48 Jul. 8.50 8.43 8.20 8.19 8.13 8.11 8.08 7.08 7.94 7.88 7.73 7.76 7.68 7.49 7.40 7.30 7.20 7.10 6.99 6.87 6.73 6.60 6.45 6.30 6.13 5.98 Aug. 8.49 8.44 8.41 8.37 8.12 8.28 8.23 8.19 8.14 8.10 8.05 8.00 7.95 7.90 7.85 7.80 7.73 7.69 7.59 7.51 7.46 7.39 7.30 7.21 7.12 7.03 Sep. 8.21 8.20 8.19 8.18 8.18 8.18 8.17 8.16 8.14 8.14 8.13 8.13 8.12 8.11 8.10 8.09 8.08 8.06 8.06 8.05 8.04 8.01 8.00 7.98 7.96 7.95 Oct. 8.49 8.52 8.56 8.59 8.62 8.65 8.67 8.69 8.78 8.80 8.83 8.86 8.89 8.94 8.97 9.00 9.04 9.07 9.15 9.19

(%)
Nov. Dec. 8.22 8.27 8.33 8.38 8.47 8.52 8.58 8.65 8.72 8.80 8.85 8.90 8.96 9.10 9.19 8.50 8.55 8.65 8.74 8.84 8.90 8.95 9.01 9.17 9.24 9.32 9.38 9.47 9.61 9.74

9.24 9.80 9.31 9.87 9.38 9.99 9.51 10.21 9.60 10.34

9.23 9.69 10.42 9.27 9.79 10.57 9.34 9.91 10.72 9.41 10.03 10.90 9.47 10.17 11.09 9.53 10.32 11.30

(Note) Southern part more than lat. 50S will be calculated using example from Table 1-2. Concretely, the monthly rate of southern latitude is corresponding to below showing months of northern latitude.

Southern lat. - Northern lat. January February March April May June July August September October November December

Southern lat. July August September October -

Northern lat. January February March April May June

November December -

- 2-19 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference) Table 1-4 Calculation example of possible evaporation and real evaporation

Month Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

Temperature Monthly rate of Possible evaporation Rainfall Real annual sunshine evaporation from Blaney-Criddle smaller value formula t p of and () (%) (mm) (mm) (mm) 22.1 24.7 27.2 28.9 28.4 27.7 27.1 27.0 27.1 26.5 24.1 22.0 7.91 7.35 8.42 8.47 9.01 8.85 9.08 8.85 8.28 8.23 7.72 7.83 86.4 85.6 103.8 108.4 114.2 110.4 111.8 108.7 101.9 100.0 88.6 85.4 1,205.2 ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( 91.0 106.4 129.7 138.2 116.3 91.1 81.2 72.7 74.6 79.7 73.4 80.2 ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 8.5 16.8 38.3 62.3 170.0 180.3 202.9 197.7 207.7 123.0 30.2 17.9 1,255.6 8.5 16.8 38.3 62.3 114.2 110.4 111.8 108.7 101.9 100.0 30.2 17.9 821.0

( 1,134.5 )

(Note) : obtained data : from Table 1-2 : parenthetic numbers are observed evaporation value from water surface

Table 1-5
Runoff - of Chart 1-4 (mm) 0 0 0 0 55.8 69.6 91.1 89.0 105.8 23.0 0 0 434.3

Calculation example of river flow

Month

Direct runoff Base runoff Monthly runoff Monthly mean discharge 0.75 (Note) + 3 (mm) (mm) (mm) (m /s) 0 0 0 0 41.9 52.2 68.3 66.8 79.4 17.3 0 0 325.7 9.2 8.3 9.2 8.9 9.2 8.9 9.2 9.2 8.9 9.2 8.9 9.2 108.6 9.2 8.3 9.2 8.9 51.1 61.1 77.5 76.0 88.3 26.5 8.9 9.2 434.3 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 5.72 7.07 8.69 8.51 10.22 2.96 1.03 1.03

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May Jun. Jul. Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total

(Note) Base runoff: distribute uniformity 434.30.25 = 108.6 mm to each month

- 2-20 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference) [Ref. 2-5 Example of Micro-hydro Development Scheme Using Natural Topography and Various Man-Made Structures] 1. Using existing irrigation channel and naturally formed pool downstream of fall
River Intake weir Headrace

Water fall

River Power house

Spillway Penstock

Irrigation channel

Headtank Screen

- 2-21 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference) 2. Intake water from two rivers

Headrace Intake weir River Headtank Screen Penstock

Intake weir

River
-2-5

Power house Tailrace

- 2-22 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference) 3. Using a head drop structure of existing irrigation channel

Irrigation channel
-2-6

Intake Headtank

Head drop structure

Penstock

Power house

- 2-23 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 2 (Reference) 4. Using a head drop structure of existing irrigation channel

-2-7

River

Intake Headrace Irrigation channel Road

Headtank

Penstock Power house

Tailrace

- 2-24 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

CHAPTER 3

SITE RECONNAISSANCE

3.1 Objective of Site Reconnaissance The objective of site reconnaissance for micro-hydro is to investigate potential sites and supply area in order to evaluate the feasibility of projects and get information for electrification planning. One of the most important activities in site reconnaissance is to measure water discharge and head that could be utilized for micro-hydropower generation. Investigations of intake site, waterway route, powerhouse site and transmission route etc. are also conducted to assess the feasibility of project sites. Power demand survey is also important in the planning of the electrification system. Socio-economic data such as number of households and public facilities in supply area, availability of local industries which will use electricity, solvency of local people for electricity and the acceptability of local people to the electrification scheme are gathered during the reconnaissance survey.

3.2 Preparation for Site Reconnaissance To achieve effective and fruitful site reconnaissance, it is important to prepare for site reconnaissance such as gathering of available information, devise sufficient plan and schedule of survey activities in advance.

3.2.1 Information gathering and preparation As advance information, 1/50,000 topographic maps are prepared to check the topography of the target site and villages, the catchment area, villages distribution and access road. More accurate information on site accessibility could be collected by contacting local people concerned. Copies of 1/50,000 topographic maps and route maps enlarged by 200 to 400% are prepared for the fieldwork. Check list and interview sheet are also prepared for each site reconnaissance.

- 3-1 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

3.2.2

Planning of preliminary site reconnaissance

Although it may be required to deviate from original plan and schedule in accordance with site condition, it is important to make sufficient plan and schedule for site reconnaissance activities in advance. It is also necessary to coordinate with local officials concerned to insure safety and successful conduct of the reconnaissance activities. Since most of micro-hydro sites are located in mountainous and isolated areas, it requires longer time to conduct site reconnaissance activities. Therefore, sufficient schedule should be considered to have enough time for the fieldwork. Also, measurement and other activities for site reconnaissance should be taken into account. A check list or interview sheet should be prepared beforehand to efficiently perform necessary activities of site reconnaissance. 3.2.3 Necessary equipment for preliminary site reconnaissance

Necessary equipment for preliminary site reconnaissance depends on purpose and accuracy and site condition. Basic equipment is as follows: Table 3.2.1 Check sheet of basic equipment for site reconnaissance as an example
Equipment Map, Sheet Route map Topographic map Reconnaissance schedule Check list Interview sheet Geological map Aerial photograph Related reports Stationary Field notebook Scale Pencil Eraser Color pencil Section paper Equipment Equipment Altimeter GPS (portable type) Camera, Film Current meter Distance meter, measuring tape Hand level Convex scale (2-3m) Hammer Clinometer Knife Scoop Torch, Flashlight Sampling baggage Label Compass Stop watch Battery Notes: : necessary equipment for preliminary site reconnaissance

- 3-2 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

3.3

Survey to Outline the Project Site

During the reconnaissance at the proposed site of power generating facilities and around the power demand area, a survey is conducted on the following items: (1) Access conditions

The equipment and machinery used for the construction and operation of a microhydropower plant are smaller and lighter than those used for an ordinary hydropower plant and it may be possible in some cases that such equipment and machinery can be brought to the site either manually or using simple vehicles. Given the smaller capacity of the power generated by a micro-hydropower plant, careful consideration is required in the use of transportation method and access other than the use of an existing road or vehicle since the construction of a new access road could be a factor that would considerably reduces the economy of a project. In the case of a mountainous area, there may be an abandoned road (previously used for the hauling of cut trees, etc.) which is difficult to find because it has been covered by vegetation and it is important to interview local residents on the existence of such a road. (2) Situation of existing system and future plan

Even for a project site in which the development of an individual system is assumed, a survey should be conducted on the tail end location, route and voltage, etc. of the existing system and also on the availability of extension and rehabilitation plans for the said system. (3) Situation of river water utilization

The existence of facilities utilizing the river flow, the flow volume and any relevant future plans regarding the river from which a planned micro-hydropower plant will draw water should also be surveyed. At the project formulation stage, the situation of the portion or section of the river for water utilization should be surveyed taking into consideration the assumed recession section and the possibility of changes in the position of the intake and the waterway route. When a fall or steep valley is to be used for power generation, local information on the use of such a fall or valley should be obtained together with a survey on the relevant legal regulations.
- 3-3 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

(4)

Existence of other development plans/projects

A survey should be conducted on the existence of other development plans/projects in terms of roads, farmland, housing and tourism, etc. which may affect the planned project site and/or its surrounding area. (5) Civil structures in adjacent area and materials used

Most civil structures of a small-scale hydropower plant are similar to those of irrigation facilities and road drainage facilities. The materials used for these structurers are often available or can be obtained near the planned project site. The use of constructors, human resources and local materials involved in these civil structures is important from the viewpoint of reducing the construction cost, contribution to the local economy and ensuring easy maintenance and repair. Hence, a survey should be conducted on similar civil structures in the adjacent area of a project site to obtain useful reference materials for project planning and design. (6) Presence of natural topographical features and existing structures usable for power generation When an existing irrigation channel or similar is used (including widening and/or reinforcement) as a waterway for power station, it is necessary to check the cross-section, gradient and current water conveyance volume, etc. of such a channel. (7) Existence of important ground features and vegetation

Even a small-scale hydropower plant necessitates some alteration of the local topography. When important ground features and/or vegetation exist along the planned route of the waterway, they must be carefully dealt with. For this purpose, their locations and conditions, etc. should be duly noted for discussions with concerned parties such as the landowner(s) and representatives of the local government.

- 3-4 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

3.4 Validation of Geological Conditions Affecting Stability for Main Civil Structures The survey on the ground stability, especially that of the surface layer, is required for the construction of a small-scale hydropower plant due to (i) the exposed structure of most of the main civil structures and (ii) the rooting of the waterway on a sloping hillside. The results of investigation should be presented in the form of sketch drawings (refer to Fig 3.4.1) for reference purposes when determining the basic structures for civil works.

Fig.3.4.1 A geological sketch based on site observations

- 3-5 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

3.5 Survey on Locations of Civil Structures Field reconnaissance by the hydropower specialist is important to establish a waterway route based on an existing topographical map and other relevant information for the planning of a micro-hydropower plant. The results of the reconnaissance survey will determine if the project will proceed or not. The items to be checked during this survey are listed below. It is necessary to repeat the field reconnaissance in line with the progress of the planning and design. When uncertainties emerge, particularly at the design stage, field verification is necessary. Moreover, there is a need to keep the expected demand in mind. Therefore, this survey should be conducted in parallel with the demand survey. It is important not only to select suitable locations for such individual facilities as the intake weir and waterway, etc. but also to carefully examine the locations of their tie-in sites. For the development of micro-hydro, the maximum use of natural topographical features is important from the viewpoint of cost reduction. It is, therefore, necessary to conduct the survey based on a full understanding of the items discussed in Chapter 4,4.3 Selection of Location for Main Civil Structures.

- 3-6 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

3.6

Measurement of River Flow

(1) Necessity of Measurement of River Flow (2) The estimated river flow at a project site is considered reasonably reliable if it is based on data from a nearby gauging station. As such, it may not be necessary to conduct actual discharge measurement at the project site. However, when river flow data is difficult to obtain, it is preferable to measure the river discharge in the dry season, by means of simple method, to confirm the appropriateness of the estimated flow duration. Any stoppage of power generation due to a reduced water flow volume significantly affects the generation of a micro-hydropower plant, thus it is essential to check the discharge at dry season. Although it is necessary to record the river flow for at least one year in mini hydropower development, the river flow during the dry season should be checked even for micro hydropower development. Fig.3.4.2 shows the Flowchart to check Minimum Flow/ Duration Curve. Should there be a need to measure the discharge, the observation period must be carefully determined based on past rainfall records and information relative to the climate. It is also necessary to check and evaluate the observation results in connection with the characteristics (for example, drought year or wet year) of the year of observation based on past rainfall records, etc. The stream flow measuring method, frequency and water level observation unit can be simplified in the following manner to reduce the survey cost.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

Rating Curve
0.50 0.45 0.40

Water Level (m)

0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20


2

Q=9.579*H -2.428H+0.154

Selection of Measurement Point

Date XXX

Water Level H (m)

Discharge Q (m3/s)

0.15 0.10
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00

Staff Gauge
Installation of Staff Gauge (Base Point) Daily Record (Hd)

YYY ZZZ WWW

0.230 0.550 0.300 0.380

0.111 1.734 0.272 0.600


5.0 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0
5/19/06 6/18/06

Discharge (m /s)

Daily Brook at Discharge of AmbangalDischarge Intake (20.2km )

Measuring of Cross Sectional Area (A) Measuring of Velocity /Speed (V)

Another day at least 3 times repeat

Measuring of Cross Section

Calculation of Rating Curve

Discharge (m /s)

Record the water level on Staff gauge (H)

7/18/06 8/17/06 9/16/06 10/16/06 11/15/06 12/15/06 1/14/07 2/13/07 3/15/07

4/14/07 5/14/07 6/13/07

7/13/07

Date

Calculation of Daily Discharge

Micro-Hydro

Calculation of Discharge (Q=A x V)

Calculation of Duration Curve


Discharge (m /s)

Duration Curve at Intake Site (C.A.=20.2km )


5.0 4.8 4.6 4.4 4.2 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.4 3.2 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Fig.3.4.2

Flowchart to check Minimum Flow/ Duration Curve

Percentage (%)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

(2)

Flow measuring method

A stream flow measuring method which is appropriate for the river conditions can be adopted. [Reference 3-1: Simple method of stream flow measuring] (3) Frequency of stream flow measuring

In principle, stream flow measuring should be conducted at least three times a year to analyze the relation between the water level and the discharge in the range below the assumed maximum discharge. (4) Water level observation unit

A staff gauge should be set up at a point near the flow observation point where visual water level observation can be easily carried out.

3.7

Measurement of Head

The head between the intake point and the headtank and the head between the headtank and the outlet point should be measured. At the initial planning stage, however, it may be sufficient to measure the head between the planned headtank location and the outlet level. While a surveying level can be used for the purpose of measuring, a more simple head measuring method may be sufficient. [Reference 3-2: Simple methods of head measuring]

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

3.8 Demand Survey 3.8.1 Demand survey method

There can be many types of power demand facilities for small-scale hydropower generation to respond to the conditions of the subject area for development. In the preparation of development plan, accurate understanding of the power demand facilities in the subject area for development is essential. What is important is to ensure the efficiency and practicality of a demand survey. It is necessary to estimate a slightly higher demand level than the assumed scale of power generation so that it would adequately respond to the scale of development as well as to the seasonal fluctuations of the power demand.

3.8.2

Factors to consider in demand survey

The demand survey items are described below. When there is more than one power demand facility, each facility should be survey. (1) Location

The suitable route and distance, etc. to each power demand facility should be surveyed to examine the optimal transmission and distribution lines. (2) Owners

The opinions and intentions of the owners of power demand facilities regarding the introduction of a new power supply source should be clarified. (3) Types and required quality of equipment

The situation of power use by equipment (for power, heating, lighting and electrical control, etc.) and the required level of accuracy (in terms of the allowable voltage fluctuation and frequency fluctuation) should be surveyed. (4) Equipment capacity, etc.

The equipment capacity, power consumption level and electricity tariff (or estimated electricity tariff in the case of planning) should be surveyed.
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

(5)

Period of use

Any seasonal or daily fluctuation of power use and the range of fluctuation should be surveyed. (6) Year of installation and service life

The year (date) of installation of each power demand equipment and its service life or planned period of use should be surveyed. (7) Likely problems associated with power cut

The likely problems and financial losses associated with a power cut to power demand facilities should be surveyed.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3

3.9

Actual Field Survey

Actual field survey for the design of structures for micro-hydropower system should be conducted after the identification of their location and route. The following should be done if necessary: (1) A proper understanding of the local topography is important for the planning of a small-scale hydropower plant like the main exposed structure civil structures. Topographical surveying is particularly required for such structures as the intake facility, headtank and generating station, etc., each of which covers a wide area, to improve their design accuracy. In general, the accuracy of the topographical surveying around civil structures tends to be in the range of 1/100 1/200 for small to medium-scale hydropower plants. However, topographical surveying accuracy in the region of 1/500 should be sufficient for independent micro-hydro scheme because an error in topographical surveying hardly affects the work volume for small structures. (2) During the implementation stage: For the waterway and access road, etc., route surveying (center line and cross-section surveying) may be sufficient for planning and design purposes and should be effective from the viewpoint of cost reduction, particularly when the required surveying length is long. These routes must, however, be carefully determined based on the results of the field reconnaissance conducted by the planner(s).

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

[Ref. 3-1

Method of stream flow measurement]

1. Using electromagnetic current meter Generally, the current meter used for the measurement of river flow is screw type. But nowadays, an electromagnetic current meter that doesnt have rotating parts is available in the market. This is suitable for measurement of river flow in a small-scale hydro site. It is lightweight, and can be measured even in shallow river.

In case of survey for small-scale hydropower development, a simple method like the following are sufficient for discharge measurement using electromagnetic current meter. (1) Three-points measuring methodVm = 0.25( V0.2 + 2V0.6 + V0.8 ) (2) Two-points measuring method Vm = 0.50( V0.2 + V0.8 ) (3) One-point measuring methodVm = V0.6 (4) Surface measuring methodVm = 0.8Vs
where, Vm: Mean velocity Vs: Surface velocity V0.2: Velocity at the depth of 20% below the water surface V0.6: Velocity at the depth of 60% below the water surface V0.8: Velocity at the depth of 80% below the water surface

Following should be considered when selecting the point of measurement in the stream . (1) No irregular wave and whirlpools at the surface. (2) No subsurface flow, back-flow, and stagnation. (3) No irregular change of water level. (4) No crossing-over of stream line.

During measurement, the riverbed should be cleaned, if necessary.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

2. Float measuring method Basically, float measuring method is applied during floods when measurement with current meter is not possible. But, it is applicable during the stage where development sites are not decided yet or the current meter is not available. (1) Measuring method 1) Measurement should be made at the place where the axis of streambed is straight and the cross section of the river is almost uniform. 2) Flowing distance of floats should be more than the width of river. 3)Setting transverse lines at the upstream and downstream perpendicular to the axis of streambed. Flow-down distance (upstream and downstream lines) = L 4) Measuring the cross sectional areas at the upper and lower transverse lines to get the average value of the cross sectional areas of flow (Amean). Additional measurement should be made at the middle section of two lines if the cross section of river is not uniform. 5) Floats are dropped at upstream of the upper transverse line, the time required from upper to lower transverse line is measured. 6) Measurement should be done several times at different divisions of the river cross-section in the transverse direction. (more than three divisions) (2) Stream flow calculation formula Vm = CVmean C: (1) Concrete channel which cross section is uniform = 0.85 (2) Small stream where a riverbed is smooth = 0.65 (3) Shallow flow (about 0.5) = 0.45 (4) Shallow and riverbed is not flat = 0.25 (1) Vmean (2) Vmean

Vm = 0.85Vmean (3) Vmean


0.5 m

Vm = 0.65Vmean (4) Vmean

Vm = 0.45Vmean - 3-14 -

Vm = 0.25Vmean

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

A A Cross section Drop line of floats

Upstream line Flowing distance of floats (L)

B B

Cross section

C C Cross section

Downstream line

A A C C Mean Cross section

3. Weir measuring method The discharge is small and the use of current meter or float measuring method is impossible, the weir as shown below is built and discharge is measured by measuring the overflow depth at the river.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

In this method, the stream flow can be obtained by following formula. Q = CLh1.5 C = 1.838 ( 1 + 0.0012 h QDischarge (m3/s) hOverflow depth (m) )(1( hL )1/2 10 CDischarge coefficient LOpening width of weir (m) )

4. Others It is applicable to use the following method to measure smaller stream flow.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

No. Distance from left bank Depth of river Area of flow section

Place of survey 2

Survey sheet of discharge date 4 5 6

time 7

: 8

water level 9

10

11

Remarks

Water depth Discharge

Water depth Discharge

Water depth Discharge

Water depth Discharge

Water depth Discharge

Depth at point and velocity (cm, cm/s)

Average of Velocity (cm/s) dischage(l/s)

0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

Cross-Section of river

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

[Ref. 3-2

Method of head measurement]

1. Using clear hose method The figure below shows this method. The method is useful for low head sites, since it is cheap and reasonably accurate. To get the head of two points, measuring the difference of water level of the water-filled clear hose at two points. Even a man who does not have a skill of survey work can apply this method.

Head = H1+H2+H3+H4+H5+H6 B1
H1 H2 H3 Head H4 H5 H6

A1

H1 H1 = B1-A1

Location : No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Ai (meters) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.20 0.70 Total Height (meters)= Bi (meters) 1.85 1.86 1.86 1.91 1.99 1.75 1.30 1.90 1.70 1.74 2.50 1.36

Date : Hi=Bi-Ai (meters) 0.85 0.86 0.86 0.91 0.99 0.75 0.30 0.90 0.70 0.74 2.30 0.66 10.82

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference) 2. Spirit level and plank method Below figure shows the principle of this method. A horizontal sighting is established by a carpenters spirit level placed on a reliably straight and inflexible plank of wood. A method simpler than this is named Pole survey. The Pole survey method is a tape measure is used instead of a wooden plank and a spirit level, a leveling rod is fixed perpendicularly, then a tape measure is moved up and down along with a leveling rod. The reading value of a leveling rod of the position which reading value of a tape measure decreases most is a height difference between points.

3. Using altimeter method The principle of the altimeter is that it measures atmospheric pressure. This method is useful in case of long survey distance or bad visibility. However, several measurements is required as shown in the following figure, since in one measurement, accuracy is not expectable by changes during the day in temperature, atmospheric pressure and humidity.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference) 4. Using sighting meters etc. method Hand-hold sighting meters measure angle of inclination of a slope (they are often called clinometers or Abney

levels). A head is calculated by the following formula using a vertical angle that is measured by a hand-hold

sighting meter, and a hypotenuse distance measured by a tape measure.


sin H: Head L: Hypotenuse distance : Vertical angle

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

Field-note of Topographic surveying


Place Observing point Survey point Distance (m) date Azimuth () Vertical interval Remarks

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

- 3-25 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference) [Ref.3-4 Questionnaire for Households of Non-Electrified Villages] Household number Name of Respondent Sub unit of village Barangay (village) Circle the final result of the visit to this household 1. Completed 2. No household member at home or no competent respondent at home at time of visit 3. Postponed 4. Refused 5. Other (specify) Interviewers name Date Time interview began Time interview completed Data input by

Final Check by

1. FAMILY PROFILE
1. Number of family members (only living together in the same house) Male adults at 20 yrs or over persons Female adults at 20 yrs or over persons Children less than 20 yrs old persons Total persons Number of school going children University student High school student Junior high school student Elementary school student Total

2.

persons persons persons persons persons persons persons

3. 4. 5.

How many of your family are earning income in the village in the village? How many of your family members are living in other town to work? Is your household headed by male or female? Tick () Male Female

6.

Which organization does any of your family belong Barangay Cooperative Persons Barangay Council Persons Other (specify) Persons How many of your family members graduated from (upper) high school? persons

7.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

2. Housing
8. 9. How many rooms does your house have? What is floor area of your house? rooms (including kitchen) m2

10. What type of roof is used for the house? Type of roof Tick () Tiled roof GI Sheet roof Thatched roof (straw, palm leaf)

3. Economic aspects
3-1. Household income

11. How much is your family earning from agriculture? Type of Average Times of Average Approximat crops amount of cropping farm gate e annual production per per year price (Rp.) earning cropping (kg) (Rp.) Rice

Average annual cost (Rp.)

Subsistence/ cash crop

Subsistence/cash crop Subsistence/cash crop Subsistence/cash crop Subsistence/cash crop Subsistence/cash crop

12. Earnings from Fishery Type of fish Annual average earning (Rp.)

Annual average cost (Rp.)

Subsistence/cash
Subsistence/cash Subsistence/cash Subsistence/cash Subsistence/cash

13. What kind of income sources does your family have? Insert the amount of earning of the last month in each category by each income earner. Income earner 1st income Income source earner Salaries/wages Pension Handicraft Other cottage industry Shops/restaurant Services (e.g. hair-dress, car/bike garage) Money transfer from outside the village Others (Specify:) Total LIVING PLACE 2nd income earner 3rd income earner 4th income earner 5th income earner

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

3-2. Household Expenditure

14. How much did your household spend on each item for the last month? Php/month No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total Item of expenditure Food Clothing Housing Inputs for business Utilities Tax Education Transportation Health care Others Amount Remarks Incl. drinks. Incl. personal goods as sandals/cosmetics. Housing loan repayment/house rent, etc. Equipment & raw materials, if any. Water, gas, electricity, fuel, & sanitation. If you pay income or property tax. Incl. enrolment fee, books, uniforms, etc. Incl. oils for your own cars/bikes. Medical treatment, medicines. Other costs not specified in the above.

15. How much did your household spend on the utility except energy for the last month? Php./month No. Item of expenditure Amount Remarks 1 Potable water For cooking, drinking & washing. 2 Irrigation water Agricultural use. 3 Sanitation Waste water & solid waste, toilet, etc. 4 Others Other costs not specified in the above. Total 16. How much did your household spend on the energy-related item for the last month? Php./month No. Item of expenditure Amount Remarks 1 Electricity Distributed electricity by lines 2 Gas Purchase cost. 3 Solar power Operation & maintenance cost for facilities Purchase cost. Do not include for car, bike, & 4 Kerosene tractor, but include for lamps. 5 Diesel oil Purchase cost for diesel generator 6 Coal Purchase cost 7 Charcoal Purchase cost 8 Fuel wood Purchase cost 9 Dry batteries Purchase cost 10 Candles Purchase cost 11 Matches Purchase cost 12 Car battery charging Charging cost per time 13 Others Other costs not specified in the above. Total 17. If your village is to be electrified and your house is to be connected with electricity distribution systems, all of your existing costs for lighting and heating as mentioned above may be saved. In this case, how much monthly charge are you willing to pay for new electricity services? 75 Range (Php./month 100 ) Tick () 100 150 150 200 200 250 250 300 300 350 350 400 400 450 450 500 More than 500 (specify:) Php

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

4. Energy related property


18. Do you have following equipment for lighting and/or heating? Kind of equipment Number ( 19. [ [ [ [ [ [ 20. [ [ [ [ [ What kind of electrical appliances does your household currently use? units ] Bulb/fluorescent light ] TV-set units ] Radio & cassette recorder set units ] Refrigerator units ] Air conditioner units units ] Other, specify What kind of electrical appliances does your household currently use for productive activities? ] Sawmill machine ] Rice milling machine ] Rice dryer ] Irrigation pump ] Others, specify ) a) Generator b) Kerosene lamp c) Gas fired cooking appliance d) Car battery e) Others (Specify:)

5. Needs for electricity


5-1. Priority needs 21. Could you give your priority order on the followings needs? Priority Example Water supply 1 Education 2 Health care 3 Sanitation (toilet, solid waste, drainage, etc.) 7 Electrification 4 Irrigation 6 Road improvement 5 Others (specify)

5-2. Effort to have access to electricity

22. Has your household ever attempted to have access to electricity? [ ] yes go to Question 23. [ ] no go to Question 30. 23. [ [ [ [ [ [ What type of electricity generation did your household plan to have access to? ] Diesel generator set ] Solar home system ] Wind power ] Micro hydropower ] Biomass ] Other, specify

- 3-29 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference) 24. Specify the reason for selecting the type of electricity generation.

25. Did your household succeed in having access to electricity? [ ] yes go to Question 26. [ ] no go to Question 27. 26. Is your generating system functioning as expected? [ ] yes go to Question 28. [ ] no go to Question 29. 27. If your household did not succeed in having access to electricity, explain the reason for the failure.

28. What positive impact could your household receive from electricity? Explain.

29. What problems did your household encounter regarding generating facility? Problem Tick () Expensive cost for fuel Unable to fix breakdown Insufficient electric power to meet the demand Other (specify)

5-3. Purpose of using electricity 30. If you can have access to electricity, what kind of electrical appliances and how many appliances do you want to use? units [ ] Bulb/fluorescent light [ ] TV-set units [ ] Radio & cassette recorder set units [ ] Refrigerator units [ ] Air conditioner units units [ ] Other, specify

31. [ [ [ [ [ 32. [ [ [ [ [

What facility/equipment do you want to use electricity for productive activities? ] Sawmill machine ] Rice milling machine ] Rice dryer ] Irrigation pump ] Others, specify What public facilities do you think should have access to electricity? ] School ] Mosque/church ] Clinic/health center ] Water pump for drinking water ] Others, specify

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 3 (Reference)

5-4. Electrification by the organization other than Rural Electric Cooperative

33. Who/what organization do you think would be the most appropriate for the installation of the electricity supply system? [ ] Provincial LGU [ ] Municipal LGU [ ] Barangay Association [ ] Barangay LGU [ ] NGO [ ] Private contractor [ ] Village members (including village head) [ ] Others, specify [ ] Dont know 34. Do you and/or your family member volunteer to participate in working for the construction without any cash reward if the generating facility is to be installed in the village? [ ] yes [ ] no 35. [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ Who/what organization should be responsible for operation and maintenance of the system? ] Rural Electric Cooperative (REC) ] Provincial LGU ] Municipal LGU ] Barangay Association ] Barangay Council ] NGO ] Private contractor ] Barangay members (including barangay head) ] Others, specify ] Dont know

36. Do you and/or your family member want to participate in working for operation and maintenance? [ ] yes [ ] no 37. [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ [ Who/what organization should be responsible for billing and collection of charges for electricity? ] Rural Electric Cooperative ] Provincial LGU ] Municipal LGU ] Barangay Association ] Barangay Council ] NGO ] Private contractor ] Barangay members (including barangay head) ] Others, specify ] Dont know

38. [ [ [ [

How should the electricity tariff be decided? ] Same level as RECs tariff system ] Based on consultation with and consensus of the community ] Free of charge ] Other, specify

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

Chapter 4

PLANNING

4.1

Scheme of Development Layout

The tree types of waterway routes shown in Figure 4.1.1 below are examples of possible layouts of micro-hydropower system. The short penstock option, in most cases, is considered the most economic scheme, but this is not necessarily the case.

Note: The channel could be shortened to avoid the risk and expense of construction across a steep slope.

Fig.4.1.1 Channel and penstock option: Considering each option: (1) Short Penstock In this case, the penstock is short but the channel is long. The long channel is exposed to the greater risk of blockage, or of collapse or deterioration as a result of poor maintenance. Installing the channel across a steep slope may be difficult and expensive. The risk that the steep slope may erode makes the short penstock layout an unacceptable option, because the projected operation and maintenance cost of the scheme could be very expensive, and it may outweigh the benefit of initial purchase cost.
- 4-1 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

(2) Long Penstock In this case, the penstock follows the river. If this layout is necessary, because the terrain would not allow the construction of a channel, certain precautions must be taken. The most important consideration is to ensure that seasonal flooding of the river will not damage or deteriorate the penstock. It is also important to calculate the most economic diameter of penstock; in the case of a long penstock, the cost will be particularly high. (3) Mid-length Penstock The mid-length penstock may cost more than the short penstock, but the cost of constructing a channel that can safely cross the steep slope may also be avoided. Even if the initial purchase and construction costs are greater in this case, this option may be preferable in case there are signs of instability in the steep slope.

- 4-2 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

4.2 Data and Reference to Consider for Planning 4.2.1 Hydrograph and Flow Duration Curve Hydrograph shows how flow varies throughout the year and how many months in a year that a certain flow is exceeded.
Daily Discharge Jun 2006-May 2008 (C.A=20.2km2)
2.0 1.8 1.6

Discharge (m3/s)

1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 J J A S O N D J F M A M J J A S O N D J F M A M

Fig 4.2.1 An example of Hydrograph This same information is also presented in a Flow Duration Curve for the stream. The hydrograph is converted to flow duration curve simply by taking all the flow records over many years and placing them with the highest figures on the left and the lower figure placed progressively over to the right.
Duration Curve at Intake Site (C.A.=20.2km )
2.0 1.8

Duration Curve
1.6 1.4 Discharge (m /s)
3

1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0.0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100

Percentage (%)

Fig.4.2.2 An example of Flow Duration Curve


- 4-3 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

The flow duration curve is useful because the power that could be generated can be superimposed onto it so that it is possible to calculate the time in a year that certain power levels can be obtained. This is also a planning tool to determine the size of turbine to be installed indicating the required variable flow performance of turbine and the plant factor constraints which will result from any particular choice of turbine size. 4.2.2 Plant Factor and Load Factor (1) Plant Factor Plant Factor is very important term for hydropower planning. Plant factor is defined in the next equation. Geannual Plant Factor = Pmax 365 24 and Qave Plant Factor of Flow = Qd Where; Geannual : the possible annual electric generation Pmax : maximum output Qave : average discharge which is less than Qd Qd : design discharge (m3/s) (kWh) (kW) (m3/sday) or Area A-B-C-D in Fig.4.2.3 Area of A-b-c-C-D in Fig.4.2.3 % %

For a run-of-river type of hydropower scheme, optimum plant factor can be generally taken from the following range:. For micro-hydro : Mini-hydro : 80 100 70 90 (For Rural Electrification) In the Philippines

- 4-4 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

(2) Load Factor The term Load Factor, often mistaken to be the same as the plant factor, is defined in the equation below. Annual electric generation usable by demand facility Load Factor = Annual possible electric generation A key-planning rule for micro-hydro scheme is therefore Plan for the highest possible load factor. (%)

River Flow (m3/s)

Qd

c
0 100 200 300 365

Days

Fig4.2.3 Qave and Qd for Plant Factor of Flow

- 4-5 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

4.3 4.3.1

Selection of Locations for Main Civil Structures Location of Intake

The location of the intake is selected considering the conditions described below. Extreme care must be taken in this selection for the development of small-scale hydropower as the cost of the intake facilities significantly determines the development project economy. (1) River Channel Alignment

For small-scale and run-of-river types of hydropower plant, the appropriate section within the river channel to construct the intake structure is where the channel is as straight as possible in order to ensure steady and smooth flow of water to the intake and also to prevent scouring of the river banks downstream of the intake site. (2) Stability of Hillside Slope

The presence of a landslide or unsteady slope near an intake weir site causes concerns for possible obstruction at the water intake by sediments from the landslide or erosion. Sufficient consideration should, therefore, be given to the stability of nearby hillsides as part of the intake location selection process. (3) Use of existing civil structures In small-scale hydropower development, the use of existing civil structures such as barangay roads, intake facilities for agriculture and irrigation channels, etc. can contribute to the reduction of the development cost. Careful consideration should, therefore, be given to the selection of the intake location so that such civil structures already in place can be used. (4) Use of natural topographical features

The use of naturally formed pool for water intake will not only help in the cost reduction but also conserving the waterfront environment, including the riverside landscape and riparian ecosystem. When the use of natural topographical features is planned, proper analysis of the
- 4-6 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

following concerns should be considered: Preservation of the natural pool Removal method of sedimentation (5) Intake Volume and Flood Water Level

In general, an intake weir is located at a narrow section of a river to reduce the construction cost of the main body of the intake weir. However, it must be noted that the selection of such a narrow section is not necessarily advantageous for a small-scale hydropower plant because of the following reasons. In the case of the Tyrolean-type intake method, the length in the cross-sectional direction must match the anticipated design discharge. (0.1m3/s of inflow water per 1m of intake length) When a weir is constructed at a narrow section, the flood water level at the site inevitably becomes higher, necessitating an increased cross-sectional area of the weir as well as an increased bank protection height and length to ensure the stability of the weir. (6) Site Conditions for Settling Basin and Headrace, etc.

Select the preferable site for the settling basin, headrace and other structures taking into consideration the conditions for the weir. It is also important to carefully consider the topographical and geological conditions of the settling basin site and headrace route. (7) Existence of River Water Use in Reduced Discharge Section

Water intake for agricultural or other purposes should be considered in the survey in order that the use of river water for power generation will not affect the present use of the river water. 8) Existing Features in Backwater Section

Existing features, such as roads and farmland, etc., in lower areas should also be considered in the selection of the location of the intake weir to avoid flooding. If the location of the intake weir is in a location which affects existing features, the
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

geographical area to be affected by backwater due to the construction of the intake weir should be clarified by appropriate calculation. It will also be necessary to construct river bank protections and drainage structures to protect the existing facilities. 4.3.2 (1) Headrace Route Topography

A careful survey of the topography of the headrace route of a micro-hydropower system is necessary since the headrace is usually an exposed structure such as an open or covered channel. When an open channel is to be constructed on a hillside, proper investigation as to the gradient or slope of the headrace route must be done. If a valley or a ridge exists along the headrace route, the actual route should be selected after examining the best route (siphon for a valley section; open excavation or culvert for an elevated ridge section). (2) Ground Stability

The ground stability of the headrace route must be carefully examined to avoid incidents of loss of the waterway due to slope collapse in the case of the ground-type (exposed) headrace. (2) Use of Existing Structures It is advantageous to locate the headrace route along an existing road or irrigation channel to reduce the cost, improve the workability and make it relatively easy to evaluate the slope stability. However, the following concerns must be taken into consideration for the use of existing structures: Maintenance of existing canal, road, drainage, etc. Ensure water quantity for irrigation and efficient water diversion method 4.3.3 Location of Head Tank (1) Topographical and geological conditions

The headtank is often located at a ridge section and on a highly stable ground consisting of hard rock, etc. The possibility of minimal excavation work, including that for the penstock, offers favorable condition for selection of the site for headtank.
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

However, it must be noted that the location of the headtank at a ridge section is not appropriate under the following conditions: The level of consolidation is generally low at the ridge section which is located in a shallow area developed from advanced erosive dissection of the valley. There will be larger fluctuations in the water level inside the tank which will cause possible obstruction to the smooth flow of operation due to the large volume of water required as the load changes. In such a case, it is advisable to design a headtank with a bigger diameter that covers an area wide enough to absorb load fluctuations. In this case, the desired location for the headtank should be on a relatively flat area rather than on a ridge section. (2) Ease of Dealing with Effluents

A spillway for a small-scale hydropower system may be omitted, however, if a spillway for the headtank is introduced, the method of dealing with effluents must be carefully examined. (There have been reports of the ground being washed away because of the absence of a spillway for the excess water from the headtank.) The installation of a spillway parallel to the penstock route should not cause any major problems, however, the direct discharge of surplus water and sediment inside the headtank to a nearby stream or hillside slope requires careful examination of the discharge point. The profile as well as cross-sectional alignment of the spillway are carefully designed to prevent scouring of the nearby ground due to expected volume of water spillage. The combined function of a settling basin and headtank will significantly help in reducing of overall investment cost of micro-hydropower development. Therefore, the possibility of introducing a combined headtank and settling basin should be carefully examined at the planning stage. 4.3.4 Penstock Route The penstock route should be selected considering the following parameters: (1) Hydraulic gradient
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

(2) Topography of the penstock route (3) Ground stability of the penstock route (4) Use of existing infrastructures like roads, irrigation canals and others The parameters to note for the selection of the penstock route are basically the same as those for the selection of the headrace route but its relationship with the hydraulic gradient must be carefully analyzed. The penstock route must be designed to ensure safety vis--vis specific internal as well as external pressures and that the profile of the penstock route must be below the minimum hydraulic gradient line, i.e. minimum pressure line. This minimum pressure line is determined by taking the internal pressure fluctuation in the penstock at the time of rapid load shut-down into consideration. The range of pressure fluctuation is larger in the downstream because it is influenced by changes of the discharge at the turbine over time. Therefore, careful attention is necessary at a site where the length of the penstock route is long compared to the head as shown in the Fig. 4.3.1. Careful examination is also required in setting the location of the Francis turbine with a slower specific speed as the range of pressure fluctuation can be widened due to the abrupt control vane operation because of the increasing revolution (speed) even at longer closure time of the control vane. For other turbines, closing speed of the control vane is almost in proportion to the speed of discharge reduction, however, no special problem occurs provided that an adequate closure time is set.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

Head Tank

Maximum Pressure Line

Penstock

Minimum

Pressure

Negative pressure will occur in this area Powerhouse

Fig. 4.3.1

Example of site where penstock route is long compared to head

Change of flow due to operation by the control vane

Qmax

(longer closure time) Change of flow due to change of the revolution

Discharge

(Shorter closure time)

Time

Fig. 4.3.2

Change of discharge at rapid load shut-off for Francis turbine with slower specific speed

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

4.3.5

Location of powerhouse

Careful attention must be made to the following conditions in the selection of the powerhouse location: (1) Accessibility

It is desirable for the powerhouse to be located at a site with easy access for operation and maintenance purposes. (2) Conditions of the Foundation

The foundations of the powerhouse must be strong enough to withstand the installation of heavy loads like the electro-mechanical equipment. For a micro-hydropower plant, a compacted gravel layer may be sufficient because of the relatively lightweight equipment (approximately 2 3 tons/m2). (3) Flood Water Level

The location of the powerhouse must avoid the level and section where the water flows to avoid scouring and to prevent inundation of the powerhouse during high flows. A small-scale hydropower station is planned for a small river in a mountainous area where the flood stage is not recorded or established. In this case, the flood water level could be assumed based on the information listed below that could be used in the determination of the ground elevation of the powerhouse with sufficient margin: Information obtained from local residents Ground elevation of nearby structures (roads, embankments and bridges, etc.) Traces of flooding and vegetation boundary (4) Installation Conditions for Auxiliary Facilities

Space for the installation of an outdoor substation is required near the powerhouse and the site must be selected in consideration to the possible extension and the direction of the transmission line. However, when the transmission voltage is the same as the generating voltage, the size of the required space is small. Accordingly, the space created by the construction of the
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

foundations for the powerhouse is often sufficient to accommodate such auxiliary facilities. 4.3.6 Location of Tailrace

The location of the tailrace is determined using the same conditions as the powerhouse location because it is located adjacent to the powerhouse. In other cases, the location of the tailrace is decided by taking the following items into consideration. (1) Flood Water Level

The tailrace channel should be preferably placed above the expected flood water level. When the base elevation of the tailrace is planned to be lower than the flood level, the location and base elevation of the tailrace must be decided in consideration of (i) suitable measures to deal with the inundation or seepage of water into the powerhouse due to flooding and (ii) a method to remove sediment which may occur in the tailrace canal. (2) Existence of Riverbed Fluctuation at Tailrace

When riverbed fluctuation is expected to take place in the future, the location of the water outlet must be selected so as to avoid any trouble to its operation due to sedimentation in front of the tailrace. (3) Possibility of Scouring Careful attention must be made to avoid the scouring of the riverbed and nearby ground. The selection of a location where protective measures can be easily applied is essential. (4) Flow Direction of River Water

The tailrace must be directed (in principle, facing downstream) so as not to disrupt the smooth flow of the river water or a location which allows the direction of the tailrace as that of the river flow should be selected.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

4.4 Supply and Demand Plan 4.4.1 Selection of Power Demand Facilities

The following items must be considered in the installed capacity: (1) Power Uses Each power demand facility shows specific load characteristics depending on various power uses, the selection of the power demand facilities to be served should take the specifications of the generating unit and the load characteristics of each facility into consideration. The load characteristics corresponding to specific power uses are outlined below: a) Use for Lighting The load for lighting is constant while it is in use and less fluctuations than other power uses. In general, power use for lighting is concentrated at night and the time of use fluctuates depending on the weather and length of sunshine duration. b) Use for Heating and Drying The main power uses are heating, keeping warm and drying using electric heaters. However, the continuous use of power for heating is rare. In most cases, power is intermittently used in response to a set temperature. In an area with distinctive dry and wet seasons where agricultural products are currently dried by solar heat, the use of electric dryers, etc. enable power consumption in line with seasonal fluctuations of the generated power output. This constitutes a very effective means of improving the efficient use of electrical power. c) Use for Motive Power The use of power to operate a motor shows the following load characteristics: At start-up, current is several times higher than the rated current flows (the duration is generally not more than 10 seconds). The load fluctuates in relation to the motive power required by a machine. The load is basically constant in the case of an electric fan or pump, etc. but considerably fluctuates in the case of sawing operation, etc.
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

An automatically controlled motor for air-conditioning as well as heating frequently, in repetitive manner, starts and stops. In the case of a power plant in an isolated operation, the start up of its motor may temporarily cause a state of excessive load that may result to the stoppage of generating operation. (2) Transmission and Distribution Costs

The construction of a small-scale hydropower station near the power demand facilities is desirable in order to increase its efficiency. Accordingly, it is necessary to select the power demand facilities when planning the demand by taking into consideration both the benefits and the transmission and distribution costs of power supply. (3) Contribution to Local Development

The main purpose of the small-scale hydropower development discussed here is the vitalization of the local economy. It is desirable to give priority to the types of power demand facilities listed below because of their perceived strong to local development: a) Those capable of using local resources. b) Those capable of appealing to the environment near or outside the area. c) Those capable of assisting the creation of employment opportunities. d) Those capable of contributing to the promotion of close cooperation among residents. 4.4.2 Scheme of Development based on Supply and Demand It is necessary that the output of a small-scale hydropower plant that has no back-up power generation source to be higher than the demand. In the case of a run-of-river type micro-hydropower plant, the optimal scale is that which corresponds to the maximum demand capacity within the range of the developable maximum output1 which is basically determined based on the minimum usable discharge for generation2. The procedure for this examination is described next.

1 2

Maximum output which can be developed. Drought discharge among the various river discharges which can be used for power generation.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

(1)

Decision on Minimum Usable Discharge (Qumin) for Generation

The minimum usable discharge for generation (Qumin) is decided in consideration of the following items: a) Establishment of usable river discharge for generation (Qu) The Qumin is determined based on the discharge which is calculated by subtracting the maintain discharge in the reduced discharge section from the river discharge at the intake point (usable discharge for generation: Qu). b) Frequency of permissible break power generation The Qumin is also determined by the frequency of permissible break power generation (see Fig. 4.4.1 and Fig.4.4.2). The frequency of permissible break power generation is in turn decided by the type and importance of the power demand facilities/equipment, user intentions and other factors. In general, the drought discharge under the flow duration for Qu calculated by the method described above or some 90 95% discharge rate3 forms the base. However, as the flow duration changes every year, a standard flow duration year must be selected through sufficient discussions with users for the planning of the base discharge. (2) Decision on Maximum Output (Pumax)

The maximum output (Pumax) that could be develop is decided in the following manner depending on whether or not seasonal demand fluctuations exist. a) Case of constant demand throughout the year When a plant is assumed to be a run-of-river type, the Pumax is the power generation potential under the Qumin described earlier.

Discharge rate (percentage) when 365 days constitute 100% in the flow duration diagramme.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

Power generation potential Max output of possible development

kW

m3/s

Pumax Permissible break power generation Permissible break power generation

Qumin

10

11

12

Fig.4.4.1 Maximum scale of possible development for case where constant demand throughout the year is assumed b) Case of seasonal demand fluctuation When the demand in the wet season is expected to exceed the demand in the dry season, generating operation is principally based on the maximum load in the wet season or the light load in the dry season. When the discharge in the dry season drops below the minimum discharge for generation (Qmin) 4 , generating operation is no longer possible. Therefore, the Qumin must be set above the Qmin. In this case, the Pumax can be calculated by the following formula:
Qumax Qumin Qmin/Qmax

Pumax=

Power generation potential at Qumin Efficiency rate at Qmin (min/max)

Qmin means the minimum discharge determined by the efficiency characteristics of the turbine and

power generation is impossible below this level.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

Power generation potential Max output of possible development

kW

m3/s

Pumax Qumin Permissible break power generation

Qmax

10

11

12

Fig. 4.4.2

Maximum scale of possible development for case of seasonal demand fluctuation

Table 4.4.1 Minimum discharge for generation (Qmin) for various types of turbines
Type of Turbine Flow / Max. Flow (Qmin / Qmax) Horizontal Francis Horizontal Shaft Pelton Horizontal Shaft Pelton Crossflow Crossflow Turgo Impulse Turgo Impulse Reverse Pumps 15 30 15 40 10 20 0.75 0.90 0.75 0.75 0.75 0.75 2 nozzles 1 nozzle Twin control vanes Single control vane 2 nozzles 1 nozzle Shaft 30 Turbine Efficiency / Max. Turbine Efficiency (min / max) 0.70 Light burdened runner Conditions

Generating operation is difficult other than at the rated discharge

(3)

Decision on Scale of Development and Power Demand Facility

a) Case where change of demand plan is difficult When it is difficult to change the power demand facility and its capacity assumed in the demand plan, the assumed maximum demand capacity within the range of the Pumax becomes the optimal scale of development.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

Max. demand capacity

Power generation potential Max. output of possible development

kW

m3/s

Optimum development scale


1

Qumin

10

11

12

Fig. 4.4.3

Optical scale of development for case where constant demand throughout the year is assumed

Estimated

power

Power generation potential Max. output of possible development

kW
Optimum development scale

m3/s

Qumin Qmin

Qmax

10

11

12

Figure 4.4.4 fluctuation

Optimal scale of development for case of seasonal demand

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

b) Case where change of demand plan is possible When a change of the demand plan to some extent is possible, the demand capacity is changed within the range of the Pumax to select the most effective case. The following criteria can be used to judge the best case. Their general priority can be difficult to decided, however, because it depends on each development site. Economy Social advantages (creation of new employment, promotion of tourism / industry and others) Intentions of developer Others When economy of the project is given priority, the demand plan must be formulated to maximize the effective utilization rate of the power generation potential. This is in view of the fact that generated electric energy in excess of the demand capacity by an independent system such as a small-scale hydropower plant cannot be expected to have any benefit. Annual electric generation usable by demand facility Load Factor = Annual possible electric generation The concrete processes to determine the optimal scale of development are described below: a. Setting up of demand Several cases of demand plan are formulated based on the demand projection from survey results but within the range of the distribution. At this time, the priority of each demand facility must be carefully analyzed, taking the following items into consideration: Importance of facility (equipment) Profit from each demand facility (%)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

Demand Case 1 Demand Case 2 Demand Case 3

kW

10

11

12

Fig.4.4.5

Example of demand plan

b.

Calculation of effective use of electric energy The annual effective use of electric energy is calculated by comparing the power generation potential not higher than Pumax with the demand set in a. above for each season.

In case of demand Case

Power Generation Potential Max. Scale of Possible Development

kW

Demand Case 1

Efficient use of energy

10

11

12

Fig.4.4.6

Example of annual supply and demand balance

c.

Decision on optimal scale of development By calculating the unit construction cost or the cost-benefit ratio per kWh for
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

the effective use of electric energy, the optimal scale of development is established to minimize such unit cost or cost-benefit ratio. Formula 3-1a: Case of Unit Construction Cost
Construction cost Annual effective electric energy

Unit construction cost per kWh =

Formula 3-1b:

Case of Cost-Benefit Ratio

Annual cost (C) = annual cost of the plant in question = construction costannual expense ratio (use of the standard calculation method for an ordinary case) Benefit (V) = (electricity charge for each power demand facility) = (demand capacity (kW)basic chargemonths effective electric energy (kWh)metered charge) = annual cost (C) / benefit (V)

C/V

4.4.3

Daily Supply and Demand Plan

Electricity is basically used for lighting and operation of household appliances such as television and radio. Because of lesser demand in daytime, electricity is more than enough so the excess electricity is only used by a dummy load. So it is necessary to plan the use of the excess power for livelihood or local industry such as rice mill, coffee mill and ice plant in the daytime. That image is shown as follows Fig. 4.4.7.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 4

Output and Demand (kW)

Lamp T.V Radio etc.

No Demands

Lamp T.V Radio etc.

Night Time

Day Time Time

Night Time

Output and Demand (kW)

Lamp T.V Radio etc.

Rice mill No Demands Coffee mill Ice plant etc.

Lamp T.V Radio etc.

Night Time

Day Time Time

Night Time

Fig.4.4.7

Effective use in the daytime electricity

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Daily Outut (kW)

for Households

Local Industry

for Households

Daily Outut (kW)

for Households

for Households

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Chapter 5 DESIGN FOR CIVIL STRUCTURES

The main obstacle for a small-scale hydropower plant is the high development cost. In this chapter, element technologies are described assuming the need to reduce the construction cost of civil structures (no description is given for those which equally apply to the design of an ordinary hydropower plant). 5.1 Basic Equation for Civil Design
The discharge is one of the important aspects to consider in the design. It is directly proportional to the cross sectional area and velocity of the water.

Q: Discharge (m3/s) Q=AxV V=Q/ A


V

A: Cross sectional area of water (m2) V: Velocity of water (m/s)

A=Q/ V

meters/
1 second

5.2 Intake Weir (Dam) 5.2.1 Types of Intake Weir

meters/
1 sec ond

There are a number of basic types of dam or intake weirs as listed below: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Concrete gravity dam Floating concrete dam Earth dam Rockfill dam Wet masonry dam Gabion dam Concrete reinforced gabion dam Brushwood dam Wooden dam
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Wet masonry dam

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

(10) Wooden frame with gravel dam The rockfill and gabion dams and the like are popularly used in Southeast Asian countries because of several advantages such as (i) little influence by the conditions of the ground base and (ii) relatively easy to repair when damaged. However, they could be damaged by flooding due to their structure and their application should be carefully examined on the importance of constructing such a civil structure and the conditions of the downstream.

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Table 5.2.1 conditions Type Concrete gravity dam

Basic types of intake weirs for small-scale hydropower plant and application Outline Drawing Concrete is used for the construction of the entire body. Application Conditions Foundations: in principle, bedrock River conditions: not affected by the gradient, discharge or level of sediment load Intake conditions: good interception performance and intake efficiency

Floating concrete dam

Lengthened infiltration path of the foundations by means of cut-off, etc. to improve the interception performance

Foundations: in principle, gravel River conditions: not affected by the gradient, discharge or level of sediment load Intake conditions: good interception performance and intake efficiency

Earth dam

Earth is used as the main material for the body; the introduction of a riprap and core wall may be necessary depending on the situation.

Foundations: variable from earth to bedrock River conditions: gentle flow and easy to deal with flooding Intake conditions: good intake efficiency because a high interception performance is possible with careful work

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Type Rockfill dam

Outline Drawing Gravel is used as the main material for the body. The introduction of a core wall may be necessary depending on the situation.

Application Conditions Foundations: various, from earth to bedrock River conditions: river where an earth dam could be washed away by the normal discharge Intake conditions: limited to the partial use of river water due to the low intake efficiency
Foundations: In principal Gravel River conditions: not affected by the gradient, discharge or level of sediment load Intake conditions: good interception performance and intake efficiency

Wet masonry dam

Filling of the spaces between gravel with mortar, etc.

Gabion dam

Gravel is wrapped by a metal net to improve the integrity.

Foundations: various, from earth to bedrock River conditions: river where a rockfill dam could be washed away by the normal discharge Intake conditions: limited to the partial use of river water due to the low intake efficiency

Concrete reinforced gabion dam

Reinforcement of the gabion surface with concrete

Foundations: : In principal Gravel River conditions: river where the metal net could be damaged due to strong flow Intake conditions: applicable when a high intake efficiency is required

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Type Brushwood dam

Outline Drawing Simple weir using locally produced tree branches, etc.

Application Conditions Foundations: various, from earth to gravel layer River conditions: loss due to flooding is assumed Intake conditions: at a site with a low intake volume or intake from a stream to supplement the droughty water flow

Wooden dam

Weir using wood

Foundations: various, from earth to bedrock River conditions: relatively gentle flow with a low level of sediment transport Intake conditions: a certain level of intake efficiency is secured with a surface coating, etc. Foundations: various, from earth to bedrock River conditions: river at which a rockfill dam could be washed away by the normal discharge Intake conditions: limited to the partial use of river water due to the low intake efficiency

Wooden frame with gravel dam

The inside of the wooden frame is filled with gravel to increase the stability.

5.2.2 Weir Height Calculation The weir volume is proportionate to the square of the height, it is important to decide the weir height taking the following conditions into consideration. (1) Conditions restricting waterway elevation

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

To decide for the weir height, it is necessary to take the topographical and geological conditions of the waterway route into consideration in addition to the conditions at the weir construction site. Careful examination is necessary at the site where the construction cost accounts for a large portion of the total construction cost. In case the waterway is to be constructed along an existing road, the weir height is often planned with reference to the elevation of the road. (2) Possibility of riverbed rise in downstream Since the weir height for a small-scale hydropower plant is generally low, there is possibility that its normal function could be disrupted by a rise of the riverbed in the downstream. Accordingly, the future riverbed rise should be considered in the selection of the weir height if the planned site falls under any of the following cases: 1) Gently sloping river with a high level of transported sediment 2) Existence of not fully filled check dam, etc. in the downstream of the planned intake weir 3) Presence of erosion in the downstream with possibility of continuous erosion in the future 4) Existence of a narrow section in the downstream which obstructs the flow of sediment and/or driftwood (3) Conditions to remove sediment from upstream of the weir and settling basin by intake method (Tyrolean intake and side intake) Under normal circumstances, the weir height should be planned to exceed the calculated value by the following method to ensure the smooth removal of sediment from the upstream of the weir and the settling basin. 1) Side intake In the case of side intake, following Case (a) or Case (b), whichever is higher, is adopted.

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Case (a). Weir height (D1) determined in relation to the bed elevation of the scour gate of the intake weir D1 = d1 + hi Case (b). Weir height (D2) determined by the bed gradient of the settling basin D2 = d2 + hi+ L (ic ir) Where, d1 : height from the bed of the scour gate to the bed of the inlet (usually 0.5 1.0 m) d2 : difference between the bed of the scour gate of the settling basin and the riverbed at the same location (usually around 0.5 m) hi : water depth of the inlet (usually determined to make the inflow velocity approximately 0.5 1.0 m/s) L : length of the settling basin (see Chapter 5-5.3 and Fig.5.3.1) ic : inclination of the settling basin bed (usually around 1/20 1/30) ir : present inclination of the river
L
Intake Flush gate

hi ic d1 d2

ir

Fig.5.2.1 Sectional view of side intake and weir Therefore, the height of the weir depends on the river slope. In general, D1 will be adopted in the steep slope river, on the other hand D2 will be selected in the gentle slope river.

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

2)

Tyrolean intake A Tyrolean intake where water is taken from the bottom assumes that the front of the weir is filled with sediment and, therefore, the weir height is determined by Case D2 for side intake. D2 = d2 + hi + L (ic ir)
Inlet L

D2

hi ic ir d2

Fig.5.2.2 Sectional view of Tyrolean intake and weir

() Influence on electric energy generated At a site where the usable head is small or where it is planned to secure the necessary head by a weir, the weir height significantly influences the level of generated electric energy. Accordingly, it is necessary to determine the weir height at a site by comparing the expected changes of both the construction cost and the generated electric energy because of different weir heights. (5) Influence of back water When roads, residential land, farmland and bridges, etc. exist in a lower elevation area in the upstream of a planned intake weir site, it is necessary to determine the weir height to prevent flooding due to back water. Particularly at a site with a high weir height, the degree of influence on the above features must be checked by means of back water calculation or other methods.

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

5.3 Intake 5.3.1 Types of Intake (1) Side-Intake Below is an example of a Side-Intake Type. The side-intake type must be with a flushing gate (stop logs use for micro/mini-hydropower).

Flushing gate/ Stop-log


b

Intake Weir

dh hi

Vi
0.150 m dh=hi+0.15m

hi

Intake
b

Image and dimension of Side-Intake

(2) Dimension of Intake (Side-Intake) In the design of intake dimension, the following matters should be considered. The dimension of the intake should be designed that the velocity of inflow at the intake is 0.5-1.0 m/s. If the velocity is too slow, the dimension of intake become big. In this cake, excess inflow also becomes big (Refer to 5.2.2) On the other hand, if the velocity is too fast, the inflow became unstable and the head loss is relatively big. The ceiling of the intake should be designed with allowance of 10-20cm from the water surface. The allowance should be obtained for stable inflow. The height and the area of intake should be designed with the minimum size.

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

(3) Tyrolean Intake There are several types of simple intake designs, which aims at reducing the weir height and omitting the flushing gate (hereinafter referred to as the Tyrolean intake design) for a hydropower plant. Two typical examples are listed below. Bar screen type Bar-less type The details of these two types are shown in Table 5.3.1.

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Table 5.3.1 Typical examples of Tyrolean intake methods


Intake Method Bar screen type Outline Drawing Characteristics If a screen is installed to cover most of the river channel, it is highly resistant to riverbed fluctuations. A sufficiently wide intake width enables 100% intake of river water. As overflow may occur due to fallen leaves, etc. gathering on the screen surface, the screen width should have a sufficient margin. The sedimentation capacity of the weir to deal with sediment inflow should also be analysed. This type is popularly used and the intake rate is said to be generally 0.1 0.3 m3/s per unit width based on a bar installation angle of up to 30, an inter-bar space of 20 30 mm and a bar length of approximately 1 m. The running water usually overflows the fixed weir top and is guided into the settling basin via an intake channel placed across the river channel and along the endsill (deflector). With an increase of the river discharge, the running water overflows the endsill and eventually becomes a rapid flow to fly over the endsill, making intake impossible at the time of flooding. However, sediment deposited in the intake channel is washed away towards the downstream of the endsill, making maintenance of the intake channel easier. While the sectional form of this type is similar to that of the bar screen type, the absence of a screen means a reduction of the maintenance cost and labour related to the screen. Advantages and Problems Found by Actual Performance Survey < Advantages > A scour gate of intake weir can be omitted. A compact intake facility is suitable for a narrow or rapid river. Stable intake is possible despite a change of the riverbed upstream. < Problems > At the time of flooding or water discharge, sediment and litter flow into the waterway. A screen which is clogged with gravel, etc. requires much labour for its removal.

-5- 11Bar-less type

< Advantage) A compact intake facility is suitable for a narrow or rapid river. Stable intake is possible despite a change of the riverbed upstream. Sediment and litter are discharged naturally at the time of flooding. < Problem > Plenty of sediment and litter inflow to the waterway. Frequently of scouring of settling basin is required.

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

5.3.2 Important Points for Intake Design (for Side-Intake) For the design of the intake for a small-scale hydropower plant, it is necessary to examine the possible omission of an intake gate in order to achieve cost reduction. In the case of a small-scale hydropower plant, the headrace is usually an open channel, a covered channel or a closed conduit. When this type of headrace is employed, it is essential to avoid inflow of excess water , which considerably exceeds the design discharge, as it will directly lead to the destruction of the headrace. Meanwhile, the use of an automatic control gate for a small-scale hydropower plant results an increase in construction cost, a manual control is an option. In the case of the intake facility for a small-scale hydropower plant being constructed in a remote mountain area, a swift response to flooding is difficult. The following method is, therefore, proposed to control the inflow at the time of flooding without the use of a gate. (1) Principle This method intends the design of an intake which becomes an orifice with a rise of the river water level due to flooding. The inflow volume in this case is calculated by the formula below.

Flood Water Level bi

dh hi dh hi
Ai

sp

H
Water Level of Spillway p Normal Water Level

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Q f= Ai Cv Ca (2 g H ) 0.5 Where, Qf : inflow volume of submerged orifice (m3/s) Ai : area of intake (m2) Ai=bi (dh + hi) dh=0.100.15m hi : water depth at the intake opening (m) bi : width of the intake opening (m) dh : clearance at the intake Cv : coefficient of velocity: Cv = 1/(1 + f) f : coefficient of inflow loss (see Fig.5.2.1)
Angularity Haunch Rounded

f = 0.5

f = 0.25

f = 0.1 (round) - 0.2 (orthogon)

Bellmouth

Protruding

f = 0.05 0.01

f = 0.5 + 0.3 cos + 0.2 cos2 Fig.5.2.1 Coefficient of inflow loss of various inlet form f = 0.1

Bsp, hsp: refer to Chapter 5-5.3 Settling basin Ca : coefficient of contraction (approximately 0.6) H: water level difference between upstream and downstream of the orifice during flood (m) (2) Equipment outline The important points for design are listed below: 1) It is necessary for the intake to have a closed tap instead of an open tap so that it becomes a pressure intake when the river water level rises. 2) The intake should be placed at a right angle to the river flow direction wherever possible so that the head of the approaching velocity at the time of flooding is minimized. 3) As water inflow at the time of flooding exceeds the design discharge, the spillway capacity at the settling basin or starting point of the headrace should be fairly large.
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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

5.4 Settling Basin

The settling basin must have a structure that is capable of settling and removing sediment with a minimum size that could have an adverse effect on the turbine and also have a spillway to prevent inflow of excess water into the headrace. The basic configuration of a settling basin is illustrated below.
Dam Intake Spillway Flushing gate

Stoplog

Headrace

1.0 2.0

Conduit section Widening section


1015

Settling section
hsp+15cm

Bsp

Intake

Stoplog

hi hs

h0

ic=1/20 1/30

Sediment Pit bi

Flushing gate

Fig.5.4.1 Basic configuration of settling basin

[Reference] For rectangular section of the channel, uniform flow depth: ho11=H*0.1(SLs)0.5 H* : refer to {Ref.5-1}
1

: ho1 is calculated based on Mainng Formulae. In here, a simple method for calculation for ho1 is indicated.. -5- 14-

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

SLs : slope of top end of the headrace ho2={(Qd2)/(gB2)}1/3 =1.1 Qd= Design Discharge (m3/s) g=9.8 B:Width of Headrace (m) if ho1<ho2, ho=ho1 if ho1ho2, ho=ho2 Each of these sections has the following function. (1) Conduit section Conduit section connects the intake with the settling basin. The length of the conduit section should be minimized. (2) Widening section: This section regulates water flow from the conduit channel to prevent the occurrence of whirlpools and turbulent flow and reduces the flow velocity inside the settling basin to a predetermined velocity. (3) Settling section: This section functions to settle sediments/grains size of 0.5 1 mm. Theminimum length (l) is calculated by the following formula based on the relation between the settling speed (U), flow velocity in the settling basin (V) and water depth (hs). The length of the settling basin (Ls) is usually determined so as to incorporate a margin to double the calculated length by the said formula.
l V hs U

L s= 2l

Where, l : minimum length of settling basin (m) hs : water depth of settling basin (m) ( -see Fig.5.31) U : marginal settling speed for sediment to be settled (m/s) usually around 0.1 m/s for a target grain size of 0.5 1 mm.
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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

V : mean flow velocity in settling basin (m/s) usually around 0.3 m/s but up to 0.6 m/s is tolerated in the case where the width of the settling basin is restricted. V = Qd/(Bhs) Qd: design discharge (m3/s) B : width of settling basin (m) (4) Sediment pit: This is the area in which sediment is deposited. (5) Spillway Spillway drains the submerged inflow which flows from the intake. The sizes of spillway will be decided by following equation. = CBsphsp1.5 hsp={Qf /(CBcp)}1/1.5 Where, Qf : inflow volume of submerged orifice (m3/s, see Chapter 5-5.2.2 (1)) C : coefficient =1.80 hsp: water depth at the spillway (m, see Fig 5.3.1) Bsp: width of the spillway (m, see Fig.5.3.1)

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

5.5 Headrace 5.5.1 Types and Structures of Headrace Because of the generally small amount of water conveyance, the headrace for a smallscale hydropower plant basically adopts an exposed structure, such as an open channel or a covered channel, etc. Some examples and their basic structures are given in Table 5.5.1 and Table 5.5.2 respectively.

-5- 17-

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Table 5.5.1 Types of headraces for small-scale hydropower plants


Type Open channel Outline Drawing Advantages and Problems < Advantages > Relatively inexpensive Easy construction < Problems > Possible inflow of sediment from the slope above High incursion rate of fallen leaves, etc. Typical Structure Simple earth channel Lined channel (dry or wet masonry lining; concrete lining) Fenced channel (made of wood, concrete or copper) Sheet-lined channel Half-tube channel (corrugated piping, etc.)

-5- 18 -

Closed conduit / Covered channel

< Advantages > Generally large earth work volume Low incursion rate of sediment and fallen leaves, etc. into the channel < Problems > Less easier channel inspection, maintenance work, including sediment removal, and repair

Buried tube (Hume, PVC or FRPM) Box culvert Fenced channel with cover

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Table 5.5.2 Basic structure of headraces for small-scale hydropower plants Type
Simple earth channel

Outline Diagram

Advantages and Problems


< Advantages > Easy construction Inexpensive Easy repair < Problems > Possible scouring or collapse of the walls Not applicable to highly permeable ground Difficult to mechanise the sediment removal work < Advantages > Relatively easy construction Can be constructed using only local materials High resistance to side scouring Relatively easy repair < Problems > Not applicable to highly permeable ground < Advantages > Local materials can be used Strong resistance to back scouring Can be constructed on relatively high permeable ground. Easy construction at the curved section due to the non-use of forms < Problems > More expensive than a simple earth channel or dry masonry channel (rock/stone-lined channel) Relatively takes labour hours. < Advantages > High degree of freedom for crosssection design < Problems > Difficult construction when the inner diameter is small Relatively long construction period

n=0.030 Lined channel (rock and stone)

n=0.025 Wet masonry channel

Plastered :

n=0.015

Non Plastered : n=0.020 Concrete channel

n=0.015

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Type Wood fenced channel

Outline Diagram

n=0.015 Box culvert channel

n=0.015

Concrete pipe channel

Advantages and Problems < Advantages > Less expensive than a concrete channel Flexible to allow minor ground deformation < Problems > Limited use with earth foundations Unsuitable for a large cross-section Difficult to ensure perfect watertightness Liable to decay < Advantages > Easier construction than a Hume pipe on a slope with a steep crosssectional gradient Relatively short construction period and applicable to a small crosssection when ready-made products are used Rich variety of ready-made products < Problems > Heavy weight and high transportation cost when ready-made products are used Long construction period when box culverts are made on site < Advantages > Easy construction on a gently sloping site Relatively short construction period High resistance to external pressure Applicable to a small cross-section Elevated construction with a short span is possible < Problems > Heavy weight and high transportation cost

n=0.015

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

5.5.2 Determining the Cross Section and Longitudinal Slope The size of cross section and slope should be determined in such a matter that the required turbine discharge can be economically guided to the head tank. Generally, the size of cross section is closely related to the slope. The slope of headrace should be made gentler for reducing head loss (difference between water level at intake and at head tank) but this cause a lower velocity and thus a lager cross section. On the contrary, a steeper slope will create a higher velocity and smaller section but also a lager head loss. Generally, in the case of small-hydro scheme, the slope of headrace will be determined as 1/500 1/1,500. However in the case of micro-hydro scheme, the slope will be determined as 1/50 1/500, due to low skill on the survey of levelling and construction by local contractor. The cross section of headrace is determined by following method. (1) Method of calculation Qd= A R 2/3SL 1/2 n Qd : design discharge for headrace (m3/s) A : area of cross section (m2) R : R=AP (m) P : length of wet sides/ Wetted perimeter (m) refer to next figure.

Q 1 A m

Length of red-line : P

Wetted perimeter

Slope =1/m:of headrace Slope SL

SL

- 5-21 -

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

SL : longitudinal slope of headrace (e.g. SL= 1/100=0.01) n : coefficient of roughness (see Table 5.4.2) For instants, in the case of rectangular cross section, width (B)=0.6m, water depth (h)=0.5m, longitudinal slope (SL)=1/200=0.005, coefficient of roughness (n)=0.015. A= Bh = 0.6 0.5 = 0.30 m2 P= B + 2 h = 0.6 + 2 0.5 =1.60 m R= AP = 0.301.60 = 0.188 m Qd= A R 2/3SL1/2 n = 0.30 1.60 2/30.005 1/2 0.015 = 1.94 m3/ (2) Simple method In order to simplify the above method, following method for determining the cross section is perpetrated in [Reference 5-1 Simple Method for Determining the Cross Section] This reference will be used in determination of cross section in following two sectional forms.

1.0 B=0.6 and 0.8m m=0.5

B=0.6 and 0.8m

Rectangular cross section

Trapezoid cross section

H* should be calculated on each different slopes. For instants, in the case of trapezoid cross section, design discharge (Q)=0.5m3/s, width (B)=0.8m, longitudinal slope (SLA,B,C,D)=1/100, 1/50, 1/100, 1/200 which is the gentlest potion of the headrace, coefficient of roughness (n)=0.015. Water depth (H*) is approximately 0.3m in Reference 5-1 Fig-4. Therefore actual water depth (H) is H = H* 0.1 (SL)0.5 HA,C = H* 0.1 (SLA,C)0.5 = 0.30.1(0.01) 0.5 = 0.3 HB = H* 0.1 (SLB)0.5 = 0.30.1(0.02) 0.5 = 0.21 HD = H* 0.1 (SLD)0.5 = 0.30.1(0.005) 0.5 = 0.42 and height of the cross section of Slope A,C is 0.60m(0.3+0.20.3),
- 5-22 -

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

height of the cross section of Slope B is 0.55m(0.21+0.20.3), height of the cross section of Slope D is 0.75m(0.42+0.20.3).
Slope A Slope B Slope C Slope D

SLA = 1/100 SLB = 1/50 SLC = 1/100 SLD = 1/200

- 5-23 -

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

5.6 Headtank 5.6.1 Headtank Capacity (1) Function of headtank The functions of headtank are roughly following 2 items. Control difference of discharge in a penstock and a headrace cause of load fluctuarion. Finally remove litter (earth and sand, driftwood, etc.) in flowing water

(2) Definition of headtank capacity The headtank capacity is defined the water depth from hc to h0 in the headtank length L as shown in Fig.5.6.1.

Spillway

Headrace

As

1.0 2.0

B-b Bspw

3050cm

Screen

dsc h0 SLe hc
3050cm 20.0

Ht 0.5
1.0

h>1.0 d

1.0
0.5

h0=H*0.1Sle H*Refer to 'Reference 5-1' hc=(Qd2)(B2)}1/3=1.1g=9.8 0.5 d=1.273(QdVopt Vopt:Refer to 'Reference 5-2' Vsc=Asdsc=BLdsc10secQd B,dsc:desided depend on site condition.

S=12

Fig.5.6.1 Picture of headtank capacity

- 5-24 -

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Headtank capacity Vsc = AsdscBLdsc where, As: area of headtank B : width of headtank L : length of headtank dsc: water depth from uniform flow depth of a headrace when using maximum discharge (h0) to critical depth from top of a dike for sand trap in a headtank (hc) [Refference] In oblong section, uniform flow depth: ho=H*0.1(SLe)0.5 H* : refer to {Ref.5-1} SLe : slope of tail end of the headrace 2 critical depth: hc={(Qd )(gB2)}1/3 : 1.1 g : 9.8 (3) Determine a headtank capacity The headtank capacity should be determined in consideration of load control method and discharge method as mentioned below. a. In case only the load is controlled The case only control load (demand) fluctuation is considered, a dummy load governor is adopted. A dummy load governor is composed of water-cooled heater or air-cooled heater, difference of electric power between generated in powerhouse and actual load is made to absorb heater. The discharge control is not performed. The headtank capacity should be secured only to absorb the pulsation from headrace that is about 10 times to 20 times of the design discharge (Qd). A view showing a frame format of load controlled by a dummy load governor is shown in Fig.5.6.2.

Electric power

Power demand

Generated power Dummy load consumption

Time

Fig.5.6.2 Pattern diagram of dummy load consumption

- 5-25 -

Water discharge

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

b. In case both load and discharge is controlled In the case of controlled both load and discharge, it used for load control a mechanical governor or electrical governor. These governors have function of control vane operation to optimal discharge when electrical load has changed. Generally a mechanical governor is not sensitive response to load change, headtank capacity in this case should be secured 120 times to 180 times of Qd. On the other hand, an electrical governor will response of load change, therefore headtank capacity is usually designed about 30 times to 60 times of Qd. 5.6.2 Important Points for Headtank Design The design details for the headtank for a small-scale hydropower plant are basically the same as those for a small to medium-scale hydropower plant and the particularly important issues are discussed below. (1) Covering water depth and installation height of penstock inlet As the penstock diameter is generally small (usually 1.0 m or less) in the case of a small-scale hydropower plant, it should be sufficient to secure a covering water depth which is equal to or larger than the inner diameter of the penstock. However, in the case of a channel where both the inner diameter and inclination of the penstock are as large as illustrated below, the occurrence of inflow turbulence has been reported in the past. Accordingly, the covering water depth must be decided with reference to the illustration below when the inner diameter of the penstock exceeds 1.0 m.

Vertical angle

Swirly when Qmax

- 5-26 -

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

h = d2 Where, h : water depth from the centre of the inlet to the lowest water level of the headtank = covering water depth (m) d : inner diameter of the penstock (m) Covering Water Depth The covering water depth at the penstock inlet must be above the following value to prevent the occurrence of inflow turbulence. d 1.0 m h 1.0 d d > 1.0 m h d2 Where, h : water depth from the centre of the inlet to the lowest water level of the headtank = covering water depth (m) d : inner diameter of the penstock (m)

NWL LWL h d 3050cm 12d

Installation height of penstock There are many reports of cases where inappropriate operation has caused the inflow of sediment into the penstock, damage the turbine and other equipment. Accordingly, it is desirable for the inlet bottom of the penstock to be placed slightly higher than the apron of the headtank (some 30 50 cm).

- 5-27 -

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

(2) Appropriate spacing of screen bars for turbine type, etc. The spacing of the screen bars (effective screen mesh size) is roughly determined by the gate valve diameter but must be finalised in consideration of the type and dimensions of the turbine and the quantity as well as quality of the litter. The reference value of an effective screen mesh size is shown below.
Effective 50 Screen Mesh Size (mm)

20

200

400

600

800

1000

Gate Valve Diameter (mm)

Effective screen mesh size (reference)

(3) Installation of vent pipe to complement headtank gate When a headtank gate is installed instead of a gate valve for a power station, it is necessary to install a vent pipe behind the headtank gate to prevent the rupture of the penstock line. In this case, the following empirical formula is proposed to determine the dimensions of the vent pipe.
d = 0.0068 ( P2L 0.273 ) H2

Where, d : inner diameter of the vent pipe (m) P : rated output of the turbine (kW) L : total length of the vent pipe (m) H : head (m)

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Source: Sarkaria, G.S., Quick Design of Air Vents for Power Intakes, Proc. A.S.C.E., Vol. 85, No. PO.6, Dec., 1959

(4) Spillway at the headtank Generally, the spillway will be installed at the headtank in order to release eexcess water is discharged to the river safely when the turbine stopped it. The sizes of spillway are decided by following equation. Qd=CBspwhspw1.5 hspw={Qd(CBspw)}1/1.5

Qd : design discharge (m3/s) C : cofficient, usually C=1.8 Bspw : width of spillway (m , refer to Fig 5.1.1) hspw : depth at the spillway (m)

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Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

5.7 Penstock 5.7.1 Penstock Material At present, the main pipe materials for a penstock are steel, ductile iron and FRPM (fibre reinforced plastic multi-unit). In the case of a small-scale hydropower plant, the use of hard vinyl chloride, Howell or spiral welded pipes can be considered because of the small diameter and relatively low internal pressure. The characteristics of each pipe material are shown in Table 5.7.1 Penstock pipe materials for small-scale hydropower plant. 5.7.2 Calculation of Steel Pipe Thickness

The minimum thickness of steel pipe of penstock is determined by following formula.


t0 = Pd 2a + t (cm) and t0=0.4cm or t0(d+80)40 cm

where, t0: minimum thickness of pipe P: design water pressure i.e. hydrostatic pressure + water hammer (kgf/cm2) , in micro-hydro scheme P=1.1hydrostatic pressure. for instance, if the head (Hp, refer to following figure) which from headtank to turbine is 25m, P=2.51.1=2.75 kgf/cm2. d: inside diameter (cm) a: admissible stress (kgf/cm2) SS400: 1300kgf/cm2 : welding efficiency (0.850.9) t : margin (0.15cm in general) 5.7.3 Determining Diameter of Penstock Generally the diameter of penstock is determined by comparison between the cost of penstock and head loss at penstock. However a simple method for determining the diameter of penstock indicated in [Reference 5-2 Simple Method for Determining the Diameter of Penstock] . The diameter of penstock will be determined from Average angle of Penstock (Ap: see following figure) and Design Discharge (Qd).

- 5-30 -

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Head Tank Lp Hp

Ap = Hp Lp

Power House

For instances like in the design discharge (Qd)=0.50m3/s,length of penstock (Lp)=60m, height from head tank to power house (Hp)=15m, average angle (Ap)=15/60=0.25, the optimum velocity (Vopt) is determined as about 2.32 in Reference 5-2. Therefore the diameter of penstock pipe (d) is
4

d= (
3.142

QdVopt)0.5 =(1.273 0.52.32)0.5 = 0.52 m

- 5-31 -

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Table 5.7.1 Penstock pipe materials for small-scale hydropower plant Resin Pipe
Hard Vinyl Chlorid Pipe Most popular material for a pipeline as it is frequently used for water supply and sewer lines Effective for a pipeline with a small discharge Rich variety of ready-made irregular pipes Often buried due to weak resistance to impact and large coefficient of linear expansion Thick pipe: 300 Thin pipe: 800 Thick pipe: 10 Thin pipe: 6 0.009 0.010 Howell Pipe Basically resistant to external pressure but ready-made pipes to resist internal pressure are available Relatively easy fabrication of irregular pipes due to easy welding Basically used as a buried pipe FRP Pipe Plastic pipe reinforced by fibre glass Used as an exposed pipe and can be made lighter than FRPM pipe with a thinner wall as it is not subject to external load other than snow Steel Pipe Popular choice to penstock at a hydropower plant Reliable material due to established design techniques

Iron Pipe
Ductile Iron Pipe Often used for water supply, sewer, irrigation and industrial pipes Generally used as a buried pipe although exposed use is also possible High resistance to both external and internal pressure Spiral Welded Pipe Some examples of use for a pipeline Mainly used as a buried pipe for appearance to hide a spiral welding line Can be used as steel pipe piles

Characteristics

-5-32 Maximum Pipe Diameter (mm) Permissible Internal Pressure (kgf/cm2) Hydraulic Property (n)

2,000 2.0 3.0

3,000 Class A: 22.5

approx. 3,000 133

2,600 approx. 40

2,500 15

0.010 0.011

0.010 0.012 (approx. 0.011 in general)

0.010 0.014 (approx. 0.012 in general)

0.011 0.015 (approx. 0.012 in general)

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

Resin Pipe
Hard Vinyl Chlorid Pipe Easy design and work due to light weight and rich variety of irregular pipes Howell Pipe Good workability due to light weight FRP Pipe Good workability due to light weight and no need for on-site welding as a specially formed rubber ring is used for pipe connection Steel pipes are used for irregular sections because of the limited availability of irregular FRP pipes No problem of water-tightness as the joint connection method is established Steel Pipe Inferior workability to FRP pipes

Iron Pipe
Ductile Iron Pipe Inferior workability to FRP pipes Spiral Welded Pipe Inferior workability to FRP pipes

Workability

-5-33-

Water-tightness

Good watertightness as bonding connection is possible

No problem of water-tightness at the joints

No problem of water-tightness as the joint connection method is established

Good

No problems

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

5.8 Foundation of Powerhouse Powerhouse can be classified into the above ground type, the semi-underground type and the under ground type. Most of small-scale hydropower plants are of the above ground type The dimensions for the floor of powerhouse as well as the layout of main and auxiliary equipment should be determined by taking into account convenience during operation, maintenance and installation work, and the floor area should be effectively utilized. Various types of foundation for powerhouse can be considered depending on the type of turbine. However the types of foundation for powerhouse can be classified into for Impulse turbine (such as Pelton turbine, Turgo turbine and Crossflow turbine) and for Reaction turbine (Francis turbine, Propeller turbine).

5.8.1 Foundation for Impulse Turbine Figure 5.8.1 shows the foundation for Crossflow turbine which frequently is used in the micro-hydro scheme as an impulse turbine. In case of impulse turbine, the water which passed by the runner is directly discharged into air at tailrace. The water surface under the turbine will be turbulent. Therefore the clearance between the slab of powerhouse and water surface at the afterbay should be kept at least 30-50cm. The water depth (hc) at the afterbay can be calculated by following equation. 1.1Qd2 hc= { (( )1/3 9.8b2 }1/3

hc: water depth at afterbay (m) Qd: design discharge (m3/s) b : width of tailrace channel (m) The water level at the afterbay should be higher than estimated flood water level. Then in case of impulse turbine, the head between the center of turbine and water level at the outlet became head-loss(HL3:refer to Ref.5-3).

-5-34-

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

2 hc={ 1.1Qd

9.8

}1/3

3050cm

Flood Water Level(Maximum)

HL3 (see Ref.5-3) 3050cm

A
Afterbay Tailrace cannel Outlet

Section A-A
bo bo: depends on Qd and He

20cm b

20cm

Fig.5.8.1 Foundation of Powerhouse for Impulse Turbine (Crossflow turbine)

5.8.2 Foundation for Reaction Turbine Figure 5.8.2(a) shows the foundation for Francis turbine which is a typical turbine of the reaction turbine. The water is discharged into the afterbay through the turbine. In case of reaction turbine, the head between center of turbine and water-level can be use for power generation. Then it is possible that turbine is installed under flood water level on condition to furnish the following equipment.(see Fig.5.7.2(b)) a. Tailrace Gate b. Pump at powerhouse

-5-35-

Manual for Micro Hydro Power Development Chapter 5

d3 Hsdepens on characteristic of turbine


2 hc={ 1.1Qd

9.8

}1/3

Hs
20cm 3050cm Flood Water Level(Maximum)

1.15d3 23 1.5d3 HL3 (see Ref.53)

Section A-A

1.5d3

Fig 5.8.2(a) Foundation of powerhouse for Reaction Turbine (Francis turbine)

Pump

Flood Water Level (Maxmum)

Gate HL3

Fig 5.8.2(b) Example of Installation to Lower Portion

-5-36-

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 5 (Reference)

[Ref. 5-1 Simple Method for Determining the Cross Section]

0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 Water Depth Dammy H* (m) 0.40


n=0.015

0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15


0.6m

n=0.020 n=0.025 n=0.030

H=H*0.1/(SLmin)0.5
0.20.3m H

0.10 0.05 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Turbine Discharge Q (m3/s)

Fig.1 Determining the Cross Section of Headrace Rectangular Form (B=0.6m)

-5- 37-

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 5 (Reference)

0.80 0.75 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55


Water Depth Dammy H* (m) n=0.015 n=0.020 n=0.025 n=0.030

0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15


H

H=H*0.1/(SLmin)0.5
0.20.3m

0.10 0.05 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Turbine Discharge Q (m3/s) 0.8m

Fig.2 Determining the Cross Section of Headrace Rectangular Form (B=0.8m)

-5- 38-

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 5 (Reference)

0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 Water Depth Dammy H* (m) 0.40


n=0.015

0.35 0.30 0.25 H=H*0.1/(SLmin) 0.20 0.15


0.6m

n=0.020 n=0.025 n=0.030

0.5

0.20.3m H

1:0.5

0.10 0.05 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 Turbine Discharge Q (m3/s)

Fig.3 Determining the Cross Section of Headrace Trapezoid Form (B=0.6m)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 5 (Reference)

0.60 0.55 0.50 0.45 0.40


Water Depth Dammy H* (m) n=0.015 n=0.020 n=0.025 n=0.030

0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10


0.8m 0.20.3m 0.5 0.2-0.3

H=H*0.1/(SLmin) 1:0.5

0.05 0.00 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
Turbine Discharge Q (m3/s)

Fig.4 Determining the Cross Section of Headrace Trapezoid Form (B=0.8m)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 5 (Reference)

[Ref.5-2 Simple Method for Determining the Diameter of Penstock]

3.20 3.10 3.00 2.90 2.80 2.70 2.60 2.50 2.40 2.30 2.20 2.10 2.00 1.90 1.80 1.70 1.60 1.50 1.40 1.30 1.20 1.10 1.00 0.90 0.80 0.70 0.60 0.50

Optimum velocity V opt(m/s)

(1.273 x Q x Vopt) 0.5 D=1.273(QVopt)0.5 D:diameter of pipe(m) Q: design discharge(m3/s) Vopt: optimum velocity(m/s)

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40

Average angle of penstock Ap

Graph to Determine the Diameter of Penstock Pipe

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 5 (Reference)

[Ref. 5-3 Calculation on Head Loss]

Head losses are indicated by the figure of hydropower system below. HL1 can be calculated easily as the differential water level between the intake to the forebay tank. Similarly HL3 can be calculated as differential level between the center of turbine to the tailrace.
Intake Settling Basin

Headrace

Forebay Penstock

HL2

HL1

He

Hg

Powerhouse

Tailrace

HL3

He = Hg (HL1 + HL2 + HL3 ) Where: He - Effective Head Hg - Gross Head HL1 - Loss from intake to forebay HL2 - Loss at penstock HL3 - Installation head and Loss at tailrace Then HL2 can be calculated by the following equations. (1) Friction loss Friction loss (Hf) is one of the biggest losses at penstock. Hf = f pp2 2gp Where: Hf - Friction loss at penstock (m) f - Coefficient on the diameter of penstock pipe (Dp). f= 124.5n2Dp1/3 Lp - Length of penstock. (m)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 5 (Reference)

Vp - Velocity at penstock (m/s) Vp = Q Ap g = 9.8 Dp - Diameter of penstock pipe (m) n = Coefficient of roughness (steel pipe: n=0.12, plastic pipe: n=0.011) Q - Design discharge (m3/s) Ap - Cross sectional area of penstock pipe. (m2) Ap = 3.14Dp24.0 (2) Inlet Loss he = fe Vp (2g) he - Inlet loss (m) fe - Coefficient on the form at inlet. Usually fe = 0.5 in micro-hydro scheme. (3) Valve Loss hv = fv Vp (2g) hv - Valve loss (m) fv - Coefficient on the type of valve. fv = 0.1 ( butterfly valve) (4) Others Bend loss and Loss on the change of cross sectional area are considered as other losses. However these losses can be neglected in micro-hydro scheme. Usually the planner of micro-hydro scheme must take into account the following margin as other losses. ho = 510( hf + he +hv )

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Chapter 6

DESIGN FOR MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL STRUCTURES

6.1

Fundamental Structure of Equipment for Power Plant

The fundamental equipment and facilities briefly discussed in the preceding chapters are tackled in more detailed manner in this chapter. In addition, the summary of micro-hydropower generating equipment for rural electrification is also presented herein for quick reference. Summary of Micro Hydropower Turbines for Rural Electrification in the Philippines 1. Fundamental Conditions The following conditions are necessary for rural electrification in the Philippines: 1) Stable operation for long term 2) Easy operation by semi-skilled operator(s) or villager(s) 3) Locally made turbines for easier maintenance and repair (except small parts) 4) Cheaper cost of equipment including installation 5) Acceptable technical guarantees of the turbine.
Table 6.1.1 Recommended Micro Hydropower Generating Equipment Discription Synchronous Generator with Asynchronous Generator with Cross flow type Turbine Reverse Pump type Turbine(PAT) Advantages/Disadvantages Advantage *Very reliable power source with *Lower cost if a pump with motor stable frequency & voltage for suitable for site design condition is independent network. found. *Machine suitable to any actual site *Construction of machine is simple. condition can be designed and manufactured. Disadvantages *A little higher cost than PAT *Difficulty to select a suitable pump with motor at market *No control of voltage * Short life time of capacitors for this system Technical aspect Net head Hn 4 50 m 4 - 20 m Water flow (discharge) Q 0.1 - 0.8 m3/s (Discharge is a little 0.04 - 0.13 m3/s (discharge shall be variable) kept always constant ) 2 7 kW Turbine output at turbine Pt 10 250 kW shaft (t= 0.7) Pt =0.98 x Hn x Q x p Pt =0.98 x Hn x Q x t (p= t =0.65)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Power transmitter

Dummy load type governor Generator output at Pg generator terminal

Rated output of generator Pk (kVA) to be applied VA

Rotation speed Voltage

Frequency Dummy Inlet valve

Pd

Pump efficiency(p) is too variable due to change of discharge, the pump with induction motor of nearly same head and same discharge shall be selected. Belt coupling for speed matching Direct coupled without transmitter between turbine and generator m : Efficiency of transmitter ELC controller with thyristor IGC controller with transistor 8.5 210 kW 1.5 5.3 kW Pg= Pt x g x m (g = 0.88, m Pg = Pt x g (g = 0.75) =0.97) (coupled with transmitter) The induction motor originally PkVA Pg /0.8 (PF= 0.8) The generator with rated output of coupled with the pump shall be used more than Pg /0.8 shall be selected. as induction generator by adding separate capacitors 1500 rpm 1515 1525 rpm due to speed of induction motor as generator 380/220V, star connection 380/220V, star connection Stable with AVR on generator Voltage control cannot be made without AVR 50 Hz, Stable 50.5 50.75 Hz Not so stable Air heaters (Pd = Pg x SF), SF=1.3 Air heaters (Pd = Pg x SF), SF=1.3 Butterfly valve (It is not provided Same as left, but it is neglected in for cost saving sometime, but its case of small capacity. better to be provided for complete stop of turbine)

The following equipment and facilities are necessary as fundamental structure of power plant, details of which are shown in Table 6.1.2
Equipment & Facility 1. Inlet valve: 2. Water turbine: 3. Governor of turbine: 4. Power transmission facility: 5. Generator: 6. Control and protection panel: 7. Switchgear (with transformer): Purpose & Function To control the stop or supply of water to turbine from penstock. To change the energy of water to the rotating power. To control the speed and output of turbine To transmit the rotation power of turbine to generator. To generate the electricity from turbine or its transmitter To control and protect the above facilities for safe operation To control on/off operation of electric power and step-up the voltage of transmission lines (if required)
Note: The above items 3, 6 & 7 may sometimes be combined in one panel for micro-hydro power plant. Note: t, m, g and SF are fixed only for brief checking. In case of detail design, it is recommended to check the efficiency of each machine and facility. - 6-2 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Table 6.1.2 Composition of Fundamental Equipment for Hydraulic Power Station


Equipment Inlet valve Type Butterfly valve Bi-plane butterfly valve Sluice valve Needle valve Crossflow Reverse Pump H-shaft Pelton Turgo-Pelton Propeller H-shaft Francis Tubular Fixed coupling Flexible coupling Belt coupling Gear coupling Synchronous Induction Self-excitation Induction Wall mounted Self stand open type Self stand sealed type Oil immersed, self cooling, single or 3-phase, pole transformer Control Method Hand operated type Motor operated type Counter weight type Dummy load type Oil pressure type Motor operated type Manual operated type Non-controlled type

Turbine

Power transmission facility (Speed increaser)

Generator

Control & Protection panels

Manual AVR APFR Control switches, Main switches IC panels Relays

Power Transformer

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Discharge Q [l/s]

Figure 6.1.2 (a)


100

Applicable of Crossflow and PAT at Turbine

50

20 Net Head (m)

10 7 6 5 4 kW kW kW kW

2 kW 4

3 kW

1 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Discharge (l/s) 110 120 130 140

Figure 6.1.2 (b) Applicable limit of PAT at Turbine Shaft

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.2

Turbine (Water Turbine)

6.2.1 Types and Output of Water Turbine The types of water turbine are mainly classified into two types with some additional classification as follows: 1 Impulse turbine Pelton turbine Crossflow turbine Turgo-impluse turbine 2 Reaction turbine Francis turbine Propeller turbine Kaplan turbine Diagonal mixed flow Tubular turbine Straight flow turbine turbine (Package type ) Note: 1) Impulse turbine: Turbine type that rotates the runner by the impulse of water jet having the velocity head which has been converted from the pressure head at the time of jetting from the nozzle. 2) Reaction turbine: Turbine construction that rotates the runner by the pressure head of flow. Shaft arrangement: The arrangement of turbines will be also classified into two types, i.e. Horizontal shaft (H-shaft) and Vertical shaft (V-shaft) Referring to the required output, available net head and water flow (discharge), the following types of turbine may be applicable for micro or small hydraulic power plant of rural electrification. (1) Horizontal Pelton turbine (2) Horizontal Francis turbine (3) Crossflow turbine (4) Tubular turbine S-type tubular turbine Vertical tubular turbine Runner rotor integrated turbine Vertical propeller turbine Horizontal propeller turbine

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

(5) Turgo impulse turbine (6) Reverse pump turbine

Vertical propeller type Horizontal propeller type Submerged pump type

The output of turbine is calculated with following formula: Pmax = 9.8 x He x Qmax x t Pmax : Maximum output (kW) He : Net head (m) Qmax : Maximum discharge (m3/s) t : Maximum turbine efficiency (%) Please refer to chapter 6.2.2 The brief characteristics, explanation and drawing of each type are shown in Table 6.2.1. The applicable range of each type turbine is shown in Figure 6.2.1. Referring to the said table and figure, the customer can select the type of turbine, which is most suitable to the actual site condition including the total cost of civil work and equipment. At present, however, it is recommended to apply Crossflow turbine, which are designed and manufactured locally, because the proper design of Crossflow turbine can be achieved by applying available model test data and the cost is comparably low. The reverse pump may also be used as reverse pump turbine by reversing the direction of rotation, if the characteristic of water pump, which is available in market, is matched almost strictly to that of the turbine required from the site condition (head, water discharge, output, efficiency, rotation speed etc.). However, as the site condition of each power plant is not always the same and the matching of characteristics of pump and proposed turbine is difficult, the selection of standard pump for turbine shall be made carefully and circumspectly. In case the characteristics are well matched between pump and turbine, the application of reverse pump turbine is recommended and the cost of such machine will be cheaper. In the future, other types of turbine will be selected widely because other types of turbines may also be manufactured locally with proper design and fabrication capability.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Figure 6.2.1 Applicable Type (Selection) of Turbines

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.2.2 Specific Speed and Rotational Speed of Turbine The specific speed is the ratio between the rotational speeds of two runners geometrically similar to each other, which derived from the conditions of the laws of similarity, and specific speed of similar runners in a group by the rotational speed obtained when one runner has effective head H = 1m and output P = 1kW. It may be understood that the specific speed is a numerical value expressing the classification of runners correlated by three factors of effective head, turbine output and rotational speed as follows: Ns = (N x P1/2)/ H5/4 N = (Ns x H5/4 )/ P1/2 Where, Ns; Specific speed (m-kw) N; Rotational speed of turbine (rpm) P; Output of turbine (kW) = 9.8 x Q x H x H; Effective head (m) Q; Discharge (m3/s) ; Maximum efficiency (%, but a decimal is used in calculations) = 82 % for Pelton turbine = 84 % for Francis turbine = 77 % for Crossflow turbine* = 84 % for S-type tubular turbine Note: * 40-50% should be applied for Crossflow type turbine manufactured locally at present stage because due to fabrication quality. The specific speed of each turbine is specified and ranged according to the construction of each type on the basis of experiments and actual proven examples. The limitation of specific speed of turbine (Ns-max) can be checked in following formula. Pelton turbine: Ns-max 85.49H-0.243 Crossflow turbine: Ns-max 650H-0.5 Francis turbine: Ns-max (20000/(H+20))+30 Horizontal Francis turbine: Ns-max 3200H-2/3 Propeller turbine: Ns-max (20000/(H+20))+50 Tubular turbine Ns-max (20000/(H+16)) The range of specific speed of turbine is also shown in Figure 6.2.2

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Figure 6.2.2

Range of specific speed by turbine type

200 Pelton turbine

400

Specific speed (m-kW) 600 800

1000

1 2 Ns 25 Francis turbine Cross flow turbine 60 Ns 300

40 Ns 200 250 Ns 1000

Propeller turbine

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Table 6.2.1 Kinds and Characteristics for each Type of Water Turbine page 1

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Table 6.2.1 Kinds and Characteristics for each Type of Water Turbine page 2

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.2.3 Design of Crossflow Turbine Brief design of Crossflow turbine T-13 and T-14, designed and manufactured in Indonesia according to appropriate design data, is shown hereunder. The detailed design shall be referred to the design sheet from the manufacturer. The design shall be conducted in the following procedures: Get the basic data for rated water flow (m3 /s), elevations (m) of water level at forebay and turbine center (or tailrace water if designed as special case) from civil design. 2 Calculate net head from gross head by deducting head loss of penstock (friction and turbulence). 3 Estimate the net hydraulic power and turbine shaft output from water flow, net head and turbine efficiency. 4 Calculate width of turbine runner according to manufacturers recommendation. 5 Calculate the mechanical power to generator from efficiency of power transmitter (speed increaser) 6 Calculate rated electrical output of generator (kW). ----Maximum output of electricity 7 Calculate the rotational speed of turbine from specific speed, turbine shaft output (Item 3) and net head. 8 Select suitable generator available at market and its output (kVA), frequency, voltage, power factor and rotational speed (frequency), referring to catalogue of generator manufacturer. 9 Calculate the ratio of rated rotational speed of turbine and generator. 10 Select the width and length of belt referring to belt manufacturers recommendation. 11 Calculate the capacity of dummy load and suitable ELC (Electronic Load Controller) or IGC (Induction Generator Control) in case of induction generator. 12 Calculate the diameters of the pulley for the turbine and generator. 1 Notes: Basic data of T-13 and 14 available from the model test. Diameter of turbine: 300mm No. of runner blade: 28nos.

Unit speed: 133 rpm

Detailed design shall be referred to the Design Manual for Crossflow Turbine attached herewith.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.2.4 Design of Reverse Pump Type Turbine (Pump As Turbine) A water pump used as turbine by reversing rotation of pump is called the Pump As Turbine (PAT). 1 To calculate and get the effective head (net head), water flow (discharge), and net hydraulic power as same method as item 1, 2 and 3 of above Crossflow turbine in chapter 6.2.3. 2 To check suitable pump available in the market, considering maximum efficiency point of pump, rotation speed of motor (generator: 2, 4 or 6 poles) because the direct coupling between turbine and generator is usually adopted for this kind of turbine. The rotation speed shall be referred to Table 6.3.1. In case of induction generator, the speed of turbine shall be a little higher ( i.e. 2 - 5 %) than that of generator at rated frequency. (1,550 rpm from 1,500 rpm) 3 To select and finalize the pump as turbine, considering the maximum efficiency point of pump, applicable efficiency for actual output of turbine shaft because the range of high. Efficiency point of pump is very narrow. 4 The selection method shall be referred to the Design Manual for Reverse Pump Turbine.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.3 Generator 6.3.1 Type of Generator Two kinds of generator can be adopted for generating electric power from the energy produced by water turbines. 1. Fundamental classification of AC generator ( DC generator is not usually used for small-scale hydropower plant) (1) Synchronous generator Independent exciter of rotor is provided for each unit Applicable for both independent and existing power network (2) Induction generator No exciter of rotor is provided (squirrel cage type) (Asynchronous) Usually applicable for network with other power source. Sometimes applicable for independent network with additional capacitors for less than 25 kW but not so recommendable for independent network due to difficulty of voltage control and life time of capacitors except cost saving. Shaft arrangement Either vertical shaft or horizontal shaft is applied to both type of above generators. (mainly horizontal high speed type in case of micro/small plant except reverse pump turbine) 2. Another classification is also applied to AC generator as follows; 1) 2) Three phase generator Star () connection For 3 phase 4 wire network Delta() connection For single phase 2 wire network Single phase generator This type is not used in power network system because it is difficult to purchase the generator with capacity of more than 2kW in market. In this case three phase generator with delta connection is applied as shown above.

The winding connections of generator (Star and Delta ) are shown in Figure 6.3.1 as follows:

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

R each winding S Star connection T Star connection

S T

Figure 6.3.1 Connection Diagram of Generator

The characteristic (advantage & disadvantage) of both type generators is shown in Table 6.3.1 below.
Table 6.3.1 Comparison of Synchronous generator and Induction generator

I. Advantage of Synchronous Generator


Item Independent operation Induction generator No independent operation is possible since excitation from other system is required Power factor adjustment Operation at desired power factor in Operation power factor is governed response load factor is possible by generator output and cannot be adjustable Excitation current DC exciter is employed. The lagging current is taken as the exciting current from the system so that the power factor of the system decreases. The exciting current increases in low speed machines. Voltage and frequency Adjustment is possible as desired in Voltage and frequency adjustment independent operation adjustment is not possible. The Synchronous generator Independent operation is possible

generator is governed by the voltage and frequency of the system.


Synchronizing current Transient current and voltage drop in the system are small since the paralleling is made after synchronization. Connection to the system to be made by forced paralleling by which a large current is created, resulting in a voltage drop in the system.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

II. Advantage of Induction Generator


Item Synchronous generator Induction generator

Construction

The rotor has exciting winding outside the damper winding which is equivalent to the bars of squirrel-cage of induction generator. This is more complicated

Exciter and field regulator Synchronization

Required

Required. Thus, synchronism detector is necessary

Stability High harmonic load

Maintenance

Pull out may occur if the load fluctuates suddenly Allowable output is required by the thermal capacity of the surface of the magnetic pole when there is no damper or when there is a damper In addition to the items for induction generator, maintenance and inspection is required for field windings and brushes if employed.

The rotor is the same as a synchronous generator but the rotor is of the squirrel cage type. Thus , the construction is simple and sturdy. It can be easily correspond to operation under adverse conditions and is the best suited for small or medium capacity. This is not required since exciting current is taken from the system No synchronizing device is required since forced paralleling is made. Rotating speed is detected and making is performed almost at synchronous speed. Stable and no pull out due to load fluctuation Heat capacity of rotor bars is large and they are relatively strong against higher harmonic load Maintenance is required for stator, cooler and filter but not required for the rotor of squirrel-cage type.

6.3.2 Output of Generator The output of generator is shown with kVA and calculated with following formula: Pg (kVA) = (9.8 x H x Q x ) / pf Where; Pg; Required output (kVA) H; Net head (m) Q; Rated discharge (m3/s)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

pf;

Combined efficiency of turbine, transmitter & generator (%) = turbine efficiency (t) x transmitter efficiency (m) x generator efficiency (g) Power factor ( % or decimal), the value is based on the type of load in the system. If inductive load, such as electric motor, low power factor lamps, is high in the system, the power factor is low i.e. the generator capacity should be larger according to above formula. However, 80% is usually applied for convenient purpose of selection.

In case of micro hydro power plant, the rated output of generator is selected from the standard output (kVA) with allowance from the manufacturers catalogue in the market.

6.3.3 Speed and Number of Poles of Generator The rated rotational speed is specified according to the frequency (50 or 60 Hz) of power network and the number of poles as shown in following formula For synchronous generator P (nos.) = 120 x f / N0 N0 (rpm) = 120 x f / P Where, P: Number of poles (nos.) N0: Rated rotational speed (rpm) f : Frequency of network (Hz), For induction generator The speed is a little higher than that of synchronous generator for excitation with slip. N (rpm) = (1-S) x N0 Where, N: Actual speed of induction generator S: Slip (normally S= -0.02) N0: Rated rotation speed As the rotational speed is fixed with number of pole, the speed and pole number of generator are shown in Table 6.3.1 hereunder.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

Table 6.3.1 Standard Rotational Speed of Generator Unit: rpm (min-1) No. of pole 50Hz No. of pole 50Hz 60Hz 60Hz 4 1,500 1,800 14 429 514 6 1,000 1,200 16 375 450 8 750 900 18 333 400 10 600 720 20 300 360 12 500 600 24 250 300 Note: The frequency in the Philippines is 60 Hz shall be selected from the table. The size and cost of high speed generator is smaller and cheaper than low speed generator. Referring to the original turbine speed and the rated generator speed, either direct coupling or indirect coupling with power transmission facility (gear or belt) is selected so that the suitable ratio of speed between turbine and generator can be matched. The total cost of turbine, transmitter and generator shall also be taken into consideration. For micro-hydropower plant, 4 8 poles are selected to save the cost

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.4 Power Transmission Facility (Speed Increaser) There are two ways of coupling the turbine and generator. One is a direct coupling with turbine shaft and generator shaft. The other is an indirect coupling by using power transmission facility (speed increaser) between turbine shaft and generator shaft. Rated turbine speed is fixed by the selected type of turbine and the original design condition of net head and water flow (discharge) cannot be changed. On the other hand, generator speed is to be selected from frequency as shown in the above table. Therefore, if the speeds of both turbine and generator are completely the same, turbine and generator can be coupled directly. However, such design of direct coupling is not always applicable due to high cost of turbine and generator, especially in case of micro or small hydropower plant. The power transmission facility (speed increaser) is usually adopted in order to match the speed of turbine and generator and save on cost. Two kinds of speed increaser adopted for coupling turbine and generator are as follows:
1. Gear box type: Turbine shaft and generator shaft is coupled with parallel shaft helical gears in one box with anti-friction bearing according to the ratio of speed between turbine and generator. The lifetime is long but the cost is relatively high. (Efficiency: 97 95% subject to the type) 2. Belt type: Turbine shaft and generator shaft is coupled with pulleys (flywheels) and belt according to the ratio of speed between turbine and generator. The cost is relatively low but lifetime is short. (Efficiency: 98 95% subject to the type of belt)

In case of micro hydro-power plant, V-belt or flat belt type coupling is adopted usually to save the cost because gear type transmitter is very expensive.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.5 Control Facility of Turbine and Generator 6.5.1 Speed Governor The speed governor is adopted to keep the turbine speed constant because the speed fluctuates if there are changes in load, water head and flow. The change of generator rotational speed results in the fluctuation of frequency. The governor consists of speed detector, controller and operation. There are two kinds of governor to control water flow (discharge) through turbine by operation of guide vane or to control the balance of load by interchanging of actual and dummy load as follows:
1. Mechanical type: To control water discharge always with automatic operation of guide vane(s) according to actual load. There are following two types. Pressure oil operating type of guide vane(s) Motor operating type of guide vane(s) 2. Dummy load type: To control the balancing of both current of actual load and dummy load by thyristor i.e. to keep the summation of both actual and dummy load constant always for the same output and speed of generator.

The speed detection is made by PG (Pulse Generator), PMG (Permanent Magnet Generator) or generator frequency. In case of the mechanical type, ancillary equipment such as servomotor of guide vane, pressure pump, pressure tank, sump tank, piping etc. or electric motor operating guide vane with control system, are required. This means the cost of the hydropower plant will be higher with such ancillary equipment. In case of motor operating type, power source, motor and operating mechanism are also required. For a micro-hydropower plant, the dummy load type governor is cheaper and recommended. Dummy load type governor can be controlled by IGC (Induction Generator Controler) or ELC (Electronic Load Controller), which was developed and fabricated in Indonesia and supplied to more than 30 micro-hydropower plants. Two types of dummy load are adopted with heater, the air cooled and water cooled. In Indonesia, air cooled method are usually applied instead of water cooled type due to durability and simple

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

construction of heater. The capacity of dummy load is calculated as follows: Pd (kW) = Pg (kVA) x pf (decimal) x SF Where Pd: Capacity of dummy load (Unity load: kW) Pg: Rated output of generator (KVA) pf: Rated power factor of generator (%, a decimal is used for calculation) SF: Safety factor according to cooling method (1.2 1.4 times of generator output in kW) in order to avoid over-heat of the heater according to climate Note: Maximum output of turbine (kW) may be applied instead of Pg (kVA) x pf (decimal) because maximum generator output is limited by turbine output even if the generator with larger capacity is adopted.

6.5.2 Exciter of Generator In case of synchronous generator, an exciter is necessary for supplying field current to generator and keeping the output voltage constant even if the load fluctuates. Various kinds of exciter are available, but at present the following types of exciter are usually adopted: 1. Brush type: Direct thyrister excitation method. DC current for field coil is supplied through slip ring from thyrister with excitation transformer. 2. Brush-less type: Basic circuit consists of an AC exciter directly coupled to main generator, a rotary rectifier and separately provided thyrister type automatic voltage regulator (AVR). The typical wiring diagrams for both brush type and brush-less type are shown in Figure 6.5.1 and 6.5.2.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

PT CT Ex. Tr AVR
Pulse Generator
(Speed Detector)

Slip ring

G
Figure 6.5.1 Wiring diagram of brush type exciter

PT CT Ex. Tr AVR
Pulse Generator
(Speed Detector)

Rotating section DC100V G AC Ex

Figure 6.5.2 Wiring diagram of brush-less type exciter For micro hydro-power plant the brush-less type is recommended due to easy maintenance.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.5.3 Single Line Diagram

The typical single diagram for both plants with 380/220V and 20kV distribution line are shown in the following figures:
Magnet Contactor NFB Fuse

A x3 V Turbine
Hz

x3 Lamp Indicator

To Custmer

x3

G
Transmitter if required

ELC
(with Hz Relay)

Dummy Load

Generator

Figure 6.5.3 Single Line diagram of Power Plant with Low Tension Distribution Line

Magnet Contactor

M. Transformer

NFB Fuse

380V/20kV

Disconnection Switch Circuit Breaker or Fuse Switch

A x3 V Turbine
Hz

x3 Lamp Indicator

V x3

G
Transmitter if required

ELC
(with Hz Relay)

Generator

Dummy Load

Figure 6.5.4 Single Line diagram of Power Plant with 20kV Distribution Line

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

6.6 Control, Instrumentation and Protection of Plant The general evaluation of the potential sites selected through the above-described study is then examined considering the methods described below to assess their suitability for hydropower development.

6.6.1 Control Methods of Plant There are many control methods for hydropower plant, such as supervisory control, operation control and output control 1. Supervisory control method is classified into continuous supervisory, remote continuous control and occasional control. 2. Operational control method is classified into manual control, one-man control and full automatic control. 3. Output control method is classified into output by single governor for independent network and water level control, discharge control and program control for parallel operation with other power source. In case of an isolated micro-hydropower plant for rural electrification, the occasional control, manual control and governor control with dummy load is usually adopted because no person can monitor the plant in full time basis and also to save on the cost of control equipment. This means that the operator can visit the plant occasionally to start and stop its operation if it is equipped with governor control and when some trouble occurs, the operator could conveniently inspect the plant to take some necessary measure.

6.6.2 Instrumentation of Plant Though many instruments are required in the monitoring of hydropower plant during operation, the following instruments may be furnished as the minimum requirement for micro-hydropower plant in rural electrification. 1. 2. 3. Pressure gage for penstock Voltmeter with change-over switch for output voltage Voltmeter with change-over switch for output of dummy load (ballast)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

4. 5. 6. 7.

Ammeter with change-over switch for ampere of generator output Frequency meter for rotational speed of generator Hour meter for operation time KWH (kW hour) meter and KVH(Kvar hour) meter, which is recommended in order to check and summarize total energy produced by the power plant if there is some allowance in budget

6.6.3 Protection of Plant and 380/220V Distribution Line Considering the same reason for cost saving in instrumentation, the following protection is required as minimum protection for micro-hydro power plant in rural electrification. 1. 2. 3. 4. Over speed of turbine and generator ( detected by frequency) Under voltage Over voltage Over current by NFB (No Fuse Breaker) or MCCB(Molded Case Circuit Breaker) for low tension circuit.

When items 1, 2 and 3 are detected by IGC or ELC (with adjustable by screw), MC (Magnet Contactor) is activated and trips the main circuit of generator

6.6.4 Protection of 20kV Distribution Line Normal protection system of line (Pole-mounted type Lighting Arresters and Fuses or Fuse Switches) is to be provided throughout the line. However, the following two kinds of system could be installed as protection of 20kV outgoing facility at power station. 1. The following facilities are to be installed at 20kV switchgear of power station in case 20kV switchgear for large capacity and long outgoing line is required. 1) 1 no. 24kV Circuit Breaker, driven by AC operated closing and tripping system of capacitor trip power supply device (3-phase, 200A for MHP ) 2) 3 nos. 24kV Fuse Switches with fuse, hand operated type (3-phase) 3) 1 no. 24kV Earthing Switch, hand operated type (3-phase gang operated) 4) 3 nos. 20kV Lightning Arrester (more than 27kV, 5kA) 5) 1 no. 20 kV Voltage Transformer(3 phase, 22kV/110V )

- 6-25 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

20kV Current Transformer (1-phase, Ratio to be fixed by the actual capacity of MHP) 7) 1 set 20kV Busbars system 8) 1 no. Control and Protection Panel In case 20kV cubicle is applied all the above facilities are to be installed in the cubicle. 2. The following facilities only are to be installed by connection from 20kV terminal of 20kV/380V transformer on the terminal pole at Power Plant, in case only 20kV/380V transformer is installed for step-up purpose due to small capacity distribution line. In this case, protection panel for 20kV line is not required. 1) 3 nos. 24kV Fuse Switches with fuse, hand operated type (3-phase) 2) 3 nos. 20kV Lightning Arrester (more than 27kV, 5kA) 3) 1 lot 20kV line connection materials (Insulators, support structure, wires) 6.7 Inlet valve Referring of water quantity and head of plant, suitable inlet valve is applied between penstock and turbine for tight stopping of water supply for safety and maintenance. However, it may sometimes be omitted for purpose of cost saving in case of low head power plant if the stop log or gate at forebay can almost stop the water leakage from forebay into penstock or separate discharge pass-way is provided at forebay The inlet valve for micro and small power plant is classified into three(3) kinds as follows: Type 1.Butterfly valve; 2.Bi-plane valve; 3.Sluice valve; Applicable head Not exceeding 200m Not exceeding 350m Exceeding 200m Applicable diameter Medium(up to 2.5m) More than 500mmm Small Head loss Medium Little Almost zero Leakage Medium Medium Very less

6) 3 nos.

More details are shown in Table 6.7.1. For micro or small power plant, butterfly valve is adopted due to simple construction and low cost.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6

- 6-27 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

ANNEX. Annex. 6.1 Brief Design of Cross Flow Turbine (SKAT T-12, 13 &14)

1. Cross Flow Turbine At present Cross Flow turbine is the preferred turbine for micro power plant,. SKAT T-12, T-13 and T-14 are recommended for micro-hydro power generation. The major advantages are as follows: Available technical data for design. Proper design with a wide range of heads and flows according to available actual site condition. Comparably low cost Easy installation Local fabrication, maintenance and repair

2.

Fundamental Design Data The following fundamental data shall be taken from the civil design. 1. Elevation of water level at forebay 2. Elevation of turbine center 3. Elevation of tailrace water if required 4. Rated flow (discharge) 5. Internal diameter of penstock 6. Length of penstock _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______ m m m m3/s cm m

7. Condition of nos. of bends of penstock, etc.

3.

Application Limits The applicable limit of Cross Flow turbine (T-12, T-13 & 14) can be summarized in following Table 6.A1.1. Table 6.A1.1 Limit of Cross Flow Turbine (at turbine shaft) Unit Hnet Q P bo Net head Discharge (Flow) Shaft power output Inlet width m l/s kW mm Lower limit 4 100 10 100 0 Upper limit 50 820 250 1120 8

Number of intermediate discs

Note:

These limits must be respected. Engineering consideration such as practicability, relative cost, tightness of inlet valve in closed position, opening force on inlet valve, strength of the rotor blades, strength of the connection of the side discs to the rotor shaft, diameter of the shaft etc demand the respect of these limits

- 6-28 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) On Chart 1 curves are shown for various outputs P. The corresponding formula is :

P 9.8 Q H net
The approximate rotational speed n of turbine can be read from the vertical scale on the right side of Chart 1. Its exact value is calculated with following formula for T-12, 13 & 14:

n 133

net

Example within the limits: For a net head Hnet =30.89 m and a discharge Q=497 l/s, the following values can be determined on the T-13 and T-14 application Fig. 6.A1.1. The point of intersection of the Hnet and Q values is within the range of the white field, which means that the T-13 and T-14 design is appropiate. The shaft power output is just above 100 kW. The rotational speed n is about 740 min-1.

Example outside the limits Hnet = 6m and Q = 200 l/s

Although both Hnet and Q are within the limits, the intersection point on Fig. 6.A1.1 lies outside the white, non-dotted field. For this application T-12, T-13 and T-14 cannot be used.

Please refer to Fig. 6.A1.1 in next page

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

Fig. 6.A1.1

Application Limits of The T-12, T-13 & T-14

/APPLICATION LIMITS OF THE T-12, T-13 & 14 CROSS FLOW TURBINE DESIGN, POWER OUTPUT, RPM AND d-d LINE

4.

Using Power Transmission Facility One of the advantages of Cross Flow turbine is that a power transmission facility with a belt drive (Speed increaser) is easily applied in order to match both the speed of turbine and generator. The advantages of using power transmission arrangement are summarized below. Application of most suitable design of turbine itself to match the various actual site condition Easy and wide selection of turbine speed with proper speed increaser to generator Easier installation horizontal shaft, common base for generator and turbine. Lower cost to apply the small size generator with high speed, such as 1500 or 1000 rpm

5.

Suitable Range of Site Heads and Flows for T-12, T-13 & 14 The Figure 6.A1.1 shows the applicable range of heads and discharges (flows) of Cross Flow turbine to be used. The applicable range of Cross Flow turbines (T-12, T-13 and T-14) is shown with white area in the figure and d-d line in the figure shows the limitation of strength of shaft for belt pulley as follows: - 6-30 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) (1) Intersection point below d-d line Any transmission system between turbine and generator is permissible (2) Intersection point above d-d line Additional bending stress on the rotor shaft due to force created by e.g. belt tension is not permissible, therefore, no belt pulley on the rotor shaft is allowed. In case of a belt transmission, a separately supported pulley shaft would have to be coupled to the rotor shaft.

The range of Cross Flow turbine can be extended by using either a four-pole (1500 rpm) or a six-pole (1000 rpm) generator.

6.

Calculation of turbine design The formulae for the calculation of the turbine performance values in design are as follows;

Formula (1): Inlet width

b0

1 q11max D

Q H net

b0 H net

Inlet width Net head Discharge (flow) Unit discharge (flow) =0.67 for T-12 =0.76 for T-13 =0.80 for T-14

m
m

Q q11 max

m / s
3

Rotor diameter =0.3 m for T-12, T-13 & T-14

b0 3.623 b0 4.39 b0 4.9


Formula (2): Shaft power output

Q H net Q H net Q H net P


Power

for T-12

for T-13

for T-14

P 0.98 Q H net

kW
0.76 for T-13 0.80 for T-14

Turbine efficiency : 0.65 for T-12

Q H net : Same as formula (1)

- 6-31 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) Formula (3) Turbine speed (rpm)

n11 H net D

n:
n11 :

Rotational speed Unit speed = 39 = 40 = 38 (for T-12) (for T-13) (for T-14)

rpm rpm

D:

Runner diameter= 0.3

The calculation result are shown in the following Table 6.A1.1 Calculation of Turbine Type Crossflow T-14, T-13 & T-12

Table 6.A1.1 Calculation of Turbine type Crossflow T-14, T-13 & T-12
Calculation of Turbine Size
Basic Data for Sample site Geodedic head Net head /design head Design discharge Diameter of runner Width of nozzle Hgeo Hnet Qt Dt bno = = = = = 9.5 8.5 530 0.30 m m l/s m mm

Type : Crossflow T14/T13/T12

Turbine T14
Net head /design head Design discharge Diameter of runner Unit speed (opt) Unit flow (opt) Efficiency of turbine Unit flow (max) Efficiency of turbine Width of runner Shaft power output Turbine speed If turbine width is determined Width of runner Discharge Power (turbine shaft) Turbine speed Run away speed Generator/Transm. Effic. El. Output Hnet Qt Dt n11 Q11opt etat opt Q11 max etat max b0 Pt opt Pt max nt = = = = = = = = = = = = 8.5 m 530 l/s 0.3 m 38 rpm 0.80 m^3/s 74.0% 0.94 m^3/s 73% 757 32.7 37.9 369 mm kW kW rpm Hnet Qt Dt n11 Q11opt etat opt Q11 max etat max b0 Pt opt Pt max nt

Turbine T13
= = = = = = = = = = = = m 8.5 l/s 530 m 0.3 40 rpm 0.76 m^3/s 70.0% 0.82 m^3/s 68% 797 30.9 32.4 389 mm kW kW rpm Hnet Qt Dt n11 Q11opt etat opt Q11 max etat max b0 Pt opt Pt max nt

Turbine T12
= = = = = = = = = = = = m 8.5 l/s 530 m 0.3 39 rpm 0.67 m^3/s 65.0% 0.72 m^3/s 63% 904 28.7 29.9 379 mm kW kW rpm

b0w Qtw_opt Ptw_opt ntw_opt ntw_max eta_g Pel

= = = = = = =

760.0

mm

b0w Qtw_opt Ptw_opt ntw_opt ntw_max eta_g Pel

= = = = = = =

800.0 531.8 31.0 389 700 83% 25.84

mm l/s kW rpm rpm kW

b0w Qtw_opt Ptw_opt ntw_opt ntw_max eta_g Pel

= = = = = = =

900.0 527.4 28.6 379 682 83% 23.80

mm l/s kW rpm rpm kW

531.8 l/s 32.8 kW 369 rpm 665 rpm 83% 27.32 kW

It is noted that the optimum values are applied for the rated output, discharge and speed, etc. and maximum values are not used as shown in above table.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

Annex. 6.2

Brief Design of Reverse Pump Turbine (PAT)

1. Reverse Pump Turbine (Pump as Turbine= PAT) Standard pump units when operated in reverse as turbines have a number of advantages over conventional turbines for micro-hydro power generation. Pumps are mass-produced, and as a result, The main advantages are as

have advantage for micro-hydro compared with purpose-made turbines. follows:

Integral pump and motor can be purchased for use as a turbine and generator set Available for a wide range of heads and flows Available in a large number of standard sizes Low cost Short delivery time Spare parts such as seals and bearings are easily available Easy installation uses standard pipe fittings

There are several practical benefits of being able to use a direct drive pump as turbine (PAT), i.e. the pump shaft is connected directly to the generator, as explained in the next section. Pump suppliers usually stock a number of different pumps designed to be suitable for a wide range of heads and flows. later section. The simplicity of the PAT means that it does have certain limitation when compared with more expensive types of turbine. The main limitation is that the range of flow rates over which a particular unit can operate is much less than for a conventional turbine. Some ways of overcoming this The actual range of heads and flows for which a PAT is suitable is explained in a

limitation are covered at the end of this chapter. Therefore , the selection of applicable pump should be selected referring hereunder.

2.

Using a Direct Drive Pumps as Turbine One of the advantages of using a PAT instead of a conventional turbine is the opportunity to avoid a belt drive. However, in some circumstances there are advantages to fitting a belt drive to a PAT. The advantages of using a direct drive arrangement are summarized below.

Very low friction loss in drive (saving up to 5% of output power.). Easier installation PAT and generator come as one unit. Lower cost no pulleys, smaller base plate. Lower cost (in the case of a mono-bloc design) because of simpler construction, fewer bearings, etc.

Longer bearing life no sideways forces on bearings. Less maintenance no need to adjust belt tension or replace belts.

- 6-33 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) The use of combined pump-motor units is recommended for micro-hydro schemes that are to be used only for the production of electricity, and where the simplest installation possible is required. are, however, some limitations to using such integral units, as listed below: Turbine speed is fixed to speed of generator thus reducing the range of low rates when matching the PAT performance to the site conditions. Limited choice of generators available for a particular PAT. No possibility of connecting mechanical loads directly to the PAT. There

3.

Suitable Range of Site Heads and Flows Standard centrifugal pumps are manufactured in a large number of sizes, to cover a wide range of head and flows. Given the right conditions, pumps as turbines can be used over the range normally covered by multi-jet Pelton turbines, crossflow turbines and small Francis turbines. However, for high head,

low flow applications, a Pelton turbine is likely to be more efficient than a pump, and no more expensive. The chart in Fig. 6.A2.1 shows the range of heads and flows over which various turbines options may be used. The range of Pelton and crossflow turbines shown is based on information from the range of turbines manufactured in Nepal, and is compared with the range of standard centrifugal pumps running with a four-pole (approx. 1500 rpm) generator. The range of PATs can be extended by using either a

500 400 300 200 150 100 70 50 40 30 20

H(m)

Key
Crossflow Turbines Crossflow Turbine limit PAT limit @ 1550 rpm

10 5
PAT

8 10 15 20 30 40 60 80 100 150 200

Q(/s)
Fig. 6.A2.1 Head-flow Ranges for Various Turbine Option two-pole (approx. 3000 rpm) or a six-pole (approx. 1000 rpm) generator, as shown in Fig 6.A2.2. This range of pumps as turbines is based on standard centrifugal pumps produced by a major UK manufacturer. - 6-34 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

500 400 H(m) 300 200 100 70 50 40 30

70 50 40 30 20 10 5
4 pole limit (c. 1500 rpm)

20 10 5
2

8 10 15 20 30 40 60

100 200Q(/s)

Fig. 6.A2.2

Head-flow Ranges for Direct Drive Pumps as Turbines

The use of a pump as turbine has greatest advantage, in terms of cost and simplicity for sites where the alternative would be either a crossflow turbine, running at relatively low flow, or a multi-jet Pelton turbine. For these applications, shown by the hatched area on Fig. 6.A2.2, a crossflow turbine would Very small corssflow turbines are more

normally be very large compared with an equivalent PAT.

expensive to manufacture than larger ones because of the difficulty of fabricating the runner. Therefore, a crossflow installation would require a large turbine running at slower speed than an equivalent PAT, resulting in the need for a belt drive to power a standard generator. A Pelton turbine

for this application would require three or four jets, resulting in a complicated arrangement for the casing and nozzles, although it would be more flexible than a PAT for running with a range of flow rates. A small Francis turbine could also be used in this range, but would be even more expensive than crossflow turbine. What dictates the use of a pump as turbine is that it requires a fixed flow rate and is therefore suitable for sites where there is a sufficient supply of water throughout the year. Long term water storage is not generally an option for a micro-hydro scheme because of the high cost of constructing a reservoir.

Due to difficulty of site selection for PAT (Pump As Turbine), it is recommended that the client should confirm its performance to the designer or pump manufacturer in advance, including the characteristics of the pump and its induction motor to avoid that the characteristics of pump is different by its manufacturer. Table 6.A2.1 Centrifugal Pump manufactured by Southern Cross for PAT is attached hereunder for reference only.
The engineer, who wants to know more detailed design, shall continue the study to the following chapters hereunder.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

Table 6.A2.1 Centrifugal Pump manufactured by Southern Cross for PAT


Head as turbine (Hn) Head as pump (Hn) Efficiency as pump

Flow as turbine (Q)

Flow as pump(Q)

Speed as turbine

Pump Type 50 x 32 160-L 50 x 32 160-M 50 x 32 160-S 65 x 50 160-L 65 x 50 160-M 65 x 50 160-S 80 x 65 160-L 80 x 65 160-M 80 x 65 160-S 80 x 50 200-L 80 x 50 200-M 80 x 50 200S 100 x 80 160-L 100 x 80 160-M 100 x 80 160-S 100 x 65 200-L 100 x 65 200-M 100 x 65 200-S 100 x 65 250-L 100 x 65 250-M 100 x 65 250-S 125 x 100 200-L 125 x 100 200-M 125 x 100 200-S 125 x 100 250-L 125 x 100 250-M 125 x 100 250-S 150 x 125 250-L 150 x 125 250-M 150 x 125 250-S

(rpm) 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1420 1420 1420 1420 1420 1420 1420 1420 1420 1420 1420 1420 1450 1450 1450 1440 1440 1440 1450 1450 1450 1460 1460 1460

(rpm) 1470 1470 1470 1470 1470 1470 1491 1491 1491 1491 1491 1491 1491 1491 1491 1491 1491 1491 1523 1523 1523 1512 1512 1512 1523 1523 1523 1523 1523 1523

(l/sec) 3.1 2.6 2.5 5.5 4.5 4.0 9.5 7.5 6.8 10.0 9.0 8.0 18.0 16.0 15.0 18.5 16.0 14.0 20.0 18.5 16.5 38.0 34.0 30.0 40.0 36.0 33.0 70.0 70.0 50.0

(m) 9.5 7.5 6.0 9.0 7.5 6.0 9.5 7.5 6.0 15.5 12.0 9.0 9.5 6.5 5.0 15.0 11.5 9.0 24.0 19.0 15.0 14.5 10.0 8.0 24.0 19.0 14.0 23.0 17.0 13.0

(%) 56 54 50 65 60 57 78 74 68 72 69 68 80 77 75 78 75 70 78 76 73 85 81 78 81 80 78 88 83 80

(l/sec) 5.7 4.9 5.0 9.0 7.8 7.2 13.4 11.0 10 .6 15.0 14.0 12.6 24.9 22.8 21.8 26.1 23.3 21.5 28.2 26.6 24.5 50.0 46.5 42.3 54.7 49.6 46.5 89.6 93.8 69.0

(m) 23.1 19.1 16.7 18.3 16.8 14.3 15.5 13.1 11.6 27.9 22.7 17.3 15.1 10.8 8.6 24.5 19.7 16.7 39.2 32.0 26.5 21.4 15.6 13.1 37.5 30.1 22.9 32.5 25.8 20.0

(kW) 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.6 0.4 1.1 0.7 0.6 2.1 1.5 1.0 2.1 1.3 1.0 3.5 2.4 1.8 6.0 4.5 3.3 6.3 4.1 3.0 11.6 8.4 5.8 17.9 14.0 8.0

- 6-36 -

Power output (P)

Speed as pump

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) 4. Overcoming the Limitation of Using a Pump as Turbine A purpose-built water turbine is generally fitted with a variable guide vane (or vanes) or a spear valve, which allows the machine to run efficiently with a wide range of flow rates. centrifugal pump is used as a turbine, no such adjustment is possible. When a standard

However, once installed, a pump

as turbine that is well matched to the site conditions will operate close to maximum efficiency. If the flow rate falls a little below the required flow for maximum efficiency, power can still be generated but less power will be obtained. This is explained in more detail in Annex 6.1. Another By using a special intake and a

option for dealing with low flow rates is to use intermittent operation. small storage tank it is possible for a PAT to run intermittently. arrangement.

The special intake consists of a siphon

If the flow rate increases, it is not possible to generate more power using only one pump.

A second

pump could be installed but the additional cost of installing more than one unit may outweigh the advantage of buying a pump instead of a conventional turbine. Annex 6.2 gives more details of parallel operation of PATs. When a direct drive electric pump is used, the turbine and generator must run at the same speed. can limit the range of flows over which the pump can run. (either electrical or mechanical) of the generator. This

Care must be taken to avoid overloading

The electrical output of an induction generator

should normally be limited to 80% of the rated power output as motor.

5.

Understanding Pump as Pump Performance Curves Before looking at your pump as a turbine, you need to understand it as a pump. The main tool for this

is the performance curve, which shows how the head and flow delivered by the pump are related. As the flow delivered by the pump increases, the delivery head decreases. The head-flow curve of each pump is often available form the pump manufacturer. The other piece of information that you need to know for your pump is the point at which it works most efficiently. This is called the best efficiency point. The pump efficiency, plotted against the flow rate,

is shown in Fig. 6.A2.3. The maximum value of efficiency varies according to the type and size of pump, but is typically 40% to 80%. rate. The best efficiency point (bep) occurs at a particular value of flow

- 6-37 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

max

Qbep

Qp

Fig. 6.A2.3

Pump Efficiency Curve Information

The efficiency values can be shown on the head-flew curve, as shown in Fig. 6.A2.4. from pump manufacturers is sometimes shown in this way.

Hp
50 % 60 % 65 % %

70

60

Qbep

50

Hbep

65

% % %

Qp

Fig. 6.A2.4

Pump Head and Flow with Efficiency Values Shown

If you have no efficiency data for the pump, but do have a curve showing input power against flow rate, then it is possible to calculate the values at the best efficiency point. flow-rate input power and efficiency is given by the following equation: The relationship between head,

Efficiency () =

H Q 9.81 100 Pin

(1)

where:

H is head (m) Q is flow rate (1/2) Pin is mechanical input power (W) 9.81 is acceleration due to gravity (m/s2) is pump efficiency as a percentage. - 6-38 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

The steps for calculating the value of maximum efficiency are as follows: 1. 2. 3. Use the head-flow curve to obtain the head and flow rate at best efficiency point (bep). Use this flow rate on the power input-flow curve to get Pin. Put these values in equation (1) to obtain the efficiency.

Note that, especially for pumps with integral motors, the power curve may show electrical power consumption rather than mechanical input power. In this case, use Appendix D to estimate the efficiency of the motor. Then sue the following equation to calculate Pin.

Pin = Pelec

motor (%)
100

(2)

Where:

Pin is mechanical input power (W) Pelec is the electrical power consumption of the motor (W) motor is motor efficiency as a percentage.

Example 1: Finding pump best efficiency conditions. The manufacturer of a 65-40-200 (2.5 1.5 8 pump gives the head-flow curve and electrical power input curve as shown below in Fig. 6.A2.9a and 9b. The flow at best efficiency is 14m3/hr,

which can be converted to 3.89 l/s by dividing by 3.6, the conversion factor given in Appendix E. The head at best efficiency is 11.8m The motor is rated at 1.5 hp (1.1 kW), 1,450 rpm, for operation on a 3-phase, 50 Hz supply. According to the table in Appendix D, this size of motor has a maximum efficiency of around 75%. The value of electrical power consumed, for the best efficiency point, can be found from Fig. 6.A2. 9b. At a flow rate of 14m3/hr, the power is 1,050 W. This is Pelec. Using equation (2):

Pin =

Pelec

motor(%)
100

= 1050

75 = 788W 100

The pump best efficiency is therefore, from equation (1):

H Q 9.81 11.8 3.89 9.81 100 = 100 = 57% Pin 788

- 6-39 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)


Hp (m)
18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 5 10 15 20
500 1000

Pelec (W)

750

250

Qp (m3/hr)

10

15

20

Qp (m3/hr)

(a) Head and flow, with best efficiency point Fig. 6.A2.5
H

(b) Electrical power consumption

Manufacturers Pump Curves

Hsite
hf
rv Cu AT P e

Site Curve Operating Point

Fig. 6.A2.6

Turbine Curve and Site Curve

The speed of the turbine will vary according to the load that is put on it, and there is a different head-flow curve for each speed. Three such curves are shown in Fig. 6.A2.7. The middle curve,

labeled N=100% is for the normal operating speed (the same as in Fig. 6.A2.8). The curves labeled N=130% and N=80% are for speeds 30% higher and 20% lower than normal operating speed. Note

that for each speed, the operating point it given by the intersection of the turbine curve with the site curve. If a load, which is higher than design load, is put on the turbine, the speed goes down. For the pump

shown in Fig. 6.A2.7, this causes a slight increase in flow rate, which is usually the case for centrifugal pumps running as turbines. When the load on the turbine is reduced, the speed increases. If there is no load, the speed of the turbine increases to a maximum, which is known as runaway. The curve of maximum speeds is also shown on Fig. 6.A2.7 (labeled N=max). In the case illustrated,

the actual speed at runaway is (by extrapolation) approximately 140% of normal operating speed.

- 6-40 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)


H

Site Curve

14 N=

0%

13 N=

0%

10 N=
N= ma x

0%

80 N=

Fig. 6.A2.7 6.

Turbine Head and Flow at Different Speeds

Obtaining the Best Efficiency Point with Limited Data If the best efficiency point is not known but you have a power curve, calculate the efficiency using equation (1) as above, for a number of different low rates. maximum efficiency. efficiency point. Sometimes, no curve is available that shows either input power or electrical power consumption. this case, some information may be obtained from the pump name plate. In By a trial and error method, obtain the

The head and flow corresponding to the maximum efficiency will define the best

The data given on the pump

name plate may consist of a single value for head and for flow (which is not always the head and flow for best efficiency pump operation) or a range of heads and flows. efficiency conditions can be made by using: Qbep = 0.75 Qmax; Hbep = 0.75Hmax (3) One approximation for the best

A useful check can be made on these estimates by an alternative method, which is based on physical measurements of some parts of the pump. 7. Understanding Pump as Turbine Performance Curves The performance curve for the turbine shows how the head is related to the flow through the turbine (see Fig. 6.A2.8). For turbine operation, the flow increases with increasing head. The single curve

shown is for the normal operating speed, i.e. that determined during detailed design. It is also possible to plot the curve showing the head and flow available at the site (see Fig. 6.A2.6). This is the head available at the turbine and is equal to the vertical height between the intake from the stream and the turbine outlet, less the frictional head loss in the penstock. The intersection of the

turbine performance curve and the site curve in Fig. 6.A2.6 gives the head and flow at which the turbine will actually operate. This is known as the operating point.

- 6-41 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

Limit of PAT operation

0 0 Qt Q

Fig. 6.A2.8

Pump as Turbine Head and Flow

- 6-42 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) SELECTING PUMP AS TURINE FOR A PARTICULAR SITE This chapter gives procedures for selecting a pump as turbine to match a particular site, using either performance calculations of turbine testing.

Matching a Pump as Turbine to Site Conditions In selecting your site, you choose a particular set of head and flow conditions. The flow rate is The

normally determined by the minimum flow rate, i.e. the flow that is available throughout the year.

head is determined by the vertical height between the intake from the stream and the turbine outlet, less the head loss in the penstock for this particular flow rate. A pump needs to be selected for which the head and flow, at the turbine best efficiency point, are as close as possible to the site conditions. This section gives the calculations needed to get the turbine head and flow at best efficiency point for a particular pump. The running conditions in terms of head and flow, for best efficiency as a turbine, are

very different from the rated pump output, although the PAT efficiency will be approximately the same as for pump operation. Friction and leakage loses, within a centrifugal pump, result in a reduction of head The head and flow required, when running as a turbine, will be The following equations are given

and flow from the theoretical maximum.

greater than the theoretical values, in order to make up for the losses. in the literature to predict turbine head and flow for constant speed:

Q1 =

Qbep

max

H1 =

Hbep

max

1 =max

(4)

where

Qbep is the flow rate and pump best efficiency point (bep) Hbep is the head at pump bep max is the pump maximum efficiency

and

Q1 is the flow rate at turbine best efficiency point (bep) H1 is the head at turbine bep 1 Is the turbine maximum efficiency. These equations imply that the ratios Q1/Qbep and H1/Hbep are equal, but experimental results show

that the head ratio is usually greater than the flow ratio between turbine and pump modes.

The prediction

can be improved by using different powers ofmax for the head and flow ratios, following a method proposed by KR Sharma of Kirloskar Co., India. equations are: If the turbine speed is the same as the pump speed, these

Q1 =

Qbep

max

0.8

H1 =

H bep

max1.2

1 = max

(5)

The following example shows how to calculate the head and flow needed by the turbine when the turbine speed is the same as the pump speed. - 6-43 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) Example 2: Calculation of turbine best efficiency point (at pump speed). The manufacturer of a particular pump gives curves that show that as a pump is maximum efficiency is 62% when delivering 20 l/s at a head of 16 in at 1,500 rpm. turbine, driving a synchronous generator at 1,500 rpm. predicted from equations (5) will be: The pump is required for use as a

The turbine performance at best efficiency

Q1 =

Qbep

max max

0.8

20 20 = = 29.3 l/s 0.8 0.682 0.62 16 16 = = 28.4 m 1.2 0.563 0.62

H1 =

H bep
1.2

Often the turbine speed will not be the same as the rated pump speed and it is necessary to use additional equations to take into account different running speeds of turbine and pump. presenting the equation it is necessary to explain the Affinity Laws. The Affinity Laws relate the head, flow and power of a pump or turbine to its speed: Flow (Q) is proportional to speed (N) Head (H) is proportional to N2 Power (P) is proportional to N3 These relationship can be use particularly for calculating the running conditions at best efficiency point. The equations for head and flow are: Before

Q1 (at N = N1) =

N1 Q1 (at N = Np) Np
N1 2 ) H1 (at N = Np) Np

(6)

H1 (at N = N1) = (

(7)

where Np is the related pump speed N1 is the turbine running speed Substituting these equations into equations (5) gives:

Q1 =

Qbep H bep N1 N 2 ; H1 = ( 1 ) 0.8 1.2 max N p max Np

(8)

An example of carrying out this calculation is given on the next page. It must be stressed that, although this methods is more accurate than the equations normally given in the literature (4) it is still only approximate. the dep. The actual values of Qt and Ht may be as much as 20% of the predicted value for

This may or may not have a significant effect on the PAT output, depending on the - 6-44 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) performance characteristics. It is therefore recommended that, wherever possible, after initial selection,

the pump is tested as a turbine to find out what power will be produced at the available head and flow. The method for testing is described in the next section.

Example 3: Calculation of turbine best efficiency point at 1550 rpm. The head available at a particular site is 26m, and the flow is 7 l/s. assessed in Example 2 could be used as a turbine for this site. The induction motor is to be used as a generator directly driven from the turbine. speed is therefore fixed by the generator speed. speed is calculated to be 1550 rpm. conditions for turbine operation are: The turbine It was suggested that the pump

From the pump speed of 1450 rpm, the turbine

Using the equations above (8), the predicted best efficiency

Q1 =

Qbep 1550 3.89 N1 = = 6.52 l/s 0.8 N p max 1450 0.57 0.8
(

H1 =

H bep 1550 2 11.8 N1 2 = ( = 26.5 m ) ) 1.2 max Np 1450 0.571.2

These values of head and flow are close to the site conditions, and the pump is therefore suitable.

Due to some difficulty of selection of PAT (Pump As Turbine), it is recommended as sample for brief selection to refer to the attached Table 6.A2.1 of for PAT attached hereunder,. The client is requested to ask the designer the details of design with technical explanation for the selected pump for PAT, with reference to the characteristics of the actual pump since each turbine is made by different manufacturer. Centrifugal Pump manufactured by Southern Cross

- 6-45 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

Annex. 6.3

Technical Application Sheet of Tender for Electro-mechanical Equipment

1. 2. 3. 4.

Purchaser Name of Plant Location Fundamental matters 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7)

______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________

Elevation of water level at forebay basin Elevation of Turbine center Rated water flow (Dischrge) Internal diameter of penstock Length of penstock Number of house holders Proposed area of house holdesr

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

m m m3/s cm m HH

______________________________________________________________ 8)

5.

Electro-mechanical Works 1) Generating Equipment (a) Hydraulic turbine and auxiliary equipment One kW cross flow type turbine with common base for generator (Note: Output shall be designed by the Tenderer referring to final output at generator terminal kW.) One inlet valve (diameter: _______ One water level gauging Maintenance tools and spare parts cm)

(b) Power transmitter between turbine and generator (If required) One Mechanical power transmitter (gear or belt) with pulleies. One kVA horizontal shaft drip-proof type synchronous generator with AVR (or Induction generator) One generator control system of ELC (or IGC) including protective relays, meters, surge absorber, space heater and control accessories One dummy load (air-cooling) complete with accessories One Control panel with meters, switches, lamps, MC & MCB, etc. One set of spare parts for operation and maintenance - 6-46 -

(b) Generator and Control Equipment -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

6.

20kV Distribution Facilities (If required) 1) (a) (b) (c) Distribution Line 20kV Switchgears for outgoing line with Circuit breakers, PT, CT, Lightning arresters and other necessary accessories. (If required) 20kV/380V step-up and step-down Transformers 20kVoverhead lines with steel or wooden poles (7m) with accessories , insulated wires of single core (70, 35,16sq.mm), Insulators, Lightning arresters and all necessary accessories according to the Tenderers design, of which voltage drop calculation shall be attached the Tender. Two-cores aerial bundled conductor (ABC) cables for connection to householder, watt-hour meters and Molded circuit-breakers (MCBs) with weather proof box for protection of house connections (one each for 5 or 6 householders) to be mounted on pole.

(d) (e)

7.

380/220 Distribution Facilities including connection and in-house wiring for house holders 1) (a) Distribution Line 380/220V overhead lines with steel or wooden poles (7m) with accessories , twisted cables of four or two cores (70, 35,16sq.mm) and all necessary accessories according to the Tenderers design, of which voltage drop calculation shall be attached the Tender.

(b) (c) 2)

Two-cores aerial bundled conductor (ABC) cables for connection to householder, watt-hour meters and Molded circuit-breakers (MCBs) with weather proof box for protection of house connections (one each for 5 or 6 householders) to be mounted on pole. Other Materials to be supplied to house holder

(a) 8.

Supply and connection of the in-house connection materials and handing over of the remaining materials for the distribution line construction.

Training of O&M Staff 1) 2) During the installation works of the Plant, the Contractor shall be required to provide the plant operators with on-the-job training by engaging them in the works. After the Plant is in operation, the Contractor shall be required to furnish the qualified engineers to repair the part and instruct plant operators, if requested due to any trouble of the Plant during Defect Liability Period.

- 6-47 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX) The Contractor is requested to fill the following Table with proposed facilities and remarks MECHANICAL & ELECTRICAL No 1 2 a b c 3 a b 4 a. b. c. Description Inlet valve (Butterfly type) Crossflow Turbine Turbine Turbine base frame Electronic Load Controller Unit Qty
Manufacturer

Remark

Dummy Load ( Air Cooling Heater Housing of Ballast

nos. unit

4 Generator a. Synchronous Generator Stamford b. Generator base frame c. d. 5 Accessories, Spare parts & Tools a b c d e f 6 7 8 9 Set up & Installation Transportation & Packaging Testing and Trial run Commissioning Test

unit unit

unit

ls ls ls ls

- 6-48 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

Annex. 6.4 Brief Design for Electro-mechanical Equipment of Micro Hydro Power Plant
1. General Various components of power plant equipment (valve, turbines, controller and generators etc.) are explained in this Manual. Micro hydro power plants for rural electrification should follow the said approach due to the reason of reliable design data, available manufacturing abilities including distribution line design considerations, etc. Considering difficult availability of well-trained operator in rural area and spare parts for future maintenance, all facilities except for small parts shall be locally manufactured or included in the order as mandatory spare parts. It is, therefore, recommended to adopt the following Electro-mechanical equipment and facilities for rural electrification in an isolated grid. 2. Generating Facility The applicable main machines (turbine and generator) for micro hydro power plant for rural electrification referring to the present technology and manufacturing capability. 2.1 Turbine Turbine type : Cross Flow Net head 4 30 m Flow(discharge) 0.2 0.7 m /s 0.04 0.13 m3/s
3

Turbine output 8 85 kW 2 5 kW

Generator output: 10 75kVA 2.5 6.5kVA

Reverse pump (PAT) 4 20 m

The final output of generator is the product of Hnet, Q, t, m, & g according to site condition, however, the turbines outside of above each range, can be applied if the results of calculation is within acceptable range shown in this Manual. Therefore the output shall be calculated in detail and finally checked referring to this Manual. In case of reverse pump turbine, the turbine is selected from a pump directly coupled to induction motor with almost same head and discharge as design condition at site, considering efficiency apex of the said pump. Generator Generator type: Synchronous Induction Frequency 50Hz 50Hz Rotation speed 1500 rpm 1500 rpm Power factor 0.8 (80%) 0.8 (80%) Required output > kVA (=kW/0.8)* >kVA(=kW/0.8)**

Note: * In case of synchronous generator, the generator shall be selected from the one with available standard output (kVA) more than the calculated kW of turbine (turbine output/0.8) with AVR in market. ** In case of induction generator, the induction motor is used an induction generator with additional capacitors. The one directly coupled with the pump shall be selected as generator because the separate selection of generator is somewhat difficult due to best efficiency point of turbine.

- 6-49 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

Table of Brief Selection of Turbine and Generator for MHPP Euipment 1-1 Turbine Type Cross Flow Applicable range for Indonesian manufacturer Water energy(Pw): 8 85kW Headnet(Hn): 4 30 m Discharge: 200 700 l/s Turbine efficiency t: 0.7 Pw= 0.98 x Pw x Hn P= Pw x t Turbine output(P): 5 60kW Water energy(Pw): 3 8kW Headnet(Hn) 4 20 m Discharge: 40 130 l/s Turbine efficiency t: variable to bep of pump & required output of turbine bpf: Best Efficiency Point Pw= 0.98 x Pw x Hn Pt= Pw x t Turbine output(Pt): 2 5kW Output(Pg) : Available standard output P (kVA)> (Pt x m x g ) / 0.8 Rotation speed: 1500 rpm Frequency: Constant (50Hz) Voltage: Constant by AVR Efficiency: High Power transmitter is usually required Output(Pg): Available standard output P (kVA)> (Pt x m x g ) / 0.8 or standard output of motor for the pump Capacitor: to be added for excitation Rotation speed: 1500 or 1000rpm Frequency: Constant (51-51.5Hz) but not so stable due to load Voltage: Variable without AVR Efficiency: Variable by load Direct coupling is usually applied Remarks SKAT T-12, T-13 or T-14 ELC control

1-2

Turbine

Reverse pump

Available pump referring to bep (best efficiency point of induction motor) IGC control

2-1

Generator

Synchronous

With ELC

AVR is furnished on generator itself With IGC

2-2

Generator

Induction motor

2.2 Inlet valve Butterfly valve is recommended to be installed just in front of turbine for safety operation and maintenance. The diameter shall be not less than diameter of penstock to save head loss. 2.3 Power transmitter facility ( Speed increaser) In case the rotation speed of turbine and generator are not matched, a power transmitter of belt type shall be provided .

- 6-50 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

2.4 Governor with Dummy Load (Ballast) For micro hydro power plant, dummy load (ballast) type governor shall be selected as load controller, ELC (for synchronous generator) or IGC (Induction generator) because of easy maintenance due to electronic type and low cost. In case of air cooling type dummy load, well ventilated system shall be considered for design of powerhouse. 2.5 Panel for Control, Instrumentation and Protection Panel for controller (governor), instrumentation, protection and low tension (LT) switchgears shal be provided for easy operation, monitoring and maintenance. 2.6 380/220V Distribution Line In case the calculated voltage drop at farthest consumer area by 380/220V line is within 5 %, the outgoing circuit shall be connected to the LT distribution line. 2.7 20kV Distribution Line In case the calculated voltage drop at farthest consumer area by 380/220V line is over 5 %, the outgoing circuit is to be stepped up to 20kV by transformer(s) and connected to 20kV distribution line through 20kV switchgear. In this case step down transformer is also required near consumer area. 3. 1) Brief Design Procedure The approach of brief design shall be made as follows; At first, the suitable location for power plant shall be selected in that area referring the required power consumption (for example; Total kW =(150W x Number of house holder + Public use)/1000). 2) 3) 4) According to the survey results of suitable sites, the available data of gross head(m), net head(m), water flow(l/s) through years and proposed output shall be fixed as civil data. According to the above data in 2), the suitable turbine and generator shall be selected referring to the above table The necessity of power transmitter shall be checked if the rotation speed of both the turbine and generator are not same. Usually the belt (V-belt or flat belt) type with proper diameter pulleys on both turbine and generator is applied for micro hydro power plant 5) The capacity of dummy load (ballast) controlled by ELC or IGC shall be calculated by following formula. For 3-phase network: Dummy load (kW) = Generator output (kW) x safety factor (1.2 ~ 1.4) For single phase network: D. load (kW) = Generator output (kW) x safety factor (1.2 ~ 1.4) Note: Safety factor is 1.2 for well-ventilated room for air cooling. If not, SF should be increased to 1.3 or 1.4 according to the cooling condition. - 6-51 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

6)

The controller of synchronous generator with turbine should be ELC and that for induction generator should be IGC, which are so far well designed panel including speed control, instrumentation and protection system as minimum requirement for micro hydro power plant (MHPP). Therefore, the panel with ELC (for synchronous generator) or IGC (Induction generator) can be applied without any additional facility for L/T (low tension: 380/220V) power supply system.

7) 8)

For distribution line, at first the voltage drop at farthest house-holder area by L/T line shall be calculated referring Manual. The L/T line can be applied if the voltage drop is within 5 %. If the voltage drop by L/T line becomes more than 5 %, 20kV distribution line shall be applied for the power supply with step-up and step-down transformers and some protection facilities of 20kV lines, such as fuses, fuse switches, lightning arresters etc. Some switchgears may be required for large capacity and long line..

9)

For distribution line, it is recommended to furnish a weather proof box with single phase MCB per each 5 6 house-holders on line pole for easy future maintenance.

10) For each house, 3 nos. of lamps and 1 no. of outlet respectively with switch shall be wired with insulated cables as in-house wiring. 4. Recommendation of Main Equipment The brief design of MHPP is shown and explained in the above chapter for the Clients (Purchasers or Employers) basic design purpose. It is, however, recommended to take the following careful attention before purchasing the power plant. 1) Water turbine Cross Flow turbine shall have enough design data certified by complete model test results, which shall be attached for evidence to show that the design of turbine is guaranteed for its performance. The Cross Flow turbine without such evidence should not be accepted. Reverse pump turbine (PAT) shall be selected the set of pump with induction motor for nearly same head and discharge. Otherwise, it is difficult to choose the combination of pump and generator (induction motor) due to somewhat complication of best efficiency point. The reverse pump turbine is not recommended for the one with variable head and especially discharge. 2) Generator Synchronous generator shall be selected the one of blush-less type, star winding with AVR in its housing for high quality and stable electricity and easy maintenance in future. Induction generator shall be selected from the set of the induction motor of delta winding as set of pump with nearly same head and discharge.

- 6-52 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 6 (ANNEX)

3)

Detailed Design It is strongly recommended to mention the following sentence clearly in Tender document and/or Contract document for Clients clarification, safety operation and future maintenance. The Contractor shall conduct all of the detailed design, which include all necessary analyses with preparation of construction drawings, installation drawings, and others deemed to be required. The Contractor shall fully be responsible and accountable for the detailed design in its quality, reliability and safety. Whenever the Client so desires, the Contractor shall be provided enough explanation to his detailed design.

- 6-53 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

Chapter 7

DESIGN FOR DISTRIBUTION FACILITIES

7.1 Concept of Electricity

Electric is similar to Water.


Hydropower potential is proportional to the product of Height (m) of falling water and the Volume of flowing water (m3/s).

H (m)

Q (m3/s)

P (W) = 9.8* Q(m3/s) * H (m)

Turbine

Similary, Electric power potential is proportional to Voltage (V) and Ampere.


I (A)

E (V)

P (W) = E (V) * I (A)

- 7-1 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

Thicker is easier to flow.


Pipe
Q (m3/s)

< <

Q (m3/s)

Thicker is easier to flow, because thicker is less resistance. Conductor


I (A)

I (A)

Note: When designing a distribution line in detail, it is recommended to consult licensed Electrical Engineer.

- 7-2 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.2 Selection of Distribution Line Route Locations of supporting structures should be selected at places where: (a) Easy to access and maintenance (b) Soil condition is firm and stable (c) No problem in land acquisition (d) No adverse effect on buildings, trees, etc (e) Distribution route should be shortest (f) If poles are set around steep slope or at the bottom of a cliff, take into account the following, as illustrated: Because landslide may take place, consider the safer route. Avoid standing a pole at the bottom of the cliff.

(f) A height of conductor from ground should be more than 4 m.

Low voltage: more than 4 m 20kW: more than 6.5 m

- 7-3 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

Allowable height

Low voltage: more than 4 m 20kW: more than 6.5 m

Low voltage: more than 4 m 20kW: more than 6.5 m

- 7-4 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.3 Distribution Facilities Supporting structures are included such as follows: (a) Pole (d) Protection (b) Guy wire (e) Distribution transformer (c) Conductors and cables (f) House connection

- 7-5 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.4 Pole Standard poles for overhead lines are classified as shown in Table 7.4.1: Priority of use shall be on locally manufactured concrete poles. For concrete poles, manufacture of longer and stronger poles will be preferred to widen scope of use. To improve workability in construction and maintenance, the pole design to enable fixing of step bolts. Table 7.4.1 Application of Supporting Structures
Supporting structures Concrete poles Wooden poles (including Bamboo poles) Steel poles Application Generally applied Applied to areas where access of heavy machines is difficult Applied to areas where access of heavy machines is difficult (standard is attached to Ref. 7-1)

Concrete pole 7.4.1 Span Length of Poles

Wooden pole

Steel pole

The length of the span between distribution line supports is to be determined taking into account the following: Recommended Span is 50 m; Maximum 80 m, for areas outside settlements, areas for rice fields, and open spaces; Maximum 50 m, for areas within the population settlement.

- 7-6 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.4.2 Allowable Minimum Clearance of Conductors and Environment The minimum clearances of conductors above ground will be designed with the following criteria:
Conductor height above ground Road crossing Along road Other places 20 kV 6.5 m 6.0 m 6.0 m Low Voltage 4.0 m 4.0 m 4.0 m

Vertical clearance between 20 kV bare conductor and LV insulated conductor Clearance between phases of 20 kV bare conductors Vertical clearance between 20kV bare conductors Clearance between LV insulated conductors

0.8 m 0.8 m 1.0 m 0.2 m

7.4.3 Height of Poles The height of pole is to be determined taking into account the following factors: (a) Necessary height of the feeder conductors above the ground can be secured under the largest sag. (b) Necessary clearance between the feeder conductors and buildings, other electrical wires or trees can be secured (clearance under maximum sag should be examined). The recommended height of the supporting structures is as follows: Table 7.4.2 Recommended height of Supporting Structures
Voltage 20 kV Low Voltage Recommended Support Length 9m 7m

(a) The recommended minimum pole setting depth is one sixth of pole length. For example: Pole setting depth = Pole length 9m1/6 = 1.5 m (b) If soil condition is not stable, the root of pole should be reinforced firmly. Refer to following pictures:

- 7-7 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.4.4 Size of Poles Size of pole is to be determined taking into account the moment on pole by wind load. The following table shows the relation between size and height of poles each cable size D0 in case of square shape. Concrete: 210 kgf/cm2 Reinforcement: SR235, allowable stress is 1400 kgf/cm2, 19 mm2 D0 = size of square on side of pole reinforcement Pole span: 50 m
cable size:70mm2 length height maximum of pole of pole moment
pole maximum by moment cable
2 by moment (cm) 19mm pcs

sum

of D0

reinforcement

d (cm)

7m 9m

5.8 m 7.5 m

204 388

898 1155

1103 1543

20 23

8 8

4 for LV 4 for 20kV

cable size:35mm2 length height maximum of pole of pole moment


pole

maximum by moment cable

sum of D0 by moment 583 750 767 1088 18 20

reinforcement 19mm2pcs

d (cm)

7m 9m

5.8 m 7.5 m

184 338

8 8

4 for LV 4 for 20kV

cable size: 16mm2 length height maximum of pole of pole moment


pole

maximum by moment cable

sum

of D0

by moment

reinforcement 19mm2pcs

d (cm)

7m 9m

5.8 m 7.5 m

174 338

519 668

693 1005

17 20

8 8

4 for LV 4 for 20kV

- 7-8 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.5 Guy wire Guy wire should be installed to balance the pole. Kinds of load to supporting structures are (a) vertical load, (b) longitudinal load, and (c) lateral load. (a) Vertical load Pole weight, cable weight, vertical load of wire tension load, etc. (b) Longitudinal load Wind pressure to pole, imbalanced load from difference of span length
(c) Lateral load Wind pressure to cable, component of lateral load of wire tension, etc.
wind pressure

(b) (c)

(a)

The place where guy wire should be constructed is as follows: -End of distribution line

-Distribution lines bend like an elbow-shaped. It is possible to omit guy wire if the angle is less than 5 degrees.
Tension

-To reinforce straight distribution line against wind pressure


wind pressure

- 7-9 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

- In undulated area, guy wire shall be installed, if necessary.

Use of stay wire for 20 kV pole 9 m 200 daN (Underbuild) (Guy wire angle with surface = 60 degree)
Conductor size AAAC 25 m m2 AAAC 35 m m2 AAAC 50 m m2 AAAC 70 mm2 10 < < 45 Type I Type I Type I Type I Bend Angle 45 < < 75 Type I Type I Type II Type II 75 < < 90 Type I Type II Type II Type II

Use of stay wire for 20 kV pole 9 m 200 daN (Semi-Underbuild) (Guy wire angle with surface = 60 degree)
Conductor size AAAC 25 mm2 AAAC 35 mm2 AAAC 50 mm2 AAAC 70 mm2 5 < < 10 Type I Type I Type I Type I 10 < < 30 Type I Type II Type II Type II Bend Angle 30 < < 60 Type II Type II Type II Type III 60 < < 75 Type II Type II Type III Type III 75 < < 90 Type II Type III Type III Type III

Use of stay wire for 20 kV pole 7 m 100 daN (Guy wire angle with surface = 60 degree)
5 < < 10 2 x 25 + 1 x 25 mm2 3 x 25 + 1 x 25 mm2 2 x 35 + 1 x 25 mm2 3 x 35 + 1 x 25 mm2 2 x 50 + 1 x 35 mm2 Type I 3 x 50 + 1 x 35 mm2 Type I 2 x 70 + 1 x 50 mm2 Type I 3 x 70 + 1 x 50 mm2 Type I Type I : Guy wire diameter = 5 mm Type II : Guy wire diameter = 9 mm Conductor size Bend Angle 10 < < 60 Type I Type I Type I Type I Type I Type I Type I Type I 60 < < 90 Type I Type I Type I Type I Type I Type I Type II Type II

Type III : Guy wire diameter = 2 x 9 mm

- 7-10 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

H = Depth of buried part of stay rod h = Length of remaining stay rod above stay rod = Angle between stay and surface (horizontal)

D H L

Use of stay rod, stay block and depth of burial for each stay - classification Stay rod material: U24 24daN/mm2
Classification of stay L (Light) M (Medium) L Length of rod (m) 2.1 2.5 D Diameter (mm) 12 22 =60 H (cm) 155 190 h (cm) 30 Stay block 55x55x15 100x100x15

Guy wire classification


Material: Steel wire, 7-wire; twisted to the right Classification of stay L (Light) 2 Section (mm ) 20 guy wire diameter (mm) 5 Ultimate load (daN) 1700 M (medium) 64 9 6000

- 7-11 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.6 Conductors and Cables 7.6.1 Advantages/Disadvantages of Conductors and Cables The feature of conductor and cable is shown at following table
Advantages - cheap conductors - easy to connect each conductor - safety cables - able to lay underground Disadvantages - not safety - expensive - difficult to connect each cable

7.6.2 Sizes of Conductors Sized of conductors should be selected taking into account amount of present load, forecasted load, short-circuit current, current capacity of conductors, voltage drop, power loss, mechanical strength, etc. Too many sizes shall not be used for branch feeders. 7.6.3 Allowable Sag of Conductors Conductors sag is to be determined taking into account the allowable conductor tension, strength of the supporting structures, wind load on conductors, etc. Conductors sag is needed to be keep the height above ground as following table:
Conductor height above ground Road crossing Along road Other places 20 kV 6.5 m 6.0 m 6.0 m Low Voltage 4.0 m 4.0 m 4.0 m

7.6.4 Allowable Load per Phase 3-phase distribution lines are needed to keep the load balanced. If the unbalance load become more 20%, instruments receive a bad influence. 7.6.5 Application of 3-Phase Line To avoid above things, it is desirable that 3-phases distribution line is expanded to villages of demand. If it is not possible to do because of the cost, we need to give attention to keep the balanced load.

- 7-12 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.7 Distribution Transformers In case 20kV distribution line is required instead of 380/220V line due to long distance from power station to consumers with the reason of sending capacity, voltage drop etc., some step-up and step-down transformers shall be installed. The connection of both step-up and step-down is completely similar. Step-up transformer is installed at power station side for step-up from 380/220V to 20/11.5kV and step-down transformer is installed at consumers area for step-down and vice versa. 7.7.1 Types of Distribution Transformer Distribution transformers are classified into the type of insulation, as follows: Oil immersed transformer: Windings are immersed in insulation oil in tank and cheaper. Dry type transformer: Windings insulated with heat-resisting epoxy (H-class) without tank but expensive. Distribution transformers are classified into two kinds by winding method as follows Three-phase transformer: - connection Suitable for grounding of neutral point - connection -connection Note: ; Delta connection ; Star connection Single phase transformer: Usually used for voltage step-down from 20/11.5kV to 220V near consumers area. Single phase transformer can be also used both star and delta connection by outside connection with combination of 3 nos. transformers

- 7-13 -

Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.7.2 Necessity of Transformers 1) At first, measure the distance from powerhouse to each center of community.
a

distance a (km) distance b (km) distance c (km) distance x (km)

A village X

x b

B village

c (km)

PH

C village

2) Calculate load current I of each distribution line (A)


IXA

Pa 10 3 3 VLV

, IXB

Pb 10 3 3 VLV

IPX = IXA+ IXB ,

IPC

Pc 10 3 3 VLV

Here in, Pa [kVA]: load from X to A (power of each householdnumber of household) VLV [V]: Low Voltage 3) Calculate voltage drop of each cable VXA [V] = IXA0.443a VXB [V] = IXB0.443b VPC [V] = IPC0.443c VPX [V] = IPX0.443x Resistance of 70 mm2 conductor = 0.443 [/km] 4) Calculate total voltage drop Power house to A village: VXA + VPX = VA If VA < (VLV percentage of voltage drop), it is not necessary transformer. Power house to B village: VXB + VPX = VB, If VB < (VLV percentage of voltage drop), it is not necessary transformer. Power house to C village: VPC, If VPC < (VLV percentage of voltage drop), it is not necessary transformer.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.7.3 Application of Distribution Transformers

Step-up and step-down distribution transformers shall be of three-phase construction, and their standard capacities are as follows: 5 kVA, 10 kVA, 16 kVA, 25 kVA, and 50 kVA
7.7.4 Selection of Unit Capacity

Capacity of transformer should be decided 125 % (= 100 % / 80 %) of the capacity of generator, If the power factor is 80 %. The maximum loading is 100%, and over loading shall not be allowed so as to impair life of transformers. The transformers tend to be used long time till their breakdown without regular maintenance. Following table shows the relation between capacity of transformer and generator. Table 7.7.1 Relation between capacity of transformer and generator
Capacity of 5 kVA Transformer Capacity of -4 kW generator 10 kVA 4 kW 8 kW 16 kVA 8 kW 12.8 kW 25kVA 12.8kW 20 kW 50kVA 20kW - 40 kW

Before deciding the unit capacity of new transformers, the supply area of new transformers is to be determined taking into account the followings: (a) Supply area of new transformers shall not overlap with that of other transformers supplied from other feeders. (b) Supply area of each transformer must be independent. (c) Voltage drop restriction should be satisfied at any part of the supply area. The capacity of new transformers should be determined taking into account the expected demand growth of the area, however the smallest capacity that satisfies present demand in the area is generally applied.
7.7.5 Location

Step-up transformers shall be located near the powerhouse. Step-down transformers shall be located in or close to the load center of the area. In deciding the final location to install transformer, the following conditions should also be examined: (a) Easy to access and replacement works. (b) To be separated from other buildings or trees with enough clearance. (c) For pole mounted type, pole assembly shall not be complicate. (d) Ground mounted type structures shall be constructed so as to avoid troubles with public.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

7.8 House Connection (HC) 7.8.1 Application of House Connection

For HC, copper core or aluminum core twisted cable will be used. The sizes of the copper core are: 4 mm2; 6 mm2; 10 mm2; 16 mm2; 25 mm2 The sizes of the aluminum core are: 10 mm2; 16 mm2; 25 mm2; 35 mm2 It is preferred not to use a roof pole with the customers entrance line placed as such that it can be seen from the outside. The use of a roof pole is only to serve the connection from house to house or a house that is not situated on the same side of the street with the LVL, so that a roof pole is needed. The minimum clearance is 3 m for compounds, 4 m for public road, if the height of the house is less than 3 m, a roof pole will be used as such that requirement for clearance is met. However, if by using a roof pole it appears that the minimum clearance is not met, a supporting pole should be used for such house connection. The wires of the smallest sectional area shall be used from the following considerations: (a) Capacity of the wire is sufficient to carry peak load current (b) Voltage drop criterion is satisfied.
The Maximum voltage drop calculated for HC is as follows: - For HC tapped from LV, the maximum voltage drop for HC is 2 %. - For HC tapped directly from the transformer, the maximum voltage drop for HC is 12 %.

The house connection span is as following table.


Section (mm2) 10 16 25 From roof pole to roof pole A (m) T (daN) S (m) 40 38 0.78 35 42 0.84 35 63 0.84 From LVL pole to roof pole crossing the village road a (m) T (daN) S (m) 58 38 1.66 47 42 1.49 47 63 1.49 From LVL pole directly to house crossing the village road a (m) T (daN) S (m) 49 38 1.18 40 42 1.11 40 63 1.11

in which : a = span length (m) S = sag (m) T = pull/tension (daN) Assumption: Wind intensity = 40 daN/m2 Strength of roof pole: 76 daN Factor of cable shape with regard to wind = 0.6

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7

Width of village road = 6 m with pavement on the right and left = 1 m Clearance over the road = 4 m Refer to Ref. 7-2 about construction of house connection crossing village road.

7.8.2 In-house Wiring

The typical wiring in house is shown in Figure 7.8.1. The expected power consumption in each household is 150-200W composed of following facilities: Single phase MCB (Molded Circuit Breaker) for protection of short circuit and earth fault. 2) 2pcs. of ceiling lamp with on-off switch 3) 1 pc. of entrance lamp with on-off switch 4) 1 pc. of outlet for general use of electrical facilities
MCB R,S,T N

1)

Lamp

Lamp

Lamp

Double Switch

Angle Switch

Electric Socket

Figure 7.8.1 Typical In-house Wiring Diagram

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7 (Reference)

[Ref. 7-1 Standard of Steel Poles]


Work Load (daN)
Diameter of sections (mm) A B C Pipe thickness (mm) A B C Diffraction at work load (mm) Cartridge thickness (mm) Cartridge length (mm) pole 100 89.1 114.3 139.8 3.2 3.5 4.5 96 5 600

1,500

E : Welded part F : Sock-pen 1,500 B E G : Holding plate

100 300 C

4,000

1,160

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7 (Reference)

[Ref. 7-2 Construction of house connection crossing village road]

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 7 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

Chapter 8

PROJECT COST ESTIMATION

8.1 Rough Cost Estimation During Planning Stage When you are going to make a trial calculation of construction cost in Planning Stage, it can be calculated by the method shown in Table 8.1.2. However, before calculating, it is necessary to carry out a field survey for confirmation and decide the item mentioned to Table 8.1.1.
Table8.1.1 Items to make a trial calculate of construction cost Description Item Plan Maximum Out Put (kW) Turbine Discharge (m3/s) Effective Head (m) Intake Facilities Height of Dam (m) Length of Dam (m) Headrace Length of Headrace (m) Penstock Diameter of Penstock (m) Distribution Number of Households (kk) Distance to the most far house from P.S

In addition, indirect costs, such as Tax, Contractor Fee, Design Cost, and Supervisor, are contained in the cost of construction calculated by Fig 8.1.2. When part of these indirect costs can be omitted explanation is required separately.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

Table 8.1.2 Rough Calculation of Construction Cost During Planning Stage

No. Description Formulae (1) PREPARATORY WORKS {2 + 3 + 4 + 5 }*0.1 (2) CIVIL WORKS 1 Intake Facilities 1 to 7 Gabion Dam 1,400 x H x L Stone masonry dam 5,350 x (HxL)+5,800 Concrete Dam 11,300 x H x L Long or Mid-Penstock 414,500 x Q 0.504 Short Penstock 372,600 x Q 0.794 2,950 x Q 0.18 x L 327,200 x Q 0.5 Civil Works 5,300 x 0.571 x L Penstock 100 x Unit wt. x L 33,600 x P 0.456

Remarks Transportation, Clearing, Temporary Works H: Height of Dam(m) L: Length of Dam(m) H: Height of Dam(m) L: Length of Dam(m) H: Height of Dam(m) L: Length of Dam(m) Q: Turbine Discharge (m3/sec) (see system layout) Q: Turbine Discharge (m3/sec) (see system layout) Q: Turbine Discharge (m3/sec) L: Length of headrace (m) Q: Turbine Discharge (m3/sec) : Diameter of Penstock (m) L: Length of Penstock (m) L: Length of Penstock (m) P: Maximum Output (kW) (include tailrace) P: Maximum Output (kW) Cross Flow Turbine T-13 P: Maximum Output (kW) He: Effective Head(m) X: No. of HH x Distance2 X: No. of Household

Settling Basin

3 4 5

Headrace Head Tank Penstock

(3)

Power house Foundation 7 Power house 16,900 x P + 139,900 Building ELECTROMECHANICAL 520,500 x (P/He)0.56 WORKS 95 x X 0.5541 2,900 X + 219,300 {(2)+(3)+(4)+(5)}*0.05 (1)+(2)+(3)+(4)+(5)+(6)

(4) DISTRIBUTION WORKS (5) HH CONNECTION (6) OTHERS TOTAL

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

8.2 Cost Estimation During Detail Design Stage Construction cost consists of items as shown in Table 8.2.1. 8.2.1 Items Typical items of a direct cost are the following. (1) Preparatory Works Preparatory Works consist of item as follows. - Location Setting Out - Filling and Measurement - Equipment & Materials Mobilization (2) Civil Works Civil Works consist of item as follows. - Intake facilities - Settling basin - Headrace - Head tank - Spillway - Penstock and Foundation - Powerhouse base - Tailrace - Power house building - Finishing (3) Electro-Mechanical Works Electro-Mechanical Works consist of item as follows. Turbine Controller Dummy load Generator Accessories, Spare parts and Tools Set up and Installation

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

Transportation and Packing Testing Pre commissioning Trial Run

(4) Distribution Works Distribution Works consist of item as follows. - Transmission pole - Cable - Transformer - Accessories (5) Consumer Connection - Cable - Switch - Accessories
Table 8.2.1 No. Item Direct cost of construction 1 PREPARATORY WORKS 2 CIVIL WORKS 3 ELECTRO-MECHANICAL WORKS 4 DISTRIBUTION WORKS 5 CONSUMER CONNECTION SUB TOTAL(A) Indirect cost 1 DESIGN FEE 2 SUPERVISOR FEE 3 MANAGEMENT FEE 4 TAX SUB TOTAL(B) TOTAL Construction Cost Cost Addition item Addition item Addition item Addition item Addition item

510% of SUB TOTAL(A) 510% of SUB TOTAL(A) 510% of SUB TOTAL(A) 12.5% of SUB TOTAL(A)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

8.2.2 Quantity In order to calculate the direct cost of construction, it is necessary to calculate the quantity for every work or material based on the design. For example, in case of Headrace made of stone masonry, quantities of excavation, foundation rubble stone, stone masonry, backfill, and plastering, as illustrated in Figure 8.2.1 below, shall be estimated.

Foundation Rubble Stone Excavation

Plaster

Backfill

Stone Masonry

Fig 8.2.1

The example of works that should be estimatedHeadrace

Naturally, these items change according to the type and the quality of structure. For example, in Intake, the items that should be calculated is in accordance with the type of Dam as shown in Table 8.2.2. And in Headrace, the item which should calculate will be changed according to the quality of the material of Headrace like Table 8.2.3.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

Gabion Dam Excavation (m3) Backfill (m3) Gabion (m3)

Table 8.2.2 Quantity of Dam Masonry Dam Excavation (m3) Backfill (m3) Foundation Rubble Stone (m3) Stone Masonry (m3) Plaster (m2) Stoplog (m2) Gabion (m3)

Concrete Dam Excavation (m3) Backfill (m3) Sand filling (m3) Concrete (m3) Plaster (m2) Stoplog (m2) Gabion (m3)

Simple earth channel Excavation (m3)

Table 8.2.3 Quantity of Headrace Masonry channel Excavation (m3) Backfill (m3) Foundation Rubble Stone (m3) Stone Masonry (m3) Plaster (m2)

Concrete channel Excavation (m3) Backfill (m3) Sand filling (m3) Concrete (m3) Plaster (m2)

8.2.3 Unit Cost Table 8.2.4 is the standard unit cost per work item of civil work of a project in certain area. Since unit cost differs according to various regions in which the project is located, it is advisable to leave the unit cost per work item blank to be filled up with the prevailing costs in the area.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

Table 8.2.4 Unit Cost per work item


(1) Excavation
Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Foreman Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m3 Unit Coefficient man-day 0.625 man-day 0.062 ls 1.000 Price 0 0 1 m3

Unit Cost Remark 0 119 4 123 12 10% of Labor Cost 8 143 143

(2) Foundation Rubble Stone (T=20cm)


Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Skilled Labor Foreman Sand Stone Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m2 Unit Coefficient 1.125 man-day man-day 0.563 0.056 man-day m3 0.400 m3 1.200 ls 1.000 Price 0 0 0 100 100 5.000 m2 Unit Cost Remark 0 0 0 40 120 5 165 0 10% of Labor Cost 4 169 34 Total/5m3

(3) Stone Masonry 1:2 (Intake Weir)


Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Skilled Labor Mason Foreman Rubbles Sand and Gravel (mix) Portland Cement Hauling Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m3 Unit Coefficient 2.250 man-day man-day 1.125 man-day 0.113 0.017 man-day m3 1.000 m3 0.380 bags 3.520 ls ls 1.000 Price 0 0 0 0 100 100 200 1 m3 Unit Cost Remark 0 0 0 0 100 38 704 84 10% of Material Cost 28 954 0 10% of Labor Cost 34 988 988

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

(4) Stone Masonry 1:3


Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Skilled Labor Mason Foreman Rubbles Sand and Gravel (mix) Portland Cement Hauling Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m3 Unit Coefficient man-day 2.250 man-day 1.125 man-day 0.113 0.017 man-day m3 1.000 m3 0.400 bags 2.840 ls ls 1.000 Price 0 0 0 0 100 100 200 1 m3 Unit Cost Remark 0 0 0 0 100 40 568 71 10% of Material Cost 23 802 0 10% of Labor Cost 16 818 818

(5) Stone Masonry 1:4


Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Skilled Labor Mason Foreman Rubbles (Excavated) Sand and Gravel (mix) Portland Cement Hauling Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m3 Unit Coefficient 2.250 man-day man-day 1.125 0.113 man-day 0.017 man-day m3 1.200 m3 0.400 bags 2.500 ls ls 1.000 Price 0 0 0 0 100 100 200 1 m3 Unit Cost Remark 0 0 0 0 120 40 500 66 10% of Material Cost 22 748 0 10% of Labor Cost 20 768 768

(6) Plastering (t=3cm)


Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Skilled Labor Foreman Sand Portland Cement Hauling Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m2 Unit Coefficient 0.286 man-day man-day 0.214 0.020 man-day m3 0.019 bags 0.237 ls ls 1.000 Price 0 0 0 100 200 1 m2 Unit Cost Remark 0 0 0 2 47 5 10% of Material Cost 2 56 0 10% of Labor Cost 13 69 69

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

(7) Gabion
Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Skilled Labor Foreman Rubbles Wire Cage Hauling Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m3 Unit Coefficient man-day 0.450 man-day 0.200 man-day 0.020 m3 1.200 kg 3.500 ls ls 1.000 Price 0 0 0 100 200 1 m3 Unit Cost Remark 0 0 0 120 700 82 10% of Material Cost 27 929 0 10% of Labor Cost 18 947 947

(8) Concrete
Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Skilled Labor Foreman Portland Cement Sand Gravel Hauling Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m3 Unit Coefficient man-day 25.000 man-day 2.500 man-day 1.110 bags 75.000 m3 4.900 m3 8.100 ls ls 1.000 Price 0 0 0 200 100 100 10 m3 Unit Cost Remark 0 0 0 15,000 490 810 1,630 10% of Material Cost 538 18,468 0 10% of Labor Cost 83 18,551 1,855

(9) Reinforce Bar


Unit Work Item Labor Steel man Foreman Steel man Steel Bar Tie Wire Hauling Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/kg Unit Coefficient man-day 12.000 man-day 1.200 kg 1000.000 kg 20.000 ls ls 1.000 Price 0 0 47 60 1,000 kg Unit Cost Remark 0 0 47,000 1,200 4,820 10% of Material Cost 1,591 54,611 0 10% of Labor Cost 847 55,458 55

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8

(10) Form work


Unit Work Item Unit Coefficient Carpenter man-day 25.000 Carpenter Foreman man-day 2.500 34.722 Form Plywood(1/4"*4'*8'=0.6*1200*2400=2.88m2)clas pcs Form Lumbers(1"*2"*6') bd ft 196.000 CWNails kgs 20.000 Hauling ls 1.000 Tools ls Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m2 Price 0 0 113 12 60 100 Unit Cost 0 0 3,935 2,287 200 642 212 7,276 0 79 7,355 74 m2 Remark 3 time use 3 time use 10% of Material Cost 10% of Labor Cost

(11) Stoplogs
Unit Work Item Unit Coefficient man-day 1.000 Carpenter Form Plywood(1/4"*4'*8'=0.6*1200*2400=2.88m2)Nar pcs 1.042 Tools ls Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m2 Price 0 540 3.00 m2 Unit Cost Remark 0 563 17 579 70 10% of Labor Cost 26 675 225

(12) Installation of Penscock Pipe


Unit Work Item Unskilled Labor Foreman Welder Welding machine & Generator Tools Sub Total Tax for Labor Others Total Unit Cost/m2 Unit Coefficient man-day 4.000 man-day 1.000 1.000 man-day day 1.000 ls 1.000 Price 0 0 0 1500 1.00 unit Unit Cost Remark 0 0 0 1,500 45 1,545 0 10% of Labor Cost 90 1,635 1,635

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8 (Reference)

[Ref. 8-1 Cross-sectional method to calculate quantity] It is convenient if you use Cross-sectional method when calculating complicated quantity such a Headrace. When you want to calculate the quantity of excavation of Headrace as shown in the following figure, first, you draw a sectional view for every changing point of cross-sectional form, and the excavation area for every section is calculated using planimeter etc.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8 (Reference)

Next, you can make the next table from the relation between the area of each section, and distance.

Section name Excavation Area Average Area

Distance

Volume

A-A B-B C-C D-D E-E Total 1.31 m2 1.38m2 1.37m2 1.12m2 1.06m2

1.345m2 1.375m2 1.245m2 1.090m2

2.00m 3.00m 3.00m 2.00m

2.690m3 4.125m3 3.735m3 2.180m3 12.73m


3

This cross-sectional method is applicable not only excavation area but also in the calculation of quantity of Backfill or Masonry.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8 (Reference)

[Ref. 8-2 Example of Bill of Quantities]

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 8 (Reference)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 9

CHAPTER 9

CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

9.1 Construction Management for Civil Facilities 9.1.1 Purpose Construction management is performed by the contractor to satisfy the standards and to complete the construction works economically and safely within the construction period. For assuring the quality and functions and for controlling the progress of work, the contractor makes a construction plan, checks in the middle of work whether the work is being carried out as scheduled, makes corrections if the work is delayed, examines whether the predetermined quality and shape are being made and shows the results on graphs and tables, corrects the items not meeting standards or the like, and records the progress, quality and shape of the work in comparison to the specifications and drawings. Construction management includes progress control, dimension control and quality control. 9.1.2 Progress Control Progress control is the management of construction process for assuring the execution of work efficiently and economically within construction period by effectively utilizing the machines, labour and materials while maintaining sufficient quality and accuracy instead of merely controlling a series of processes for observing the completion date. In particular, in countries where a rainy season and a dry season can be clearly recognized, the construction works are concentrated in dry season and this will impose extra restrictions on time, and thus progress control must be given paramount importance. This is important because it is unavoidable to rely mainly upon manpower in civil works. On the other hand, hydropower station construction contains works for generator installation and electric facility construction in addition to civil works, and so close coordination between the works is required. When using funds from international financial institutions for importing construction equipment and materials, various procedures are necessary to obtain approvals from relevant agencies for the import plan, to prepare documents necessary for international bidding, to make documents for bidding and contracting by export/import agents and to obtain approvals for export from the government of the country exporting the goods. When preparing a time schedule for construction, it should be noted that a considerable
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 9

period of time is necessary from the start of taking the above procedures to the actual delivery of goods to the site. (1) Procedure of progress control Progress control is made for each of the planning, implementation, reviewing and handling steps. Progress should be controlled to execute the works as close as possible to the schedule by carrying out the work in accordance with the construction schedule, and periodically recording the actual progress on schedule sheets every day, every week or every month and constantly checking the progress by comparing the planned and actual progress. If any large deviation is detected between the two, there may be a problem in the plan or implementation system. Thus, the plan should be reexamined and correcting measures taken. Then, implementation, reviewing and handling steps should be taken on the basis of the revised construction schedule. (2) Construction schedule chart Various time schedules should be graphically prepared for progress control and then used as standard for implementation, review and handling. The following forms are normally used for the control chart. (a) Horizontal line type schedule charts (Gantt chart, bar chart) (b) Curve type schedule charts (graph type) (c) Network type schedule charts (PERT, CPM) Bar charts are normally used as schedule charts but the use of network type schedule charts is more advantageous in power station projects where various types of works overlap. For knowing the shape (dimensions, quantity, reference height, etc.) of an object created by the works, the shape is directly measured 9.1.3 Dimension Control It is necessary to ensure that the civil works have been built in conformity with the contract requirements set forth and intended by the owner. If any items not meeting the requirements are found, the causes should be pursued and corrective measures taken. Dimension control can be roughly divided into direct-measurement and photo-graphic records. (1) Direct measurement For knowing the shape (dimensions, quantity, reference height, etc.) of an object created by the works, the shape is directly measured in accordance with the sequence of construction works and the measured values are then compared to design values. The
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 9

results are recorded, the accuracy of construction cheeked against standards, and the degree of construction technology controlled. (2) Photographic records Photographic records are made as supplementary data for later confirmation of the progress of the works including conditions before and after the works, the portions that may not be seen upon completion of the structure, and the results of direct measurement. 9.1.4 Quality control Quality control is used to maintain the standards of quantity set forth in the design and specifications. (1) Procedure of quality control For performing quality control, standardization must first of all be made. Standards or criteria should be established for all the phases ranging from material purchasing to work execution, and the works should be controlled in accordance with it. (a) Standards for materials Quality standards for materials to be used should be clarified and quantitatively defined. (b) Quality standards Control characteristics for the required quality should be clarified and quantitatively defined. (c) Work standards Facility handling standards, inspection standards and standards for working methods should be determined. (d) Test and inspection methods Standards for tests and inspections should be established. As stated above, it is necessary to establish material standards, use the materials of predetermined quality and perform the work, inspection and test in accordance with the predetermined methods satisfying quality standards. (2) Quality characteristics Examples of quality characteristics and test items for the required quality control are shown in Table 9-1

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 9

Kind Concrete

Earth

Asphalt

Table 9.1.1 Examples of quality characteristics Quality characteristics Tests Slump Slump test Air Content Air content test Compressive strength Compression test Bending strength Bending test Grain size Grain size analysis Degree of compactness Dry density test Penetration index Various penetration tests In-situ CBR value In-situ CBR test Density and voids Marshall test Temperature at delivery to site Temperature test at delivery to site Flatness of pavement surface Flatness test

(3) Control method Typical quality control methods are as explained below. (a) Histogram For finding the distributing conditions of certain characteristic values of products, the measured values of required samples should be obtained and bar graphs prepared. Histograms are convenient for judging whether the quality characteristics satisfy the standards, whether the product distribution has certain allowance from the standards, and whether the distribution of the overall quality is appropriate. (b) Control chart Control charts have a wide application range, are useful among quality control methods and are therefore the most frequently utilized. Control charts show pairs of control limits and, if any plotted points are located outside the limit, this means that there is a critical quality fluctuation. Control charts are classified as shown below depending on whether the items being considered are continuous data such as length, strength and weight or discrete values such as fraction defective ratio, number of defective portions and number of defects. Control charts _ ~ for continuous data ......... X control chart, X control chart, X control chart, R control chart, process capability chart. Control charts for discrete values ......... P control chart, Pn control chart, C control chart, U control chart

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 9

9.2 Construction Management for Turbine, Generator and their Associated Equipment 9.2.1 Installation (1) Heavy machinery Heavy machinery (suited to the weights to be lifted) of the required number for transporting materials, parts and equipment on the site should be secured for the required period of time. The heavy machinery should include machines for loading, unloading, hauling and handling loads inside power station. (2) Manpower of direct labourers and technicians The number of direct labourers and technicians required varies depending on the types, capacities, sizes and installation method of turbine and generator, equipment configuration, delivery route, heavy machinery available, working environment and experience of contractor. The numbers of direct labourers and technicians required are roughly estimated as follows. The installation period also varies depending on the above items but approximately 2 to 4 months will be needed normally. Foreman: Mechanics: Welders: Pipe fitters: Rigger: Crane & heavy machinery operators: Electricians: (Unskilled labourers) Odd-jobbers: 1 3 to 4 1 to 2 1 to 2 1

(Skilled labourers)

1 to 2 2 to 3 5 to 6

(3) Temporary facilities The following temporary facilities should be considered: (a) Distribution board for temporary power source (b) Lodging facilities (c) Warehouse (d) Site construction office (4) General tools and consumables

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 9

(5) Classification of installation work (a) Inspection of dimensions and level of concrete foundation (b) Transport of materials, parts and equipment from warehouse to power station (e) Unpacking (d) Preparing scaffolds (e) Assembly and installation (f) Welding and gas cutting (g) Wiring (h) Piping work and flushing (i) Hydraulic pressure test (j) Non-destructive test (k) Centering, leveling (1) Shaft runout test (m) Painting (6) Inspection during installation (a) Centering & leveling (b) Shaft runout measurement (c) Measurement of caps of rotating parts (d) Confirmation of dimensions of each portion (e) Dye Penetration Test or ultrasonic crack examination for field welds of stress carrying parts (f) Relation between guide vane opening and servomotor stroke (g) Insulation resistance measurement 9.2.2 Adjustment during Test Run Operation (1) Instruments, tools and materials Prior to cdommencement of the tests, provision should be made for dummy load by water rheostat or the like if an actual load for the tests can not be expected. (2) Manpower schedule Occupation Test engineers (mechanical): Test engineers (electrical): Testing personnel: Number of Personnel 1 to 2 1 to 2 10 to 12

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Power Development Chapter 9

Test period This varies depending on the types of turbine and generator, equipment configuration, experience of testers but is normally 1 to 2 months. (3) Test items (a) Appearance inspection (b) Insulation resistance measurement (c) Withstand voltage test (d) Tests for turbine ancillary equipment - Performance test for governor - Tests for oil pressure supply and lubricating systems - Tests for water supply and drainage systems (e) Exciter combination tests (f) No-water overall tests (g) Water filling tests (h) Initial running tests (i) Automatic start and stop tests (j) Synchronizing tests (k) Load rejection tests Safe stopping after rejection of loads during operation should be confirmed mainly for the pressure change in the penstock, machine speed change and voltage change of generator. (1) Output and opening tests It should be confirmed that there are no abnormal phenomena within operating load range, and that the discharge and output satisfy the specifications. (m) Vibration measurement To be performed during output and opening tests. (n) Load tests Continuous operation should be made under full load until the temperature of the coils and bearings of the generator stabilizes.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

Chapter 10

OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE

10.1 Introduction A hydropower plant has an advantage that it does not need fuel for its operation as compared with oil or thermal power plants. However, there are no differences between both type of plants on that appropriate operation and maintenance (O&M) are essential for their long-term operation. It can be operated for long period if its facilities are properly operated and maintained. We should effectively utilize hydropower because aside from being indigenous energy resource, it is also renewable. We have to operate and maintain micro hydropower plants with strict compliance to the operation and maintenance manuals. In general, operators of micro hydropower plants should be trained to understand the following: Operators must efficiently conduct operation and maintenance of the micro-hydropower plant with strict compliance with the O and M rules and regulations. Operators must familiarize themselves with all the plant components and their respective performance or functions. Furthermore, they should also be familiar to measures against various accidents for prompt recovery. Operators must always check conditions of facilities and equipment. When they find some troubles or accidents, they must inform the person in charge and try to recover it. Operators must try to prevent any accidents. For the purpose, they should repair or improve facilities preventively as necessary. Operation and maintenance manual should basically be prepared for each plant individually before the start of its operation. Following is the general manual of operation and maintenance for micro hydropower plants.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

10.2 Operation The operation of micro-hydropower plants is not only to generate electric power but also to control generation equipment and to supply electricity of stable quantity and quality to consumers and maintaining all facilities in good condition. The micro-hydropower plant facilities and equipment were installed depending on site conditions and budget, but there are various ways of proper operation for these plants. For a plant that is equipped with an automatic load stabilizer, the operators do not always have to control the equipment except in case of starting, stopping and during emergency cases. And in case automatic stopping and recording systems are installed, it is not necessary for operators to stay in the power plant most of the time. However, most of micro-hydro plants for rural electrification are not provided with automatic control system and protection equipment because of budget limitation. In this case, it is necessary for operators to stay at or near the plant to monitor control equipment and to undertake immediate measures in case of emergency, in the observance of proper operation practice. General ways of micro-hydro operations are as follows: 10.2.1 Basic operation Check points before starting operation Before starting operation of the power plant, operators must check the following facilities are in good condition for operation. Especially in the case of after long term operation, they should be checked thoroughly. Transmission and distribution line Damages of lines and poles Approaching branches Other obstacles Waterway facilities Damages of structures Sand sedimentation in front of the intake Suspended trash at screens Sand sedimentation in the settling basin and the forebay
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

Turbine, generator and controller Visual inspection Wear of brush Insulation resistance of circuits Starting operation After checking the turbine and generator are okay for operation. Procedure of starting operation is as follows: Preparation Close the flushing gate of the intake weir Open the intake gate and intake water into the waterway system. Starting operation Open the inlet valve gradually. If there is a guide vane, open the inlet valve fully, and then open the guide vane gradually. Confirm that voltage and frequency or rotating speed increase up to the regulated value. Turn the load switch on (parallel in) Control inlet valve or guide vane so that voltage and frequency are within the regulated range. Role of operators during operation Operators must control equipment in order to supply electricity of good quality keeping equipment normal and safe as follows: Control the inlet valve or guide vane so that voltage and frequency are within the regulated range. Check vibration and noise of equipment, and then stop operation if necessary. Check temperature of equipment Check any abnormal condition of equipment, and then stop operation and take a measure if necessary. Record result of operation and condition of equipment according to fixed format.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

Stopping operation In order to avoid longer runaway speed of the turbine and the generator, the procedure of stopping operation is as follows: Close the inlet valve or the guide vane. Cut load switch off (load rejection) Close the inlet valve and the guide vane completely. Close the intake gate

When load is suddenly cut due to an accident, operator must close the inlet valve or the guide vane immediately to avoid runaway speed of the turbine and the generator for long time. 10.2.2 Operation in case of Emergency In case of flood In general, micro hydropower plants can be operated even in the case of flood, however, when the river becomes muddy and if there is possibility that sand and soil will enter into the facilities, operation of the plant should be stopped by closing the intake gate. After flood, operators must inspect all facilities first prior to resumption of operation. In case of earthquake Since an earthquake affects all facilities of plants, operators must inspect facilities after a big earthquake as follows: Check damages of structures Misalignment of the shaft of the turbine and the generator Damages of other electrical equipment Others In case of shortage of water There is an applicable range of water discharge for each turbine. Therefore, a turbine should be operated within the range. Micro hydropower plant should basically be designed along water discharge in the dry season. However, in case of shortage of water that is beyond of our expectations, operators must stop operation because continuous operation under such condition will damage the turbine.
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

In case of accident In case of accident, operators must stop operation, investigate the cause and try to recover operation as soon as possible. Operators roles are as follows: Immediately inform the accident to the person in charge. Investigate accident in detail. Look into the causes of accident. Recover operation as soon as possible if operators can prove the causes and repair by themselves. Contact makers or suppliers of equipment and request them to repair if the operators cannot find the causes and cannot repair by themselves. What operators should prepare in advance are as follows: Discuss with maker or supplier of equipment on possible measures in case of equipment trouble. Present to the Barangay Alternative Power Association (BAPA) management about expenditure on the recovery. Inform the DOE and LGU regarding the accident. 10.2.3 Others Filling water in waterway system Procedure of filling water into the waterway system is as follows: Confirm all flushing gates and valve of the water system are open. Open the intake gate partially, and intake small volume of water. Close the flushing gate of the settling basin after cleaning the settling basin. Close the flushing gate of the forebay after cleaning the headrace and the forebay. Close the drain valve of the penstock after cleaning the penstock. Fill the penstock with water gradually. Open the intake gate fully after filling up the penstock. ( 2 ) Flushing sand in front of intake If sand sedimentation reaches the intake level, sand will be carried into
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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

waterway system and it will affect the penstock and turbine blades. Therefore, in order to prepare against outflow of sand and soil during flooding, operators must keep the intake approach open. For the purpose, operators should sometimes flush or remove sand that settled in front of intake. If flushing gate is installed at the intake weir, operators can flush sand out by water flow opening the gate during flooding. However, incase of having no flushing gate, operators must remove sand out of the weir manually. ( 3 ) Control of intake water Volume of intake water changes according to water level of river. Normally excess water should be spilled out at spillway, which is located at settling basin or headrace. If the excess water reaches the spillway of the forebay for long time, it may possibly wash out the structure due to lack of spillway capacity. Therefore, operators must control the intake gate so as to avoid too much water spill. 10.3 Maintenance In order to operate micro hydropower plants in good condition for long period, waterway facilities, electric equipment, transmission and distribution line should be maintained adequately. Operators must try to observe even a small trouble and prevent accident of facilities. For the purpose, daily patrol and periodic inspection are essential and recording and keeping of those data are also important. Though items and frequency of patrol and inspection should be decided considering condition of facilities and ways of use, general maintenance of micro hydropower plants is as follows: 10.3.1 Daily patrol In order to check if there is anything strange at waterway facilities, electric equipment, transmission and distribution line, operators daily conduct patrol along the course that has been fixed in advance. Operators must record result of patrol and take a measure if necessary.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

Items of daily patrol are as follows:


Facilities and Equipment Intake and Waterway Checking Points Suspended Trash at screen Water leakage from weir and gate Sand sedimentation Deformation or Crack in structure Sand sedimentation Checking Points Suspended materials along canal Sand sedimentation Leakage, deformation and Crack in structure Land slide along headrace Suspended Trash at screen Overflow from Spillway Water leakage Sand sedimentation Deformation or Crack in structure Leakage and deformation Strange sound and vibration Leakage from housing Strange sound and vibration Temperature Damage of belt Performance of load stabilizer Damage of heater Leakage of oil Suspended material Approaching branch Measures To remove it at any time To record it To repair it if necessary To flush it out as necessary To record it To repair it if necessary To flush it out as necessary Measures To remove it at any time To flush it out as necessary To record it To repair it if necessary To remove sand and rocks after confirming safety To remove it at any time To reduce water intaken if overlowing water is too much. To record it To repair it if necessary To flush it out as necessary To record it To repair it if necessary To record it To record it To check the causes of it To record it To repair it if necessary To record it To check the causes of it To record it To replace if necessary To check the performance To replace if necessary To replace if necessary To remove after stopping the operation To cut it as necessary

Sedimentation Basin Facilities and Equipment Headrace

Headtank (Forebay)

Penstock Turbine

Generator

Load stabilizer

Transformer Transmission Distribution line

and

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

10.3.2 Periodic Inspection Operators must conduct inspection periodically to check if there are any troubles in facilities and equipment. Operators, preferably, should be able to perform repair works in case there are troubles during inspection, if necessary. Items and frequency of periodic inspection are as follows:
Facilities and Equipment Intake Penstock And Tailrace Checking Points Leakage, deformation and Crack in structure Deformation or Crack in structure Turbine Supply grease bearing To replace bearing Bolt connection Supply grease bearing To replace bearing to Frequenc y 6 months Measures To record it To repair necessary To record it To repair necessary

it

if

6 months

it

if

6 months 3 years 1 year 6 months 3 years 6 months 1 year 6 months 6 months 6 months 1 year 1 month 1 month To replace generator To fix them To replace if necessary To repair it To replace if necessary To To replace if necessary To cut it as necessary To fix them

Generator

to

Load stabilizer

Inlet valve Transformer Transmission Distribution line

and

Winding insulation resistance Bolt connection Damage of belt Performance of load stabilizer Damage of heaters Leakage Leakage of oil Approaching branch

10.3.3 Special Inspection In case of earthquake, flood, heavy rain and accident, operators must stop operation and inspect facilities.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 10

10.4 Recording Operators must keep a record of the operation and maintenance of the micro-hydropower plant. Records will provide much help to operators in monitoring the conduct of the regular or scheduled activities for the operation and maintenance. It also provides good data in determining the causes of trouble in case of accident. A sample of operation record and daily patrol check sheet is shown in the next page.

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Guidelines for the Construction of Micro Hydro Electric Power Plant Chapter 10

Check Sheet
Civil Construction Month : ____________________
No I 1 2 II 1 2 III 1 2 IV 1 2 V 1 2 VI 1 2 VII 1 Description Dam Construction Stop Log Settling basin Construction Screen Headrace Construction Stop Log Forebay tank Construction Screen Penstock Penstock Foundation Power House Construction Sanitation Tailrace Construction Damage Note Cause of Damage Repairing Note Repaired by Daily Checking
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Year : _______________

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Remarks : ! Fill the column as the actual condition such as : (N) Normal, (B)Bad, (R)Broken

Acknowledge
Chairman

Checker
Operator

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Guidelines for the Construction of Micro Hydro Electric Power Plant Chapter 10

Check Sheet
Mechanical and electrical Month : ____________________
No I 1 2 3 4 5 6 Description Turbine Runner Bearing turbine Plummer Block Bearing Pull Turbine Cover pulley Coupling Panel control Meter Lightning rod Ballast Load Main Board Damage note Cause of Damage Repairing Note Repaired by ! Fill the column as the actual condition such as : (N) Normal, (B)Bad, (R)Broken !! If there is a fatal damage, repair immediately, or coordinated with IBEKA team Telp. 022-4202045 Daily Checking
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Year : _______________

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II 1 2 3 4

Remarks: :

Acknowledge
Chairman

Checker
Operator

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Guidelines for the Construction of Micro Hydro Electric Power Plant Chapter 10

Check Sheet
Distribution Line
No I 1 2 3 4 II 1 2 Uraian Transmission Pole Cable Connector Group MCB In house installation MCB Installation Cable Damage Note Cause of Damage Repairing note Repaired by Daily Checking
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

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Month : ____________________
Remarks : ! Fill the column as the actual condition such as : (N) Normal, (B)Bad, (R)Broken !! If there as problem with the distribution facility, repair immediately and fill the damage column

Year : _______________

Acknowledge by
Chairman

Checker

Operator

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Guidelines for the Construction of Micro Hydro Electric Power Plant Chapter 10

Lubricant & Spareparts


Year : _________________
No A Description LUBRICATION 1 Bearing Turbine 2
- 10-13 January 720 February 1440 March 2160 April 2880

Lubrication based on total operation hour May June July August September 3600 4320 5040 5760 6480

October 7200

November 7920

December 8640

3 B 1 2 3 4 5

Plummer Block Turbine Bearing Plummer Block Turbine Generator SPAREPARTS Bearing Seal Coupling Flat Belt Others Re-setting

Notet. : Fill the column with the lubrication date

LOG BOOK
Year : __________________

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Guidelines for the Construction of Micro Hydro Electric Power Plant Chapter 10

Time Date

Operation

Start

Stop

Hour/ day

Opening of Guide vane %

Frequency meter (Hz)

R-N(V1)

Volt S-N(V2)

T-N(V3)

Ampere A1 A2 A3

V1xA1

Watt V2xA2

V3xA3

Output Total Watt

Remarks

1 2
3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

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25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Note: Fill the column after installation to the house Calculation of power output = (A1+A2+A3)x220 on condition ballast 0 (zero) volt

Recorder ___________ Operator

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 11

Chapter 11 MANAGEMENT
11.1 Establishment of Organization Micro-hydropower projects for rural electrification are different from private power companies, in which all parties concerned that includes the consumers, O&M groups, community organizations, and Barangay, Local and Central governments, have to accomplish their roles and responsibilities to ensure sustainable operation. A sample of organization chart for implementation of micro-hydropower projects is shown in Attachment-1. An O & M organization called the Barangay Alternative Power Association (BAPA) should be established to take care of the operation and management prior to project implementation. The BAPA should have its by-laws and elected officials duly recognized by a General Assembly. 11.2 Management System Background More than a half of existing micro hydropower plants in rural areas are non-operational due to various causes of troubles. Most operators do not have appropriate knowledge and skill on operation and maintenance for micro hydro plants. Usually, budget for operation and maintenance were not given due importance. As a result, operators cannot work well for the plant without sufficient salary. Also, they cannot implement preventive maintenance for the equipment without enough money. This will usually result to curative maintenance which is more expensive or if not implemented will result to operational stoppage. Therefore, the causes of problems of micro hydropower plant are not only due to low quality of facilities and equipment but also insufficient management practice of concerned organization. In order to manage the BAPA, rules and regulation that provide objectives, members role and responsibilities, scope of work, etc. should be established before commissioning the plant. It should also be necessary to stipulate respective responsibilities in the by-laws of the association, all pertinent rules and regulation that

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 11

shall be binding and imposed up to the operational life of the power system. Importantly, training on management should also be conducted. Establishment and management of organization for the plant are necessary for long-term operation of a micro hydropower plant. Moreover, it becomes possible to maintain the organization substantially by monitoring from the outside.

11.3 Reporting and Monitoring Operational data and maintenance results should be recorded and kept because it will be used as basis of operators to find out the causes of trouble in the future. Likewise, record of tariff collection and balance sheet of income and expenditure are essential for BAPA to manage itself substantially. If management of BAPA is controlled by few people, sometimes led to falsifying records to appear that the operation of the organization is in good standing and diversion of funds to other purpose. As a result, the trouble-shooting of the facilities will be very difficult due to lack of records and funds. To prevent such situation or get technical and managing advices, it is advisable to introduce reporting system that BAPA will report results of operation and maintenance and financial management to the DOE and the concerned LGU periodically. On the other hand, the DOE and the concerned LGU should conduct monitoring that they will visit sites periodically, and check the condition of operation and maintenance and management of BAPA, and then give BAPA technical and administrative advices if necessary. Periodic report on operation and maintenance of the micro-hydro system is as basis for identification of future repairs. necessary

11.4 Decision-Making System The General Assembly is the final approval of all decisions made which are not stipulated in the By-Laws of the organization. The proposal should be approved by the

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 11

Board of Directors (BOD) before it will be presented to the General Assembly.

11.5 Accounting System Accounting System consists of; Tariff System, Electricity Charge Collection System, Expenditures Procedures on Pay Out,

11.6 Roles and Responsibilities of BAPA BAPA (Barangay (Village) Alternative Power Association) carries out following work as an operation and maintenance organization, consulting with related agencies: Formulate and implement rules and regulations of the organization. Collect electricity tariff from consumers, and manage income and expenditure Operate and maintain a power plant, and the supply electricity to consumers efficiently and safely. Repair or replace facilities and equipment if necessary. Instruct consumers on guideline of safe and efficient usage of electricity. Report result of operation and maintenance of the plant and financial management to DOE and related LGU periodically. 11.6.1 BAPA Officials 1) Chair Person: Chair person is the Head of the BAPA Organization. His duties are: Comprehensive management of generation facilities and users whether they are using electricity according to the rules and/or the regulations. Board of Directors: Board of Directors may consist of several persons, and their duties are: Giving the appropriate advice to the Head of the BAPA when requested by the Head. In any time, they can investigate the status of the overall

2)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 11

management, status of use of electricity by users, facilities status of the Micro-Hydro Power Plant itself, and other necessary matters, if they judge to need to do it. 3) Vice Chairperson: Vice Chairperson assists the chair person and act as the Head of the BAPA in the absence of the chair person. Secretary: On the smooth performance of the BAPA, several secretarial works may be needed. Accountant: Duties of the Accountant are: Collection of electricity charge based on the agreed tariff system and book-keeping. The electricity charge may be collected by means of the people coming to the accountant periodically to pay their electricity charges and then the accountant enters up their payments with their names in an account book and keeps it carefully. Cash management. The cash as a revenue due to collection of electricity charge should be managed by the accountant carefully. To use banking system is one of ways. 6) Operators and Technicians: At least, 3 operators may be needed. Duties of the Operator(s) are: Daily operation of micro-hydro power facilities. Periodical check of all the facilities. Uncomplicated maintenance for the facilities. Judging required maintenance with cost to procure necessary spare-parts and/or tools to be needed for maintenance. Report the required maintenance with cost to procure necessary spare-parts and/or tools for maintenance to the Chair Person.

4)

5)

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 11

11.6.2

Consumers Consumers must have the following responsibilities: Pay electricity tariff Use electricity safely and efficiently. Local Government Unit (LGU) Concerned LGU shall have the following responsibilities: Implement a micro hydro project. Supervise management of BAPA Conduct training of BAPA staff Propose appropriate livelihood projects that utilize electricity. Department of Energy (DOE) As a lead agency in rural electrification, the DOE shall have the following responsibilities: Coordinate with NEA thru RECs to organize BAPA Conduct monitoring of micro hydropower plant periodically. Advise on technical and management aspects to insure sustainability of the system.

11.6.3

11.6.4

11.7 Training BAPA staff including operators must have enough knowledge and skill on operation, maintenance and management of BAPA. Therefore, they should receive training before the operation of a power plant. Training components are as follows: Operation and maintenance of a micro hydropower plant Maintenance of transmission and distribution line House wiring installation and its maintenance Organization management including documentation Financial management Concerned LGU or proponent should have a responsibility to conduct these training

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 11

before commissioning of the plant. In case of change of staff, skilled staff of BAPA should train new staff.

11.8 Collection of Electricity Charge and Financial Management 11.8.1 Tariff Setting Income from electricity tariff is an important source of fund to operate and maintain a micro hydro power plant. Therefore, tariff rate should be set considering not only salary of BAPA staff but also expenses for purchasing spare parts, repair and replacement of equipment in the future. However, most of residents in rural areas electrified by micro hydro plants are categorized into under poverty line. Hence, tariff rate should be set considering solvency of residents for them to cope up. Taking into account current expenditure for energy (kerosene and battery), assumed electricity consumption of local people and tariff rate of RECs, four to five pesos per kilowatts is reasonable to set tariff rate for micro hydro at the moment, as of 2001. BAPA should decide which way is adapted in the rules and regulations of the BAPA. It is either the tariff rate is based on consumption, fixed rate per bulb-wattage installed. For poorer barangays, they usually adapt fixed rate, but it should be higher than the consumption based rate. 11.8.2 Tariff Collection There are two ways of bill collection. One way is that bill collectors visit all houses in the supply area and then collect money from them one by one. Another way is that representative of a district collect money from consumers within each district and then he/she pay collected money to BAPA. Since tariff collection is important income for operation and maintenance of plants as mentioned above, bill collection should be done accurately. In case of non-payment of bill, they should sometimes stop supplying electricity to non-paying consumers.

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Manual for Micro-Hydro Development Chapter 11

It is necessary that operators sometimes carry out patrol along distribution lines in order to avoid illegal tapping of electricity.

11.8.3 Financial Management Since BAPA is required for a stable supply of electricity to consumers for long period, BAPA has to operate and maintain a power plant in good condition. Therefore, BAPA has to administer the collected money and put aside funds for future maintenance. We have to understand that even if the equipment is of high quality, troubles may set in during its long-term operation, and then replacement of spare parts will certainly be required within the years of operation. An accounting system should be developed including a tariff system, collection of electricity charges according to the tariff system, book keeping, cash management method. Training on this aspect should also be conducted. BAPA has an obligation to make balance sheets of income and expenditure and then to report periodically. BAPA has to avoid that collected money is used for other purposes.

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Department of Energy
Energy Complex Merritt Road, Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City, Metro Manila TEL: 840-14-01 to 21 FAX: 840-18-17

Department of Energy
Energy Complex Merritt Road, Fort Bonifacio, Taguig City, Metro Manila TEL: 479-2900 FAX: 840-1817