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Philippines

Environmental Health Country Profile World Health Organization


As of March 1, 2005

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1.1 1.1.1

Development, Environment and Health Status


Development Pattern of the Country Maps / geography / demography / urban-rural trends

The Philippines is one of the worlds largest archipelago composed of 7,100 islands with a total land area of 300,000 kms2. It is bounded in the east by the Pacific Ocean, in the west by the South China Sea, in the north by the Bashi Channel and in the south by the Sulu and Celebes Seas. The biggest island group is Luzon (141,395 kms2), followed by Mindanao (101,999 kms2) and Visayas (56,606 kms2). Manila, located in Luzon, is the capital city. The Philippine has a tropical and monsoonal climate. There are two distinct seasons - the dry season from December to May and the wet season from June to November. About 20 to 30 typhoons lash the country during the wet season. In 2003, the estimated population in the country is 81,081,460 with an almost equal ratio of male to female. About 55 percent of the population lives in the island of Luzon. Metropolitan Manila, which is the largest urban center in the country, is home to an estimated 10,574,000 people in 2001. The Philippines has one of the highest growth rates in the world at 2.36 percent. This is almost twice the global rate of 1.30 percent. About 34.65 percent of the population is between 1 and 14 years old, and 4.25 percent is 65 years old and above. The presence of a well established educational system accounts for the high literacy rate of 95.10 percent, which is higher among females and in urban areas. In 2003, about 61 percent of the population lives in urban areas, which are continuously attracting numerous migrants from rural communities. According to the Human Development Report, in 2002 infant mortality rate was 29 for every 1,000 live births while under-five mortality rate was 38 for every 1,000 live births. In 2000, about 83.35 percent of newborn infants weigh at least 2500 g at birth. A low-birth-weight child or a child exposed to environmental pollution and poor living conditions is more susceptible to diseases, which has a substantial influence on physical, mental and social growth. 1.1.2 General economy of the country

The Philippine economy traditionally depends on agriculture, forestry, mining and fishing. Arable farmland comprises an estimated 26% of the total land area. Since it is surrounded by water, the Philippines has a very diverse range of fishing areas. However, in recent years, the manufacturing sector has grown rapidly. Economic growth was spurred by the development of ecozones or
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industrial estates that are intended to boost industrial activities both in the urban and rural communities. There are about 137 industrial estates (IE) in the Philippines with about 886 locators or firms, half of which are semiconductor and electronics companies, which contribute about 70% of export earnings. The country is well-endowed with mineral and thermal energy resources. Natural gas reserves off Palawan Island were recently discovered. Philippine copper and chromite deposits are among the largest in the world. Other important minerals include gold, nickel, silver, coal, gypsum, and sulfur. The Philippines is still developing slowly. In 2001, at current prices, the gross national product (GNP) was $ 75,702 million while the gross domestic product (GDP) was $ 19,749 million. The total health expenditure of the country reached Php119.40 billion in 2001, posting a growth rate of only 5.20 per cent, much lower than the 9.70 per cent in 2000. A large proportion of the total health spending (55 per cent) is from private sources, 37.50 per cent from government and 8.0 per cent from social insurance. 1.1.3 Development priorities

The Philippines has been implementing the Medium-Term Development Plan 2001-2004, which contained the governments socioeconomic policies, strategies and programs in the following core themes, namely: trabaho (employment), edukasyon (education), pabahay (housing), and pagkain sa bawat mesa (food on every table). Part I ensures macroeconomic stability with equitable growth based on free enterprise, Part II is for agriculture and fisheries modernization with social equity, Part III is for comprehensive human development and protecting the vulnerable, and Part IV is for good governance and the rule of law. The next Medium-Term Development Plan 2005-2010 is currently being developed that spells out a 10-point agenda distributed over three clusters: economy, political security, and poverty alleviation. Relevant to environmental health are two of the 10 points which are: Item 5. Provision of power and water supply to all barangays; and Item 6. Decongestion of Metro Manila by forming new cores of government and housing centers in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. 1.1.4 Human Development Index

This is a composite index developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) based on three indicators: longevity, as measured by life expectancy at birth; educational attainment, as measured by adult literacy and total primary, secondary and tertiary enrolment ratio; and standard of living, as measured by GDP per capita. As an indicator of quality of life, the human development index of Filipinos has been improving over time. Between 1995 and 1998, the Philippines was the only ASEAN country where the human development index (HDI) rose. The gains in gross enrolment ratio largely accounted for the increase in HDI during that period. The Philippines is now in the medium HDI level with an HDI of 0.75 as of 2002 and ranked 83 out of 177 countries. 1.2 1.2.1 Existing Service Levels Proportion of population (national) with existing utilities

Data shows that 86.8 percent of the population has access to safe water and that 66.8 percent has access to adequate excreta disposal facilities. In both cases, a higher percentage is found in the urban areas. In 2003 of the total solid waste generated, about 70 percent in the urban areas and 40 percent in the rural areas is collected. 1.2.2 Proportion of urban population served by piped water, sewers, electricity, municipal solid waste collection

A high percentage of the urban population (80-100 percent) is served by municipal waste collection. On the other hand, only 7 percent of Metro Manila is served by sewerage system and the majority relies on septic tanks. As of 2003, about 37,748 barangays are supplied with electricity covering almost 90 percent of the total population. 1.2.3 Presence of other basic services such as fire fighting and emergency management

There are government agencies in charge of emergency preparedness for firefighting and natural disasters. Chemical emergency response and preparedness is currently gaining ground in terms of capacity building with the help of the academe. There are well-established poison control centers and poison control and information service linked with the government-run hospital and university. 1.2.4 Housing: presence of building regulations, proportion of people living in informal settlements

There are building regulations in place with inspectors from local government units and labor department. It is estimated that 30 percent of the population live below the poverty line, which could indicate poor housing. There are government programs to provide social housing to qualified urban households for the informal settlers, homeless and income poor, which are the bottom 30 of the population. 1.2.5 Transport related: number of vehicles registered, number of motorcycles registered, rate (number per 100,000 population)

In 2003, there were more than 4 million registered vehicles, a 2.50 percent increase from the previous year. This translates to 5,610 vehicles per 100,000 population. In addition, there were one and a half million registered motorcycles or 2,029 per 100,000 population, which are being used mostly as tricycles for public transport. 1.2.6 Capacity for monitoring environmental quality (drinking water, water resources, ambient air, noise, radiation, etc)

Several government and private laboratories are adequately equipped to monitor various environmental quality parameters for drinking water, water resources, ambient air, noise and radiation. However, most of the facilities are located in highly urbanized cities. The Environmental Management Bureau has a fully equipped environmental laboratory. 1.2.7 Capacity for data collection and processing

There is some capacity within various agencies of the government to collect and process environmental quality data but there is no system in place for use of information for decisionmaking and planning especially for environmental health. 1.3 1.3.1 Environmental Quality Air pollution

In 2000, about 85 percent of the population was using solid/biomass fuels for cooking especially for grilling. Around 70 percent of the vehicles use diesel and about 30 percent use unleaded gasoline. Close to 80 percent of Metro Manila residents are exposed on a regular basis to total suspended particulates (TSP) levels that exceed the standard levels. 1.3.2 Surface and ground water pollution

The Philippines has excellent water quality standards but weak in its implementation. Out of 421 rivers, 50 were polluted and 40 were considered biologically dead. There are very good water treatment facilities in Metro Manila but water districts in the provinces use only chlorination or not at all depending on the water source. 1.3.3 Solid waste

The national solid waste generation rate ranges between 0.5 to 0.7 kg per capita per day with a total annual waste production of 10 million tons. In Metro Manila, where the population density is 63 times the national average, the estimated daily per capita waste generation is 0.66 kg. The volume of wastes generated daily weighs about 6,000 tons. Of the total wastes discarded 42 percent is recyclable. 1.3.4 Hazardous waste

In 2000, approximately 2.4 million tons of toxic and hazardous wastes were generated. The majority of the wastes came from more than 1,000 SMEs and medium to large industries. However, there are no hazardous waste treatment facilities or secure landfill. Hospitals contributed 10,293 tons of health care waste, less than 1 percent of the total volume of waste. In Metro Manila alone, it was estimated in 2003 that 47 tons of health care waste were generated daily, of which 27 tons are infectious waste. Incinerator is banned in the country which was the technology used by most hospitals to deal with medical waste. 1.4 1.4.1 Public Health Statistics Ten leading causes of mortality and morbidity

The ten leading causes of morbidity are diarrhea, bronchitis/bronchiolitis, pneumonia, influenza, hypertension, tuberculosis, diseases of the heart, malaria, measles and chickenpox. The prevalence of communicable diseases is still very high while that of non-communicable diseases

is increasing and will continue to do so. This double burden of disease places a great toll on the health and economy of the people and of the nation as a whole. The top ten leading causes of mortality are diseases of the heart, diseases of the vascular system, pneumonia, malignant neoplasms, accidents, tuberculosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus, other diseases of the respiratory system, nephritis/nephritic syndrome and nephrosis. Adolescents and youth account for 17 percent of the total morbidity from notifiable diseases and 6.70 per cent of the total deaths. 1.4.2 Diseases associated with agricultural and irrigation development (proportion of undernourished people, schistosomiasis, pesticide poisoning)

In 2000, there were 326 cases of pesticide poisoning with more but not reported. In 1998, it was estimated that there were about 1,855 cases of pesticide poisoning. Among children, nutritional problems and parasitism are common. In 1998, the prevalence of underweight pre-school children (between 1 to 5 years old) is 32 percent. About 23 percent of the population in 1998 was undernourished. 1.4.3 Respiratory diseases related to outdoor air pollution from energy, transport and industry sectors

Respiratory diseases and COPD are in the top ten causes of mortality in the Philippines. Research shows that the incidence of bronchitis among Metro Manila children is 11 times the national average and that chronic cough, chronic phlegm, wheezing and shortness of breath are highest among drivers and commuters. 1.4.4 Traffic crashes (mortality due to traffic accidents, rate: deaths /100,000 population, injuries due to traffic accidents, rate: injuries/100,000 population)

There were 16,418 reported cases of road traffic accidents in 2003. This is about 21.46 accidents per 100 000 population and 38.25 accidents per 10,000 vehicle registration. Road safety is still an important concern in the Philippines. 1.4.5 Diseases relating to poor housing (including pulmonary diseases, tuberculosis)

Tuberculosis, associated with congestion and poor housing, had 118,408 cases in 2002. Respiratory diseases such as bronchitis and pneumonia are in the second and third causes of morbidity in the Philippines. 1.4.6 Water supply and sanitation-related diseases (such as diarrheal diseases, hepatitis, cholera, typhoid)

With 845,526 cases reported in 2001, diarrhea is the top cause of illness in the Philippines, mostly among children under five years of age. About 15,757 illnesses are due to typhoid fever, 6,736 cases due to hepatitis, and 333 cases due to cholera. All of these are preventable diseases with provision of adequate water supply and sanitation facilities and proper hygiene practices.

1.4.7

Vector-borne diseases (such as malaria, plague, dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever)

Malaria is the eighth cause of illness in the Philippines with around 40,000 cases, found mostly in the southern part of the country. Dengue/DHF was reported with 16,000 cases with about 183 deaths in 2002. Dengue is preventable by eliminating the habitat of the mosquito Aedes aegypti that breeds in urban and semi-urban environment such as man-made containers like earthenware jars, metal drums and concrete cisterns used for domestic water storage, as well as discarded plastic food containers, used automobile tires and other items that collect rainwater.

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2.1

Legal, Policy, and Institutional Structure


Legislative and Policy Framework 2.1.1 National policies, plans or strategies for environmental health

There are national policies on environmental health but contained within various laws and administrative orders, such as the following: a) b) c) d) Constitution, Article XII Cabinet Resolution No. 37: Philippines Strategy for Sustainable Development PD 856 - Sanitation Code of the Philippines Administrative Order No. 341 - Philippine Health Promotion Programme through Healthy Places e) RA 9211 - Tobacco Regulation Act 2.1.2 Relevant legislation addressing environmental health issues

The Philippines has been a pioneer in developing excellent environmental laws and public health legislation in the region. Environmental impact assessment was recognized to be important and required as early as 1978. Health impact assessment has been made part of environmental impact assessment since 1997. However, the problem has been that enforcement is weak and there is not enough concerted political will and commitment. Some of the related regulations are: a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) PD 1152 - The Philippine Environment Code of 1977 PD 600 - The Marine Pollution Decree of 1974 PD 979 - The Marine Pollution Decree of 1976 PD 1067 - The Philippine Water Code of 1976 PD 522 Sanitation Requirements for Transport Facilities of 1974 PD 856 - Sanitation Code of the Philippines of 1975 PD 1586- Environmental Impact Statement System of 1978 RA 6969- Toxic and Hazardous Waste Act of 1990 RA 8749- The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 RA 9003- The Ecological Solid Waste Management of 2002 RA 9275- Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004
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2.1.3

Decentralization and / or privatization policies dealing with environmental health

The environmental health functions including environmental mandates have been devolved to the regional offices and local government units through the following regulation: RA 7160 Local Government Code of 1991 Department of Health Administrative Order No. 18: Devolution of health services to local government units (LGU) of 1992 The central office mainly deals with policymaking, coordination and technical assistance on environmental health. 2.2 Institutional Structure for Environmental Health 2.2.1 Administrative / organizational set-up of the country on environmental health

An Inter-agency Committee on Environmental Health (IACEH) has been formed through Executive Order 489 of 1991. It is composed of 11 members chaired by the secretary of the Department of Health, with secretary of Department of Environment and Natural Resources as vice-chair. The committee members come from Department of Public Works and Highways, Department of Interior and Local Government, Department of Agriculture, Department of Trade and Industry, Department of Transportation and Communication, Department of Science and Technology, Department of Labor and Employment, National Economic Development Authority, and Public Information Agency. The functions of IACEH are to a) Formulate policies and guidelines and develop programs for environmental health protection b) Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate EH programs and development projects c) Undertake information dissemination and education campaigns on EH programs d) Coordinate, assist and/or support the conduct of research and relevant activities for environmental maintenance and protection. There are five sectors of IACEH with their own subcommittees: solid waste, water, air, occupational health, toxic and hazardous waste. Regional IACEH were also created through DOH Department Circular No. 48 series of 1995, to conduct activities, programs and projects geared to the reduction or prevention of environmental hazards and risks posed by environmental pollution through an inter-agency approach. At the Department of Health, there is an Environmental and Occupational Health Office with two divisions: Water and Sanitation Division and Health Care Waste and Toxic/Hazardous Substances Division. 2.2.2 List of agencies and partners for environmental health other than the government

Several nongovernmental organizations and civil societies organizations are doing environmental health work in the Philippines. Among them are the following: Philippine Environmental Journalists Inc.

Wildlife Foundation of the Philippines Haribon Foundation Green Forum Philippines Crusade for Sustainable Environment Likas, Tao at Kalikasan Philippine Business for the Environment 2.2.3 Related government agencies involved in environmental health and their respective functions

Annex 1 provides the list of a dozen government agencies involved in the various functions of environmental health in the Philippines. 2.3 Relevant International Conventions and Agreements Ratified or Signed

The Philippines is a party to the following international agreements: a) b) c) d) e) f) Stockholm Convention on POPs (2001) Montreal Protocol on Ozone layer depleting substances (1987) Convention on Long-Range Transboundary of Air Pollution (1979) UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) Kyoto Protocol (1997) Basel Convention on transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal (1989) g) Convention on Biological Diversity (12 June 1992) h) Convention to Combat Desertification i) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) j) Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer k) Law of the Sea l) Marine Dumping m) Nuclear Test Ban n) Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals o) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change- Kyoto Protocol p) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

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3.1

Human Resources Development Programs


Environmental health workforce, professionals and their skills

The Philippines has a surplus of qualified manpower in environmental health since there are formal courses available in the country. In 2004, there are about 3,000 health inspectors and 122 sanitary engineers within government service of the Department of Health and local government units. Pollution control officers, employed in the private sector, are estimated to be more than 2,000 throughout the country. 3.2 Formal and informal training programs for environmental health
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Formal and informal training programs in the Philippines are many. Formal degrees can be obtained at the tertiary level on the following courses, mostly from the University of the Philippines: a) BS Environmental Health (University of the Philippines) b) BS Sanitary Engineering (Mapua Institute of Technology, Technological Institute of the Philippines, National University and University of Baguio) c) MS Public Health (UP) d) MS Environmental Engineering (UP) Informal training or continuing education is also available for environmental health such as: a) b) c) d) 3.3 Short course for sanitary inspectors Certificate course on toxic and hazardous waste management Short course on air quality management Pollution control officers training programs Government certification

Environmental health workforce such as medical doctors, sanitary engineers and civil engineers, has to take a government examination to obtain a license to practice. Health inspectors if employed in government have to take the civil service examination. 3.4 Professional associations

There are many at least eight professional associations in the Philippines related to environmental health. Some of these groups are duly registered but others have been formed informally. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Sanitarians Association of the Philippines more than 3,000 members Pollution Control Association of the Philippines, Inc (PCAPI) Philippine Association of Environmental Assessment Professionals (PAEAP) Philippine Environmental Industry Association (PEIA) Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK) or Chemical Industries Association of the Philippines (76 firms) Safety Organization of the Philippines (SOPI) Environmental Health Study Group Philippine Society of Sanitary Engineers, Inc. Philippine Society of Chemical Engineers

The Air and Waste Management Association (based in the US) has a local chapter in the Philippines.

Priority Environmental Health Issues

The following issues have been identified in many discussion groups and by the respective government agencies (not in order of priority): a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) Biological dead rivers due to water pollution Presence of smoke belching motor vehicles causing air pollution Rapid population growth Inadequate sewerage system and sludge management system for septic tanks Inadequate monitoring of drinking water sources Absence of a rationalized land use plan Improper and indiscriminate disposal of solid and liquid wastes Unregulated management of toxic and hazardous chemicals substances Loss of primary agricultural lands Weak implementation and enforcement of environmental regulations/laws Inappropriate assessment of adverse impacts of development/industrialization to affected stakeholder, i.e. local communities l) Traditional approach in environmental governance: regulatory vs development m) Sustainable development concerns are not fully integrated in planning, programming and policy-making n) Lack of logistics and facilities 4.1 Agriculture Sector Since the Philippines is still predominantly an agricultural country, there are large inputs of fertilizer and pesticides that might be released as part of irrigation runoff thus contaminating water resources. In 2002, about 723,020 metric tons were used. About 326 cases of pesticide poisoning were reported in 2000. About 72.6 percent of total freshwater resources are used for irrigation serving 1,550,000 hectares of irrigated agricultural land. 4.2 Energy Sector The country relies on a variety of energy sources, mainly fossil fuel (oil and coal), followed by hydropower and renewable energy such as geothermal and solar. Fossil fired power plants have to deal with the following environmental problems: air pollution, noise, thermal pollution, fly ash and sludge disposal. 4.3 Industry Sector The Philippines has established ecozones or industrial estates that are group of companies that are not heavy industries (not major polluters). These ecozones have their environmental units that enforce environmental laws on control of air and water pollution, and disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste.

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4.4 Transport Sector Road safety, traffic crashes, ambient air pollution, and noise are the issues pertinent to the transport sector in the Philippines. Although public/mass transport are established such as the LRT and MRT trains, buses, and jeepneys, there are still too many vehicles on the road ( causing traffic jams most of the day. Buses and jeepneys often use second hand engines with inefficient combustion engines that are the sources of ambient air pollution. Despite the law that requires passing of emission testing prior to vehicle registration, it has not eliminated the so-called smoke belchers on the road since around 70% of the vehicles still use diesel for fuel. The number of vehicles on the road is just staggering for a small road network (4 million registered vehicles). 4.5 Urban /Rural Development Sector Diarrhea is still the number one cause of illness in the Philippines with less than a million cases in 2001. Water borne diseases are preventable through provision of adequate water supply systems and sanitary facilities. Bottled water have been popular among households and establishment since the drinking water from the tap is suspected not potable. There is not enough landfill space and the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act has intensified solid waste disposal and recycling efforts. Rural areas have less coverage. 4.6 Cross-cutting issues Malaria and dengue are still important causes of illnesses in the Philippines. Environmental management could reduce the incidence by removing their habitat. Health care waste is not properly managed as existing facilities and technologies are not adequate. There are hospital incinerators, which will be discontinued since incineration is banned in the country under the Clean Air Act.

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5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6

Areas Requiring Improvement


Specific policies and legislation for environmental health Institutional development and intersectoral collaboration Human resources development Monitoring and surveillance Integration of health and environment in international/regional agreements Others

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Annex 1 List of government agencies and partners for environmental health (for Section 2.2.3) AGENCY Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) FUNCTIONS Formulation and revision of water quality criteria and effluent standards Regulates effluent quality from formulating plants Regulates industrial sources Monitors disposal sites for leachate contamination, air pollution,etc. Formulation, planning, implementation, and coordination of policies and programs in the field of environmental health. Its primary function is the promotion, protection, preservation and restoration of the health of the people through the Development of drinking water standards (National Center for Disease Prevention and Control) Formulation of rules and regulations on proper waste management Regulates food quality (Bureau of Food and Drug) Licensing of water resources for development Over-all coordination of water rights Levels 2 and 3 Sewerage System Water Quality Monitoring Levels 2 & 3 of Water Districts For cities and municipalities outside MM Development of water districts Construction of water supply facilities

Department of Health (DOH)

National Water Resources Council (NWRC) Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS)

Local Water Utilities Administration (LWUA)

Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) Local Government Units (LGU)

Responsible for water quality monitoring Enforcement of anti-pollution regulation/laws Health units provide service for poisoning cases Health education on food hygiene Monitor environmental impact Issues sanitation permits to food establishments Regulates domestic discharges Develops and implements solid waste Over-all Management of the Laguna Lake basin

Laguna Lake Development Authority (LLDA) Department of Interior and Local Government (DILG)

Enforcement of anti-pollution laws in Metro Manila

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Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA)

Support bilateral, regional and multilateral agreements on the protection of the environment Initiate bilateral, regional and multilateral arrangements geared towards ensuring food security, and the delivery of health and nutrition, housing, education and other social development services Enforcement of anti-pollution laws in Metro Manila

Metro Manila Development Authority (MMDA) Department of Agriculture

Regulates the fertilizer and pesticide industries; conducts outreach services for farmers/fisherfolk (Plant Health Clinics); conducts R & D activities on organic fertilizers and natural pesticides; monitors pesticide residues in selected crops; conducts crop pest infestation monitoring; conducts public information campaigns (Fertilizer and Pesticide Authority) Protection of agricultural crops from pests and diseases; recommend plant quarantine policies and prescribe rules and regulations for the prevention, control and eradication of pests, diseases, and injuries to plant and plant products; development and improvement of farm equipment and other related structures to the plant industry; ensure safe supply of fresh agricultural crops and promote its export (Bureau of Plant Industry) Proper preservation and inspection of livestock products; coordinate and monitor the activities and projects relating to livestock and allied industries; prescribe standards for the quality of manufacture, importation, labeling, advertising, distribution and sale of livestock, poultry and allied industries (Bureau of Animal Industry) Enforce meat inspection laws, rules and regulations; provide laboratory services to the meat industry; perform inspection on imported meat and meat products; provide technical assistance in meat plant development; promote consumer information, protection and assistance programs (National Meat Inspection Commission) Advise and coordinate with LGUs on the maintenance of proper sanitation and hygienic practices in fish markets and fish landing areas; implement an inspection system for import and export of fishery/aquatic products and fish processing establishments consistent with international standards; among others (Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources)

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PHILIPPINES
Environmental Health Data Sheet
As of November 18, 2004

INDICATORS 1 1.1.1 1.1.1 Development, Environment and Health Area (1000 km2) Estimated population ('000) - Total - Male - Female 1.1.1 Annual population growth rate (%) Percentage of population - 0-14 years - 65+ years 1.1.1 1.1.1 Urban population (%) Adult literacy rate (%) - Both sexes - Male - Female 1.1.1 1.1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.2 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.3 Infant mortality rate (per 1000 live births) Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births) Newborn infants weighing at least 2500g at birth (%) General economy: narrative report (separate sheet) Per capita GNP at current market prices (US$) Total expenditure on health as % of GNP Development priorities: narrative report (separate sheet) Land area for agriculture (as percentage of total land area) Human development index (Highest = 1) Human development index Rank (out of 177 countries)

DATA

Year

Source

300.00

2002

81 081 46 40 820.71 40 260.75 2.36

2003 2003 2003 2000

1 1 1 2

34.65 4.25 61.00

2003 2003 2003

31 31 3

95.1 95.0 72.50 29 38.00 83.35 Y 1050.00 3.10

2003 2003 2003 2002 2001 2000

4 4 4 5 5 17

2003 2001

10 18

47 41 0.75 83

1999 2001 2002 2002

7 9 5 5

1.1.4

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INDICATORS 1.2.1 Population with access to safe water (%) - Total - Urban - Rural 1.2.1 Population with adequate excreta disposal facilities (%) - Total - Urban - Rural 1.2.1 Solid waste collection (% of total waste generated) - Urban - Rural 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.2 Proportion of urban population served by municipal solid waste collection (%) Proportion of urban population served by sewerage system (%) Metro Manila Proportion of population with electricity (%) Poison center service (Y/N list, year) Poison Control Center University of the Philippines-Philippine General Hospital Poison Control & Information Service Network UP-PGH Chemical emergency preparedness (Y/N list, year) Proportion of population living in informal settlements (%) Presence of building regulations and inspection (Y/N list, year) Number of registered vehicles Rate (number per 100,000 population) Number of registered motorcycles Rate (number per 100,000 population) 1.2.6 Presence of government/private laboratories and equipment for monitoring Drinking water (Y/N; G/P) Water resources (Y/N ; G/P) Ambient air (Y/N ; G/P)

DATA

Year

Source

86.8 88 64

1998 1998 1998

26 26 26

66.8 75.9 57.7

1996 1998 1998 2003

26 26 26 11 33

70 40 80-100 7

2003 2003 2002 2000

11 25

1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3

90

2003

32

2003

29

1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.4 1.2.5

N 30 Y 4 292 272 5610.80 1 552 579 2029.50 Y Y; G,P Y; G,P Y; G,P 2003 2003 2003 2003 13 13 13 13 2004 30

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INDICATORS Noise (Y/N ; G/P) Radiation (Y/N ; G/P) 1.2.7 1.3.1 Presence of government/private system for data collection and processing (Y/N; G/P) Proportion of population using solid/biomass fuels for cooking or heating (%) Proportion of vehicles using diesel (%) Proportion of vehicles using unleaded gasoline (%) Average number of times national air quality standards are exceeded in a year: a. short-term (1-hour average) frequency of exceedance b. long-term (8-hour average) frequency of exceedance Average number of times national water quality standards are exceeded in a year a. In three major rivers b. In major drinking water supplies Industries generating wastewater (number) Solid waste generated (kg/per capita/day) Solid waste generated (tons per year) Proportion of recyclable solid waste (%) Biodegradable Non-biodegradable

DATA Y; G,P Y; G Y; G 85

Year

Source

2000

14

1.3.1 1.3.1 1.3.1

69.8 30.2 96 times out of 446 exceeded the national air quality guideline value in National Capital Region (NCR) (24 hrs. average) short term 1 7897 0.30 0.71 10 M

2003 2003 2003

13 13 40

1.3.2

2003 2004 2003 2003

34 37 35 35

1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.3 1.3.3

50.1 45.3 (Average of 5 LGUs in MM) 2.2 M 2948 10,293

2003

35

1.3.4 1.3.4 1.3.4 1.3.4 1.4.2 1.4.2 1.4.2 1.4.4 1.4.4

Toxic and hazardous wastes generated (tons/year) Industries generating toxic and hazardous wastes (number) Health-care waste generation (tons per year) Nuclear waste generation (tons per year) Cases of pesticide poisoning (number) Proportion of undernourished population (%) Prevalence of underweight children under five years of age (%) Motor and other vehicle injuries (number) Road traffic crashes: Number of accidents (within a year) Rate (Accident per 100,000 population)

2003 2003 2001

39 39 27

326 23 32 5018

2000 1998 1998 1998

29 5 22 6

16,418 21.46

2003 2003

13 13

16

INDICATORS Rate (Accident per 10,000 vehicle registration) Rate (Injuries per 10,000 vehicle registration) Rate (deaths per 100,000 population) 1.4.11.4.7 1. Diarrhea 2. Bronchitis/Bronchiolitis 3. Pneumonia 4. Influenza 5. Hypertension 6. TB Respiratory 7. Diseases of the heart 8. Malaria 9. Measles 10. Chickenpox 1.4.11.4.7 1. Diseases of the heart 2. Diseases of vascular system 3. Pneumonia 4. Malignant neoplasms 5. Accidents 6. Tuberculosis, all forms 7. Chronic obstructive 8. Diabetes mellitus 9. Other diseases of the respiratory system 10. Nephritis,nephritic syndrome and nephrosis Ten leading causes of mortality Ten leading causes of morbidity

DATA 38.25 18.87 1.3 Number Rate per 100,000 population 1085.00 891.70 837.40 641.50 408.70 142.20 60.40 52.00 31.40 31.30 Rate per 100,000 population 76.30 56.60 46.10 43.90 40.80 38.30 19.50 12.00 10.30 10.2 Number of deaths

Year 2003 2003 2003

Source 13 13 13

845 526 694 836 652 585 499 887 318 521 110 841 47 040 40 543 24 494 24 359 Number

2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001 2001

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

55 830 41 380 33 ,709 32 ,090 29 ,874 28, 041 14, 228 8,819 7,516 7,453 Number of cases

1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998 1998

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

1.4.5

Tuberculosis (All types)

118,408

2002

20

17

INDICATORS 1.4.5 1.4.6 1.4.6 Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart diseases Acute respiratory infections Hepatitis viral

DATA 6736 966

Year

Source

C: 2001 D: 1998

8 6 8 8 6 8 6 6 20 20

1.4.6 1.4.6

Cholera Typhoid fever (and paratyphoid fever)

333 15,757

1120

2001 C: 2001 D: 1998

1.4.6

Diarrhoeal diseases

845,526

4606

C: 2001 D: 1998

1.4.7 1.4.7 1.4.7 2 2.1.1

Plague Malaria Dengue/DHF Legal, Policy, and Institutional Structure National environmental health policy (Y/N list, year) PD 856 - Sanitation Code of the Philippines National environmental policy (Y/N list, year) Constitution, Article XII Cabinet Resolution No. 37: Philippines Strategy for Sustainable Development Policies to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (Y/N list, year) RA 9211 - Tobacco Regulation Act National policies for healthy settings (such as healthy cities) (Y/N list, year) Administrative Order No. 341 Philippine Health Promotion Programme through Healthy Places Environmental/Health Acts promulgated: (Y/N list, year) a. Water b. Air c. Solid Waste d. Toxic chemicals/Hazardous Waste e. Others PD 1152 - The 1977 Philippine Environment Code PD 600 - The Marine Pollution Decree of 1974

37,005 16,156 Y

1 71 183

1998 2002p 2002

2.1.1

Y 1987 1989 Y 2003 9 9 12

2.1.1

2.1.1

1997

12

2.1.2

2004

12 15

1977 1974

18

INDICATORS PD 979 - The Marine Pollution Decree of 1976 PD 981 National Pollution Decree of 1976 PD 1067 - The Philippine Water Code PD 856 - Sanitation Code of the Philippines PD 1586- Environmental Impact Statement System RA 6969- Toxic and Hazardous Waste Act RA 8749- The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999 RA 9003- The Ecological Solid Waste Management RA 9275- Philippine Clean Water Act of 2004 EIA as an official requirement (Y/N list, year) HIA as part of EIA requirement (Y/N list, year) Policies for decentralization such as for environmental health and monitoring (Y/N list, year) RA 7160 Local Government Code Department of Health Administrative Order No. 18: Devolution of health services to local government units (LGU) Policies for privatization such as for environmental health and monitoring (Y/N list, year) Organizational structure for environmental health (separate sheet) List of agencies and partners for environmental health other than government
Philippine Environmental Journalists Inc. (PFEJ) Wildlife Foundation of the Philippines Haribon Foundation Green Forum Philippines Crusade for Sustainable Environment Likas, Tao at Kalikasan

DATA

Year 1976

Source

1976 1976 1975 1978 1990 1999 2000 2004

41

2.1.2 2.1.2 2.1.3

Y Y Y

1978 1997

15 12

1991 1992

12 12

2.1.3

2.2.1 2.2.2

Y Y

2.2.3 2.3

List of government agencies and their functions (separate sheet as Annex 1) Relevant international conventions/agreements (List, year signed/ratified)

Y Y 2004 9

19

INDICATORS Philippines is a party to: UN Framework Convention on Climate Change


DATA Signed Ratified Signed Signed Ratified Entered into force Signed Ratified Entered into force

Year 1992 1994 05/27/04 1998 1993 1994 1988 1991 1991

Source 36

Stockholm Convention on POPs

Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone Layer

The Philippine signed: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) Kyoto Protocol

Signed Ratified Signed Ratified

06/12/92 08/02/94 04/15/98 11/20/03

Convention on Biological Diversity (12

June 1992
UN Framework Convention on Climate

Change (12 June 1992)


Convention to Combat Desertification Convention on International Trade in

3 3.1

Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer Law of the Sea Marine Dumping Nuclear Test Ban The Philippines signed: Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeKyoto Protocol Human Resources Development Programs Environmental Health Workforce Pollution Control Officer (accredited) Tertiary degrees related to environmental

7,279 Y

2004

37 21

3.2

20

INDICATORS health (Y/N list) BS Environmental Health (UP) BS Sanitary Engineering (MIT) MS Public Health (UP) MS Environmental Engineering (UP) Short courses and duration related to environmental health (Y/N list) Short course for sanitary inspectors Certificate course on toxic and hazardous waste management (UP) Government certification for environmental workforce (Y/N list) Government board examination for licensure for sanitary engineering Professional associations related to environmental health (Y/N list, memberships) Sanitarians Association of the Philippines more than 3,000 members Pollution Control Association of the Philippines, Inc (PCAPI) Philippine Association of Environmental Assessment Professionals (PAEAP) Philippine Environmental Industry Association (PEIA) Samahan sa Pilipinas ng mga Industriyang Kimika (SPIK) or Chemical Industries Association of the Philippines (76 firms) Safety Organization of the Philippines (SOPI) Philippine Business for the Environment (PBE) International associations local affiliates (Y/N list, memberships) Air and Waste Management Association Priority Environmental Health Issues Soil erosion (mm/year) Fertilizer consumption (metric tons/year) Pesticide consumption (metric tons/year) Banned pesticides used (number) Water resources withdrawal for irrigation (annual withdrawal as percentage of total water resources) Irrigated agricultural area (1000 ha) Inputs from Chapter 1 Carbon dioxide emissions (ktons CO2)

DATA

Year

Source

1975 Y 21

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.4

4 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

723,020

2002

19

72.6

1996

23

4.1 4.2 4.6 4.6

1,550

2001

19

100,738 ktons of CO2

1999

38

21

INDICATORS 4.6 Consumption of ozone-depleting CFCs (ODP metric tons)

DATA 2,049 1,644 1,422

Year 2001 2002 2003

Source 22

Notes: Data not available. est. Estimate C Cases D Deaths p Preliminary Sources: 1 2003 Philippine Statistical Yearbook, National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) 2 Population Commission _Department of Health (DOH) http://www.popcom.gov.ph 3 2003 ESCAP Population Data Sheet http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/statind/index.asp 4 National Statistical Coordination Board http://www.nscb.gov.ph 5 2004 Human Development Reports http://www.undp.org 6 1998 Philippine Health Statistics, National Epidemiology Center Department of Health (DOH) 7 Department of Agriculture - http://www.da.gov.ph 8 2001 Field Health Service Information System (FHSIS) Department of Health (DOH) 9 United Nations Environment Program, Regional Resource Center for the Asia and the Pacific (UNEP RRCAP) - http://www.rrcap.unep.org/ 10 National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) 11 Environmental Management Bureau (EMB), National Solid Waste Management Commission (NSWMC - http://www.emb.gov.ph/ 12 Department of Health (DOH) - http://www.doh.gov.ph/ 13 Land Transportation Office (LTO), Department of Transportations & Communications - http://www.lto.gov.ph 14 2004 World Health Report - http://www.who.int/whr/en/ 15 Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) http://www.denr.gov.ph/ 16 DOH Field Health Service Information System 17 DOH Field Health Service Information System Annual Report 2000 18 Information provided by WHO Representative for the Philippines, 22 February 2004 19 Food and Agriculture Organization Statistics - http://apps.fao.org/default.jsp 20 Tuberculosis Cases 2002, data provided by Stop TB and Leprosy Unit, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific Tuberculosis Control in the WHO Western Pacific Region 2003 Report

22

Malaria and Dengue cases and deaths, data provided by Malaria, Vectorborne and Parasitic Diseases Unit, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 10 March 2004 21 University of the Philippines (Diliman UPD; Manila UPM) - http://www.up.edu.ph/ 22 Asian Development Bank Statistics - http://www.adb.org/statistics/ 23 Philippine Environment Monitor, World Bank 2000 24 Philippine Environment Monitor (Solid Waste), World Bank 2001 25 Philippine Environment Monitor (Water Quality), World Bank 2003 26 National Health and Demographic Survey-DOH-NSO 1998 27 Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project [TA 3848PHI], Final Report, Volume 8, Medical Waste Management, September 2003 28 Built Operate and Transfer Center- Office of the President 2003 29 Poison Control Centers 2003 30 Housing Need Projection: 2001-2004, Housing and Urban Coordinating Council 31 1995 Census Based National, Regional and Provincial, Population Projection,NSO 32 Department of Energy, Web site- http://www.doe.gov 33 Metro Manila Solid Waste Management Project ADB 34 EMB 35 NSWM Status Report 36 Philippine Senate/DFA 37 EMB-Regional Accomplishment Report 38 38. Phil. Institute National Convention on Climate Change 39 EMB Regional Office report 40 Metro Manila TSP sampling 41 The President in the exercise of the legislative power

23