a*?.
/o
m***^m
i l in
r m
HE
PREFACE.
HAjingfer
dijlike
a long time cbfervd, that mo(l of thofe that take in hand the Elements Euclid, art apt to
of
them,
to
difcern
what end
incon
fiderabk) and
conduce
ble piece
/ thought I fhould do an
of Service, in not only rendring them as eafie as pojjible, but alfo adding to
tach Proportion a brief Account offbme TJfe that is made of them in the other Parts of
the
Mathematicks.
In
profecuting
which
Dejign,
I have
that feenid too intricate and perplex d, and above the ordinary Capacity of Beginners, and to fubflitute others
Demonftrations,
more
intelligible
in their (lead.
For
the
fame
reafon,
I have
Book, after a Method much more clear than that by Equimultiples, I formerly nfed.
would
PREFACE.
r
would not
ZJfes that
of thefe Proportions: that^ would have obliged me to have comprised the whole Body Mathema
all the
To have done
of
ticks in this one Book^ 3 which would have render* d it both too large, and too
difficult.
But I have contented my felf with the choice of fuch as may ferve to point out fome of the Advantages they afford us, and are alfo in themfelves moji clear, and moji eafie to be I have diftinguifh' d them by apprehended, * Inverted Comma's, that the Reader may know them not defiring he [hould dwell too
s
long upon them, or labour to under{land them perfectly at fir ft, fince they depend on the
Principles
of
This therefore being the Defign of this fmall Treatile, 1 voluntarily offer it to the Publicly in an Age whoje C cuius fee ms more
addiBed
to
the
Inftead
of the Author's
Italian
Chara&er.
Eight
[I]
Eight Books
OF THE
Elements of
The Ufe of
..^^
,
EV CLIT>.
the Propofitions:

Together with
ll,
.i
rill
MB"
'
_^^__^
and the Explication of the moft Terms. To thefe he adds fbme ordinary
Definitions,
TH
:
E Defign of m this Book, is to lay down the Firft Principles of Geometry ; and, to do it methodically, he begins with
EUCLID
Toftitlata
thofe
known
Maxims
us
;
without a Demon/Oration, but to convince every Man, even the moft obflinate, that will grant nothing, but what is extorted
from
treats
him. In the firft Propofitions, he of Lines, and the different Angles, which are fornAJ by their Concourfe ; ana having occafion to compare divers Triangles
'
toge
^together, in order.. to. demQaarare^ihe Proof Angles, he makes that the Bufif perries nefs of the eight firft Then folt Propofitions.
lowfome
vide"
Practical Inftrugion?,
how
to di
an Angle and a Li into two Parts, and to draw a Nex% he (hews the
c
1
Perpinjku\ar. Properties of a" Triangle, together with thofe cf Parallel Lines ; and having thus ftni(h 3 d the
1
'
Explication of this firft Figure, he pafles on to the Parallelograms, teaching the manner
*
*
* angle the Square of the Bafe Square of both the other Sides.
*
of reducing any Polygon, Multangular Figure, into one more regular. Laftiy, He finishes the Firft Book with that famous Propofirion of Pythagoras, That in every Retlangular Tri*
"
is
equal to the
He
calls that
i,
is is
commonly
call'd
the Hypdtemft,
right Angle,
oppofice to the
DEFINITIONS.
I.
'
J\
this
Point
is
that
c
c
*
4 *
This Definition muft be understood in Senfe : That Quantity, which we cor* ceive without diftingui thing its Parts, or to much as confidering whether or no it has any , is a Mathematical Point ; which is therefore very different from thofe of
Zm%
'
1
'
indivifible, and therefore fuch, that we may reafonably doubt whether they are poffible ; but the former we cannot doubt of, if we conceive them aright.
'
1
' 6 c
'
Length without Breadth. this Definition is the fame with the former : That Quantity, which we conceive as Length, without refle&ing on its Breadth or Thicknefs, is that which we underftand by a Line ; though it be impoffible to draw a real Line, which will not be .of a certain Breadth. 'Tis commonly that a Line is produc'd by the Motion (kid, of a Point Which ought to be carefully ob2.
'
A Line
is
The Senfe of
' *
ferv'd
for
Motion
may on
that
manner
c
c 1 c
produce any Quantity whatfoever : But here, we muft imagine a Point to be only Co mov'd, as to leave one Trace in the Space through which it pafles, and then that Trace will be a
Line.
3.
The two Extremes of a Line are Points. 4. A right Line is that, whofe Points are qually placed between the two Extremes.
i c
e~
Or
thus.
right Line
is
can be drawn from one Point to another. Or yet ; the Extremes of a right Line may call a Shadow upon the whole Line.
5*.
which
6.
or Surface, is a Quantity to attributed Length and Breadtb 9 ivitbout the Consideration af any Thicknefs.
Superficies,
is
The Extremes of a
7.
^
7.
is
that,
whofe
;
its
two Extremes
be every
may
way
A
i
D
i
^
and that
that
c
have before obferv'd, That may produce any Quantity whatfoever Accordingly we fay, when one Line moves over another, it produ
I
Motion
Affinity
with Arithmetical Suppofe Multiplication. then the Line A B to pa/s along the Line BC, retaining ftill the fame S'tuation, without any Inclination to one fide or other : The Point A will defcribe the Line AD, the Point B the Line B C, and the intermediate Points the Lines parallel to thofe, which will make up the Superficies A BCD. I add further,
That
this Motion anfwers to Arithmetical Becaufe, did I know the Multiplications Number of Points that are contain'd in both thofe Lines, A B, and by Multiplying
them together,
find a Produ & , which would give me the Number of Points which conftitute the whole Superficies A B C D. As for Example ; If A B contain'd four Points, and B C Six, by faying, four
1
DC;
mould
times
fix
whole Superficies
four Points.
Now
by a Mathematical1 Point,
may
may
e.
<
g>
into Parts.
8.
A Vlaln
Angle,
the
Diftance or opening
other, fo as not to
com
c
1
*
9.
betwixt the As the Diftance Lines A B, and BC; which are not Parts of the fame Line. c Retlilineal Angle is the Di
fiance betwixt
'
two Right
of
Lines.
'Tis chiefly
this
fort
of
C

c
'
'
Angles that I would be underftood at prefent y which I define by Difiance or Opening, becaufe Experience teaches, that the greateft part of
Beginners deceive themfelves in Mea faring the greatnefs of an Angle, by that of the Lines within which it is contain'd. * The Angle that is more
c
c
^
/
^^
open,
'
is
is,
'
when
*
c
Angle lie more apart from [?>. each other than thofe of
another,
taking
them
is
at
greater than
* "'**"
*
'
'
<
Accordingly the Angle A is greater than the Angle E ; becaufe taking the Points and B as remote from the Point A, as the
Points
6
Points
Points
other,
the
lie
than the Points G and L: From whence I infer, that ifthe Lines EG and EL were produc'd farther, the Angle E would be always of the fame Largenefs, and always lefs
than the Angle A.
ufe three Letters when we fpeak of an of which the Middlemoft denotes the Angle, Point of Concourfe: As the Angle is the Angle which by the Lines B A and is formed at the Point A The Angle B A is that made by the Lines BA and AC The Angle C A is compriVd by the Lines C A and A D. * A Circle is the Meafure of an Angle. Therefore to know the Magnitude of the Angle BAD; I place the Foot of the Compafs upon the Point A, and defcribe the Cir4
farther apart
from each
We
BAD AD
C
cle
BCD
The Angle
is
fo
much
the greater,
Arch, that meafures it, contains : And becaufe a Circle is ufuallv divided inro %o Parts or Degrees, therefore an Angle is faid
to have Twenty, Thirty, Forty Degrees, according as the Arch, compris'd betwixt the Lines that form it, contains To many. So the Angle is the greater, which contains more Degrees, as the Angle is greater than the Angle GEL. The Line divides
*
*
c

BAD
;
c 4
the Angle
BAD
CA
in
Arches
BC
and
CD
'BAG
The
*
*
Firft Book.
becaufe part bf the Angle is pare of the Arch B D. Arch B the io. When one Line falling upon another makes
is
BAC
BAD,
and
' c
1
Line AB, placed upon the Line CD, and makes the Angles
_A
E<
ABC
is,
*
1
ABD
equal
that
if
ha
'CAD from the Centre B, the Arches A G and A D are equal The Angles ABC and ABD are called Right Angles, and the
c
:
ving
defcrib'd
Semicircle
*
4
c
* 1
Line AB Perpendicular, Therefore becaufe is a Semicircle, the the Arch are each of them a Arches C A and quarter of a Circle, that is the fourth Part
CAD
AD
fixty
Degrees, that
is
1 1. An Ohtufe Angle is that which is greater than a Right one. 1 is an Obtufe or Blunt As the Angle c becaufe its Arch E contains more Angle ; s than a quarter of a Circle; <
EBD
AD
12. An Acute Angle is that which is lefs than a right one. c As the Angle is an Acute; becaufe the Arch E C, which meafures has lefs it, than ninety Degrees.
EBC
13.
Term
is
the extremity
or
end of any
,.
Quantity.
limited
If.
to be
Circle
the encompajjing
a Thin Figure, terminated by of one Lin?^ which is calFd the and is every where equally remote
is
<
c
c c
The Figure
;
RVSX
all
18
Circle
becaufe
the
Lines
RVSX,
%
is
are
1 7. Circle, is any Line pafof the Centre, and terminated at the Cirfing through cumference) dividing the Circle into two equ.il
The Diameter
Parts.
6
*
c
VTX
As the Lines V T X, and R T S. But if any (hould doubt, whether the Line
c
'
does indeed divide the Circle into two equal Parts, fo that the Pare VSX be equal it to the Part V ; may on this manner be
RX
prov'd.
c
VRX
to be p!ac d
upon
c
the other
VSX:
one
C
4
<
1
c c
one the other. Forifonefuppofe V S X exceed the other VRX, the Line T R will be lefs than TS ; and inlikemanthan TY, which is V ner contrary to the Definition of a Circle, which affirms all the Lines drawn from the Centre to the Circumference to be equal.
TZ
1 8. Stmt circle is a Figure terminated by the Diameter j and half the Circumference.
19. Rectilineal Figures are fuch as are terminated by right Lines, having Three, or Four, or Five, or as many Sides as you pleafe.
'
*
20.
that
An
which has
A
B
ABC.
2T.
angle,
qt*al
* :
An
is
'
Ifbfceles,
or
Equicrural Trie
that
AC
an
22.
ABC
is
Scalenum
is
a Triangle
having
CHI.
:to
D
E
is
that
which has one Right Angle. E F, fiippofing the Angle :;* As ' to be a right One.
24.
An
Ambligone,
Triangle,
is
or
Ob~
that
tufeangle
IGH.
is
;
An?U *
or
ObtuCe\ J
2f.
all
4n Oxygone,
Triangle^
Acute
ReB angle ( properly 10 a Figure out confining of f Sides, and having all its Angles Right.
26. caird )
is
27.
its
;
Sides
EB,
qual>
Angles Right
as
D
28.
An
Oblong
ReB angle
its
has
its
Angles Right ;
gles
as
E F.
go,
Rhomboides,
hath
;
or
Obits
long
Lofange,
both
<jj
GH,
'
%i % Other
The
caU'd Trapefia.
3
2. Parallel
Flrfi
Book
H
B
Lines are
A
_
q
A B, CD.
a
%%>
Parallelogram
is
A
I
H
j
B
I
two
'
oppofite
Sides
gure
1 *
A BCD,
c"G
f^fe
^<L/
AB,
CD;
and
AC, B D,
are parallels.
34. The Diameter of a Parallelogram is a right Line drawn from one Angle to another ; as BC.
The Complements are the two fmall ParaU which the Diameter does not lelograms, through as AFEH, and GDIE. pafs;
g
DEMANDS,
1.
or
SUPPOSTIONS.
>HTMS
JL
another.
2. That a Right Line may be cominu'd to what Length you pleafe.
3.
That
11
may
MAXIMS,
1.
/
or
AXIOMS.
third,
are equal betwixt themfelves. 2. If equal Quantities be added to thofc that are equal, the Produfts will alfo be
JL
equal.
;. If
thofe that
equal Quantities be taken away from are equal, the Remainders will be
equal.
4. If you add equal Parts to Quantities unequal, they will remain unequal. y. If from equal Quantities you take away unequal Parts, the Remainders will be une
qual.
6. Quantities that are
druple,
&c.
in
among
7.
themfelves.
Thofe Quantities are faid to be equal, which being apply'd one to the other, neither
exceeds.
Equal Lines and Angles being plac'd one upon another, do not furpafs each other.
8.
Whole
greater than its Part. right Angles are equal to one anois
ther.
Let
*3
Let
the
two
*
< 1 1
<
c
pos'd be
I
ABC,
**
'
CAD, HEG, be defcrib'd from the Centres B snd F the fourth Parts of thofe Circles C A, HE, which are the Meafures of the Angles, ABC, EFH, will be equal:
;
Therefore the Angles ABC, E equal Meafures, will be equal. The eleventh Maxim of
F G,
having
Euclid is to this EtFeft. If two Lines A B, C D, being cut by a third E F, make the Internal
A B, being right Angles; the Lines will at length concur towards the produced,
two
Points
c
Angles, BEF,
DFE,
lefs
than
CD
B and D.
Which, though it be true, is notcleirenough to be receiv'd for a Maxim; ther^foie I have fubftituted another in its Place. n. If two Lines be parallel, all the Perpendiculars contained betwixt them will be equal. c As for Examples If the Lines
:
AB,
c
4
CD,
AE
For
c
c
the Lines
were greater than GH, C F H D would be and C more remote from each other towards the Points E and Fj than towards G and H; which
EF
AB
would
14
*
4
*
fnid, they are fuch as always the fame Diftance, rneafui'd by keep Perpen
*
>
diculars.
12.
Two
;
Space
jt
that
en allSide c
ig.
mon
Right Lines cannot have one comSegment. 4 By which I mean, That two
4
c
Two
4 4
4
PJght Lines, fuppofe A B, and B, meeting at the Point B, cannot together make one fo!e LineBD; but cutting one ano
other, feparate again immediFor, if you deately after their Rencounter. fcribe a Circle from the Point B as a Centre,
AFD
will be a Semicircle; becaufe the Line ABD, palling through the CenRight tre B, will divide the Circle into two equal will be alfb a The Segment Parts. will be alfb a Semi circle ; becaufe
CBD
CFD
Right Line, and will pais through the Centre B Therefore the Segment will be to the Segment AFD, the Part to the equal whole ; which is repugnant to the ninth
:
CFD
Maxim.
APVE R
1 5
Advertisement.
*
c '
'
'"T^Here are two forts of propofirions. In Tome we have nothing but rhe bare Speculation ofa Truth without defcending to Prain others fomedice, which we call Theorems is proposed to be done, and thofe are thing
CalI'd Problems,
c
The
flrft
denotes
c
1
As by the Propofitions, the fecond the Book. the 2. of the 3. trm is, by the fecond PropofiBut if only one Numtion of the third Book ber occur, it flgnifies fuch a Propoficion of the Book you are then upon.
:
c 1
*
PROPOSITION
A
I.
Problem.
Line given.
be propos\i for the Bafe from the Equilateral Triangle Centre A at the Diftance A B defcribe the Circle BCD; and likewife from the Centre B ac the Diftance BA defcribe the Circle AC, cotB z ttn^ of LET
the Line
AB
an
The Elements of Euclid. Then draw the ting the former at the Point C. Lines A C and B C, and all the Sides of the
Triangle
ABC
will
be equal.
Demonfiration,
Lines A B and C, being drawn from the fame Centre A to the Circumference of the
The
being drawn from the Centre B to the Circumference of the Circle and B C beLa%, The Lines ing equal to the fame Line A B, are alfo equal between themfelves. All the three Sides therefore of the Triangle are equal.
BCD,
;
CAD.
AC
ABC
The
'
USE.
1 c
'
two following
But
it
may
be
ferviceable'for the
an inacceffible Line
measuring
A
a
In fuch a Cafe make fmaJI Equilateral E either of Triangle B Wood or Copper, or the like ; and having
placed
it
TJ
angle along the divers parts Of the fame Line; 'fill at length vou find a Point C, upon which placing the Triangle you mall fee rhe Point B, bv the Side
B D, and any other Point Then transfer your TriLine B C, and place it upon
C G,
and the Point A by the Side C F. I fay, CB and CA for AC) are equal; fo that by meafuring the Line B C, you may know the Line A B. I might further demonftrate, that the Lines AB and BC are equal
The Lines
7.
but let it fuffice, that in this Propofltion, you are taught the way of making an Inftrumenc proper to take the Dimenfions of an inacceffible Line.
v..
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
From a Point given,
to
II.
C*
to
A~'
Take with the Compafs the Length of the Line A, and at that Interval, making B the Centre,
defcribe the Circle
A~
the
CD.
B
3
*
U.
3>
>
5k
Ss
yr
Cf
(*X
hf%
The Elements of Euclid. the Point B t ) which Side you pleafe, a Line B I or B D, 'tis evident it will be equal to the
1
Line A. ' Euclid propofes a more myilerious and in* c tricate Method of demonftrating this Propofi1 tion but in Pra&icft we alwavs make ufe e of this: Inafmuch as, having taken with the * Compafs the Line A, 'tis as eafie defcribing c a Circle from the Centre B, as from the Cen;
tie A.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
From a Greater Line
to
in.
a Part SUppofe B I,
you were to take from the Line B C Take beequal to the Line A.
twixt the Points of the Compafs the Length of the Line A, and at the Diftance from the Centre B defcribe a Circle, which (hall cut the Line
BC
'
at the Point
I.
!>
The
is
* *
c *
ons
are frequently oblig'd in Pratlical Geometry to draw one Line equal to another, and to take a Part of a greater Line equal to a Line
that
is lefs.
PRO'PO
*9
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
IV.
If two Triangles have two Sides equal, each to and the Angles alfo , the other r effectively,
formed by
thofe
thtir Bzfes
and
other
Angles
be equal.
the
Triangles
ABC,
refpe&ively
that
is
to fay,
Let
and
AB AG
be equal to
to
D E,
lee
C^~>&
v
EF
DF;
and
DEF,
the Augles B A C, EDF, form'd bv thofe Sides, be alfo equal : I fay, The Bafes B C, arc and the Angles ABC, equal; ACB, are equal; and Jaftly, The whole Tri
DEF;
Demonfir a' ion. E F to be plac'd, upon Suppofe the Triangle the Triangle ABC; the SideDE being upon A B, they will not exceed each other, becaufe they are fuppos'd to be equal ; ib that the Point E will be upon B. and the Point upon the Pbint A. For the fameReafon the Line will
DF
fell
upon AC.
JF^r
if it
(hould
fall
on the Outfide
B 4
20*
DF
if it
fall
within
A C, the Angle E D F
would be
are fuppos'd to be equal. Therefore fin ce the is F Point upon the Point A, and the Line falls upon the Line A C, to which it is equal,
not exceed each other, but the Point F upon C. Laftly, Since the Points E and F of the Line EF, fall upon B and C; the Line EF will fall upon BC; becaufe it can neither fall higher, as in BHC, nor lower, as in for then two Right Lines would enclofe
they
will
will fall
BGC
Space
is contrary to the twelfth Therefore the two Triangles do not at all exceed each other. But not only the Bafcs BC, EF, but aifo the Angles ABC, DEF,
;
which
Maxim.
and
A C B,
An
and
D F E,
are equal.
CoroU.
Equilateral
Triangle hath
all
its
Angles equal.
The
USE.
c
Suppofe
l c
AB.
ferve
ob
from
c'
c *
the Point
C,
Tfe
ly
Firjl Book.
2i
A and B, I draw two to the Rule, which make the Lines according G ^ and meafure with a Yard the Lines
by a Rule the Points
Angle
A G, and B C, which are fuppos'd acceflible. Then going into an open Field, and placing my Board again horizontally upon the Point F, and obferving the Lines that I drew upon it,
make an Angle DFE equal to I make Jikewife FD, FE, equal
the Angle C.
to
CA, C
B.
Then, according to this Propofition, the Lines B B, and E, are equal. So that meafuring by
D E,
I (hall
know
Another
i
USE.
to hie
ferve to
how
Bowl
at Billiards
by Re
which you would hit at the the BilliardTable. Imagine Point B, and then a Perpendicular BD E, and take the Line
CD
A
D E equal to B D.
trorn the Point
I fay, If
you
direct the
Bowl
ry it to B. For in the Triangles B F D, EFD,' the Side being common, and the Sides B and E equal ; as alfb the Angles B F and EDF Right Angles, the Angles BFD>EFD are
FD
The Angles AFC equal, by this Propofition. FB, being oppofite, are alfb equal, as I (hall
'
demon
12
* *
c
c
demonftrate hereafter. Therefore the Angle of Incidence AFC, is equal to the Angle of Reflection BFD; and by confequence the Refle&ion will be by A F B.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
V.
In Ifofceles, or Eyuicrural Triangles^ the Angles that are above the Bafe are equal ; as alfo thofe
that are below
it.
the
LET ABC,
let the
Ifofceles
is
be
that
to fay,
Sides
I
AB and AC
Anare
that
be equal.
gles
fay, the
ABC, ACB
;
equal
HI
KglesGBC, HCB,
B C.
Suppofe another Triangle DEF, having the Angle equal to the A and the Sides DE, Angle equal to A B,
;
D DF
AC.
DF
are equal,
all
the
will be equal.
Demonftration.
Since the Sides
are
the
equal
and
if
Triangle
23
be plac'd upon ABC, they Triansle E exceed each other, but the Line will not and EF upDF upon AC; will fall upon AB; C (by the 4 ri. ) therefore the Angle on B And becaufe one part of will be equal to I E falls upon A B, the whole Line the Line otherwife two Right Lines will be upon AG; therefore the would have a common Segment; B C. Suppofe then be equal to Angle I E F will E F turn'd, and apply'd another
DEF
DEF
D
ABC
the Triangle D
way
upon AC. upon AB, and AC, DE, are Since the four Lines AB, DF, A and D: The Trithe Angles equal; as alfo and the Triwill likewife agree this way,
to the Triangle
ABC;
that
is
DF
mav
fall
DE
to fay, fa as
angles
angles
will
be
it apNow, by the comparing them, equal. was equal to the pear'd, that the Angle to IEF: Therefore and Angle ACB, being equal to the the Angles ABC, and GBC, HCB, alfo equal to fame themthe fame IEF, they are equal among
ABC
DEF;
GBC
DEF;
felves.
1
I
'
Demonftration
it
difficult,
PROPO
24
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
VI.
LET an
is
ABC, ACB
is
of the Triangle
I
ABC
fay,
it
Ifofceles
AG, which
equal.
to fay, the two Sides A B, are oppofne to the equal Angles, are
E F to have a Suppofe the Triangle Bafe EF equal to BC, and the Angle DEF equal to ABC, as alfo DFE equal to ACB: finee the Angles ABC, ACB are fuppos'd to be equal, all the four Angles ABC, ACB, DEF, DFE, will
be equal. Suppofe again therefore the Bafe E F to be plac'd upon the Bafe CB, fo that th Point
equal,
B, the Bafes being fuppos'd evident they will not exceed each other. Further, The Angle E being equal to the Angle B, and the Angle F to the Angle C; the will fall upon the Line B A, and F Line E
lie
it is
upon CA:
meet
:
at the Point A. is equal to B A. that the Line E F be turn'd to the Let then the Triangle other Side, and applied another way to the Tri
ED
ED
FD
angle
The
angle
lie
Firfi Book..
is
25
E upon C, and F will perfe&ly agree, being fuppos'd to be equal: And becaufe the Angles F, and B, E, and C, are aifo fuppos'd to be equal, the Side FD will fall upon B A, and E upon C A ; and the
ABC;
that
Point D. upon A. Therefore the Lines will be equal. Whence it follows, That the Sides
AC DE
AC,
AB
equal to the
The
f
c c 1
USE.
may
ferve
This Propofition
p^
was the
*
c
firft
JJIb ^^
the Sun be ele
c
1
may be done by
A
B;
lisk
do but expe&
'till
*
1 1
vated 4? Degrees above the Horizon ; that is ? to fay, cill the Angle A C B be 47 Degrees ; and, by this fixtb Propofition, the Shadow B C
1 * *
' *
for fince will be equal to the Obelisk A B. and the is a right Angle, the Angle half a Right one, or of 4? DeAngle will be half a Right grees ; the Angle
ABC ACB
CAB
Therefore one, as I (hall prove hereafter. the Angle B C A, B A C, are equal : and (by
1
the
26
;
the
I
making
:
tan alfo meafure the fame Height without life of the Shadow, by taking a Stand
far
for
Thefe Proportions are of frequent U(e in Trigonometry, and in all other Tra&s. 1 The Seventh Ptopofition may be omitted, ? becaufe cis ot no other life but to demonftrate the Eighth, which may be done without it.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
VIII.
their Sides equal, their If two Triangles have all will alfo be equal. cfpofete Angles
L
LV
ET
I
the Side
GI
LT;
to
be equal to
;
HI, to VT,
Angle
equal
GH,
will
GIH
to
fay,
That the
be
the
Angle
to the
LTV IGH,
From to the Angle V. Angle L; and the Centre H, at the Diftance I, defcribe the Circle IG; and from the Centre G, at the I. Diftance G I, the Circle
IHG
Demon
*T
Suppofe the Line LV brought upon HG; they would not exceed each other, becaufe they are I add, That the Point T fuppos'd to be equal. For ic will fall precifely upon the Point I ; to reach precifely to the Circumference of ought the Circle i G/ becaufe by the Suppofition the
Lines
Circle
equal.
H I and V T
I
manner
Ic ought in like are equal to reach to the Circumference of the are and H, becaufe the Lines will light upon the Point I, So then it
GI
LT
Circles cut' being the Point where thofe two each other. Indeed, if it fell any where elfe, as would upon O, the Line HO, that is to fay, VT, I ; and the Line G O, that is be greater than LT, would be lefs than GI ; which is againft Whence I conclude, That the the Suppofition. AnTriangles will exa&ly correfpond, and the
gle
GIH
LTV.
The
USE,
* This Proportion is neceffary for the Proof of thofe that follow. And further, When we cannot take the Meafure of an Angle, becaufe,
the Lines meeting in a Solid Body, we cannot apply our Inftruments to it ; we rnuft take the
three Sides of the Triangle, and make another upon a Paper, whofe Angles we may meafure.
This
is
or
28
1
or Dialling ; and in the Treatifes concerning cutting Precious Stones, fo as to fit the Pannels, and to retain the Waters.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To divide an Angle
into
IX.
two equal
Tarts,
T the Angle of S T be propos'd to be divided into two equal Parts. Take the Compafs, and from the Centre
LE
Lines T. Then draw S, the Right Line ST, and {by the i.) defcribe an Equilateral Triangle S T V. I fay, The Line V divides the Angle into two equal Parts ; that is
R, at any Diftance, draw the Arch ST, cutting off two equal
are equal.
Demonfiraiion,
Side
V R S, and VRT, have the V R common and the Side R T was taken equal to the Side RS The Bafe alfb S V is equal to V T, becaufe the Triangle S V T is equilateThe Triangles
;
:
ral.
Wherefore
?
V RT
( by the 8,
) the Angles S
R V,
are equal.
I
Tic
7k
'"
Ftrfi Book,
ZB
The
USE.
:
the This Proportion is very ufeful to divide of a Circle into Degrees For cis Fourth part an Angle the fame thing to divide an Arch as does into two equal Parts; and the Line Arches ST, the both; that is, It divides both and the Angle SRT. Having therefore apof 'd the Semi diameter to the fourth Part
RV
an Arch of 60 Degrees* which divided equally, gives an Arch of *o; makes one of 15 Deand that
ply a Circle,
you cut
off
a^airhdjvjded,
muft divide an Arch into three equal Parts, but Pilots that is not to be done Geometrically. Winds by the alfo divide the Compafs into $2
help of this Propofition only.
grees.
'Y is trueTtoHanUh
this Divifion,
we
P R
OPO
IT
ION
X.
A Problem.
To divide a Right Lint into two equal Parts.
the Line
<5
and divide the Angle ACE into two equal Parts by the Line DC, (by the 9 .) I fay, The Line A B is
divided equally at the Point
ABC,
iJ A /
\
\
.
:E
\n
*
\j/
that
go
that
is
are
equal
Demonftration.
.
E have the The Triangles A C E and B A and CB E common, and the Sides Side is equilaare equal, becaufe the Triangle teral ; and the Angle being divided
C ACB
and are alfo equally, the Angles Therefore ( by the 4. ) the Bafes A E equal. and B E are equal.
The
*
*
'
1
Great Ufe is made of this Propofition, ordinary Pra&ices frequently requiring us to divide a Line in the Middle, which Geometriclans require (hould be done exa&ly at the firft Da(b, by a Method that is infallible, and This Praftice is likewife not by EfTays. ufeful for dividing Meafures into principally
lefs
Parts.
PRO
3*
**
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
XL
To drajv a Perpendicular to a Line gvvm^ upon a given Point ef the jame Line.
you were
to raife
A\
t
a Perpendicular upon SUppofe the Point A in the Line B C Take two equal Lines, A B and A C, on both Sides the
_
'il
Point A, and
%,
is
BAD
CAD
Demonfiration.
The
Side
Triangles
BAD
BD
and
CAD
A
have the
:
common,
,(
the Sides
equal,
and
Therefore
Line
RO
32
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To draw a Perpendicular
Toint which
it
XII.
to
a Line.given^ from a
"
F you would
draw
a Perpen
'
J^
E
B C, from
N>*..L*>*'
X/ the c
Point
foot of the
\T>'
cut the Line BC, at the Then divide the Line B C Points B and C. I (ay, the into two equal Parts at the Point E. Line A E is Perpendicular to B C. Draw the
BC, which
Line
AB, AC.
Dimonftration,
The
Side
AE
Triangles
BE A,
and
CEA,
Sides
EC
equal, the Line B C having been equally divided at the Point E ; the Bafes A B and A C f being drawn from the Centre A to the Circumference BC, are likewife equal : Therefore the Angles are equal, {by the 8.) and the AEB, and A
EC
Perpendicular, {by Defa. io.) in Pra&ice, of dividing the Line in the Middle, is to defcribe two Arches at ID, ar the fame Interval, from the
Line
AE
The Method
BC
Centres
B and C.
7h
33
USE.
<
need of a Plummet or SquaringNo Angles : line almoft in all our Operations but the Right; and all are in life in Building
We have
<
1
<
and other Chairs, Benches, Tables, Buffets, framed by the Square. NoSurMoveables, are Ufe ot Land can be taken without making
vey
Dialling of Perpendicular Lines : Nor s without them. The Carpenter performed and the lame is Level contains a right Angle, other, efpecially by the preferr'd before any
French,
in
can
be
'
Laftly, Not only Fortification. alfo the greateft part Mathematicians, but that we (nould of practical Artifans, require
know how
to
draw a Perpendicular.
PROPOSITIONA Theorem.
One Line falling upon two right Angles,
Right
ones.
XIII.
another,
or
makes with
it
either
to
two
ther two right Angles, or two Anand the other Agles, one Obtufe,
(hall be cute, which join'd together, of equal Value with two Right ones.
jj
L
,
ET
i
the Line
AD fall
make
upon
with
EC
it
fay, 'Twill
ei
j
j
>
Demon
34
...
i,
AD
and
to fall perpendicularly
dtfin,
upon EC,
the Angles
then
'tis
D B,
evident (by
ADC,
by confequence
right Angles.
Or,
Secondly, Suppofe the Line not to fall perpendicularly upon B C, then having draw^ a Perpendicular A Angles right Angles equal Value
ED
the are
or
*r
which
with
are
ADE, EDB.
the three Angles ADC, But the Obrufe Angle EDC, and the acute Angle EDB. are ot equal Value with the three Angles ADC, ADE, and EDB: Therefore the Angles EDC, and EDB, are of equal Value with two Right ones. This Propoficion may be more eafily demonftrated, by defcribing a Semicircle from the Centre upon the Line B C. For the Angles and EDC, will require a Semicircle EDB, for their Meafure, which is the Meafure of two right Angles, as I have flhown before ( in the
8.
Dtfn. )
Corollary i. If the Line
right
Angle ADC; ir is evident, the be alfo a right Angle. B C, 2. If the Line ED, falling upon make the Angle Acute ; the Angle Ibe will be Cbtufe.
make one
ADB
will
EDB
EDC
35
USE.
<
of the means, when we know ore is made by one Line falling upAngles which we know alfo the other. As tor on another, be one of 70 If the Angle Example
By
this
EDB
<
Degrees, taking
will
away 70 from
180,
in
there
ihis
1
<
regain
no
EDC.
Trigone
'
'
and
Sun Annually
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Jf two Lines meeting
another Line,
to
XIV.
together
at the
make with
j
it
they
will
the Lines
C A,
and
D A to SUppofe meet at the Point A of the Line A B ; and that the Anand BAD, gles adjoining, CAB, are equal to two Right ones. I C A and DA are fay, The Lines but one and &e fame Line ; fo that
continued, will
fall precifely
CA
being
upon. A P*
Imagine
56
Imagine,
you
pleafe, that
and from
CA
Demonftration.
If
vou
CBE
fay that
will"
CAE
that the Angles CAB, and B A D, are equal to two Right ones, and that therefore their MeaTherefore the Arches fure is a Semicircle.
C BE
CBD
CA
will
be equal
which
is
irr>
Theremake but
A D.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XV.
cut each other, the Oppcfite If two ?Jght Lines * he equal. Angles at the Top will
*
jg
M\v%\iJ* Eucl.
au fimmet. Gall;
the Line
Poinr
LET E:
cut
fay,
A E C, and
D E B,
The Angles
which are
The JJne
C E falling
A B, makes
the
Ihe
the Angles
falling
Firfi Book.
37
two Right
EC
i ;.)
and
CEB equal to
upon
and
BED
equal
In like mannelr the Line B the Line CD, makes the Angle to Right ones. Therefore
E CEB
wo
taken together, are ethe Angles A EC, therefore taking \ qual to the Angles CEB, from both,the Angle away the Angle CEB will remain equal to DEB, ( by the ;. Maxim.)
CEB
BED
AEQ
two Lines DE, and EC, concurthe fame Point E of the Line AB. form ing at equal, with it the oppofite Angles A EC, make but one Right Line. and
Coroll. If
DEB
DE
EC
Demonftration.
TheLine
two Right the Angles A E C, and C E B equal to iikewife that ones, {by the 13O Tis fuppos'd is equal to the Angle A EC. the Angle to Therefore the Angles DEB, BEC, are equal the 14.J the Lines And ones. two
D EB
Right
and E
{by
CE
Line.
USE.
fitions
*
'
are made life of to make prove, that two Lines but one Total. As for Exam: In Catoptricks or Perfpepie
ftives,
*
*
where that is required to prove, that of all the Lines C that can be drawn bv Reflexion from the Point
t
8
1
7he
to
Elements ef Eticlid.
thofe
the Poinc B,
c
*
'
*
? *
*
Angle of Reflection. As for Example: If the be equal, the Lines and Angles and EB, are (horter than AF, and FB. AE,
BED
AEF
'BED
'
c *
B D, and and make the Lines equal ; then draw EG, and FC. Firft, In the Triangles and CED the Side D E is common ; and BC being equal, as and the Sides alfo the Angles BDE, and CDE; the Bafes BE and C E will be equal ; as alfo the Angles B ED, and DEC (by the 4 J In like manner, I may prove that B F and C F are equal.
From
the Poinc
d"?w a Perpendicular
BD
CD
BD
Demonftration.
'
The Angles
1 '
the Angles to be equal; therefore the oppofite Angles will be equal ; and (by the and one right Line ; and the is) Coroll. of is a Triangle, of which
BED and DEC are equal, and BED and AEF are fuppos'd likewife
DEC
AEF
by confequence
the Sides
AEC AFC
FC
AF
is
and and
;
f
f
c
AEC,
A
F,
that
to fay, than
the Lines
AF
FB
FC
and
fince
FB
And
pen
A F and A E and E B.
c
c
Natural Csufes always aft by the always hapfuch a manner, that the Angles of Re
fleftion
and Incidence
(hall
be equal.
'
Fur
The Firfi Book. 39 Becaufe we can eafily prove, that Further, all the Angles that can be made upon a Plane
*
about the fame Point, are equal rr> four right Angles, ( forafmuch as in the hrft Figure of and A E this Proportion, the Angles A E are equal to two Right ones, as alfo BEC and to two more) we make a general Rule B to determine what Polygones may be join'd in
ED
fay, that
Four
Squares, Six Triangles, and three Hexagones, may beufed for that Purpofe: And thar therefore Bees are always obfcrv'd to make their
little
that
is,
of Figures con
fifting
of hx Sides.
PROPOSITION
A Theore
M.
XVI.
The External Angle of a Triangle is greater than either of the Internal Ofpolite Angles.
the Side B C of Triangle A B C PRoduce
:
1 fay,
ACD
B A C.
angle
pofite Angles,
ABC,
or
ABC to be mov'd along the Line B f and carry'd inco the Place of C E D. Demon
40
'Tis impoffible that the Triangle be fo mov'd, but the Point A mutt
ABC mould
come
'twill
into
the place of the Point pear, that the Angle is lefs than the Angle
ternal Angle
;
;
and then
that
:
ap
CD
is
is
ACD
lefs
to fay,
ABC,
ABC
ACD.
is lefs
having
equal angle
ACD:
Angle A For
F,
as frr as
BC
F,
and
ACD,
arc
ABC
( by the if. )
BC
US$.
this Propofition
We may
draw from
many
ufeful Conclufions.
c
*
As firft, That from a Point given, anly one Perpendicular can be drawn to the fame Line. For Example: Sup'
AB
to be Per
\
*
That
AC
;
will
not be
Perpendicular
c
becaufe the
right
1
Angle A B D
than
muft be
*
\
Angle
ACB
greater therefore
the Internal
ACB
cannot be a
AC
a Perpendicular. * S:cond
The
Firft Book:
4*
the fame Point A Secondly, That from two equal Lines ; cannot be drawn more than and if you for Example, AC, and AD;
draw a
third as
AE/it
For
fince
will
to the former.
AC
"
i
equal, the Angles in the Triangle A EC, equal, (by the c.) but A C B is greater than the External Angle therefore litethe Internal A E C : And is greater than the wife the Angle A E D. Therefore the Lines A E, and
A CD,
AD ADC
ADE
;
Angle
A D,
nor by confequcnce
AC
AC makes the ^Thirdly, That if the Line and ACF Obtufe, the Acute, Angle from the Point A will Perpendicular drawn For it the acute Angle. fall on the fide of
ACB
you
ele
that
fay that
AE
is
a Perpendicular, and
;
* < *
*
and for maturing Parallelograms, Triangles to reduce them into RettanTrapefia, and gular Figures,
ACE
PRO
42
PROPOSITION
A Theorem,
Any two Angles
of
XVII.
Triangle are
ones,
lefs
than
two Right
fay, That any two of its Angles taken together, as B A C, and B C A, Proare lefs than two Right ones. duce the Side C A to the Point D.
LET
the Triangle be
ABC;
Demonftration.
The Internal Angle C is lefs than the External B A D, {by the 16. ) Add therefore to both
the Angle B A C; the Angles BAC, and BCA, will be lefs than the Angles BAC, and two Right ones, ( by yet thofe are but equal to Therefore the Angles BAC, and the i%.) BCA, are Ms than two Right ones. After the fame manner I can demonstrate the than two Angles ABC,. and ACB, to be lefs Side B C. Right ones, by producing the
BAD;
Cor oil. If one Angle of a Triangle be a Right, or Obtufe Angle, the other are Acute.
1
f This Propofition thofe that follow.
is
necefiary to demonflrate
PRO
The
Firfi Book?
43
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XVIII.
Side
is
ABC,
to
be
I
is
AC;
that
BAC,
jg
A C.
Line B
in
D,
fo that
C D may
A D
AC;
Demembration.
Since the Sides Triangle
ACD
be an
Angles
CD A,
and
A D,
equal.
Now
is
BAC
is
greater
than
the Angle
CAD:
BAC
which yet of the TriInternal B, angle A B D, is greater than the Therefore the Angle B A C is ( by the 16. ) greater than the Angle B, 6
greater than the Angle
;
CDA
in refpeft
PRO
44
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XIX.
is
oppos'd to
T ET
I
j
the Angle
Triangle B A
er than
^ fay,
The
ABC.I
which
of the be greatis
"oppos'd
greater than the Side the Angle B.
AC,
the
Demonfiration.
If the Side
AC,
and B
'tis
be not greater than the Side and then the Angles A ; would be equal ; {by the <;.) which is coneither equal
BC
trary to the Suppofuion : Or iefs, and if (b, the Side A C being greater than B C, the Anwould be greater than the Angle A, gle B
It
remains
ttie
BC
is
greater than
Side
AC.
the
USE.
'
We may
'
only that i
prove from thefe Propofitions, not no more than one Perpendicular can I
45
can be drawn from the fame Point to the fame Line ; but alfo that it is the fhorteft of As for Example If the all. r be Perpendicular to Line S T, it will be iefs than R S : Becaufe the Angle being a right Angle, the Angle R S V will be an Acute, (by the Corolt. s of the 17. J and the Line R V will be left than R S, (by the preceding.) Therefore Geometricians do always make ufe of a
:
RV
RVS
when they take the Dimenof any Thing, and reduce irregular Figures to fuch. as have one or more right
Perpendicular,
fions
more than
it being impoffible that three Perpendiculars fhould meet at the fame Point, it cannot be imagined that
Angles.
add, That
there mould be more than three Species or Kinds of Quantity, a Line, a Superficies, and a Solid Body.
'
By
thefe Propofitions
we
likewife proved
That a Bowl exactly round cannot reit, but For Example: upon fuch a certain Point.
fent
Centre of the Earth, and that CA be drawn Perpendicular to the Line A B ; I fay, That a Bowl being
placM upon the Point B, cannot reft there. For a heavy Body cannot it may reft, when
defcend.
46
*
'
* 1
mi
the Bowl 8 moving towards A, continually defcends, and approaches C becaufe in near the Centre of the the Triangle CAB, the Perpendicular
defcend.
Now
Emh
CA
* *
Shorter than
ficies
muft be round.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Any two
Sides of a Triangle
XX.
takm
togethtr, art
T L,
the
this
LV, ISav,
Side
are
greater
than
TV.
Propofition by the
of
which is the fhorteft that can be drawn from one Point to another Therefore
Right
Line,
:
the Line
TV
is
lefs
TL
and LV. But it may alio be demonftrated another way. Continue the Side V L to R, Co that the Lines L R and LT be equal ; then draw
the Line
R T.
Demons
4?
Sides L T, and L R, of the Triangle are equal ; therefore the Angle R, and But the Angle are equal ; ( by the j , ) : Thereis greater than the Angle than the Angle is fore the Angle greater R: And (by the 19.) in the Triangle V, the
The
L T R, L T R,
RTV
RTL
RTV
is
Side
RV,
that
RT LT and L V
T V
PROPOSITION
1
XXI.
A Theorem.
If a fmall Triangle be defcriPd within a greater upon the fame Bafe, the Sides of the fmall one will be lefs than thofe of the greater ; but they
will form a greater Angle*
LET
ACB,
defcrib'd within
ADB
be
Triangle
upon the fame Bafe AB* I fay, Firft, The Sides AC and BG are greater than the Sides AD and BD. A
Continue the Line
AD
to E.
Demonftration. In the Triangle ACE, the Sides AC, and are greater than the Side A E alone, (by the 20.)
CE
There
48
the
AG, and CEB, are greater than the In like manner in the Sides AE, and E B. B E, the two Sides BE and ED are Triangle greater than the Side B D alone ; and adding the Side AD, the Sides ADE, and EB, will and B D. be greater than A B is That the Angle A I fay further, than the Angle ACB: For the Angle greater
ADB
is
an external Angle,
Triangle
Internal
DBE, and
Angle
the Angle
manner
Angle
In like
external
in refpecl:
of the Triangle
DB
is
ACB.
The
'
USE.
this
By
the help
in
of
monftrate Opticks , viewed from the Point C, will appear than when it is beheld from the Point
D;
according to that Principle, That Quantities viewed under a greater Angle, will appear Therefore 'tis that Vitruvius adgreater. vifes, not much to lelfen the Tops of veryhigh PHlars; becaufe they being fo remote from our Sight, quickly appear (lender enough without being diminifhed.
PRO
49
a Triangle, whofe Sides [hall be equal Sides given, provided that any two of them be greater than the third,
defcribe
it
a Triangle, whofe Sides ihall be equal to three Lines given, AB, D, and E. Meafure with the
LET
be propos'd to defcribe
B,
Compafs
D, and fetting jy one Foot thereof upon the Point B, make an Arch. Then take the Line E, and placing the Foot of your Compafs upon the Point A, make another Arch, cutting the former at the Point C Which done, draw the Lines A C, and* B C. I fay, That the Triangle ABC
the Line
:
is
fuch a one as
you
defire.
Demonfiration.
it
is equal to the Line E, becaufe reaches to the Arch which is drawn from the Ce tre A at the Diftance of the.Line ; and for
The
Side
AC
C is equal to the Therefore the three Sides AC, B C, and A B, are equal to the Lines E, D, and A B. I added a Provifo, That the two Lines (hould be greater than the third ; becaufe otherwife,
the
Line
if
$o
if the
and
were
lefs
A B,
1
The
USE,
This Propofition may be ufeful for defcribing a Figure equal or like to another:
that, which is proposed be equalled, or imitated, into Triangles ; and made other Triangles, having equal Sides with the former ; we Lhall have a Figure But if we defire only one exa&Jy equal. that is like, but lefs, as when we would defcribe a Plain, or Country, upon Paper :
Having divided
fur'd all
their
Triangles;
it into Triangles, and meaSides, we muft make fimilar (6 giving to each of their Sides
Parts of a Scale, or Line divided into equal Parts, as the Sides of the Triangles proposed have of Yards or Feet.
many
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To wake an Angle equal
Line given.
III.
to another at a Toint
of $
to the
e
A of
the Line
A B,
/eF^X
and
%\ Firjl Boo\. two Arches B C, and E F, at the fame Wf3enefs tyf the Compafs ; then take the Diftance E F, and having meafured as much in B C, draw the Line AC. I fay, The Angles BAC, and EDF, are equal,
and
The
D as Centres,
Demonfiraiion.
Sides
BC and EF were defame Widenefs of the Compafs, the Bafes alfo B C and E F are equal ; are therefore the Angles and
DF;
fince the Arches
The Triangles ABC, and D E F, have the AB, and AC, equal to the Sides DE, and
BAC
EDF
equal, ( by the 8. )
The
This Problem
is
USE.
in
fo necefTary
and
Parts of the Mathematicks, that the greateft Part of their Operations would be impoffible, if we did not know how to make one Angle
Number
of
De
we
pleafe.
D4
PRO
52
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Of two
XXIV,
Triangles 5 having each two Sides e\ual to. the other ; that which has the greateft has alfo the Jingle, Bafe.
two of
greateft
AC
ET
the Triangles,
ABC, DEF
and DE, and let the
DF
be greater than the Angle EDF. I (ay, The Bafe BC Angle is greater than the Bafe EF.
BAC
equal
Make
the Line
the Angle
EDG
equal to
DG
BAC,
AC
;
(by the
23.) and
ABC and JD EG, haFirir, the Sides A B and D E, A C and DG, equal, ving and the Angle EDG equal to the Angle BAG their 'Bales BC and EG will be equal, (by the 4.) and tint Lines F)G and p F being both equal
EG.
The Triangles
;
to
AC,
will
uemonft ration.
In thQ Triangle DGF, the Sides and will be and beingequal, the Angles is lefs equal, ( by the $.) But the Angle is thr.ii the Angle DGF, %nd the EF Angle than the Angle Therefore in greater the
DG
DF
DGF,
DFG
EGF
DFG,
The
will be EF the Triangle E F And therefore greater than the Angle the 18 J the Line oppos'd to the great{by will be greater than EF. Thereer Angle EFG, fore B C, being equal to EG, is greater than EF,
55
EGF:
EG
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Of two
XXV.
each two Sides equal to Triangles , having the other ; that which has the great?ft Bafe t has likewife the great eft Angle.
two of
LET D
E,
ABC,
D
BC
F.
I
B,
F,
and
Jet
equal ; be greater
fay,
That
e"
will
be greater than
Demonstration.
D.
gle
be not greater than the Anbe either equal, and then the Bafes.BC, EF, will be equal, {by the 4.). or it wjll be lefs, and the Bafe E F greater than the Bafe BC, (by the 24.) but both are contrary to
If the
Angle
it
will
demon
come
after.
PRO
54
PROPOSITION
%
XXVI.
A Theorem,
has one Side, and two Angles, equal to thofe of another Triangle ; 'tis equal
to it in all Refpefts.
If one Triangle
the Angles
ABC, DEF;
Triangles
C Da.^
i
C^\ / ^y^
'greater
B C, and E F, which are between thofe Angles, alfo equal. I other Sides are equal ; fay, That the F Imafor Example, AC, and
E g me
be
if
DF
to
GF
equal to
AC, draw
the Line
G E.
Demonflration. the Sides The Triangles ABC, GEF, have the Angle C is alfo EF, BC, AC, GF, equal;
to F. Therefore (by the 4. ) fuppos'd to be equal in all the Triangles ABC, GEF, are equal and ABC are Refpefts: and the Angles GEF, But we fuppos'd the Angles ABC, equal. E F, to be ^qual : And fo the Angles DEF, to E f! would be equal that is, The whole Therefore the the Part, which is impoffible. E will not be greater than the Side Side
D
G
d,
Firfi Book. 55 than F, becaufe the greater fame Demonflration may be made in the Tri
Tht
B, nor
AC
angle ABC. and Again, Suppofe the Angles A and D, F to be equal ; and alfo the the Sides B C, and EF, oppos'd to the Angles A and D, to be I fay, The other Sides are equal. For if equal.
GF
equal to
AC,
A and D were equal, therefore the and EGF, muft be equal ; which is Angles D, impoflible, fince the Angle EGF, being the external Angle in refpeft of the Triangle EGD, muft be greater than the internal D, (by the
the Angles
i\5. )
The Triangles ABC, G E F, having the Sides EF, BC, FG, CA, equal, will, (by the 4.; be equal in all Refpe&s And the Angles EGF, But we fuppos'd, that BAC, will be equal.
:
Demonflration,
therefore
the Side
DF
is
not
greater
than
C.
The
i
USE,
b
Thales
made ufe
* 4
*
The
Diftance
^A
' ' *
Point
A,
the
Line
cular
AC
to
Perpendi
AD
Then
defcribing
Semi
circle at
the Point
Angle
j6 Angle
7he
AC
it
on
the other Side, prolonging the Line C B 'till A at the Point B ; it meet with the Line and then demonftrate the Lines and
AD
A B to be equal fo that rneafuring the Line A B, which was acceffible, he could know the
;
For the two Triangles and ABC, have the right Angles CAD ADC, and CAB equal, the Angles ACD, and ACB are alfo taken equal ; and the Side A C is
common to both: Therefore {by the 6.) Sides A D and A B are equal,
the
A L
A Line which
is
M M A.
to one
"Perpendicular
of tivo Pa"
rallelsy is alfo
Perpendicular
to the other.
AB
EF
be Per
I fay, 'Tis pendicular to C D. alfo Perpendicular to A B. Cut F equal to F D, and the Line
upon
c
the Points
culars to
rallels,
c
*
Lines
EC
FE
raife two Perpendiwhich, by the Definition of Pa' will be equal to F E ; then draw the
and
CD,
and
ED.
'Demonfi ration,
c
1
1
Side
and the
D E F, have the common, the Sides CF, FD, equal, Angles CFE, and DFE, Right, and by
;
'
confequence equal
4.
4
the
Bafes
The
?
1 '
Firjl
Book
;
tf
f
c
c
BafesEC, ED, and the Angles FED, FEC, and FCE, FDE, will be equal the two laft of which being taken away from the right Angle ACF and BDF, leave the two Angles
equal: Therefore the TriDBE, will have (by the .) the angles Angles DEB, C E A, equal ; which' being added to the equal Angles CEF, DEF, make the Angles FEB, and FEA, equal ; therefore the Line E F is Perpendicular to A B.
ACE,
and
BDE,
CA&
1
1
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXVII.
If a Lint, falling upon two others, makes 'with them the Alternate Angles equal, thofe two
the Line
EH,
falling
alternate Angles
fay,
C D, will never concur, tho' continu'd as far as you pleafe For (uppofe them to concur in I, and that FBI, and are two right Lines.
and
:
A B,
CDI
Demonfiration.
If
FBI, and
GDI, be two
right Lines,
FIG
is
The Elements of Euclid. 59 is a Triangle; and (by the 16.) the external Angle AFG, is greater than the internal FGI. They cannot therefore be equal, if the Lines AB and ever concur; 1 But becaufe we have Examples of fome c crooked Lines, which never concur ; and yet ' are not Parallels, approaching (till nearer and * nearer to each other. I fay, Secondly, That if the Line EH, fall
GD
ing upon the Lines AB, and C D, makes the alternate Angles AFG, and equal ; the Lines A B,
FGD,
C D,
between them
the Point lar A, to the Line equal to A F, draw F
will
be equal.
From
Demonfiration.
The
Side
is alfo taken common; the Side to the Side A F, and the Angles AFG and equal fuppos'd to be equal: Therefore (by and are equal, and the the 4.) the Bafes F is equal to the right Angle Angle C
FG
Triangles
AGF,
and
GD
D F G,
have the
FGD
AG
FD
D therefore FD
the Line
Parallel
CAB;
is
AB
is
Perpendicular. Parallel to
CD
pafs
Point
The
Firfi Book.
59
Point A, according to the Defin'nion of Paralthe Perpendicular lels; which requires, that
Lines
AG
and
FD
be equal.
ones 7 thofe
IN
firft
I
EH,
the precedent Figure, fuppofe the Line and CD, to make falling upon
AB
ternal oppofite
E F B equal to the in: Angle on the fame Side are Parallel, fay, That the Lines AB and C
the external Angle
FGD
Demcnfiraticn.
is equal to the Angle AFG, being oppcvs'd to it at the Top, (by the 15. ) and 'tis fuppos'd thst the Angle is alfo Therefore the alterequal to the Angle E F B nate Angles AFG, FGD, will be ecmal ; and will he ( by the 27. ) the Lines A B, and C
FGD
D
Parallel.
fecond Place, That if the Angles are the internal Angles on the fame Side, be equal to two Right ones, the Lines A B and will be Parallel.
I
fay, In the
CD
Demon
The Angles
AFG
and
BFG
the
13.)
;
and F G
to
two
right
Angles
and
AFG, BFG,
FGD;
AFG
the Lines
which is and
are equal to the Angles BFG, and therefore taking away the Angle BFG, common to both, the alternate
FGD
Angles
will
A B and C D
be equal
and (by
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
cut two If a Line
Parallels,
XXIX.
will be equal ; the external Angle will be equal to the Internal Oppoflte Angle ; and the two
Internals on the fame Side will be equal to
two
right Angles.
the Line
two LET
EH
Parallels
AB, and
CD;
fay,
Firfl:,
The
and FGD, are F and G draw the and FD, which by the
AFG,
AFG,
and
FGD,
the
6t
FIG is an Acute, an Angle, the Angle an Obtufe, (by the i;.) Therefore (by the 18J in the Triangle F I G, the Side F opposed to the Obtufe Angle, is greater than FI. ThereI
being equal, as alfo the Side F common to both I fay Firft, That the Side be greater having is equal to A F. For if cue the Line DI equal to AF, and drawn the and FDI would Line Ft; the Triangles and FI equal, which is have their Bafes is a For fince the Angle righc impoffible.
the Right Angles
and
:
AG
,
A and D, and
GD
GD
AFG
GF
FID
fore
to
AF;
will
Sides equal, having and have the alternate Angles as being oppos'd to the equal Sides AG, equals and FD.
ail their
AFG
FGD
I is
fay again,
EFB
external
FGD;
becaufe
FGD.
AFG,
and F Laftly, Since the Angles to two Right ones ; taking away equal and fubftituting in its place its alternate
the two internal Angles F 8, andbe equal to two right Angles.
A G
GFB
are
A FG*
FGD,
will
FG D*
The
*

USE,
E
cum*
Eratojihenes found out, by thefe Propofitions, a way of rneafuring the Circuit cr Cir^
f
62
*
1
*
cumference of the Earth. In order to which, he fuppos'd two Rays, proceeding from the Centre of the Sun to two Points of the Earth, and alfo that ac to be Phyfically parallel
;
Syene, a
*
*
higher Parts of Egypt y the Sun comes exa&ly to the Zenith upon the Day of the Solftice, obferving the Wells there to be then illuminated to the very Botin the
Town
* ' 4
torn ; and likewife computed the Dittance between Alexandria and Sytne, by Miles or
Furlong.
c
4 4
4
Let
us
therefore
Syene to be at
BC
*
4 *
4
let the two Lines and two Rays proceeding from the Centre of the Sun upon the Day of the Sol
EG
DF
reprefent
*
*
4 '
*
* * *
which are parallel to each other. which paiTes by Syene, is PerpendicuDA, lar, that \$, it pa (Tes through the Centre of the Earth. Having obferved by the Perpendicular Style the Angle GCB, made by the Ray of the Sun EG ; I fay, The Rays and being parallel, the alternate and B F A are equal : By which Angles means we have got the Angle A F B, and its which gives us in Degrees Meafure A B the Diftance between Alexandria and Syem.
ftice,
BC
DA
EG
GCB
And
r
having fuppos'd
it
to
be known in * Miles
63
Miles, the Circumference of the Earth may be found by the (Imple Rule of Three dire faying,
bow many
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXX.
among
QUppnfe
the Lines
AB
and F
to be parallel
themfelves.
CAL
Demonjuration*
A B and are the alternate Angles A HI, and HID, parallel, are equal, ( by the 29. ) and becaufe the Lines and are alfo parallel, the external
Forafmuch as the Line
CD
CD
AB
EF
I
Angle
H D
I
will
)
( by the fame:
AH
I,
and
and'
FE
be equal to the internal I L E, Therefore the alternate Angle* E, will be equal, and the Lines
parallel,
(by
the 27.
PRO*
$4
PROPOSITION
A
XXXI.
Problem.
by a Point given,
C
'~P\
/
D T ET
,
it
j^
a Line
("hall
/
E
/ which
Line AB.
Draw
I
A
is
Band make
ECD
CEA
fay,
The Line C
AB.
The
are
are
Parallels.
c
e.
If a Line fall
e 5
two others makes the internal Angles ing upon than two right Angles\thofe Lines will concur, lejs
may
alio
now
be^afiiy dernonlkated. Let the Line AG, falling upon the Lines and
AB
C^,
make
the
internal
the Line
CAB,
Angles concur.
:
fay,
Let the
AngWs
"Angies
ACD
:
G AE
CD
k!s>
m
lels,
Firji Boo\.
&$
( by the 28. )
as
you
as
pleafe,
Parallel co
oft
is
CA.
EB
fo
necefiary,
make
;
ic
reach lower
than the Line CD; as in the prefent Figure I have taken it only twice fo that E.B and BF are equal. By the Point F draw a Parallel F 1 fay, B. to AE, and join the Line equal That the Line A B G is only one Line and that
A B concurring
ic
in
FG,
if
rW
Line
CD
be
continued, fince
ic
Parallel
F G,
will
B and G.
Dcmonfiration.
and BFG have the Sides and BF, equal; as alfo the alternate' Angles AEB, and BFG, (by the 29.) therefore they are equal in all Refpe&s, ( by the 4.) And the oppofite Angles AB E, F B G, and by confequence (by the Coroll. of are equal the 15. ) A B and BG make but one right Line. The USE. 1 The life of Parallel Lines is very common ; ' as in V effectives, forafmueh as the Appear'
The
Triangles
EB
AE
and FG,
BE
c '
c
ances or Images of Lines parallel to the Picture In or Table, are parallel among themfelves.
Navigation, the Lines of the fame Rhomb of Polar the Wind are defcribed by Parallels. The Dials have the Hourlines Parallels.
* 1
6
Compafs of Proportion
Parallels.
is
>A
PRO*
66
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The external Angle of a Triangle
the internal
XXXII.
and
to
equal
two
right Angles.
ET
the Side
BC
I
of
Triangle be produe'd to D.
L'
the
ABC
fay,
That
the
is
3
f cken
CD
AC
D
A
internal
B.
Angles
and B
the Line
CE
the Point
C draw
Demonftration.
The Lines A B and C E are Parallels thereEC A fore, (by the 29. > the alternate Angles BAC are equal; and (by the fame) the and
;
is equal to the interexternal Angle nal B: And by confequence the whole Angle ACD, being equal to both the Angles ACE,
ECD
of which it is compos'd, will be equal to both the Angles A and B taken toge
and
EGD,
ther.
and In the fecond place: The Angles A C are equal to two right Angles, (by the 1 3.) ACB
and
67
to and I have demonftrated the Angle A be equal to both the Angles A and B taken totherefore the Angles ACB, A, and B,
CD
gether
that
is
ABC,
is all
to fay, All the Angles of the Triangle are equal to two right Angles, or, which one, to 180 Degrees.
All the three
all
Corollary 1.
Cor oil.
2.
IF
equal to two Angles of another Triangle, their third Angles are alfo equal.
Cor oil ;. If a Triangle has one right Angle, the other two will be Acute; and taken together, will be equal to one right Ang e. Coroll. From a Point given, only one Per!
4.
bependicular can be drawn to the fime Line ; caufe a Triangle cannot have two right fin
!es
Perpendicular is the inorteft or all the Lines that can be drawn from the fame Point to the fame Line. Coroll. 6. In a Rectangle Triangle the right
Coroll. e.
Angle
is
pos\i to
it
<
p
Coroll. 7.
The
*
USE.
is
of
Parallax.
E 4
Poim
6B
;
Point
to be the
X)
\
that
c
*
the
be
is
taken
the
'
of a Scar from the If rhe Earth was the Star would ap. rranfparent,
Zenith D.
D itance
Angle
DBG,
that
to fay, the
* *
*
*
%
pear remote from the Zenith D, according to the Bignefs of the Angle CAD, which is lefs than the Angle C.BD. For the Angle the external Angle in refpect of being
CBD
*
* *
s * *
the Triangle ABC, it is (by the 52.) equal to both the oppolre Angles A and There* w li be equal to the Excels fore the Angle
of
the
Angle
CBD
Whence I infer, That if I can know by the AJhonomkal Tables how far remote from
the Zenith the Star ought to appear to him that fhould be at the Centre of the Earth, Vand obferve it at the fame time from the
c
*
two Angles
Parallax
B C A,
PRO
69
PROPOSITION
A T
Two
L'^nes
XXXIII.
O R EM.
the
drawn towards
two
the Extremities of
other
equal
and
equal
and
farallti.
and equal ar.d let the Lines AC and be drawn from their ExtremiB A ties towards the fame Parts are equal I fay, That the Lines AC and and parallel. Draw the Diagonal Line BC.
be
parallel
;
LE
the Line
A B and
CD
BD
:
BD
ABC
and will be the alternate Angles the 29. ) Therefore in the Triangles equal ( by and BCD, which have the S\dz com*
ABC
CD
BCD
are parallel,
AB
and
AC
CD
BC
equal, toge
the 4.)
and
alfo the
Angles
DBC, andBCA;
which being alternate Angles, the Lines and will be parallel, (by the 27. )
BD
The
8
U S E.
This Proportion
is
the
70
'
7he
'Elements of Euclid.
lar
DA
71
'^e
c
fc
B J&A
**8fe
'
CFG*
J*'
c
' 1
the Point A, that the Side B mav fall perthen meafure the Sides A ; pendicularly
(
'
and
D B.
BE
and
EG:
Sides parallel to the Horizon AD, BE, together, give the Horizontal Line
CG
Meafuring
*
DB
A
Mat ion,
Meafuring by piecemeal.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The
oppofite
XXXIV.
Sides
;
and Angles of a
the
are equal
and
Diameter divides
"Parallelogram it into
two
equal Parts.
A B C [See the Fig. of the to be a Parallelogram, that SUppofe Prop. ] preceding is to fay, that the Sides A B, AC, and
the Figure
CD;
B D,
CD; AC
are parallel.
I fay,
and BD,
The
Angles
71
;
D ABD and A C D and that Angles the Diameter B C equally divides the whole
A and
Figure.
and
like
BCD
and
ABC
will
be equal,
manner the
Sides
AC
( by the 29.
and
BD
la
being fup
be Parallels, the alternate Angles ftC w ill be equal. And further, The Triangles ABC, and having the fame Side B C ; and the Angles ABC, A C B, anu C B equal, will be equal in all reTherefore the Sides A B, fpe&s, (bytbeiS.)
posM to
ACB
DCB,
BCD;
CD; AC and
are equal
:
B D, and
the Angles
A and D,
the Diameter divides the Figure And fince the Angles into two equal Parts. and CBD, are equal, joinABC, BCD,
And
ACB
ing together
BCD
c 1
and
Angles
ABC
likewife
we
the
USE. A Eg l\ / "1
/
c
*
they can divide it into two equal Parts by the Diameter A D. But
if
c G
/ N
>
/
i
D
E
;
you be
oblig'd to divide
it
by the Point
into
divide
firft
the Diameter
Parts by the
Point F,
EFG,
72
'
'
EFG,
equal Parts.
c
' c c
GFD, GDF;
and
fince
E F and E A F,
and
FD
the
AEF,
FGD;
AF
and
c
1
4
'
with the Triangle AEF ; that is to fay, The Triangle ADB, is half the Parallelogram, (by the 54. ) the fame Trapezium with the Triangle F will be half the fa me. > the therefore, Line divides it in the Mid die.
Trapezium
BEFD
BEFD
DG
EG
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXXV.
TarallehgramSy having the fame Bafe, and being between the fame Parallels, are equal.
LE
lels
the
Parallelograms
be
ABEC,
and
and
ABDF,
They

having the fame Bafe AB, and being between the fame Paral
AB
CD:
fay,
are equal.
Demonft ration.
The
as alfo
Sides
AB,
FD:
AB, CE,
%^
are
equal
CF
and
The Fkfi Book 73 and ED will be equal. The Triangles therefore C FA, andEDB, have rhe Sides CA, EB,
as alfo
equal,
together with
one and FCA, (by the 29 being an external, and the other an internal Angle, on the fame Side Therefore (by the 4.) the Triangle ACF and BED are equal ; and taking from them both, that which is comthe Angles
DEB,
mon, i/is. the little Triangle EGF, the Trawill be equal to the Trapepezium zium CAGE; and adding to both the Triangle A G B,< the Parallelograms A B E C and A B D F will be equal.
FGBD
The
6
*
USE.
made
Scotus, and fome Divines fi nee him, have ufe of this Propofition, to prove, that
1
1
Anghs may
they pleafe.
1 1
1 1
themjelves to what Space For, fuppofing they can aifume any Figure, provided they have not a greater Extenfion ; it is evident, That if an Angle fhould poffefs the Space of a Parallelogram
extend
A B EC,
the
rallels
it
may
iikewife
r
'
ABDF;
*
*
'
*
out end, ) and Parallelograms may be flill form'd longer and longer, which will all be C; an Angle will be able to equal to
ABE
extend
itfelf itill
farther
and
farther.
a.
De
74
A
*
Demonftratiott of the
Method of
*
*
c *
This Method was lately invented by Cavahrius ; which has found different Acceptation in the World, fome approving, and others
it. His Method confifts in this That we imagine Superficies to be compos'd
rejecting
of Lines
like fo
many
Threads.
And
'tis
cer
c
' c
tain, that
two Pieces of Linnen will be equal, if they have both the fame Number oi Threads, of equal length, and equally compa&ed. * Let two Parallelogram? therefore ABEC, and ABDF
be propos'd, having the fam.2 Bafe A B, and being between
the fame Parallels A B, CD; the Divide Parallelogram into as many Lines as you pleafe, to A B, which continue to the othei parallel 'lis evident, There Parallelogram ABDF. will be no more in one, than in the other and that they will be of equal Length, being all equal to the Bafe A B ; and that they will not be more clofely compared in one, than in the other ; therefore the Parallelograms
ABEC
will
be equal.
PRO.
7he
Firfi Book?
75
PROPOSITION
Parallelograms, upon equal Bafes,
XXXVI.
A Theorem.
and between
the
fame of LET
let
theBafesCB and
the
OD
ACBF, ODEG,
allels
E,
D.
fay,
C G,
and B
E.
Demonftration.
TheBafesCB, and OD, are equal: OD,and G E, are alfo equal Thet efore C B and G E
:
to the
and by confequence
GODE and CBEG will be equal, {by the fame.) Therefore the Parallelograms ACBF and ODEG are equal.
*
1
Parallelogram equal to CBFA, ( by the 55*. ) having both the fame Bafe. In like manner, for the Bafe, the Parallelograms taking
EG
We
ofc
which
OD EG,
4
toRe&angles;
as
CBFA:
So that meafuring
the
mul
Produd being equal to tiply the Parallelogram ACBF, we may by confequence know the other Parallelograms CBEG, or O D E G.
the
AG byCB,
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Triangles having the
XXXVII.
fame
Bafe,
and
being be
IFC D E,
C
C
parallel to the Lines
the fame
Draw
A C,
and
C E,
and you
will
The Parallelogram A
the
equal, {by E, are the Halfsof thofe Parallelograms, {by the 34. ) Therefore the Triangles A D,
CD
C D E,
are equal
PROPO
7he
Firfi Book.
77
PROPOSITION
Triangles,
XXXVIII.
A Theorem.
that have equal Bafes, and are inclos'J within the fame Parallels t are equal.
AC and EGH, I fee Fig. have equal Bafes CD, and GH, and are inclos'd within the fame Parallels A F and C H, they are equal. Draw the Lines B F parallel to the Sides AC, and EG ; and and
the Triangles
IF freced.]
H
will
you
The Parallelograms A
are equal, (by the and are the Halfs of thofe Parallelograms, the 34.) therefore they are alfo equal. (by
EGH
The
1
*
USE.
Field into
We
have
*
4
two equal
the
Tri
angle
*
*
ABC.
into
which you
as
? *
*
*
two equal Parts in D: I fay, The Triangles ABD, and ADC, are equal. For if you fuppofe a Line drawn by A, parallel to B C, thofe Triangles will have equal Bafes, and bc F
BC,
78
*
*
* c
be inclos'd within the fame Parallels : and by confequence will be equal. Other Divifions,
grounded upon the fame Propofition, might be made; but I omit them, that I might not
} be tedious.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXXIX.
are within
TF
Tops
the
B C, having the J[ and lame Bare B C, be equal drawn by the the Line A
;
Triangles
ABC,
will
Bafe B
BC
A
it
be not parallel
it
;
if
be parallel to the
the Point A, D, as A
or above
it,
as*
E.
B
;
Suppofe
'till it
meet
Line
CE,
Demovftration.
The
Triangles
ABC
and
EBC
are equal.
arc (by the 37. ) fince the Lines A E and Parallel ; 'tis likewife fuppos'd that the Tri
BC
angles
ABC,
79
be equal : which is impofllble, the firft being pare of the fecond. Whence I conclude, that a Line parallel to B G cannot be drawn above AD, ss A E. I add, That a Parallel cannot be below A D, as AO: Becaufe the Triangle would be
BOG
equal
the Triangle ABC, and by confeB C ; that is to fay, quence to the Triangle The Part would be equal to the Whole. It muft
to
the Line
AD
is
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XL
Equal Triangles, having equal Bafes, if they be taken upon tie fame Line, are between the fame
Varallels.
Bafes
AB and DE, on the fame Line AE; the Line CF drawn by their
Tops,
For,
will
if it
IFand D E
ABC
have

A E,
it
above
below
it,
as
I.
F z
Demon*
Bo
If
it
CG, continue pafs and draw the Mil it meet with in ; would Line EG. The Triangles ABC and and be equal, (by the $8. ) and being fuppos'd to be equal, DEF, DEG, would be alfo equal ; which, one being part of the
above CF, as
DP
CG
D EG DEF ABC
pafs
below
it,
as
becaufe then the Triangles ABC and DEI would be equal ; and by confequence DEI, and the Part and the Whole : There* F can be Parallel to A E. fore only C
I ;
DEF;
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XLL
A Parallelogram will
equal Safes*
be double to
I and between
BC,
Triangle.
AC
AE
Demon"
The Firft
The
Triangles
Boo1{.
81
are enual,
Demonjhation.
BG and'BCE
ABC,
B
AC
)
It
is
It is
C E.
would
be alfo double a Triangle, that, having a Bafe Paequal to B C, fhould be between the fame
rallels.
The
1
USE.
pofnion.
If
;
the
Triangle
ABC
perpendicular to the Bafe then multiplying the Perpendicular A ; by half the Bafe B E, the Produ& gives rhe Area of the Triangle ; because multiplying AD, or, what is the fame, E F by BE, we have a Re&angle B EF H, which is equal to
AD
A we
the Triangle
Triangle
A BC.
is
ABC
For (by
the
41.) the
and
*
fo likewife is
We
half the
HBCG;
Fi
meafure
forts
of
divi
Re&ilineal
gures, as
A BCD
E,
by
C G,
F
3
ED;
and
F,
and
I.
For
half of B
AD
by BF, and
8x
1
all
thole
<
Triangles: Adding which together, the Surras equal to the Rectilineal Figure
ABCDE.
'
We
y by
pendicular
drawn
AG by
IG,
we
*
(hall
have a
>L*tL
c
Rectangle HLM And repeating equal to the Triangle A I B the fame for all the other Triangles, taking always half of the Bafes, we (hall have a which will have the Side Re&angle
:
KO
HKON,
compounded of
all
and
by confequence equal to half the Circumference ; and the Side equal to the Per
HK
pendicular
i
G.
this
'Tis
according to
Principle, that
Ar
*
%
1
cbimedes has demonftrated, that a Circle is equal to a Re&angle compris'd under the
PRO
$$
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
wrfi&e
XLIL
a parallelogram equal
to
a Triangle gHfen;
\
having one
Angle equal
to
an Angle given,
LET
gle
a Parallelogram be de
ABC,
two
Point
AG
parallel to
BC,
FDCG
Further,
is
CDF
a Parallelogram, and C,
Triangle
AB
and C.
Dentonfir atkn.
ADC
is
ADB
riangle
AB C
A
B
the 41. )
ris
DC
and
are equal
Triangle
(bythe%%.)
Therefore the
is
FDCG.
4.
O
$4
PROPOSITION
XLIII.
A Theorem.
The Complements of a Parallelogram are equal.
the Parallelogram
ABDC,
IN
and
the
Complements A F EH,
are equal.
EGDI,
G
The
~D
Triangles
Demonfiration.
and BCD, are equal, (by the ;<t. ) Therefore if the Triangles HBE, and BIE; FEC, and CGE, which are alfo
ABC,
)
be equal.
<
I.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
XLIV.
defcribe a Parallelogram upon a Line given ,wbicb and have fuck {hall be equal to a Triangle given, certain Angle ; i. e. equal to one given.
H GA
/e
OUppofe you be
required
its
lj
to
make
fhall
a Parallelogram
which
have one of
Angles equal to the Angle E, and one of its Sides equal to the
85
D, and be equal
to the Triangle
ABC.
BFGH, ( by the 42.) F G equal to the Angle E, whidrhas the Angle B and is equal to the Triangle ABC. Produce the Sides G F, and G H, fo that H I may be and draw the Line 1 BN equal to the Line D ; 'till it cuts G F produced to N ; and from the Point N draw the Line N O parallel to G I, and I O parallel to B ; producing alfo the Side F B to K, and HBtoM: The Parallelogram K is that which you defire.
Make
the Parallelogram
the alternate Angles MN being and BMO, are equal; therefore the AnFBM, equal to E, and the Side K B gle B M O
GFand HM being Parallels, the alternate are eAngles GFB or the Angle E, ancfFB M, the Lines K B qual ( by the 29. ) In like manner
and
parallel,
is
Demonfi ration.
is
GFBH,
equal to the Parallelogram that was made equal (by thefreced.) and to the Triangle ABC: Therefore the Parallelois equal to the Triangle ABC. gram
is
MK
MK
The
1
USE.
'
For
in
Arithmetical Divifion a
is
Number
propose, which
may
* *
fitting
86
lifting of twelve Square Feet, which is to be divided by another Number, fuppofe two ; that is to fay, another Rettangle is defit'd to be made equal to A B, having one of its
equal to two ; and the Queftion is, Feet the other Side ought to contain ; which is, as it were, the Quotient. This is done Geometrically by the Rule and Compafs, thus ; Take B confiding of two
Sides,
B D, how many
E F : The Feet, and draw the Diagonal Line A F is that which you feek. For, having compleated the Re&angle DCFG, the Complements EG, and EC, are equal, {by the 43.) and EG has for one of its SicJes EH, equal to B D, of two Feet in length and E I
;
equal to
This kind of Divifion is calFd becaufe the Re&angle A B is apApplication, or EH: And from ply'd to the Line
A F.
BD
hence
is frequently cali'd becaufe the ancient Geometricians application made more life of the Rule and Compafs, than of Arithmetic!:*
'cis,
j
that Divifion
PRO
The
Firfi Book.
87
PROPOSITION
A
To
defcribe
XLV.
PR O
B L E M.
lertain
Figure given,
proposed be B CD, you are required to make an equal Parallelogram, which (hall have an Angle equal to the Angle E.
to
LEgure which
AB
Divide the
: And Re&ilineal into Triangles by the Line B {by the 42.) make a Parallelogram which has the Angle I equal to the Angle and and is equal to the Triangle E, L the 44.) make the Paralldogram I (by one Side to the Triangle having equal
HG
FGHI,
ABD;
HK
equal to IH, and the Angle LIH equal to the will be Angle E. The Parallelogram equal to the Reailineal A B C D.
BCD,
FGKL
Demonflration.
Nothing need be prov'd, but that the ParalK LI, make up but lelograms FGHI, and and one ; that is to fay, G K, make but
one
right Line.
The Angles
GHI,
and
:
LKH,
LKH,
88
and K I, are equal to two right Anbecaufe is a Parallelogram: g'es, Therefore the Angles and are equal to two right Angles, and {by the 14. )
LKH,
H KHIL SHI
make one
The
KHI
GH
1
and
HK
right Line.
USE.
The
life
of
this
;
'
the preceding
* *
into Triangles,
like wife
Re&angle Parallelogram
*
1
egjual to
Tis
eafie
to
make a Re&angular
1
*
Parallelogram upon a determinate Side, which may be equal to many irregular Figures. In like manner, having many Figures, a Re&angle may be defcrib'd equal to their Difference.
'
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcribe
XLVL
>TpO
upon the
Line
equal to
A B,
C D.
right
Demonstration.
The Angles
and B being
Angles,
89
AC
and
alfb equal; therefore the are Parallels, and equal, (by the ;;. ) and the Angles A and equal to two as alfo B and D, ( by the 29.) right Angles ;
tbei&)
;
They are
L nes A B
ilnce
and
CD
and
A and B
and
Angles C
irs
the Figure
PROPOSITION
/
XLVII.
A Theorem.
the Bafe
the Squares
The Square of
is
to
the Angle
ABC
PAC
to
be a SUppofe
right
that Squares
:
B C, which
BD
AH
AW
AF
tore
Square
Squares
to the
Re&angle
is
the Square
BE
BH,
CH;
AF
and A G.
Demonftration.
The Triangles F B C, and A B D, have And Sides AB; BFBD and B C equal
:
the
Angles
FBC,
and
more than their reTherefore ( by the 4. ) fpe&ive right Angles. and F B G are equal. But the Triangles the Square F is double the Triangle F B C, (by\ the 41.) haying the lame Bafe BF, and being
taining the Angles
ABC
ABD,
ABD
fame
between
the
Parallels
F,
and
is In like manner the Re&angle B the Triangle ABD, having likewife the farnel Bafe BD, and being between the fame Paraland A H. Therefore the Square le!s
C. double
BD
AF
is
Method
and the Triangles may be to be equal, ( by the 4. ) and the Square prov'd and to be double the Triangle

1
AG
GCB;
BDEC
c
double the Triangle ACE, is equal the 4.1. ) therefore the Square A (by to the Re&angle C \ and by confequence the Squares A F and A G are equal to the Square
the Re&angle
CH,
The
'Tis faid,
USE.
that Tythagoras, having found * out this Propofition, facrific'd a Hecatomb, * i. e. a hundred Oxen, to the Mufes, to re1
turn
them Thanks
if,
poling
Human
thereof
it
for their Affiftance ; fupfeems, above the Power of bare Nor was his Efteem Invention. fb irrational, as to fbme perhaps
it
may appear ; this Propofitiori being the Foundation of a very confiderable part of For in the firft place, the Mathematicks. cannot poffibly fubfift without "Trigonometry it being neceflary to compofe a Table of ir, all the Lines that may be infcrib'd in a Circle, as Chords, Sines, Targents^ Secants ;
;
as will appear
by one Example
the Semidiameter
AC
BC
contains
30 Degrees. Since the Chord, or Line that fubtends 60 Degrees is equal to the Sine of ;o the Semidiameter
AC; BD
Degrees,
will
be equal to half
AC, and
in the
there
Now
Rect
AB angular Triangle is to the Squares of AD, and BD. equal Make therefore the Square of AD, by multiplying iooooo by ioooco, and from the Produd fubftra& the Square of foooo or B ; the Remainder will be the Square of A ; or F B the Sine of the Complement ; and extracting the Square Root of that NumThis done, ber, you will have the Line F B.
B, the Square of
AD
D D
making
*
as
AD
to
will
gether
92
c
*
*
Pro*
duft ( by
47.)
will
AE
extracting therefore from that Number the Square Root, you will know the Length of the Line A E, which is the Secant.
*
4
'
c
By this alfo we may augment Figures as much as we pleafe. For ExTo double the ample;
Square A BCD, continue and the Side CD, fo that may be equal ; the Square of A E will be double the fi nee Square (by the 4.7.) it is E. and to both the Squares of A equal
AD
DE
ABCD;
Making the right Angle A E F, and taking equal to A B, the Square of* A F will be Again, Making triple the Square the right Angle A FG, and taking equal
EF
ABCD.
to
AB,
the Square of
or four times that which I fay of the Square, derflood of all Similar Figures.
PRO
93
a Right Angle.
IFbe
NP
will
of the Sides
together;
NL
and
L P,
taken
the Angle
NLP
Draw
be a right Angle.
perpendicular to
LR
LP
;
N R.
N L,
and equal to
then
Demonftration,
of
L R> the Square equal to the Squares NL, and RL, or the Square of P is LP, (by the 47. ) alfo eqtral to the fame Squares of L and LP; therefore the Square of is equal to the of and by confequence the Lines Square P, and are equal. And becaufe the Triangles NLR, and NLP, have the Side common ; the Sides LP and LR equal,and their Bafes P and alfo equal ; the Angles
NR
Re&angular Triangle
is
Now
NR
NR
NP
NL
NLP
muft be
fo too.
THE
C P4 3
THE
Second Book
O
F
THE
Elements of
VCLID
fay5
in
EV CLID.
this
Book
treats
of the
is to ; right of their Squares; comparing the ' divers Rectangles, which are made upon * a Line divided, as well with the Square, as
*
'
Powers of
Lines
that
1
*
Tis a the Re&angle, of the whole Line. Part exceeding ufeful, ferving for the Foundation of the principal Operations of AlThe three fir ft Pfopofitions demongebra. itrate the third Rule or Operation of Aritbmetick, viz. Multiplication'.
*
* c
*
The Fourth
teaches to extract the Square Root of any Number whatfoever<,' Thofe that follow to
the eighth
ferve
reft
in
c *
'
'
Algebra. This Book feems ac proper for Trigonometry. firft View very difficult ; becaufe Men are apt to imagine there is fomething myfterious
The
inftruci us in Operations
contain'd
therein
neverthelefs
[
the

great
93
ed on
this
is
equal to ail irs Parts taken together. ought not to difcourage any, if they (hould not at the fir ft Attempt fully comprehend them.
Whole
But
it
DEFINITIONS.

r.
A Rettangular Parallelogram
tivo Lines, that
is
comprised undtf
that hencefor
ward, OBferve,
by a Re&angle,

we
a Pa
naming two of its which contain one of its Angles, as the Lines A B and; B C. For the RedtangJq A B C is compiriz'd under the Lines A B and BC; BG denoting its Longitude, and AB its Latitude; and the other Sides being equal to
Sides,
its
D
it
thefe,
I
will
ajfo
have
Line of to
and being
A BCD
remaining perpendicular to BC, from one Extremity therethe other, produces the Re&angie and that that Motion has fome re<~ ;
B,
mo/d
km
96
4
femblance
fo that,
*
c
Line
Arithmetical Multiplication the Line moving over th< that is, taken fo many times a
to
AB
in
C, compofes the
Red
o
c
'
'
ABGD;
I
A B by BC,
As, Suppofe
BCD
It
i
knew
the
BC:
will
c
*
'
c c
there ar and that multiplying 40 b 60, the Produft will be 2400, which is thl Number of Mathematical Points in the Ret I
A BCD AB, as
hav
Points in
BC;
angle
'
I
I
* '
wards fubdivide
ferv'd,
it
I
that
when
Point
' *
*
* *
take that Meafu which my Occafions ; for E when I fay a Line of five Foot ample, Length, my Mathematical Point is a Line of Foot long ; which I take without confide
Mathematical
beft fuits
with
ing that
it is
compos'd of any
Parts.
In
me
* *
1
I do the famlc; Turing a Superficies like wife taking fbme known Superficies; for ExampI an a Foot Square ; which I do not afcerwar I make ufe of a Square rath SI fubdivide.
'
than any other Figure ; becaufe its Leng and Breadth being equal, there is no need
4
nanair
9J
naming more than one of its Dimenfions co defcribe it. Accordingly when I would mark the Area of the Re&angle A BCD, I do noc
confider the Sides as fimple Lines, hut as RectFor Examangles of a determinate Breadth :
ple
;
when
is
Foot
Point,
fay that the Re&angle A B A B of four Foot long, fince a to me inftead of a Mathematical to have alfo conceive the Side
I
CD
AB
a Foot in Breadth,
ABE
the
F.
B
I
eadth
(hall
BE
know
BC
AB
contained in the Re&angle that is to fay, multiplying C which has four Foot Square ) by 6, the Produd: will be 24 Foot Square. In like manner, knowing the to be Magnitude of the Re&angle
is
AB
ABCD;
ABCD
24 Foot Square, and one of its Sides A B to be 4 ; dividing 24 by 4, the Quotient will give me the other Side B C, confuting of fix Foot Square. 2. Having drawn the Diameter of ^L a Re&angle, one of the lefler Redangles, thro' which it paffes, together with the two Complements, is {f As the Redcali'd the Gnomon. angle EG, through which the Diameter paffes, together with the Complements EF and
'
BD
GH,
cali'd the
Gnomon
PR O
98
PROPOSITION A Theorem.
If two Lines he
fropos'd,
I.
whereof one
is
divided,
into divers Farts ; the Retlangle contained under thofe two Lines is equal to the ReBangLs contained under the Line which is not divided^
and
5_P_ H D
A E
T ET
I
j
the
Lines
proposed be
F
vou
jjj
A
is
pleafe.
The Reciangk
AB
and AC,
AG
Red
contained under
angle
H
;
contain'd
AE under E G
and
;
to the
equal to
AC
and E F and to the Refiangle F contain'd under FH equal to AC, and FB taken together.
Demonftration.
The Re&angle
taken together
;
AD
which
AG, EH,
equal to all its Parts are the Pvedangles and no other. Therefore
is
AG EH
3
D D
'99
This Propofition holds true likewife In Numto be fae Foot bers. Suppofe the Line A
C
:
AE
EF
four,
FB
three;
and
AB
nine
The Reftangle
five
AC
or ten 3 four times times n>e, or fiffive, or twenty ; and three teen ; for ten, twenty, and fifteen, make forty
equal to twice
five,
five.
The
i
USE.

'
By
this
A,
B,
c
c c
1
you were
to
multiply
the
*
'
Number A, which is 5*;, by the Number B, that is 8. Divide the Number A into (b many
Parts as there are Characters:
that
is,
* *
6
c
two,
50,
and
which
multiply by 8, faying, eight times three is twenty four ; and fo you make one Re&angle, Then multiplying the Number 50 by 8, the
c '
'
Product will be 400. But 'tis evidenr, that the Product of eight times 55, being 424, is fo equal to the Produ& 24, and the Product
tata
together.
ioo
^
II.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The Square of any Line
contained
Tarts.
is
equal
to the
%
ReEtangles
all
Une
and
its
Line propos'd
be
I
B,
the Square
FB
AB
Line AB and AE; another under and EF; and a third under AB and FB
Re&angle
ABDC
Square
A B D C.
fay,
taken together.
Demonft ration.'
is equal to all its Parts The Square taken together, which are the Re&angles A G, is contained under EH, FD. Thefirft is The fecond E to A B, and A E. equal to A C or A B, and contained under E equal
ABD C
AG
AC
is corrain'd under to A B, and FB: But Vis the fame thing equal to be contain'd under a Line equal to A B, and
FE.
The
third
FD
FH
to be contained under
AB
icfelf.
Therefore
ici
Let the
its
Let alfo the Part Square will be 81. and FB two; nine times be four; EF three; nine times three, twenty four makes thirty fix
;
AE
leven
plain
and nine times two, eighteen that 36, 27, and 1S make 8r.
;
and
'tis
The
USE.
AU
Multiplication
*
gebra.
I
I PROPOSITION
.
I
II
III
III.
A Theorem.
If a Line be divided into two Tarts, tie ReBangle contained under the whole Line, and one
of
its Tarts, is equal to the Square of the fame Tarty and the Retlangle contain d under both the Tarts.
LET C
Point
the Line
AB
Parts
be divided
at
E
^
into
;
two
and
let
the
a Re&angle be
made
one of
fay,
of
its
Let
the Reftangle
AF
be compleated,
it
will
be
equal
102
equal to the Square of A C, and the Re&angle contain'd under and CB. Draw the Per
AC
pendicular
CE.
.
equal to all its Parts, which are the Rectangles A E and C F. The firfl A E is the Square of A C, the Lines A C and A F being equal ; and the Re&angle
is
AD
The Re&angle A F
equal to
A B and
A C,
is
contain'd under
C B,
and
or
AC.
Therefore the
under A B and A C is equal to the Square of AC, and the Re&angle contain'd under and CB. / By Numbers,
CE
AC
C B f the Re&B and A C, will be The Square of AC 3, and the Re&angle contain'd under is nine; AC 3, and CB 5*, is three times or 15". But it is evident that 15* and 9 make 24.
Let
AB
be 8
AC
and
5*
The
c
USE.
of
this
A,
The
life
ftili
c
to demonftrate
c
4
*
'
vided
and
Three times 43
will
a
mount
to as
many
nine,
1 05
nine,
1
1
that
is
three
times
the Square of three ; and 40, that is, 120 ; for three
' '
times forty three is 129. Beginners oughe not to be difcourag'd, if they do not prefently
which
yet,
1
c
lft
but as they
fome ftrange
My
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
be V a Linewholedivided will
IV.
into two Parts, the Square be equal to the Line of Squares of both the Tarts ; and two Rectangles contain d under the fame Farts.
the
ded LET
the Line
AB
be
divi
FD
gonal alfo EB be drawn, and a Perpendicular cutting it k C F : And by that Point let L be drawn parallel to A B. 'Tis the Line evident that the Square is equal to
ABDE
and LF. of which are the Squares of A and CB: And the two Complements arecontain'd under AC and CB,
the four Redangles
firft
The two
Demon*
104
2"fo Elements
of Euclid.
Demonfiration.
The
Sides
half right the Angles L and A B And b^caufe the Lines Angles are Parallels, rhe Angles of the Triangles of the Square {by the 29. *>) will be equal, Therefore as alfo their Sides ( by the 6. 1. )
:
therefore
GF
GF
is
is
the Square of
:
A C.
In like
manner
CL
the Square of
tained
under
LF
is
contain'd under
to
LD
FD equal
draw the
BC.
A,
'
1
This
Propofition
teaches
the
Let the Number be A, or 144, reand its Root prefented by the Square AD, by the Line AB. I fuppofe ic known from other Principles that it requires two Cha:
imagine therefore that the Line in C, fo that may reprefent the firft Character, and B C the fecond. Then fearching the Root of the firft Characters.
is
AB
divided
AC
racter,
of the Number 144, which is 100, and making it Square I find it to be 10 ; the Square 100. reprefemed by F, I Tub ftrad
1 05
draft it from 144; and there remains 44 for the Re&angles GC, FL, and the Square C L But becaufe the Figure of a Gnomon
:
is
this
the
FL
Operation,
transport
I
unto
KG,
is
making one
44.
KL,
that
know
:
AC
being
KC
KB
:
For muft
44 by 20
that
is
to fay,
Divifor, doubling the Root found ; I enquire then how many times 20 I can have in 44 ? And find twice ; and therefore take 2
for
my
and becaufe 20 was not the but only KC; that two which came in the Quotient, 1 add to the Divifor, making ic 22 ; which Number being found precifely twice in 44, adding 2 to the Root before found, I conclude the whole You fee Square Root of 144 to be 12.
for the Side
intire
Side
B L; KB,
then that the Square 144 is equal to the Square of 10, which is ioo, is Square of 2, that is 4 ; and twice 20, which make the
two
ten.
Re&angles
contained
PRO
lo6
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
V.
If a Line be divided into two equal Parts, and two Tarts that are unequal ; the Rettangle contained under the unequal Parts, with the
together
;
Square of the
intermediate Part
is
equal to
the Line
AB
be divided
in
into
C,
AD, endDB,
and two unequal Parts in D; contain'd the Re&ang!e under the unequal Segments with the Square of C D, will be
AH
is,
CB
that
the Square
fc F. Compleat the Figure as you fee; the and DI will be Squares, (by the ke&angles
LG
'
DH
Re&angle
AH,
will prove then, that the contain'd under A_D, and D., with the Square L G, is
I
CF.
Demonfiration. is equal to the Rectangle both being contain'd under half the Line DF, which is equal to ir. and DB, or
The Re&angle A L
AB
DH,
4dd
to both the
will
AH
Re&angle
CH
the
be equal to the
Gnomon
C B G.
Re&angle
Add
107
AH,
By Numbers.
Let
wife
;
A B be
and
let
10
AC
CD
7, angle contained under of fay 21, with the Square be equal to the Square of
AD
and
The
1
USE.
CD 2, that G D y, which
DB ;
that
is
is
to
4, will
25.
is
*
'
very ufeful in the third Book It is alfo us'd in Algebra^ to demonftrate the manner of rinding tke Root of an' ajfecled or impure Square.
This Propofition
:
is
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
VI.
and to it If a Line be divided into two equal Parts, the Rectangle contain d un~ another Line added ; der the Line compounded of tbofe two, and that which is added, with the Square of half the divided Line, is equal to the Square of the Line cornfounded of that half, and the Line that
to the Line
is
added.
A B,
divided
IF
DN A
BD,
C CB,
B~~D
is
equal to
108
to the Square of C D. Make the Square of C D, and having drawn the Diagonal F D, draw
alfo
BG
parallel to
FC,
cutting
at the
Point H, through which pafTes the Line will be the parallel to Square
AD; KG
HN
ol
that of
BD.
and
Dentonftration,
The Re&angles
equal Bafes
AC
AK
and
C B,
and E ar< 36. 1.) The Complements equal, (by the ^. 1.) therefore the Re∠ and are e^jual. Add to both th< : and the Square then th< Re&angle CN,
CH
AK
HE
KG
Redangles
AK
and
and
CN,
that
is,
the Re&anglt
th<
AN,
CN
KG,
KG
4
4. 2. the
Square
of 8
CE.
Parts
;
By Numbers.
AB
n.
confifl
of
and
AD
CBof4;BDof;;
be
'Tis evident the
Rectangle
AN
;; ; which with the Square of KG, (equal to C B 4 ) that is 16 makes 49 , and therefore is equal to th<
that
is
three times
n,
CD
7,
which
is
49
for
7 times
The
Maurolycbus,
USE.
by the help of this Propofi. meafur'd the whole Earth at one Tingle tion, * 'Obfcrva
The Second Bco{. To effed which, he that from the Top of a Mountain of a known Height A, you obferve the Angle B A C, made
Obfervation.
6^
advifes,
A B, touching the of the Earth at B, and the Line A G palling thro* the Centre; And that in the
by the Line
Superficies
Triangle
<'
knowing the Angle A, ADF, you find, by Trithe Sides A F and FD: And
F,
and
FD
Lme A B, and alfo its Square. Now we have demonftrated in the preceding Proposition, that the Line E D, being divided into equal Parts in C, and the Line added to it; the Re&angle contain'd under A and with the Square oFCD,' B, is equal to the Square of C A and the Angle A B ;
eafie to demonftrate that are equal, you will then know the
FB
AD
AD
( as is prov'd in the third Book A is equal to ) the Square of the Squares of AB and therefore the
Rectangle under A E and A D, with the Square of B C, is equal to the Squares of A B and B C. Take therefore from them both the Square of B C, and the Re & angle under A E and A will be equal ro rhe Square of A B. Divide therefore the known Square of A B, by the Height of the Moun* tain A and the Quotient will be the Line
C BC;
I
'
*
lb
from which fubftra&ing the Height of ; the Mountain, the Remainder will be the DiaE. meter of the Earth * We have made life like wife of the fame Pro*
AE
*
* * c
pofition in
our
sllgebra, to
demonftrate the
thirteenth Proportion of the third Book, to find the Root of a Square equal to a Number,
more a
certain
Number
'
c
that follow
do
like Operations.
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
VII.
If a Line he divided, the Square of the wholt Line with that of one of its Parts, is equal u\ two Rectangles contained undtr the whole Line and that firfi Part, together with the Square o\
the other Part.
; the Square of the Line A B, with tto Square A L, will be equal to twc Re&angles contain'd under AE and AC, with the Sqnare of
LE AD
the Line
in
A B be
divided
any where
CB
Make
AB, and having drawr and the Lines C F and H G L the Diagonal EB, prolong E A fo far, as that AK, may be equa,
the Square of
tc
to
AC;
is
To
and
HK
will
HA
qual to
GC, and
GC
CI
the Square
of
CB
(ty the
Coroll.
of
the 4. )
Dcmonftration.
'Tis
evident,
and
AL
Re&angles
H L and H D,
e&angle
Now
the
contain'd under
HK equal to
In like equal to AC. is contain'd under HI equal to A B, and Therefore the Squares of equal to AC. are equal to two Re&angles and
HD
HE
AB
of
HL
AC
contain'd under
AB
C B.
In Numbers.
Suppofe the Line A B to confift of 9 Part?, A C of 4, and CB of j. The Square of A B 9 is 81, and that of AC 4 is 16 ; which 81 and 16 added together make 97. Now one Redfour times 9, make angle under AB and AC, or is 72; and the Square 36, which taken twice, which 72 and *j added togeDf C B is 2? ;
5
ther
make
alfo 97.
Mi
PRO
112
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
to
VIII.
it
equal
Square of the whole compounded Line will be equal to four Reft* angles contained under the fir ft Line, and that
fart that
is
Tarts, the
ana
tT
!
the Line
A B be
divided
BD equal to CB added to
any where
in the Point
C,
it
tht Square of
AD will
G
be equal
the Square of
and having drawn the Diagonal AE, draw likewife the Pependiculars BP and CN, cutting the Diaeoial in O and I; and alfo the Lin^s
M O H "and
G
Gl R parallel to AB. The RedC, LK, PH, MB, and NR, will be
Coroll.
of the
4. )
to all its Parrs The S }uare and the Rt dangles L B, OD, PM. are contained, under Lines equal to A B and BC and if you add the Red: ingle MI to the Rrdangle PH,
;
;
DemonJuration. A D E F is equal
they
together
will
give
113
a Line equal to AB, angle contain'd under A or B D. Befides and another equal to which, there remains nothing but the Square
3 C, which
he Square
:ontain'd
)f
is
AD
Therefore
under
A C.
In Numbers,
L*t the Line A B confift of 7 Parts, of 3, CB of 4, as alfo BD. The Square of 1 will be in. And one Rectangle under AB7, nd 4, makes 28 ; which taken four times,
id
AC
AD
BD
is
112; and
hich
9,
make
alfo
121.
a Line be divided into two equal Parts, and two unequal, the Squares of the unequal Parts will double the Square of half the Line and the Square of the intermediate Part,
ET
4
the
Line
AB
be
divided
into
two
at
iual
and
e
Point
the
two unequal
pl4 A D and
which
Part.
is
D B,
half
will
AB
CD
Draw
CE
perpendicular to
B,
and
equal to AC; draw alfo the Lines AE and and the Perpendicular DF, as likewife
parallel to
BE,
FG
C D.
Tnen
F.
The Lines
Angle
AC
CE
:
and
the
is
the Angles C AE and C E A are equal, I {j i.J In Jik< and confeqientlv half right Angles. manner, the Angles C E B, C B F, G F E, an< DFB, are half right Angles ; and the Line G F and G E, D F and B, equal, (by the 6. i. and the whole Angle AEF is a right Angh Now the Square of A E (by the 47. 1. ) is t qual to the Squares of AC and CE, whi<J
a right Angle
Therefore ( by th
double the Square ( A For ths fame Reafon, the Square of E is double the Square of GF, or C D. Now th of A F is equal to the Squares of A Square is a and EF, becaufe the Angle Rig! therefore the Square of AF is doub! Angle; The fame Squai the Squares of AC and C D. of AF is likewife equal to the Squares' of A I
are equal
:
Therefore
it is
AEF
L
t
or DB, the Angle and being a rigl Therefore the Squares of Angle. B are double the Squares of A C and C D.
DF
AD
i
it:
In Numbers,
Ler
AB
be
DBilCj..
**5 The Second Boo\. is to that ie Squares of A D 8, and D B 2, and 4, which make 68, are double the iy, 64 and of %y that i*, 25of A C qares which is for 2; and 9 make 34, vhich is 9
$,
;
CD
alf of 68.
The
1
USE.
this Propofltion, ex
PROPOSITION
r
X.
A Theorem.
a Line be added to another that
founded of thofe which is added, makes double the Square of~balf the Line, and the Square of that which h com* Line that is added. founded of half, and the
is divided[into the Square of the Line corntwo, with the Square of that
ET
be
aiddle
the
at
Line
in
AB
the
divided
the Point C,
jnd
the Line
it
:
kD
!l
and and
BD added BD will be
Draw
louble
Squares of
C D.
the Perpendiculars
CE
and
and
that
DF
A
jLines
AG
PG
and
and then draw the ; equal to A E F, and producing ,B to G, fo E, may be equal to B D, join the Lines
EBG.
pemonft ration. C B, and C E, being equal, and the Angles at the Point C being righc Angles the Angles C A E, A E C, E B, and C B E, will be half right Angles. In like manner, the A^gle being a right Angle, and the Lines B D
The Lines A C,
and
will
D DG
b
DBG and D G E
FE
CD,
is
wife
G E F,
therefore
will likeright Angles; and fo the Angle F being a right Angle ; are equal and the Lines
FG
(by
the 6. i.)
and E F
is
equal to
( j
the 3;. i. )
Now
EG is alio the Square of AC, double the Square of EF, or CD, (by the 47. 1.) is equal to the Squares But the Square of
AE
double
AG
of
the
Square of
AG
fame
the ) therefore
and
C D.
AC
like
wife ( by the fame 47. ) equal to the Squares of therefore the A D, and B equal to
DG
By
Let
Numhtrs.
AB
BD4;
gqijare of
BD
is
16,
AC
n6.
"7
:
n6.
j 8,
The Square
alfo
of
AC
is
The
Square of
CD
is
Now
49 and 9 make
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
?
XI.
7# divide a Line
w
.
in fuch a manner, that the Rectunder the whole Line, and one of its Varts y angle the other Tart. be {hall equal to the Square of
the Line
divided SUppofe in
that
AB
a
to be
fuch
manner
the Re&angle under the whole Line AB and BH, may be equal to the Square of A H. Make the Square of AB (by the in 46. 1 ) and dividing A the Middle E, draw EB, and take EF equal Then make the Square of AF, that to EB. is to I fay, let A F and A H be equal. fay, the Square of A H will be equal to the Redangle H C, contain'd under HB, and BC equal
.
to
AB,
Demonftration.
The Line
E, and the
( hy the 6.
AD
is
Lne FA added
divided equally
to
it
in
;
the Point
therefore
) tie Rc&angle
D G contain'd
under
DF,
8
and
is
D F,
A E,
with the Square of E F, equal to E B : now equal to the Squares of and AB, (by the 47. 1.) Therefore the of A B and A E are Squares equal to the RedG. and the Square of A E ; and fubangle
FG equal
to
AF,
AE
tra&ing from both the Square of A E ; the Square of A B. that is, AC, will be equal to the Re&angle G Taking away therefore the which is common to both, the Re&angle DH, Red angle will be equal to the Square of
HC
AH,
that
is,
AG.
The
1
USE.
c
*
4
c
This Proportion teaches how to cut a Line according to the extreme and middle Proportion, as will be (hewn in the fixth Book. Tis alfo frequently made life of in the fourteenth Book of Euclid's Elements, to find the Sides of Regular Solids. It is
ufeful alfo in the 11. of the 4. to infcribe a Pentagon in a Circle, as alfo a Pentedecagon ( or a Figure with if Angles. ) You will
fee alfo other Ufes thereof in dividing Lines after this manner, in the 30th of
*
* *
Proportion
the 6.
PRO
119
PROPOSITION
A Theorem,
XIL
In an Obtufe angPd Triangle, the Square of the Side opposd t$ the Obtufe Angle, is equal to both the other Sides, and two the
under
the
Line
upon
which a Perpendicular will fall, and the Line which lies vetwixt the Triangle and the Perpendicular.
be obtufe, Triangle be drawn Perpenand let D c * dtcular to BC; the Square of the Side A B is equal to the Squares of the Sides AC and CB, and two Re&angles contain'd un
LE
the Angle
A C B of
the
A *
ABC
AD
V\
LAJ^
BC
and
CD.
Dernonftration.
equal to the Squares of But the Square of and CB, is equal to the Squares of and two Red angles contain'd under and B ( by the 4.) Therefore the Square of A B is equal to the Squares of A D, DC, and CB, and and C B. two Rectangles contain'd under
AD
Tie Square of
AB
is
BD
C
the 47. 1. )
DC
DC
Inftead of the
two
firft
Squares of A
x
DC D
and
D C,
put
I30
AC. wmch
equal to the Squares of AC and CB, and two C and C B. Rectangles contain'd under
The
*
USE.'
1 * 6
This Propofition is ufeful in Trigonometry, to meafure the Area of a Triangle, whole Sides are known. For Example, Suppofe the
Side
c
'
* 1
'
c 1
AB to confift of 20 Foot, of 13, of ii ; the Square of AB will be 400, that of The 121. 169, and that of Sum of the two laft is 290 ; which fubftra&ed from 400, there will remain 110 for the two Rectangles under B and C D. The half of which, 57, will make one
B
AC
AC
BC
half of thofe
Rectangles
11,
dividing
which
for the
Number by BC,
Line
we
(hall
have
*
c
1
c
*
whofe Square 25; being fubftradted from the Squire of AC, 169, leaves the Square of AD, 144, whofe Root 12 will be the Side AD; which being multiplied by { f the half of B C, will give the Area of the, Triangle AEC that is, 66 Foot Square,
y
CD;
PRO
lit
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XIII.
In any Triangle whatfoever, the Square of the Side cppos'J to the acute Angle , with two Rectangles contained under the Side which the
dicular falls,
upon Verymand the Line which is betwixt the Verfendicular and that Angle, is equal to the
.other Sides.
ABC, SUppofe
AD
upon
Square of the Side A B, oppos'd to rhe acute Angle C, with two Re&angles conrain'J under BC and CD, will be equal to the Square of A C and B C.
Demonftration.
being divided in D, (by the 7.) fhe S iuarcs of B G and C are equal ro two
The Line
BC
Rectangles' under
B C and
C D,
and
the
of BD. Adding to boih the Square of A the ; ot BC, DC, and AD, will be equal to Squares
Square
two Red ingles under B C, and CD, and the S uares of B D and A D. Inftead of the Squares of CD, and A D, put rhe Square of AC, which
is
r,
and inftead
ol"
ill
of the Squares or BD, and AD, iubftitute the Square of AB which is equal to rhem, ( by the fame : ) then the Squires of B C and A C will be equal to the Square of A 6, and two Rectand CD. angles con tain'd under
BC
The
c
USE.
*
c
c
*
*
1
Thefe Propofitions are very ufeful in JWgonometry : I have made uffc of them in the eighth Proposition of my third Book, to prove, that in a Triangle the Sine Total has the famr Propoficion to the Sine of an Angle, as the Re&angle contain'd under the Sides, which form that Angle, to double the Triangle.
I
in the fe
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcrlhe
XIV.
TO
F c
angle
lineal
defcribe a Squareequal
to
the
Re&ilineal
make (by
A: Red
1*5
:
B C,
fo that
C F may be equal to C D
BF
in the
middle at the Point G, defcribe the Semicircle FHB; this to H. The Square of done, prolong Re&ilineal A. Draw the Line is equal to the
and dividing the Line
DC
CH
GH.
Dernonflration.
The Line B F
Parts in
( by the
is
divided
into
in
that is to fay, The Re&angle B D, or C ; with the Square of C Q, is equal to the Square of GB, or GH, which equal to it. Now. f*^ is equal to the the 47. r. ) the Square of of CG, and CH: Therefore the Re&Squares
two equal
C F,
GH
CH
1
of C G, are equal to angle BD, and the Square and therefore, the Squares of CG, and ; of CG, which is comtaking away the Square mon to both, there will remain the Square of is the equal to the Re&angle BD, or, which
CH
the
*
USE.
*
'
c
4
Magnitude
I
This Propofition teaches us, in the firft Place, to reduce any Re&ilineal Figures to Squares ; which being the chief Meafure of all Superficies, becaufe its Dimenfions are bo$h equal, we can by this means cake the of all forts of Re&iiineal Figures.
Again,
it
24
fee in
tional betwixt
Book.
Arifiotle brings this Propofition as an Inftance or a formal Definition : For, in bis 2d Book, de Anima, iz. diftinguilliing betwixt
4
a formal and a caufal Definition, he explains If when 'tis demanded, what ic them thus is to fquare a Re&angle ! Anfwer be return'd, That ic is to defcribe a Square equal to a Rec:
tilineal
given
this
mal
Definition.
to find a
For Lines, this gives the caufal Definition. to find a middle Proportional, is the Caufe of
Rectilineal
propos'd. c This Propofition may alfb be farther lifeful for the fquaring of crooked Figures ; and ic alfb, as far as is pofllble, even the Circle
of crooked Figures may, felf; for all forts at leaft as far as is difcernible by Senfe, be
redue'd
to Rectilineals.
As for Example:
a Polygon confifting if we of a thoufand Sides, there will be no fenfibJe difference betwixt it and the Circle ; therefore
inferibe in a Circle
reducing this Polygon to a S \juare, we do, as far as our Senfes are capable of judging, fquare the Circle.
THE
C I2 5 3
THE"
Third Book
OF THE
Elements of
1 i
EV CL I'D.
'
* *
'
S Third Book explains the Pro* perries of a Circle, and compares divers Lines which may be drawnwithin, or without, its Grcu inference. It confiders likewife the Circumftances of Circles, that cut each other, or touch a right Line ; and the Differences of Angles that are made either at the Centres, or Circumferences. In
11"^
JL
4 ' s
down the firft Principles for Eftathe Pra&ical Part of Geometry ; fot blifhing which the Circle is moft commodioufly made
fine, it
lays
all Treatifes
of the
Math*
Dfc
126
DEFINITIONS.
r. Thofe Circles are equal, whofe Da meters or Semidiame
Line is faid to touch a Circle, when, meeting with irs Circumference, h does not cut it : As the Line A B.
2.
3.
Circles
touch,
,
A, B,
4, Thofe Lines are equally reremote from the Centre ; when the Perpendiculars, drawn from the
Centre to
4
'
the
Lines,
are
equal.
As
for
c
4
will be ebe equal, A B and C qually remote trom the Centre ; becaufe the Diftance ought always to be meafur'd by per
and
B,
pendicular Lines.
f.A
LMN.
6. The Angle of the Segment is the Angle which the Circumference makes with the right
Line
7.
' :
As the Angles
LNG, N L M.
An Angle is in that Segment which are the Lines that form it : in As the Angle FGH, is in the Segment FGH.
8.
is
4
An Angle
is
oppos'd, or which
gle
9.
F G H,
is
upon that Arch, 'to which ic As t/je Anis as its Bafe the Arch F I H. upon
:
The
Seftor
is
a Figure con
two Semidiameters, and the Arch which ferves * As the Figure them for a Bafe
tained
under
FiGa
PRO
128
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To find the Centre of a
I.
Circle.
Line A B, and divide ic in the middle at the Point C; through which draw tnt Perpendicular
find the
Centre of the
Circle
AEBD,
draw the
E D,
which
G
G
of the Circle. If it be not, fuppofe the Point to be the Centre ; and draw the Lines G A, B, and G C.
Demon'fir at hn.
If the Point
GAC
GB AC
and
GBC
GA
and common, the Angles be equal. (by the 8. i. ) and a not C D, which is contrary Perpendicular, to the Suppofmon. Therefore the Centre rnuft of neceffity be in the Line C D. I ad i, That it muft be ac the Point F, where ic is divided into two equal Pans otherwife the Lines
equal, (by the Definition of a Circle:') And and B will be equal ; the Line being divided in the middle at the Point C, and
AB
GCB
CG
129
drawn from the Centre to the Circumference would not be equal. CorolL The Centre of a Circle is in that Line which failing perpendicularly upon another, divides it into two equel Parrs.
The
*
USE.
necefTary to demonftrate
is
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
A
II.
Right Line dcawn from one Point of the Ch' cumference to another falls wholly within the
,
Circle.
LET
li
the Point
it
lay,
To
prove,*
cannot
fall
wirhout the
Lines
Circle, as BVC:, having found the Centre of the Circle A, draw the
AB,
AC,
and AV.
Demonftration.
The IGBC,
[Angles
Sides
A B and A
:
are equal
pe
Angle
ABC and ACB are equal. And fince AVC an external Angle in reis
fpeft
j$o
fptd:
fo
it
the Angle
will
ABC,
be greater
Therefore ( by the to. i.) in the Triangle V, the Side A C, oppos'd to the greater Angle A V(X will be greater than A V; and by conference A V ought not to reach to the Circurrn ference of the Circle, if the Line B V C was a
right Line,
AC
7be
c
USE.
'
*
*
*Tis by this Propofition that they demonftrate, that a Circle can touch a right Line but in one Point. For if the Line touched
f
*
*
*
two Points of the Circumference, it would be drawn from one of its Points to another and by confluence, according to this Pro* pofition, would enter the Circle ; though, by
its
* *
c
Definition, the Line that touches ought u not to cut the Circumference. Theodofim \ t makes ufe of the fame Pemonftration to prove, that a Globe can touch a Plane only in M: one Point* for other wife the Plane would snccjr within the Globe,
I
Ho
IE
PRC
Nil
131
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If the
III.
will
and
it
if
it
cut
it
at right
into
two equal
farts*
the Diameter
AC
cut the
/
IF
;>afs
Line
B D,
Draw
the Lines
FB
and
FD.
'
Demonstration.
In the Triangles F E B and F ED, the Side E F are equal ; and s common ; the Sides
BE
is
ED
md
ire
their
B ifes F B and F D
Angles B E F and D EF are eqial, and by confluence right Angles. I add, That if the Angles B E F and D E F be
( by the 8. 1. ) the
ight AngI
s,
the Line
BD
will
be divided into
The
gular
:
Triangles
B E F and
1
D EF
1.
are Reftan
) the
Square of
%%%
o\ the Side
the Sides
BF
and
D F will be equal to the Squares of D and E F. Now the Squares of FD are eqtwl, becaufe the Lines are
E
equal, therefore the Squares of B E and EF. are equal to the Squares or. E and EF; and
taking away the Square of E F, which is comwill be equal, inon, the Squares of B E and
ED
Lines.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Xwo
Lines
IV.
drawn within
two equal
other into
C and B each other at the Point I, which is not the Centre of the Circle, they will not equally divide each Fir it. If one of thofe other.
F the Lines A
cut
Lines,
'tis
as
it
fhe Centre, vided but at the Centre. But and as through the Centre, tine AIC through the Centre,
evident
BD
EG, draw
If the Line
AC
BD
AID
into
the Angles
and
*33
;.
In like
manner, if the Line EG was equally divided in I, the Angle A I E would be a right Angle ; and eonfequently the Angle A I B and A E would be equal, which is impoilible, one being but It a word, The Line AIC, the other. pare of which paffes through the Centre, would be perand EG^, if they to the Lines
1
BD
I.
/The
1
USE.
Thefe two Proportions are us'd in TrigoThat rhe Half of a nometry, to demonftrate, Chord oi an 'Arch is perpendicular to the and confequently, that it is Semi diameter
;
By
demonftrate,
have the fame Proportion as the Sines of the We alfo make life of it to oppofire Angles. find the Eccentricity of the Circle, which the Sun defcribes in his Annual Motion.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Circles that cut each ether,
V,
have not
JL
and
tre,
If they
134
ED
) as alfo
the Lines K
B : Therefore the Lines and would be equal; which is impofc fible, one being part of the other.
A and E
ED
EB
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
VI.
Tivo Circles that touch each other on the inner Side, have not the fame Centre,
on the inner Side at the Point B, have not the fame Centre. For t'houla' the Point A be fuppos'd to be the Centre of both the Circles, the Lines AB and AC, AB and AD, would be equal, ( by the Definition of a Circle ; ) and confequently the Lines AD and AC would be equal, which is impolfible, one being part of
he other.
>HE
PRO
135
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If many Lines be
in the Circle,
VII.
which is not its Centre, to the Cir: 1. That which the fajfes through cumference 2. The Remainder of Centre is the great eft : the Circumit, continu d to the offofiue fart cf is the leaft : That which is neareft 3 ference, more reto the greatefb exceeds thofe that are mote : 4. There can be no more than two of them equal to each other.
.
many
drawn S'lppofe from
Lines to be
the Point A, not the Centre of the being Circle, to the Circumference ;
and
demonftrate, greater than any of the ocher ; for Example, that Draw F B. greater than A F.
it is
that
it
ia
Demonfiration*
A B and B F of the Triangle A B F, are greater than A F alone, {by the 20.1.}. But BF and B C are equal, ( by the Definition of a Circle ) Therefore A B and B C, that is to fay, AC, is greater than AF. \ add
1.
The
Sides
136
2.
I
is
j
the
leaft
A E:
Draw BE.
Demonflratiott.
and A B are greater than B E is alone, but equal toBD; therefore and A B are greater than B taking therefore ; from both that which is common AB, will
The
Sides
EA
BE
AE
D
is
AE
nearer
AC
than
AF
is
E.
De?nonftration.
The
Sides
Triangles
BF
:
to both
FB A, and E B A, have the and BE equal, and BA is common Bat the Angle A B F is greater than ABE:
Therefore,
( by the
the Angle
24.
1.
AF
is
greater than
AE.
That no more than two 4. Laftly, I fay, Lines, that are equal to each other, can be drawn from the Po^nt A to the Circumference,
equal
and
BG
the Side
AB common
ABE
and
all
and
ABG
will
AE
AG
equal;
be
e
But
be
l%f
be drawn either on one Side o the other, will be either nearer A C, than A E and A or ;
it;
and accordingly
will
be
Therefore there can be no more than two Lines equal betwixt themfelves, drawn from the Point A to the Circumference.
AG.
The
1
USE.
tifes
Tbeochfius, advantageoufly
this
Pro
pofition to prove, That if from any Point of the Superficies of a Sphere, which is not the Pole of any certain Circle, divers Arches of
greater Circles be drawn to the Circumference of that Circle, that which pafles through its
Pole will be the greateft. For Example; If the Pole of the World, which is di^rom ftincfc from the Pole of the Horizon, ( for the
Zenith
is its
Circles be
drawn
Sun, when in
Afogaum
is
mcft remote
P Pv O
138
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
drawn
VIII.
man
to its
Circumference
I.
Of a
Concave Circumference
is
the great paftes through the Centre 2. Thofe that lie near are great e eft eft to it, than thofe that are more remote .4 % . Among thoj
which
Convex Circumference, tht which being continud fajfes through the Centr is the lea (fr 4 The nearer to that, are lefs th& thofe farther off: f There can be but two equ,
.
either to
ti
many
Lines
wei
GCDE.
The Line AC, wh through the Centre B, paflJes the greateft of all thofe tto reach to the Concave Gircun ference; for Ex^mole, it is greater than AL Draw the Line B
Firtt,
Demon/Oration. the Sides AB and B] In the Triangle alone j but the Sides A are greater than A
ABD,
ar
1 The Third Book. 39 B C are equal to A B and B D Therefore and AB and BC, or AC, is greater than AD. 2. A D is greater than A E.
:
Deinonftration.
and A B E have the Side The Triangle A B A B common to both, and ths Sides B D and BE equal, and the Angle A B D is greater than
the
Bafe
therefore (by the 24. 1.) the greater than the Bafe A E. A F, which being continued, pa (Tes through 3. he Centre, is the leaft of all thofe Lines thac
Angle
ABE;
is
ire
drawn
to the
or Example, It
is lefs
A I.
Draw
B.
Demonfiration,
In the Triangle A 1 B the Sides A I and I B are reater than alone, (by the 24. 1* ) thereore taking, from both, the equal Lines Bl and
AB
F,
AF
will
is
4.
\\
AI
and
lefs
remain than
Line
K
In the
K
3,
B,ie
the Sides are greater than the Sides A I and ( by the 21. 1. ) therefore taking, from both, equal Sides BK.and B I, A I will remain lefs
KB
lan
j.
A K.
There can be but two Lines equal betwixtfl drawn from A. Take the Angles j\jiemfelves BL, and ABK; as alfo ABE, and AUG, equal,
Demonfiration.
dj
The Triangks
eir
ABL
and
Bafes
A L and
AK
ABK,
will
have
)
equal, (by
the 4. 1.
ar4
140
and by the fame alfo A E and A G will be but no other Line can be drawn, that equal
will
not be either nearer to, or more remote AC; and confequently, that will not be either greater or lefs than and AL. A E and A G.
from AF, or
AK
RO
ON
E M.
IX.
A T
drawn
Centre,
to the
6 R
three,
IF
there could be bu
it
from
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two
*
X.
E
two
Points.
r,_JUA ^\v
T FA twr BF
J[
ther in
'
Circles
AEBD, am
1
\
/
D;
of the Circle
the Lines
AEBD;
4
C A, C B,
^Me
the
the
cle
alfo
Third BookDemonstration.
f4t
drawn from
Lines,
Ontre C
C A,
CB, and
:
CD,
are equal But the fame Lines are drawn to the Circumference of the Circle Therefore ( by the 9; ) the Point C ABFD So will be the Centre of the Circle A B F D. two Circles which cue each other, will have ijthat :he fame Centre; which is contrary to the fifth
AEBD,
:
Proposition .
4*
The
D E,
Demonstration.
leffer
rence, would be equal : And adding the Line and DC, would be equal; the Lines and DC, are greater than to CG.
CD,
EC
Now
ED
ED
and
fo
CG.
will
CG
being the Centre oi and are equal will be greater than CB, which u\
CE
CB
impoflible.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
If two
XII.
Line drawn through both their Centres^ will paj through the Point where they touch.
the Line
1 where
to be
fid
pafs
through
(
Ian
drawn rrom rhe Centre A t< the Centre B: Draw the Line IP A C and B C.
Demonfiration, In the Triangle A
C B,
the Side
greatei
AC
and
BC
would not be
k
Jt
than the Side A B alone, (which is contrary t< the 20. 1.) becaufe and AC, as a!fo Bl
AD
PRO.
*43
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XIII.
If two Circles touch each other on the infide, they will Mich but in one Point only, viz. ie Point C, which is mark'd out y the Line paffing through
Irft,
BAG
A and
B.
For
they (hould touch likewife in the Point D, raw the Lines A D, and B.
Demonftration.
A D,
leffer Circle to
Circumfe
nce, are equal ; and adding A B, the Lines \ and AC, and BA and AD, would be equal, ow B and B D, drawn from the Centre of
will
will
AD
is
alone, which
con.
uch each other on the oute; drawing the Line AB !>m one Centre to the other, 2
it
1 44
it will pafs through th e Point C, where the Cir But if you fay, Thai cles touch, ( by the 12.)
; having drawi they touch alfoatthe Point and the Lines B C and B the Lines A ; and AD, being equal, the* two Sides of Triangle taken together, would be equal to th<] third, which is contrary to the 20. 1.
BD
AC
the
1 t
1
USE.
Thefe four Proportions are very clear and and alfb neceflary in Jftronomy y when we make life of Eft cycles, to, explain the Mo tions of the "Planets.
evident,
PROPOSITION
A The
Equal
Lines
XIV.
n
SO
1C
o r em.
Circle^
F;
drawn within a
their Centre; and remote from the Centre, are equal. equally
remote
from
the Lines
AB and C
Perpendiculars EF and EG, drawr from the Centre, are a!fo equal and EC. Draw the Lines
EA
Demonfiration.
divide eh<
AB
and
CD in
anc
145
and G, (by
tes
:
AF and
GG
The Angles F and are right AnTherefore (by the 47. 1.) the Square of and FA; )A is equal to the Squares of is equal to the Squares 5 alfo the Square of and f But the Squares of E A and ;C are equal, becaufe the Lines E A and re equal : Therefore the Squares EF and F A
re equal.
EF
EC
EG
GC
EC
re
iking
and C: equal to the Squares E away the equal Squares A F and ere will remain the Squares of E F and
]ual
;
And
C G, EG
and confequently the Lines E F and which are the Diftances of the Lines A B G, id from the Centre, are equal. But fuppofing the Diftances, or Perpendicurs EF and EG to be equal; I will prove xer rhefame manner, that the Squares of EF id F A are equal to the Squares of E G and C and taking away the equal Squares of F and EG, there will remain the Squares of F and G equal. And therefore the Lines F and CG, and their Doubles AB and CD,
CD
equal.
PRO
14^
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
The Diameter
in a Circle
;
XV.
is
and, of the
which
is
THE
Diameter
AB
of
a
the greateft
GlDC:
it
is
for
Example,
gre*
tl
1
1
than
Lines
fit
Demonftration. In the Triangle CED, the Sides and E are greater than alone, (by the 20. 1. ) b and EB, or AB, is equal to and EI
H
tit
CD
of,
AE
EC
AB
is
I be more remc Secondly, Let the Line from the Centre than the Line CD; that is to fa Let the Perpendicular be greater than t is I fay, That C Perpendicular EF. great
greater than
EH
than
GI
Draw
the Lines
E C, and E G.
F E (by
the 47. 1
Demonstration.
The Squares of
CF and
EC
the Third
Boot{.
H7
and the EC G H and EG E Therefore the Squares of C F and F E arc \ and HE; and of B[ual to the Squares from one Side the Square of HE, and king i)m the other the Square of E F, which is r GF s than the Square of H E, the Square of G H. than the Square remain
J
GH
;
ill
greater
CF
will
ne
"
GH
CF,
will
GH.
USE.
life
of thefe two Propothat in a Sphere the fitions, to demonftrate, Circles are more remote from the CenlelTer tre. I have alfo made ufe of them in my Books
c
Theodofius
makes
of Ajtrolabes. To thefe Propofitions may likewife be referr'd that Mechanical Propofition of Arifiotle , by which he ftiows, that the Rowers at the middle of a Gaily have greater are at either the force, than thofe that thereof ; becaufe the or hinder fbre
part Sides of the Gaily being crooked, the Oars of the middle part are longer, i. e. reach farther than the
reft.
The Demonftrations
re
do alfo fuppofe lating to the Iris, or Rainbow, the Truth of thefe Proportions .
K
#
PR"
14$
Th Blemttft of
Euclid*
PROPOSITION
?;
XVI.
A Theorem,
drawn ferpendicularly nfon the Extremk the Diameter, falls wholly on the Outfide o 4 pf But any other Lin the Circle, and touches iu
'A Line
drawn betwixt
I
that
and
Extremity of th 1 fay ,Firft, That a! the other parts of the fame Line for Example, the Point C, fall 01 Draw the Line C $he Outfide of the Circle.
is
ET
piameter AB:
Dempnjiratio?}.
A( A C of the Triangle Since the Angle Am will be an Acute a right Angle, is will be greater thar {by the 19. 1. ) the Side reache Side DA; therefore the Line $he r umference of the Circle. the beyond
DCA
D
:
DC
DC
add, That the Line CA touches the Circle becaufe that meeting with it at the Point A, does not cue it, but all its Points are on tht Outfide of the Circle.
I
ii
1 fay
from
149
does not
EA
it,
I.
Demonfiration. Since the Angle DI A is a right Angle, and an Acute, will be the Angle A I greater than E) I : Therefore the Line I does not reach to the Circumference, but the Point I is within the Circle,
AD
The
'
USE.
ufe
this
Some
Philofophers
Propofition,
but altogether in vain, to prove that Quantity is not divifible in infinitum^ or that there
in the World fuch really are Ztnonical, i. e. abfolutely and in nature indivifeble Points. For the
things
their
as
own
Propofrion does not, as they would have if, pro^e, that a Circle touches a right Line in a Zenonical, but in a Mathematical Point, which is nothing c\Cq but a Quantity confider'd without Diitin&ion of Parts, that is to without
fay,
Quantity which being once ; eftabliuYd, our Circle will confift of fuch Points, and will be Mathematically perfe&r, provided it touch not a right Line, but in a
for a Mathematical Point
'
conceiving them diftinft and feparate one from the other, whether in Reality it has fuch Parts or not, making no Matter. We can therefore take any whatfoever
P ar t
50
part equal to that quantity vhich we have raken for a Point. But if we afterwards take a Jefs part for our Mathematical Voint,
the Circle which was exa&iy perfect accordthe firft Supposition, will be imperfect in the fecond, and degenerate into a PoI lygene. believe, 'tis as impoflible to defcribe a Circle, that according to any Suping to
pofuion
perfect, as
Quantity.
Secondly, Thofe Confluences , which fbme Men draw from this Propofition relating to the Angle of Cont&ti> which they take to be lefs than anv Rectilineal Angle, are grounded upon this Miftake, That they imagine an Angle to be a true Qjanary* ; the contrary of which may appear from hence, That
the Lines, that contain an Angle, being produced to any Length, the Angle becomes not at all the greater. Further, It ought to
we mean, when we
fay, that one Angle is greater than another ; for this is all we underftand, That a Circie be
ing defcrib'd from the Point ot Concourfe at any Diftance whatfoever, the Lines of that we call the greater Angle will contain betwixt them a greater Arch of that Circle, than thofe of that we call the lefs; which is the fole meaning of the Excefs of one Angle above another. From whence I infer, that the An
'gk
M*
<
gle with a Reftilineal Angle, than a Superficies fame time both q<ial and a Line, being at the
lefs
;
As
Point
A draw
the Line
AD.
fay,
making with
AE
a Re&ilineal
n
lefs
is
and
qual to,
Contact
For
divers
if
we
defcrib'd
Circles
from
to
the
wheieby
mea
is
the Angle of Point D, that is, the Contad: is greater than the Re&ilineal Angle.
1
drawn Arch F F,
But,
;
to the
Arch
'
CB, the Reailineal Angle is the greater of And laftly, according to the Arch the two. DG, paffing through the Point in which cuts the Circumference, they are both From whence it follows, That the equal. of Contaft is at the fame time both Angle
AD
lefs
5
1
the
and greater than, and equal to, Re&ilineal Angle: And confequently, they ought not at all to be compar'd togeIn a Word, Angles are no Quantities; ther. nor are they call'd lefs or greater one than
another, but
with
refpeft
to
the
*
Arches which
152
f
*
c
*
*
*
which they contain So that all the Difputes about the Angle of Contact, and all the Paradoxes, conclude nothing either for or againft the Divifibility of Quantity ; an Angle being no Species, but only a Property
thereof.
PROPOSITION AProblem.
From a
XVII.
may
TO
cle
its
Point
B D, draw
defcrib'd
Centre ; draw a Perpendicular B E, which may cut an Arch of a Circle, from the Centre C through the Point
A, at the Point E.
Draw
and A D.
Circle in
I fay,
The Line A
E C,
touches the
D.
Demonstration.
have the Triangles EBC and fame Angle C and the Sides C D and C B, CE and C A, equal ( by the Defin. of a Circle : )
The
ADC
And
all
Refpe&s,
( by the 4.
C BE
and
CDA
are
The7hirdBooht
153
.But. the. Angle _C B E is a right are equalA will be fb therefore the Angle Angle, will the 16. %.) the Line too, and ( by
CD
AD
1 54
The
EkpHMi of
Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XIX.
If a Line perpendicular to the Tangent, be drawn from the Point of Contacl y it will faff through the Centre of the Circle.
DC be perpendicular to AB.
paflfes
LET
the Line
the
C rcle
AB
touch"
That
DC
through the Centre. For if it did not, drawing a Line from the Centre to the Point D, it would be perpendicular to AB, {by the f receding, )
culars
and Co there would be two Perpendidrawn to the fame Point of the fame
Line
1
mon
it is
CB, which cannot be. The USE. The life of Lines Tangents
in
;
is very comupon which account Trigonometry that I have made a Table, whereby to
meafure
rical as
all forts
Re&ilineal;
my
Optickt likewife
are divers Propofitions founded upon Tangents ; as when it is determin'd what part of a Globe is enlightenU The Phafes or Apparitions of
the
Moon
upon
the
rence
155
We take the Dimenfions of the Earth a Line that touches its Superficies ; and in by ithe Art of Navigation, take a Tangent Line
Laftly,
'
XMI
PROPOSITION A Thboum,
The Angle at the Centre
the Circumference,
its
XX.
Bafe.
at IF the Centre,
the Angle
ABC,
which
is
ADC, at the Circumference, have the fame Arch for their the firft will be double the Bafe,
AC
Cafes
The
firft
of which
the Line
the Line
the Line
A B D pafles through the Centre B, A B in one Triangle concurring with B D of the other.
Dernonftration.
is,
when
The Angle
32. i.J
it is
an external Angle in reTherefore (by the and C, equal to both the Angles which
is
ABC
BDC:
$6
which being equal, (bythe$. j.) becaufe their" Sides BC and BD.are equal, rhe Angle ABCis
is,
When one
El er
Angle inclofes the other , but none of the Lines that form them concurr in one ; as you fee in the
Figure annexed. The Angle B I D at the Centre, ard the Angle at the Circumference, the Line A IC through the Centre.
is
BAD
Draw
Demonfiration. is double the Angle I and is double the ( by tfo Angle is : Therefore the Angle B I preceding Cafe ) double the Angle
The Angle
B1C
BAG
D
C D
CAD,
BAD.
is,
happens that nor do any of the Lines that form them, concurr in one. Which Cafe is wholly omitted by my Anic
The
third
neither
When
tbor, but
plied.
is
here ftp
U
I
Let the Angle at the Centre be BED, and the Angle at the Circumference
oi
'I
BCD,
having the
Draw
fame Arch for their Baft B D. I fay, the Angle BED is double the Angle BCD, the Line E G, and continue it to the
Demon*
Point A*
57
The Angle
AED
;
is
C D,
( by the 1. Cafe
AEB
is
) and ( by the fame ) the Angle double the Angle Therefore the
ACB:
is
BED
US.
is ordinarily proto defcribe an Horizontal
pos'd, fnewing
how
fole
Dial by one
is
built
again,
g&um
of the Sun, or the Excentricicy of his by three Obferrations, we fuppofe the Angle at the Centre to be double that ac the Circumference. Ptolemy makes frequent life of this Propofirion, to determine both the Excentric Circle of the Sun, and the Epicycle of the Moon. The firft Propofition of the Third Book of Trigonometry is grounded sAfc
Circle,
upon
this here.
fe
PR&
158
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXI.
The Angles that are in the fame Segment of Circle^ or that have the fame Arch for then
Bafe, are equal.
IF
BDC ment of
AC
a Circle,
which
The Angles A and D are each of them th half of the Angle B I C, ( by the preceding,
therefore they are equal.
BC
They have
likewi
Secondly, Let the Angles A and ] in the fame Segment BAD, whic is lefs than a Semicircle wi ; they neverthefefs be equal.
be
Demonftration.
All the
equal to
{by the
r.
all
and
DEC
ai Angles of the Triangle the Angles of the Triangle Cor oil of the 32, 1.) but the Angles A E
ABE DEC
Angles
E C D and A B E
i$9
the fame Segment A ECO, ceMngCafcJ being than a Semicircle ; therefore the Aagreater are equal; which, the and
gles
BAE
at
EDC
Angles
( by the Corell.
equal, and confeqiiendy Lines AE and of the if. i. ) the C, making but one right Line, as likewjfe and EB another, are the Angles A and D, in the fame Segment A BCD, and having the
being
DE
"
c
Arch B
The
US.
c *
*
c
This Propofition is produced in Of ticks, to will appear of the prove, that the Line B C fame Greatnefs, when 'tis view'd from A, and D, becaufe it is feen in both Cafes under equal
Angles. * Trie fame Propofition
is
us d to defcribe
f
c
large Circles without having their Centres: for Example ; If we would make large CopBafbns of a Spherical Figure, fuch as we
per
*
c
'
might work upon in Poliihing Spe&acles, and GlafTes to fee at a great D<ftance. For equal having made in Iron an Angle to that which is Contair/d in the Segment ABC, and at the Points B and C ftrongly
BAG
*
i
faften'd
two
if
the Triangle
1
1
Pin B, and the Pin C, the Point A will defcribe an Arch of This manner of Dethe Circle A B C D. a Circle may alfo be us'd in making fcribing great dfirolabes.
FRO
60
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXII.
Angles equal
to
two
right Angles.
gure, or a Figure of four Sides, be infcrib'd in a Circle, in fuch fort that all
its
ET
a Quadrilateral Fi
the
Circle
polite
A BCD
right Angles.
Draw
the Diagonals
Demonfiration. are ethe Angles of the Triangle qual to two right Angles. Inftead then of the Angle put the Angle A C D, which is equaf
AH
BAD
ABD
in the fame Segment Andiniteadof the Angle ADB, put the Angle ACB, which is in the fame Segment of the Circle B C D A Therefore the Angle BAD, and the Angles ACDandACB, that is to fay, the whole Angle BCD, are equal to two right Angles. The USE. ' makes life of this Propofitioti Ptolemy V to frame the Table of Chords, or Lines fub
to
it
ABCD:
tending
161
in
the Sides of an Ob.tufeAngle Triangle have the fame Proportion among themfelves as the
Sines of the Oppofire Angles.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two
XXIII.
uf.n
fame
Call
thofe
Similar
Circle,
which contain equal Angles ; and I fay, that if fuch be defer ib'd upon the fame Line AB, they will fall one upon the other, and not exceed each other in any Pare. For if either did exceed the other, as do the Segments ADB, and ACB, they would not be Similar: To demonftrate which, draw the Lines ADC, and BC. ments of a
Seg
BD
Demonflration.
The Angle
the
1
ADB
is
DBC:
ADB
I
ACB
fay,
and
is
ACB
to be D'tjfimilar.
PRO
62
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Two
XXIV.
IFAEB andC
and the Lines
qual, the
AB
Segments
be
equal.
Demonftrallon,
to be Suppofe the Line plac'd upon the Line A B, being fuppos'd to be equal, they will not exc^d each other; and then the Segments AEB and C F will be de
CD
icrib'd
upon
the
the
will
be equal, (by
The
USE.
Crooked Figures are frequently redue'd to \ As for ExRe&ilineals by this Propofuion. If two Similar Segment? ample of a Circle A E C and A D B, be
;
defcrib'd
c ',
upon A B and A C,
that,
the
ABC
A DB
Figun
evident,
is
tranfpofing
the
the Triangle
ABC
Segment A
EC
unto
AD8CEA,
equal to the
PRO,
The Third
BooJ{.
6%
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
ccmpleat a Circle of which
XXV.
we have
but a Fart.
the Arch
ABC
HAvjng given,
:
to compleat the
find its Cenwhich end, draw the ,ines A B and B C, which haing divided in the Middles at he Points E and D, draw their two PerpendiI ulars E I and which will meet at the 'oint I, the Centre of the Circle.
jrcle
1
we muft
to
Demonftration.
The Centre
fthe
ore
'
is
in the
Line
I,
(by
the CorolL
i,
it
is
affo in
S El The This Proportion occurs very frequently ; but (bmetimes it is exprefs'd in other Terms
or
to
:
As to inferibe a Triangle
defcribe a
in a Circle;
Circle three Points githrough ven, provided they be not a right Line. in plac'd
Lee
the
Points
propos'd
pla
be A, B, and
C; and
ComL 4
'****'
i
pafs
164
defcribe two Arches F pafs at the Point and E, at any Diftance whatfoever. Ther
remove the Foot of the Compafs to the Poiqt B, and at the fame Diftance defcribe twc
other Arches cutting the former in E anc F; alfo from the Point B, as the Centre defcribe at any Diftance the Arches anc H, and at the fame Diftance from the Cen
tre A two other Arches cutting them in G and H. Which done, draw the Lines through F and E, G and H, which (hall cut each
the Point D, the Centre of th< The Demonftration is obvious e for if you had drawn the Lines A I nough and BC, you had, by this Operation, divided them equally and perpendicularly. Thi;
Circle.
;
other at
Propofition
fcribe
is
exceeding
neceflary
to
de<
Aftrclabes,
in
which we have
pofition to find
and compleat
the
this.
it
Afironomy^ which teaches how the Jpogaum, and Excentricity oi Circle of the Sun, virtually contains
And
I alfo
oi
in
my
Stones,
pro;
165
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXVI.
whether at the Centres, or the CirEqual Angles, Circles y have equal Arches cumferences of equal
D and
;
I,
at the
IF
BC
For
or
ABC,
the Arches
FG
will
be
equal.
the Arch
BG
than
would
the
or
lefs
than
Angle But
if
fuppos'd to be at the Circnmfe* rences of equal Circles, as A and E ; the Angles which they inclofe at the Centres, as
D and
I,
BC,
are likewife
the
and E.
PRO
l 66
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXVIL
of equal
Circles,
their
and I (Fig. preceJ.) at the of equal Circles have equal Arches Centres for their Bifes, they will be ebC and a*e" and becatife their Meafures qual, And if the Angles A and E, at the equal. Circumferences of equal Circles, have equal Arches B C and F G for their Bafes, fmce the. Angles they inclofe at the Centres will be equals they alfo that are the Halves of thofe Angles
the
IF
Anpes
FG
BC
FG
(by
the
io.)
will be equal.
PROPOSITION
Equal Lines, within equal
equal Arches.
XXVHI.
A Theorem.
Circles,
anfwer
to
j
Lines
to
BG
and
Er
J?
plied
equal
Circles,
ABC,
167
DEF,
B
rches,
D,
DE/DF.
Demonfir ation.
the Sides are equal, being le Semidiameters of equal Circles; and their afes BC and E F are fuppos'd ecual ; therefore the 8. 1.) the Angles A and wiil be by equal ;
In the Triangles
ABC
and
and
Band AC,
DE
DEF,
DF,
BC
and
EF
will
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
Lines
XXIX.
of equal
BC and EF (feeFig.preced. Prop.) [ fubtend (or are the Chords or ) equal Arches the
TF the Lines
Circles, they will be equal, DemGnfiration. The Arches B and E F are equal, and Parts rf equal Circles ; therefore ( by the 27. ) the
I
C and E F in equal
Angles
:he Triangles
D
'
E,
and
D F,
h and
D;
the Bates
BC, EF,
will
be equal,
by the 4. 1. )
The
*
USE.
'
Theodojius,
by
1 68
'
7he
Elements of Euclid.
Iff
<
1
and Babylonian Hours, contained betweei We have alfo de two Parallels, are equal. monftrated after the fame manner, that th
Arches of the Circles of the Afironomica Hours, contain'd between two Lines parallc to the Equator, are likewife equal. Thefe Pre are almoft of continual life in Sphe pofitions
rical Trigonometry*
*
*
* *
and
alfo in Dialling.
II
PROPOSITION
A
XXX.
Problem.
t
To divide an Arch of a
Circle into
two equal
Part.
ife
the Arch
AEB
to be SUppofe divided into qual Parts ; place the Foot o the Compafs at the Point A, am defcribe two Arches F and then removing it to the Point E at the fame Diftance defcrib other two Arches, cutting the former in F am F will cut the Arch A B equal the Line ; Draw the Line A B. ly at the Point E.
wa two c
iw
n
it
Demonftration.
By this Operation we have divided the Lira A B into two equal Parts. For fuppofe the
were
k
169
;
which
left
GA
and
GB
would have
by the
8. 1. )
all tkeir
>re (
ould be equal.
id
ides
DFB
A F and B F
:
DFB equal Therefore {by the 4. i.J the ifes A D and B D are equal, and alfo the We have therefore ngles A D F and B D F.
id
A B equally, and perpendicuat the Point Therefore (by the 1.) rly e Centre of the Circle is in the Line F G. Supvided the Line
D:
)fe it
CA and CB; all the Sides of the Triane9 A C D and B C D are equal therefore ( by
;nes
;
8,
ACD
The
USE.
Having frequent Occafion to divide art Arch into two equal Parts, the Exercife of this *Tis Propofition is very common. thus that we divide the Mariners Compafs
into
ameters cutting each other at right Angles, we divide the Circle in four Parts ; and fub* dividing each Quarter in the Middle, we have
sight Parrs;
:wice,
sion
and again,
32.
we make
We
fubdividing
thofe
have
in
alfo
Occa
for the
fame Operation
170
'
'
1
a Semicircle into 180 Degrees ; and, becaui to compleat that Diviiion we are oblig'd t divide an Arch into three equal Parts, a
Geometricians have fought afcer a Method c doing that Geometrically, but have not y<
'
c *
been
To
happy
as to find one.
PROPOSITION
XXXI.
A Theorem.
The Angle in a Semi circle is a right Angle th* which is in a Segment greater than a Sen circle is an Acute ; and that which is in a lejj Segment is an Qbtufe,
;
IFSemicircle,
it
the Angle
BAC
I vyill
be
in
prove th
Draw
Demonfiration.
being an external Angle AC, is equal to bo regard of the Triangle A C and C A (by the 32. 1 the Internals and thofe being equal (by the $\ 1. ) becaufe fl are equal, it will be dout and Sides
The Angle
ADB
D D
DA
is
the Angle
ADC
the
DC D A C.
In like
DAB:
Therefo
ADB
and
ADC,
right Angles,
*7*
BAC,
BAC
is
a right Angle.
is in the Secondly, The Angle A EC, which lefs than a Semi circle, is an A Segment For in the Quadrilateral Figure Obtufe Angle. the two oppofite Angles E and B are ABCE,
EC
equal to
the
two
is
right Angles,
{by
the
22.) but
Angle B
[will
be an Obtufe.
/Thirdly,
ment
Acute
gle
ABC
;
B, which is in the Seggreater than a Semicircle, is an becaufe in the Triangle ABC, the An
The Angle
BAC
is
a right Aogle.
The
1
US
life
E.
Mechanicks make
of
this
:
defcribtta Semicircle
they Jay
'
i
down
the Point
BAD, A of
their
upon the Square and one of its Sides A B upon Circumference, the Point of the Diameter B ; and then the other Branch ought to pafc precifely the Point D, which is the other Exthrough treme of the Diameter.
BAD
AD
Ptolemy ufes this Propofition to compofe> his Table of Chords or Subtendents, of which he has occafion in his Trigonometry. ' There is alfo a Method of railing a Per4
pendicular
ijl
c
1
e c
'
pendicular at the end of a Line, grounded For Example ; Tc upon this Propofkion. raife a Perpendicular at the Point A of the Line A B, I place the Foot of the fcompafi
1
1
the Line
AB
is
at the Point 6.
Then
drav
c
1
the Line
Line
AD
BCD;
and
in a Semicircle.
PROPOSITION
A Theorem. A
XXXII.

Line cutting a Circle at the Point of Contact :: makes, with the Tangent, Angles equal to thoj I in the alternate Segments,
ET
is
the Line
at
Circles
which
BD
FD
BD
Firft, If the Line pafs through the Centn as the Line BE, it will make, with the Tar
genr,
two
right Angles,
Angles of the
i
Sernicircles
the Third
Book,.
173
Angles, (by the preceding,) therefore in this Cafe the Propofition would be true. But if the Line do not pafs through the Centre, as B ;
Line
D E.
and
Demonftration.
The Line
right
Angles;
angle
\be
BDE
C
and
makes with the Tangent two and all the Angles of the Triare equal to two right Angles, (by
and
BE
%2. 1. )
therefore
Angles
wircle,
BE,
taking
away
is
the right
which
Angle
in
the
Sem>
is
likewife the
EBD
which
pmmon
\K
*Vngle
is equal to the B Again, The Angle F ; becaufe in the Quadrilateral Figure BFDE, which is infcrib'd in a Circle, the op
C D
>ofire
Angles
E and F
are equal to
two
\ngles,
ZB
and the 2i. ) but the Angles are alfo equal to two right Angles, ( by (by
ABD
right
he 13.
u) and
the Angles
ABD
and
;
are
now demonftrated
and
therefore
are equaL
I
c
I
The
this Propofition
USE.
is
which follows,
PRO
74
PROPOSITION
A Probl
Upon a Line given,
E M.
XXXIII.
of
LET
cle
be propos'd to de
fcribe a
of the Angle C.
draw AE perpendicular to AD make alfo the Angle A B F equal to B A F And in fine, from the Point B F and AE concur, at the diftance B
;
:
defcribe a Circle.
The Segment
BEA
C.
cap*
Lines FA and FB are equal, (by the 6. j.) an the Circle, which is defcrib'd from the Centi A. F, by A, pafles by B: Now the Angle a right Angle, the Line touches th te<ng Circle in A, ( by the 16. ) therefore the Angl contained in the Segment BE A, as the Angl
The Angles B
th
DA
JE,
that is, th equal to the Angle Angle C, ( by the preceding,) But if the Angl given be an Obcufe, we muft take an Acute It Complement to 180 Degrees,
is
DAB;
PRO
m
XXXIV.
from
it
PROPOSITION
A Problem*
A
cut a Segment of the B C E capable of the Angle A, draw (by the 17.)
TO
Circle
the
Tangent
the Angle
DBC
'Tis
Angle A.
the
(by
Segment
BEC
is
capable of
DBC,
The
and .consequently to
USE.
of
this
have made
life
Proportion to
of the
his
find
Geometrically
the
Excentricity
Apogaum,
'Tis ufcd
unequal Lines proposed, may appear equal, or under equal Angles, by making upon each Line Segments which will contain equal An*
gles
PRO
176
PROPOSITION
A Theorem.
XXXV.
If two Lines cut each other within a Circle, the ReBangle contained under the Tarts of one, is d under the Tarts equal to the Rectangle contain
of
the other,
If the
two Lines cut each other in the will be both equal, and both
equally divided ; fo that in this Cafe it is evident, the Re&angle contain'd under the Parts,
of one, will be equal to the Re&angle contain'cf under the Parts of the other. Secondly, If one of the Lines pafs through the Centre F, as
Line
BD
AC, and
into
divide the
at the
Point
fay,
The
Re&angle contain'd under A E and EC is equal to the Rectcontained under BE and E D, that is to angle The Line AC is perfay, to the Square of BE. f pendicular to B D, ( hj the 3. )
Demonfiration. Since the Line A is divided equally in F, and unequally in E, the Reftangle contain'd unde A E, and E with the Square of F E,
is
177
equal to the Square of FC, or FB, (by the f. 2.) the. Angle E being a right Angle, the Square of FB rs equal to the Squares of BE and
Now
FE;
Re&angle under A E, EC, F E, is equal to the Squares BE and FE; and taking away the Square of EF, there remains the Re&angle under AE, EC, equal to the Square of B E.
therefore the
Thirdly, Let the Line pafs through the Centre F, and divide the Line
CD
into unequal
:.
Draw
and and
GD
FG
CD, CG
Demonftration. Since the Line A B is divided equally in F, and unequally in E, the Re&angle contain'd
is
equal
to the Square of F B, or F C, ( by the <f. 2. ) Inftead of the Square of EF, put the Squares
of
47.
FG
and
G E,
it,
(by the
1. )
being divided the Re&; E, ED, with the Square of E, ngle under equal to the Square of GC. Add the Square of F ; the Redangle under C E, ED, with the Squares of E and F, will be equal to
In like
^ually in
in
the Squares of
( by the
CG
and
G G F,
that
is
47.
1.
) to the Square of F
to fay,
Therefore
in 3
178
fore the
LG and G F,
C E, ED,
E,
is
And
confequently taking
away
A E, E
equal to the Reftangle CE f E D. and HI cut each Fourthly, If the Lines other in E, neither of the two palling through the Centre: I fay, The Re&angle CE, For to the Re&angle HE, EL is equal
CD
ED
drawing the Line A F B, it is plain the Reck angles CE, ED, and HE, E I, are both e
qual to the Re&angle
ing Cafe ; ) themfelves.
The
c
USE.
We are taught by this Propofition a Method of finding a fourth Proportional tc three Lines given, or a third Proportional tc two,
I.
PRO
The Third
Bool{.
179
PROPOSITION
XXXVI,
A Theorem.
he from a Point taken without the Circle a Line irawn to touchy and another to cut. the Circle :
the Square of the Tangent will be equal to and Retlangle contain d under the whole Secant,
the
AB
B
to be
drawn from
in
and
AC,
or
AH
The S ^uare of AB
cutting will be
ir/d
.0
AC
and contained under A the Secant pafs through the Centre, as C, draw the Line LB.
to the
If
Redan gle
F.
Demcnflration,
Since the Line is divided in the mrdLe at the Point E, and the Line A added and !>it; the Reel: ingle containM under C, with the Square of OE, or E B, will be
OC
AO
lual to the Square of A E, {by the 6. 2. ) low the Line AB is fjppos'd to touch the Itrcle at the Point B: Therefore ( by the 18. )
the
j8p
the Angle
B is a right Angle, and (by the 47, the Square of A is equal to the Squares 1, j of E B and A {3 ; therefore the Re&angle under
AG
and AO, with the Square of EB, is equal to the Squares of E B and A B : And taking away the Square of E B from both, the Redwill be equal to the Square angle under AC,
AO
of
B.
not Suppofe the Secant pafs through the Centre ; and draw the Lin EG perpendicular to FH, which will divide iris the Middle the Line F at the Point Qj dra alfo the Line E F>
Secondly,
AH
The Line F
Point G, and the Rectangle contain'd under AH, A F, witfe the Square of FG, will be equal to the Square of AG. Add to both the Square of E the ; under AH, A F, with the Squares oi Re&angle and GE, that is, (by the 47. 1.) the Square of F E, or E B, will be equal to the Squares oi^ f and GE, that is, (by the 47. 1. ) the Square^ of AE. Further, The Square of AE (by thi fame) is equal to the Squares of EB and A B ; lij Therefore the Rectangle contain'd under A H, A F, with the Square of B E, is equal to the
;
FG
AG
F:
Squares of B E and A B : and taking away the Square of BE from both, the Re&angle contain'd under AH, will be equal to the Square of A B, Cord,
AF
181
fame Point, as
under
and AO, and A F, will be A betwixt themfelves, fince they are both equal equal to the Square of A B,
CoroU. 2. If
the
AH
fame Point, as
A B, A I,
they
will
be equal
becaufe the Squares wilf be equal to the fame and A O, and confeRedangle under guentlv betwixt themfelves; as alfb the Lines
AC
IB, A I.
vr
m m
,
PROPOSITION
ATheorbm,
\\f
XXXVII.
and
the External Line be equal to the Square of a Line that falls upon the Circle^ that Line will touch the Circle.
A C, A O
%.
jLine
freced. ) to
AB;
be equal to the Square of the the Line A B will touch the Circle.
Oraw
the Tangent
A I,
(by
tine IE,
Demonfiration. Since the Line A I touches the Circle, the Wangle AC, A O; or AH, A F, will be equal to
I 82
to the Square of A I. But the Square of A B is fuppos'd to be to either of thofe Redequal angles ; therefore the Squares of A I and A B are equal, and confequently the Lines A I and
Therefore the Triangles A B E and A I E, hiving all Sides equal, will be equiangular, (by the S. i.) and becaufe the Angle AIE
B.
is
a right Angle ( by the' 1 8. ) the Line A I be __ will be a ing a Tangent, the Angle a right Angle, and the Line
ABE
AB
J
I
Tangent, {by
the 16.)
The
e
USE.
I
Maurylochus makes ufe of this Propofirion to find the Diameter of the Earth. For obfrom the Top oi a Mountain A, the ferving Superficies of the Earth by the Line B A, he takes notice of the Angle made by the
OAB,
Line
and a Perpendicular A C And by Trigonometry calculates the Length of the Line A B. Then multiplying A B by A B to have its Square, he divides the Product by A O the Height of the Mountain, which gives the Quotient A C, the Diameter of the Earth, with the Height of the Mountain; from which having fubdu&ed AO, there will remain the Diameter of the Earth. This
AB
OC
fifth
of the
Book of Trigonometry.
THE
s
* 8?
"J
THE
3
Fourth Book
OF THE
Elements of
EV CLIT>.
is
Fourth Book
exceeding ufe
a Circle, we fcribing Polygons learn the Methods of Compofing the Tables of Subtendents, Tangents, and Secants; a Practice mod neceflary for taking all forts of Dimenfions,
in
c
THIS
Again,
ful
in
Trigonometry.
For by
in
we
find
which
infcribing Polygons in a Circle, divers Afpetts of the Stars, alfo take their Names from thofe Po
By
the
Quadrature of the
The fame Operations give us the Circle, as exad as is needAnd by them we alfb demonftrate, that
of their Diameters.
4
Fourthly,
Military
Architecture
'
does
ire
184
c
e
c
frequently require to infcribe Polygons in ;l Circle, tocompofe the Defigns and Platform I I of regular Fortifications.
jr.
DEFINITIONS.
(cribi'din a Circle, or Circle is defcrib'd about i
Re&ilineal Figure
is
ir
when
Circle.
ail
]ts
Angles sre'
11
< <
As the Triangle ABC is defcrib'd if) a Cii is inferib'd about the Tf cle, and the Circle becaufe its Angles A, B, and Cy do a angle;
1
<
<
<
The Tr terminate at the Circumference. is not infcrib'd in the Circle, bi angle DEF caufe the Angle I>does not terminate at !r. Circumference of the Circle.
2.
A ReS'ilmea! Figure
and
is
inferib'd
about
Circle,

>N>
J^y
\0
R
I is defcrib' Triangle about the Circle KLM, be 1 caufe its Sides touch the Cii cumference of the Circle in K, L, and M. A Line is apply'd to, or inferib'd in 3.
GH
v
Circle
185
when its two Extreams touch the Cir* O. As the Line umference of the Circle, in the is not infcrib'd But the Line
RP
Circle.
PROPOSITION
A
injcribe in
I.
Problem.
'
ET
A
__/ to
ircle
5
Diameter. Take the length the Line propos'd upon the 'ameter; for Example, Let e BC. Place the Foot of the Compafsupon e Point B, and defcribe a Circle at the Diof BC, which may cut the Circle AEBD jince and E. Then draw the Line BD, or BE.
;
is
tion
BC, (by
the Defi
The
USE.
'This Propofition is neceflfary for the Perormance of what is required in the following,
PRO
i8<5
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
infer ibe in
III.
L
is
ET the Circle be
in
which a Triangk
the Tangent the 17. 3.) and at the Point of Contad I (by make the Angle E equal to the Angle B and the Angle F E equal to the Angle C, (b
Draw
D H
G
the 25. 1.
angle
EGH
ABC.
the Tri ) and draw the Line G ; will be equiangular to the Triangle
Demonflration.
and confequently the Angles B and G ar< equal. By the fame reafon the Angles C and F
are alfo equal 3 and (by CoroU. 2. of the ;2. 1.; the Angles A and E will be equal. There
fore the Triangles
E is equal to the Angl< the alternate Segment, (by the $2. ^\ But the Angle E is equal to the Angle B
EGH of
The Angle
D H
D H
G H EGH
and
ABC
are equi
angular.
*
PRO
187
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To
defcribe
HI.
a Triangle about a
Circle,
Equiangular
to another Triangle*
defcribe a TriIF
you would
ABC
about
the Circle
GKH.
Continue one of the Sides of the Triangle given and F, and make the Angle G I B C to to the Angle ABD, and equal equal to
HIK
the
Angle ACF: Then draw the LGM, LKN, and NHM, through
Tangents
the Points
G, K, and H.
Thefe Tangents will concur ; becaufe the Angles I L and I L being right G, the ngles, if you (hould draw a Line
and would be lefs than two Angles Therefore the Lines and right Angles: muft concur, ( by the ir. Axiom. )
KGL
GKL
GL
KL
Demonfiration.
All the Angles of the Quadrilateral
ire
G IHM
equal
to
four
IGM
IHM,
1 88
the Tangents are right Angles ; therefore th< and I are equal to two right Angles Angles as are alfo the Angles A B C, and A B D. Bu is i the Angle equal to the Angle A B will be equal to the An therefore the Angle ABC. By the fame reafon the Angle Arigle
G H
N and
angles
LMN
CB
ABC
mm
PROPOSITION
A Problem.
To mfcribe a
Circle in
IV*
k
k
a Triangle*
infer i be a Cir
IF
D
you would
ABC
am
If
ABC
Parts,
(V drawing the Line B and C D, which will con cur at the Point D. This done, from the Poin G F, and draw the Perpendiculars E,
the 9. 1.)
ACB
into
two equal
to
which will be equal ; fo that a Circle from the Centre D, at the Diftance F and G. pals through
Demonfiration.
defcrib'c
D E,
D:
wil
DEB and DFB have the both right Angles D EB and D F B equal, being The Angles DBE and DBF are Angles:
The
Triangles
!
N
ft
alfo
equal
189
Angle
ABC
Kmto
common:
les will
f'ides
all Refpects, and the and DF will be equal. After the Ufame manner might I demonstrate the Sides DF and DG to be equal. 'tis polKbfe thereFore to defcribe a which {fall pafs Circle, the Points E, F, and G h and becaufe through the Angles E, F, and G are right Angles, the Sides AB, AC, and BC will touch the Circle, which by confequence is iiifcrib'd ira
DE
he Triangle.
1 1
ill
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
defcribe
V.
Circle about a
TfiamUi
Fyoii would
It'll
defcribe a Cir
AB and BC
Triangle
ABC,
in
two equal Parts, at the Points b D and E, drawing the PerpenDF and EF, which will concur at the diculars Point F. Which done, if you defcribe a Circle from the Center F at the Diftance FB, if Ni\\ pafs through A and C 5 that is to fay, the Lines FA, FB, and FC are equal.
Deihojiftration.
The
Triangles
ADF
and
BDF
.
have the
Sidg
DB
e*
AB
divided
are equal,
being right Angles. Therefore (by the 4. 1.) the Bafes AF anc^ BF are equal, as alfo the
Bafes
*
* c
BF and CF
The USE. have frequent Occafion to infcribe
a,
Triangle in a Circle*, as, for Inftance, in the third Book of Tr$ firft Proportion of
my
gonometry.
c
<
This Performance alfo is neceC for meafuring the Area of a Triangle fary and upon many other Occafions.
PROPOSITION A PROBLEM.
Jo
infcribe
VI.
a Square in a Circle.
infcribe a Square in th Circle ACBD, draw th
1
let
lltl
TO
the Lines
FG.i
lar to it
Diameter AB, and perpendici the Line DC paffin: IV through the Center E then drat
,
wi]
v.
have
ACBI
QJs
the:
i9
therefore
right Angles: are equal, (by the 4. and are i ) Further, becaufe the Sides and will be equal % the Angles equal, and the Angle E being a right Angle* they
CB
EAC
AE ECA
is
EG
will be
therefore
halfright
Angles,
(by the
32. 1.)
half a right and confequently the Angle ACB will Angle, be a right Angle. And the fame Reafon holds is for all the reft therefore the Figure
the
Angle
ECB
ACBD
a Square.
PROPOSITION
A
To
VII.
PROBLEM.
1
which
FGHI about
the Circle
ACBD.
CD are Parallels,
prove, that
FG
AB
may
CD
and
GH,
are Parallels.
Figure
92
The Elements of
fiuclid .
Figure
FCEGis
CD
CD and IH,
FI and AB,
AB
GH^ andconftquently the Sides of. the Figure FG and HI are equal. Further, fince the Lines FG and CD are paiallels, and the Angle CDGisa right Angle, the Angle G will
alfo be a right Angle (by the 29. 1.) After the fame manner I may demonftrate the Angles F, H, and I, to be right Angles. Therefore the
and
Figure FGHI
is
the Circle.
*m
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
VIIL
JF FGHI,
FG,GH,
which
yod would
infcribe a Circle in the Square [fee Fig. preced.J divide the Sides HI, IF, in the Middle at the Points
A, D, B, C, and draw
the Lines
AB
and CD,
I
EA, ED, EB, and EC are equal, and the Angles A, D, B, C, right Angles and that therefore you may defcribe a Circle from the Center E, which will pafi through A. D, B, and G ? and touch the Sides of the Square FGHt
demonftrate that the Lines
:
193
Lines
AB and GH do conjoyn. the and BH, which are parallel and equal, they alfo will be parallel and equal
Since the Lines
AG
equal.
Further, AG and CD being parallel, and the Angle G a right Angle, the Angle D
fo
and and equal .and being equal, 3 will be equal alio. Tis after the fame manner that the Lines AE, EC, EB, are proved
AG
GD
AE
ED
Therefore the Circle the Center E which will pafs through the Points A, D, B,G* * and touch the Sides of the Square.
likewife.
will be
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
ire
IX,
le
To
iJfTpO defcribe a Circle about the Square X ACBD, [fee Fig. in Prop. 6 .] draw the Diagonals AB and CD, which will cut each oPoint E h the Point E will be the jCenter of the Circle, which will pafs through Points A, C, B, D. It ought therefore to [ithe be demonftrated, that the Lines AE, EB, CE,
jther at the
and
ED are equal,
Di
194
W
Sides
Ekments of
Euclid.
The
Angles. C is
feACandABC
the Angles
Demonjtratiov. are equal, and the a right Angle ^ therefore the Angles
AC and CB
are equal,
and
that
are
halfright Angles, (by the 32. 1.) After the fame manner I demonftrate,
AEC
having the Angles EAC and ECA halfright Angles, and confequently equal, will have
r
AE arid EC
equal.
EC
and
and ED,
likewife are
lie
'
USE.
<
4.
We fhow in the 1 2th Book, that Polygons infcribd in a Circle, degenerate into Circles, andasthefe Polygons are always in the duplicate proportion of that of their
Diameters, fo likewife are Circles.
ctical Geometry,
Jn pra
.4.
to infcribe a Square and other Polygons in * Circle, or to defcribe them about it, to reduce
a Circle to a Square.
PRO
195
PROPOSITION
A PR03LEM.
v.
X.
To
defcribe
an Ifofceles (or
having
its
ngk.
Angles
TO ABDandADB,deubleto ABD,
A
.
defcribe
'
the Angle
divide the
Iine^B
(by the 1 1 2.) fo that the Square ot may be equal to the Re&r
AC
the Genangle under ABandBC* pndfropi ter A at the Diftance AB defcribe the Circle ii 5 and BD, in which infcribe equal to the Line DC, defcribe a Circle about drawing
BD
AC
the Xrxangle
*
ACD, QptheiJ
I
1 I
1
AC
tine BD will touch the Point D, (by the 37.3.) therefore the Angle BDC will be equal to the Angle A, being in
the alternate Segment CAD, (by the 32. 3.) Now the Angle BCD, being an external Angle in refpeft ol the Triangle ACD, i equal to the Angles
A and CD A N4
therefore the
Angle
BCD
95
is equal to the Angle BDA. Further, the Angle is equal to the Angle ABD,
BCD
ADB
and (by the 5. 1.) therefore qual, and {by the 6. 1.) the Sides
will be equal : and fince likewife the Angles and
DCB
BD
is
CDA.
equal Therefore
and fo
the Angle
ADB is
^
I
PI
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infer ibe
a
XL
Ml
O
1*i
lar
5
infcribe a reguPentagon in a
Ifofceks
an
ABC
Anat
DEF
the gles ABC, ACB, Bafe, double tp the AnInfcribe in the Circle the Triangle gle A. then divide the equiangular to
ABC
fti
Angles DEF and DFE into two equal Parts, drawing the Lines EG and FH. Laftly, joyn the Lines DH, DG, GF, EH ? and you will h have defcruVd a regular Pentagon that is to h fay, a Pentagon having equal Sides, and eft
*,
u$I Angles,
Demon*
TheFonrth Book.
Demcmjlt atwn.
197
and conare equal to the Angle ^ the five Arches, which are their fequently
EDF,
EDF
Bafes, are equal, (by the 26. 3 J and the Lines PH, HE, EF, FG, and GD, are equal, (by the
29. 3 .) Secondly, the Angles DGF, GFE,and fo of the reft, having each three of thofe Arches for its Bafe, will be alfo equal equal
(by the 27. 3.) Therefore the Sides and Angles are equal. of the Pentagon
DHEFG
PROPOSITION
A
To
XII.
PROBLEM.
q
INfcribea gon ABCDE in the Circle, (by the 1 1 .) and having Ey drawn Tangents through the Points A, B, C, D, E, h' (by the 17. 2.) you will
have deferib'd
a regular
Circle.
regular Penta
Draw
the Lines
The Tangents
GE and GA aie
198
Cor oil 2. of the 36. ;.) as alio and fh Lines FA and FE are alfo equal (by the Dcpiit. of a Circle $) therefore (by the 8. 1 ) the Triangles FGA and FGE are equal in all
;
EH
HD
AFG and EFG are EFH and PFH. the Angles EFA Av&becd\i&(bytbe 27.3.; and EFD are equal, their Halves EFH and FFG will be equal and (by the 26. 1.) the 'Iriangles EFH and EFG will be equal in all refpecis, and the Sides EG and EH will be
^
alfo equal.
monftrate
all
two eqn a! Parts , and confequently, lince the Lines C ai G \ as equal, GH and GI will
be alfo equal, Further,!] Being double to the Angfeg
alfo
equal.
Therefore
FGE
Circle.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To hfcribe a
XIII.
np jL
/j^ B
gles
j\
inferibe a Circle in
le
ABCD.E, divide
anctB into two equalPa. is by the Lines AF and BF, which concur at
the
199 Then drawing the line FG perhe Point F. to AB, defcribe a Circle from the pendicular F at the Diftance FG. I fay it will Center
:ouch all the other Sides, that
zing 7 will be equal.
is
to fay,
ha
drawn FH perpendicular
to
EC, FH
and
Demoiiftratiotu
and B were diSince the equal Angles into two equal Parts, their Halves vided md GBF will be equal and iince the Angles it are right Angles, the Triangles
GAF
AFG
and
'be
BFG
1 .)
26.
AG
?qual.
BH,
and Further, I may prove the Lines as alfo the Lines FG, and FH, to be eand BC of a regular the Sides qual and and Pentagon being equal, the Lines and confequently the Angles will be equal $
*,
BG
AB
BH
HC
at the Point
HFC will be equal, the Triangle all refpects, and the Angles FBH and equal,in FCH will be equal And fince the Angles B and C, are equal, the Angle FCH will be half
BFH
and
the Angle C. So parting from one to the other, I will demonftrate, that all the Perpendiculars, FG and FH, and the reft, are equal.
H being
alfo right
Angles,
and
PRO
2 go
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
XIV.
*TP O
the
ABCDE,
its
Sides
AB
and
BC at G
and
zt\
:
the Center F, at the Diflance FA, will pafs through B, C, D, E. Demonjtration. Scppofe the Circle defer ibed, it is evident
(by tbe !.$.)
to
at
ia
lin
that having divided the Line the Middle in G, and drawn the PerABin pendicular GF, the Center of the Circle muft
be in that Perpendicular
therefore
4
it is
alfo in
HF,
3G
it is
at the Point R.
1
*
*
*
c
The USE. Thefe Propolitions are folely ufeful for the compofing the Table of Sines, and drawing the Platforms of Citadels, for their Obferve ordinary Figures are Pentagons. alfo, that thele Methods of defcribing Pentagons about a Circle, may be applied likewife to other Polygons. But in my Book of ' Mili
"(
201
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infcribe a regular
XV.
Hexago n } n a Circle.
TO draw Hexagon
fcBCDEF,
neter
?
infcribe
AD, and
D,
the
oct of the
Compafs
at the
Point
defcribe a
Circle
:
at the Diftance of
DG
EGB
then ? and
the
CGF
*,
and the
Lines
reft.
Demonjlraiwn*
Tis evident,
that the Triangles CDG, and are equilateral ^ therefore the Angles DGE, and thofe opposed to them at the
are each of
,
them the
is
that
to fay,
contain 6o Degrees. Now ail the Angles that can be made about the fame Point are equal to four right Angles, that is to fay, %6o DeTherefore taking away four times 60, grees. that is 240, from 360, there will remain 120 for EGG and FGE* which therefore each con?
tain
202
tain
at the
The Elements of
Euclia.
60 Degrees. Therefore all the Angles Center being equal, all the Arches anc all the Sides will be equals and every Angle. as A, B, C, &c. will be compounded of twc Angles of 60 Degrees each, that is, 120 De grees, and therefore will be equal.
Hexagon
is
equal
The
1
USE.
*
1
*
c
Becaufe the Side of a Hexagon is the Bafc of an Arch of 60 Degrees, and is equal to th< Semidiameter,its Half will be the Sine of 3c by which Sine we begin the Table of SineJ Euclid treats of Hexagons in the laft Boo! of his Elements.
mm.
1
11
in
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
infcribe a regular Pejite decagon in
XVI.
1
Circle,
in
the
Circl
an equilateral IlSJfcribe
_H
Triangl
regu
A^BC,
lar
anda
Pentagon, (by the 11, ma: fo that the Angles meet at the Point A. Th Lines BF, BI, and IE, wiJ
j
and
if yoi
ii
205
BF
the Side of an equilaAEB will be the third Part of the whole Circle, that is, five fifteenths. Bur the Arch AE being the fifth Part will contain three fifteenths^ therefore the
Since the Line
is
AB
Arch
Arch
EB
in the
and if you divide it contains two at the Point I, each Part will be Middle
:
a Fifteenth.
The
c c
USE.
f
i
This Proportion
to other
res cp}y to
s;
Way
F
;i
We
in
Conipafs of Pi'opo'
infcri
I
torn
eafy
Me
'thodsof
*.
ordinary Polygons, but they are r winded on this here, ^ox it > would be im ;;"ilible to n\ark)PolygoP3 upon ' that Inftrument if their Sides yerenot fjift * found by this, or other like Piopoikions,
ail
TF
[ 204 1
ELEMENTS
O F
EUCLID
fifth
Book
Is
abfolutely
ne
THIS
it
rtions of the fixth. The Do&rine contains is of univerfal Ufe, and it&
Manner
of Argumentation by proportion, II the moft fubtil, folid and brief. Infomuch ft that all thofe Treatifes, that are grounded
are obliged to make lift a kind of Mathematical Logick
on Proportions,
thereof, as
Geometry,
Statich,
Aritbmetick y
and in a "Word,
thematzch, are conflrained to borrow feme of their Demonstrations from the Proportions of this Book. The greater!: Part of
*
'I
is
dorteiu
l
h7
205
by Proportion. All the Rules of Aiithmttick are demonftrable by the Theorems that
fo that there is no ^ NecefFity of having Recourfe to the fevenrh, eight or ninth Books for that purpoie. The of the Antients is fcarce any Thing Mujick elfe but the Doctrine of Proportions apply 'd The fame may be faid of Stato Sounds.
occur here
the proportion of moft certain, that if the Knowledge of Proportions which this Book affords, was taken away from the Mathematich , what remain'd would be
tich y
coniider
Weights.
which In
fine, 'tis
very inconfiderable.
DEFINITIONS.
A
5V. compar'd
A j J.B
C^D
be call'd 6
[art.
AB of
6, it will
its
Part.
Which Name alfo it obtains, though indeed it be not contain'd in AB, provided AE> a
Line equal to CD, be therein found* The whole is anfwerable to the Part* and therefore will be the greater Quantity
com
2c6
t
whether
it
do
real
*
1
ly contain the lefs, or not. c Part taken in general is ordinarily di vided into (that which is call'dj an Aliqm
An
de
Book) is a Magnitude of a Magni tude, a lefs of a greater, when it exactly mea ' fures the greater. That is to fay, Tis a lei * fer Quantity compar'd with a greater, whicf c precifely meafures the greater. As a Lin * two Foot long taken three Times, is equa^ * to a Line of fix Feet in length.
fines in this
is a Magnitude of a Magni R a greater of a lefs, when it is exactl; F tude, c That is to fay, a Mul P meafur'd by the lefs, * is a greater Quantity compar'd with an tiple ' which it contains exactly fo man] i lefs, * Times. For example, a Line fix Foot lonj * is Triple a Line two Foot long.
A Multiple
ffe
ret
An
Aliquant Part,
is
'F
par'd with a greater, which it does not exact ly meafure. As a Line of four Feet in lengtl is an aliquant Part of a Line ten Foot long * In a Word, An Aliquot Part fo many Time
c *
1
* *
Id
repeated will equal the Whole: hut an Al: quant Part, though it contains fuch a Quan tity of the Whole, yet repeated as you pleafe will never exactly equal, but either com fliort of, or exceed, the Whole.
Equi
207
[2.
are
Magni
tudes which
equally contain
their Aliquot Parts. 'That is to fay, fa many Times. As for example, if contains B, as many Times as contains
12, 4^ 6, A, Bj C,
D.
A
3
D,
.
A
*
and
will
be Equimultiples of
andD.
Proportion is a refpect of one tude to another of the fame Kind.
Magni
4. ifWwfzfrVjarefaid to have a certain pro" )ortionto each other, when being multiply 'd
:hey
oij
can exceed each other. For which Reafcn they ought to be of the fame KindFc r indeed a Line has no proportion to a Superficies, becaufe a Line taken matbemath colly, is confider'd without any Breadth at all, and therefore multiply'd as much as you pleafe, will never give any Breadrh, which
'
yet a Superficies contains. * For as much as Proportion is a Refpect, or Relation founded upon^Quantity, it ought to \i\ have two Terms. That which fome Philoor fophers would call the Funiameritiim, Mathematicians name the Ante* Foundation, cedent, and the Term is calfd by them the T ^Confequent. As if we w ere to compare the with the Quantity B, that ReQuantity fpect or Proportion would have for the A ntecedent the Quantity A, and for the ConfeOn the contrary, juent the Quantity B.
'if
2o8
if
be compar'd with A, that proportion * would have B for the Antecedent, and B for the Confequent. ' Proportion, or Refped of one Quantity to another, is divided into Rational Propor
to
tion,
'
and
Irrational.
Rational Proportion is the Refpecl of one Quantity to another, which is commenfurable to it, that is, when both the Quanti ties have the fame common meafure, bj which both may be exaclly meafur'd. the proportion of a Line four foot long t( another that is fix, is rational, becaufe i Line two Foot long may exa&ly meafun
both.
tities
And when
have the
this
fame
Number
to another.
Line two Foot long, which is their commoi Meafure, is found twice in the four Foo Line, and thrice in that which is fix Foo long ^ the firft has the fame proportion t<
the fecond, as 2 to
*
3.
Irrational
commenfurable,
fure.
f.
e.
have no
common Mea
the Proportion of the Side of 1 Square to its Diagonal. For there is no Mea fure fo fmall, as will precifely meafure both
As
Quantities will be Proportionals the proportion of the firft to the fe cond, is the fame with, or like to, that o
Four
when
<
the
209
to fpeak a Similitude
fo that,
what
this Similitude of
Pro
portions conilfts^ that is to fay, how two Refpe&s or Relations may be alike. For Euclid has not given us a juft Definition
thereof, or fuch an one as might explain the Nature of the Thing, but contented himfelf to fet down fome Marks or Signs, by
be known, whether or no have the fame proportion. And Quantities 'tis the Obfcurity of this Definition, which has render'd the whole Book fo difficult to be underftood, which Defect therefore I fhall endeavour to fupply. 5. Euclid makes four Magnitudes to have the fame proportion, when taking the Equimultiples of the firft and the third, and likewife the Equimultiples of the fecond and the fourth, according to any Multipliit
which
may
cation
firft
whatfoever If the Multiple of the exceed that of the fecond, the Multiple of the third will alfo exceed that of the and if it be equal to, or lefs than fourth the fecond, the thiid will be equal to, or lefs than the fourth. In fuch a Cafe the firft has the fame rroportion to the fecond, as the third to the fourth,
:
,
A,
211
*
4
4
4 4
Similar Aliquot Parts, then, arefuch as are contain'd in their Wholes as many Times one as the other * as 3 in refpeft of 9 and 2 in refpect of 6, are fimilar aliquot Parts^ becaufe they are each contain'd three Times
in their refpedive Wholes. ' The firft Quantity will
4 4 4
have the fame to thefeeond, as the third to the proportion fourth, if the firft contains fo many Times fuch aliquot Parts of the fecond, as the third
contains the like aliquot Parts of the fourth. As if contains
*
*
A,B,C,D.
4
4
C
or
4
4
contains the hundredth, thoufandth, hundredthoufandth Part of D* (and the be faid of all other aliquot Parts like
may
I
4
To render
more clear,
c
*
4
*
4 4
the aliquot Parts ol B, as oft as C does the contain the like of D^ and fecondly, if Parts of B, as oft as C does the like aliquot of D, then there wi!Vfee_the fame proportion
of
4
A to B,
firft
as of
C to D.
f
1
Point feems fufficiently evident The the very Notion of the Terms for if from A contains the tenth Part of B once more the than an hundred Times, and C contains tenth I 4
:
212
c
* *
c
,
ot D an hundred Times only the Quantity Awill be agreatcr Whole compared theretcre it to B, than C is compared to D cannot be cempar'd alter the fame manner,
tenth Pait
c
*
the Refpedt or Relation being not the fame. c The fecond Point feems more difficult, viz. if a Quantity, fuppofe AB, contain the aliquot Parts of arother, CD, as ott as a third, E, contains the like ot the fourth, F
*,
there will be
G
A
AB
I
I
B
1
^ But
'
C
E
F
*
'
1
c
let
AB
has to
F}
that
is
AB
*
*
' *
* *
1
proportion to CD, that E has to F. Therefore a Quantity lefs than AB, as AG, will have the fame proportion to CD, as E to Divide theretore in the Middle F. in the Middle in I, and ID in H, and in the Middle in K continuing the likeDiyiiion till you arrive at an aliquot Part of
CD
HD
*,
CD
1
lefs
than
GB, which
will fuppofe to
<beKD.
Demonjfratkn
*
Since there is the fame proportion ci A will cent in KD, to CD, as of E toF;
AG
as eft as
contains 4 the
z'13
Noiv will the like aliquot Part of F. once more than h contains the contain like aliquot Part ot F j which is contrary
AB
KD
to the Suppoiition.
The firftQuantit}
is
faid to
have
a greater
proportion to the fecond, than the third to the fourth, when the firft contains a certain
aliquot Part ot the fecond, cf'tner than the third contains the like aliquot Part of the fourth :' As io i has a greater proportion to i o
1
*
1
than2oot0 2o,becauie I oi contains the tenth Part ot ic, that is, t, once above a hundred Times 5 and 200 contains the tenth Part of 20, i. e. 2, a hundred Times only.
7. Magnitudes, or Quantities having the tame proportion, are call d Proportionals. 8 * Proportionality, or Analogy, is a Si
militude of Proportions or Refpects. * 'hv&teya.. End. In each Proportionality are required at 9 the leaft three Terms. For that there may be * a Similitude of Proportions, there mult be e two of them And every Proportion having
' :
4 *
4
*
tion to
as
to
quent of the
fuffice
5
ilrft
tecedent
*
as
may
fame
proportion to
as
to C. 10.
Mag
214
io.
r fl e
^foments of Euclid.
Magnitudes are faid to be continually proportional, when the intermediate Terms are taken twice, i. e> both as Antecedents and c Confequents. As if there be the fame propor* tion of to B, as of B to C, and of C to D. 1 1 . In that Cafe will have the duplicate^
and the
triplicate to
D, of
But here it is to obferv'd, that there is a great deal of Difference between double Proportion, and duplicate. We fay that the proportion of four to two is double, becaufe four is the Double of two 5 the Number two
giving the Name to the Proportion, or; rather to the Antecedent thereof. Accordingly,
double, triple, quadruple, quintuple, &c% are Denominations drawn from the Numbers
Unity ^ which I infiancein, becaufe the more eafily we conceive the Proportion, the lefs are its Terms. But, as I faid, thefe Denominations do rather affedt the Antecedents, than the Proportions themfelves, for we call that double, or triple Proportion, whofe Antecedent
is
double, or triple
its
Confequent.
But by duplicate Proportion we underftand fuch an one, as is compounded of two fimilar Proportions. As, if there be the fame proportion of two to four, asof fourto eight: the proportion of two to eight being compounded of the Proportion of two to four, and
1
21 5
and that of four to eight, which are fimilar and equal, will be the duplicate of eacn of
So three to twenty feven is the duoi three tonine. plicate Proportion of that The proportion of two to four is calf d the
them.
' c
c
'
4
Subdouble, becaufe two is the hal ot rour^ but that ot two to eight is the Duplicate^ of the Subdouble which is as much as to fay, that two is the Half of the Half of eight, as three is the third Part of the third Part of
,
4
*
twenty feven ^ where you may obferve, that; the Denominators 4. and K are taken twice. ' In like manner, the proportion of eight to
*
* *
two
a duplicate proportion of that of to four, becaufe eight is the Double of eight four, but it is the Double of the Double of
is
*
*
* *
Terms in continual the proportion of the firft to the proportion, ]aft is triplicate of that of the firft to the fetwo.
If there be tour
*,
cond \ as in thefe four Numbers, Two, Four, the proportion of two to Eight, Sixteen I fixteen is a triplicate of that of two to four^ 'becaufe two is the Half of the Half of the * Half of fixteen. So alfo the proportion of ' fixteen to two is a Triplicate oflhat of fix*
*
teen to eight, becaufe fixteen is the Double of the Double of the Double of two.
' 1
2.
4
* 1
proportion of A to B, as of C to
are
D A and G
^
and D,
Homologous,
The
216
4
The
\L\enients
of Euclid.
The
following
divers
nals
*
4
n of which this
Book was
4
13.
4 4 4
wecom
* 4 '
of the one with the Confequent of the other. As for example, if becaufe there is the fame proportion of A to B, as of C to D, I
infer, that there is the to D. to C, as of
*
*
'
Terms
'
*
gumentaticn holds only when all the four are of the fa\mfpekr$ or Kind*, i. c.
Ml
or all
'
AvcLTftth.iv End. Convcrfe. Gall. As, if becaufe there is the fame propor' * tion of A to B, as of C to D, I conclude that * there is the fame proportion of B to A, as 4 of to C. Cor oil of Prop j 6 4 j 5. Composition of Proportion is the comof the Antecedent and the Confequent paring taken together, with the Confequent alone. 4 As if, becaufe there is the fame proportion 4 of A to B, as of C tnD, I conclude that * there is the fame proportion of A and Bto 4 i5, a.s of C and D to D, Piop. 1 8.
4
16. Di
217
of Proportion is the compaof the Excels of the Antecedent above ring the Confequent to the fame Confequent. ? As, if there be the fame Proportion of AB to ' ; from thence I B, as of CD to infer, that
;
there
4
is
A
is
to B, as
of
CtoD.
the com
paring of the Antecedent 4 of the Terms: As, if * of AB to B, Proportion 4 thence conclude, that * proportion of AB to A,
*
the fame
CD to
C. Co
roll of Prop.
1
18.
Proportion of Equality is the compaof the extream Magnitudes, and omitring As A. B. C. D. ting thofe in the Middle * if there be the fame Proportion E. F. G. H. of A to B, as of E to v , and ' of B to C, as of F to G h and of Cto D, as
8.
*
of
G to H
is
the
fame
proportion of A to D, as of Eto H. 19. Proportionality of Equality orderly placd, is that in which the Terms aie com' As in par'd together in the fame Order.
the foregoing Example. Prop. 22. 20. Proportionality of Equality diforderly plac'd,is that in which the Terms are com' As par'd in a different Order. there be4 4
if,
to
to B, as
of
and of
to
C, as of F to G* and c of
2i 8
4
4 4
of C to
there
I conclude, that the fame proportion of to D, as of E toH. hop. 23. 4 See in fhort all the different Manners of
is
Euclid.
Argumentation by Proportion.
4
As A
to B, fo
to
D
:
By
4
alternate Proportion
therefore, as to 0, foB
'toD.
Inverted.
Divifion.
*
4
Cbrr.pofition.
As B to A, fo D to C. As AB to B, fo CD to D.
If as
then as
*
to B, fo
Convcrfion.
As
AB to B, fo CD to D C to D. AB to A, fo CD to C.
:
Ato
E,
foCtoF.
A to
E, fo
C to F.
2 5 Pro
Euclid's Fifth
4
4
pofitions, to which nine more have fince been added, and are commonly receiv'd. And the firft fix in Euclid, ferving only for the
4
4
4
4
Prccf of thofe that follow by the Method of Equimultiples, to fince I intend not make Ufe ot that Method, I fhall wholly omit beginning with the Seventh, without changing either the Order or Number of the
5
Propofitions.
Demands
219
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.'
VII.
Equal Quantities have the faint Proportion tv another Quantity, and another Ghiawtity has
the
fame Proportion
to
equal.
F the'Quantities A and B be
equal,
X1T
If one of the two, fuppole A, had a greater Proportion to C, than B bastoC ^ A would contain any aliquot Part efC, uftner thanB could contain the fame, and conftquentiy would be greater than B, which is contrary to
what was fuppos'd. Again, I fay, if the Quantities A and B be equal, the Quantity C willhave the lame Proportion to
v
as to B.
Dejnon
220
If the
The Elements of
Demovfl ration.
Euclid.
Quantity
would contain a certain Part of A, oftner than the like Part aliquot muft be of B which Part therefore of lefs than the like aliquot Part ot B, and conwould be lefs than the Quantity fequently
to A, than to B,
it
,
i]
;;..
B, which
is
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
The
greater
VIII.
00l
an
ill
Proportion the fame Quantity has a lejfer Proportion than to the lefs. the
greater,
has a greater of two giiavtities than the lefs ^ and to the fame,
to
AS
tB D
GI
the
SUppofe Quantities AB
and
par'd
be
com
MllF
AB
exceeds C.
will have a greater proportion fay, that to EF, than C will have to the fame. Cutoff EF in the Middle, equal to C, and divide one Half in the Middle, and fo on, and again come to an aliquot Part of EF lefs till
AB
AD
you
thanDB, asGF.
Demon'
The
Fifth
Booh
221
has the fame
Dcffionftrafion.
AD and C
being equal,
AD
to EF, (by the 7.) and proportion to EF, as an aliquot Part will contain therefore of EF, as ott as C will contain the fame, (by
AD
GF
Dtfn. 5.) But AB contains the fame aliquot D art once more than AD, 'DB being greater han GF ^ therefore (by Defin. 6,) the proporion of AB to EF is greater than that of C to he fame EF Secondly, I fay, that EF has a lefs proporto C. Take a certain ali* the fourth, of C, as oft as you juot Part, as :an in EF, which fuppofe to be five times ;
ibn to
AB, than
fomething of the Quantity EF,or nothing ^ nothing rcmain,it is evident, that five times the fourth Part of AB making a greater Line than fo many times he fourth Patt of C, the fourth Part, of AB ould not be five times contained in EF. But f the fourth Part of C, taken five times reach 00 farther than G, the fourth Part of AB
either there
will remain
if
:aken fo
many
AB,
ar as F, or to I, each as far as F,
portion to
as
edivg Part)
EF
2 } than
1
EG
EI
to the
AB
han
I,
fame proportion to
AB
i 2
to C. But EI has a greater proC, than EG to C^ therefore EF greater than EI, has a greater proportion .to C, than the fame EF to AB
AB as EG
portion {to
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Quantities that have the *^ther Qiiantity, or to
IX.
fc
fame Proportion
to
ano
F
; b, c,j
lfi
sal
Quantity C,
equal
fay,
and
are
re
Demonflration.
would have a greater proportion to the Quantity C, (by the i .) which is contrary to
theSuppofition. Secondly, if the Quantity C has the fame proportion to the Quantities A and B I fay A and B are equal. For if A were greater than B, C would have a greater proportion to the
\
the 8.)
which
is
P RO
223
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
'he
X,
another
{ghiantity that has the greater Proportion to is the greater Quantity ^ and that the
lejfer, to
greater Proportion.
F
.
fame C ^ I fay A is For if A and B, Were e" ;reater than B. ual, they would have both the fame proporon to C and if A were iefs than B, B would
lan
B. C.

to the
ave a greater proportion to C, than to the ime C 1 both which are contrary to the Suprfition.
ian B.
ave the
lefs
)th
)s'd
For if A and B, were equal, C would fame proportion to both, (by the 7.) nd if A were left than B, C would have
which
proportion to B than to (by the S.) are contrary to what was fup
PRO
124
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Proportio7is
XL
are alfo e
A, 4, 2
I
C,
LF.I
.j
T F A
L
b, 4, 6, ?
F
'
and
the
fame pro
<
for
Demovftration,
has the fame proportion to B, a will contain any certain aliquo to Part of B, as oft as C contains the like ali
Since
Si
Andinlik quot Part of D, (by Defrih. 5.) manner as oft as C contains that aliquot Par of D, fo oft will E contain the like aliquc
So that as oft as certain aliquot Part of B, fo
Part of F.
i
jfl
contains an
times alf r;< will E contain the like aliquot Part of I ^ Therefore has the fame proportion to B, a f
many
EtoF.
A(
PRO
The
Fifth
Boob
225
PROPOSITION
A
[j
XII.
THEOREM.
one Antemany Quantities be proportional, cedent will have the fame Proportion to his Antecedents taken toConsequents as all the taken together. gether to all the Consequents
has the fame proportion to B, asC toDj I fay that AandCtacen together will have the fame proto B. portion to B and D, as
FA
u
(2,
B,
3, 12,
C, D,
8
Demonjlration.
has the fame proportion to B, as will contain the Quantity } any :ertain aliquot Part of B, as oft as C contains he like aliquot Part of D, (by Defih, 5 ) fU p>ofe the fourth Part. Now the tourth Part \i B and the fourth Part of D, make the
Since
to
burth Part of will h and accordingly ontain the fourth Part of BD, as oft as ontains the fourth Part of B j and the like nay be faid of any other aliquot Parts.
DB
AC
Therefore
ts
A hgs AC to BD.
PROp
2^6
PROPOSITION
A
XIII.
THEOREM.
<
If of two equal Proportions one is greater than tvvf'l\ the other will befo likewife.
A, B: C,
:
EF^i
:
P rc
j
:
I fay, that C. alfi tion to B, than E to F will have a greater proportion to P, than has to F.
Demottjlration.
Since
to F,
A has a greater proportion taB tha A will contain a certain aliquot Pai
i
of B, cftner than E contains the like aliquc Part of F> (by Defin. 6.) But C contains like aliquot Part ot D as oft as contair that of B j becauie has the fame proportio.
to E, as C to and therefore C contains certain aliquot Part of D, oftner than E cor tains the like aliquot Part of F 5 and corifi
:
quently,
than
E to F,
PRO
227
PROPOSITION
A
XIV.
THEOREM.
to
accorthefecond, as the third to the fourth ; ding as the firft is greater, or equal, or lefs 7
than the third, thefecond will be greater^ equal, or lefs, than the fourth.
or
has the fame proporC to D I fay' be greater than C, firft, if B will be alfo greater than D.
TFA
tion to B, as
Ja^b7c~5
1
Since
A is greater than
Demovf ration.
C,
A
C
:
to B, as of C to therefore C has a greater proportion to D, than C to B, and confequently (by the jo.) B is greater than D. be equal to C, B will be Secondly, if
tion of
alfo equal to
Since
fame proportion of A to B, as of C to the fame B, (by the 7.) But as A to B, fo C to D therefore C has the fame proportion to B, as the fame C to D, and confequently B and D
,
P 4
Third
32.8
Thirdly, if A be lefs than C, B willalfobe lefs than D. Demonf ration. is lefs thau C, A will have a lefs Since
(by
is to D: therefore is to B, fo the 8.) But as will have a lefs proportion to D, than the will be lefs fame to B, and coniequently
than D,
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Equhmvtiples,
XV.
Parts,
are
I F
*
D be
and the Equimultiples of will B, their aliquot Parts $ have the fame proportion to B, as C to D.Divide the Quantity
F, G, and the Quantity D into Parts equal Becaufe C and D are the Equimultiples to B. of A and B, there will be as many Parts or one, as ot the other. Let the Parts of D therefcie be ? I, K.
to A,
v. g.
E,
H
'
Demcnfration. has the fame Proportion to H, and F to to B, becaufe they are and G to K, as
all
229
to B,
C to D.
The fame Numbers of the aliquot two Quantities are in the fame proportion that the Quantities are, For fince E has the fame proportion to H, as C to D and F to I, as C to D^ E and F will have the fame proportion to H and I, as C to D.
Parts of
&<
PROPOSITION.
A
Jf four
XVI.
THEOREM.
alternativelyjo.
Alternate Proportion.
Magnitudes of the fame Kind be proporbe aljo tional, they mil
proporti
on IF toB as C to D,
U
'
and
all
q U^%\

BCD A
fame Kind, that is either all Lines, or all Suwill have the or all Solids ^ perficies's, lame proportion to C, as B to D. For if not,
fuppofe
than
B to
D.
Demonjlration
Since
'tis
fuppos'd,
to
that
proportion
C than
to
D,
v. g. will contain a certain aliquot Part of oftner than B contains a third a third Part,
Part
2$o
Part of D. Let therefore contain a third Part of C four times, but B the third Part of only three times , having then divided into four Parts, each will contain one third Part of C$ but B being divided into four Parts, they will not contain each of them a third Part of D$ therefore three Fourths of A v/ill contain three Thirds of C, that is, the whole Quantity C \ but three Fourths of B
not contain three Thirds, or the whole But on the contrary, fince there Quantit}? D. is the fame proportion of to B, as of C to
v/ill
D,
three Fourths of
lame proportion of
to three Fourths of B, as of
to B, by the Cor oil. of the \$.) and (by the be equal to C, three 14.) if three Fourths of
I
B to D,
A
If the
fir
LEMMA.
Proportion to
:,
the
any Aliquot fecond, as the third to the fow th Part of the firfi will have the fame Proportion to the third as the like Aliquot Pa) t
tbefecend,
foil)
of
to the
th
t$ 9
%T
32, 6
If
A,' B} C,
D
j j
F.
8.
4J
Fa
231
that
to B, as
E F to D.
If E had a greater proportion to B than F to D, E would contain a certain aliquot P^rt of B, oftner than F contains the like aliquot
Demorfrathn.
E taken twice, or four times, would contain an alithrice, than F, taken twice, quot Part of B oftner or four times, contain'd the like alithrice,
quot Part of D.
equal to A, is equal to
an aliquot Part of B, oftner than C contain'd the like aliquot Part of D, and by cona greater proportion fequence A would have to B, that C to D i which is contrary to the
Suppofition.
1
But E taken four times is andlikewifeF taken four times C , therefore A would contain
COROLLARY
after his $tb Propofit.
Invented Proportion. has thejame Proportion to the fecond7 Tf the frf the fecond will have as the third to the fourth
,
the
fame Proportion
to thefirfi,
as
the
fow th
to the third.
A, B h C D,
4
4j8
12,24,
U.~\3De
232
than If B had a greater proportion to to C, B would contain an aliquot part of \ contain dF iuppofe a fourth E, oftner than the fourth Part of C. Let us fuppofethen that B contains eight times the Quantity E^ mufl contain but feven times the Quantity F. Now flnee A has the fame proportion to B, as to D, E will have the fame proportion to
D A
C B as F
(by the
to D,
i
Lemma,) and
taken eight times will have the fame prop rtion to B, as F taken tight times to D} bur E taken eight times is contain d "in B, therefore F taken eight times muft be
contain'd in
5J E
D, notwithftanding
thereiore
to
what was
cannot
A, than D to C.
USE.
The Followers
ufe of a
rrade
manner of Argumentation
not much unlike this, to prove, that the World bad exified from ttermtjy urging
fame proportion between Will of God, and the eternal Production of the World, as between a temporal Ar, and a temporal Effect 9 therefore by a Kind of Alternation, there is the fame proportion of a temporal Ad of the Will, i. e.an Ac~t beginning in Tim?, to an etcriial Effecl j as of an eternal Will to a tern"
that there
is
the
an eternal
^d of the
poral
233
that the Will, poral an Act of the Will that begins in Time, or cannot produce an eternal Effect 5 therefore
the eternal Acl; of God could not produce an Effect in time. But this Argument is faulty in two RelpeSs; firft, in that it fuppofes it
poiTible for
an
Ad
in Time, and fecondly , in that it is 5 from alternate P roportion, tho the be of a different Kind or Species.
drawn Terms
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,
The
XVII.
Divifion of Proportion.
IFportion
D,
AB
AB, B
as
CD
to
proportion to B, as
to
D.
Demov.Jlration.
fuppos'd to have the fame proto r> as to D, AB will contain a portion certain aliquot Part of B, as oft as contains the like aliquot Part of D. Now that aliquot Part muft be found as oft in B, as the
Since
is
AB
CD
CD
like
234
like aliquot
Part is found in D Therefore from CD, taking away B from AB, and will contain as many aliquot Parts of B, as C contains the like of D, and confequently
fame proportion to B,
as
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
The Compofitions of
If
will befo likewije
XVIII.
Proportion.
when compounded.
A, B,
i,
7
h
D,
io, 6.
6,
AB,B*CD,D,
8,
35 16,
Since
Demonstration.
fuppcs'd to have the fame proto B as C to D, A will contain any portion as oft as C contains the aliquot Part of B, like aliquot Part of D. N6w the Quantity B contains any oi its own aliquot Parts, as oft therefore adas contains the like ot his
A is
A, and D to C 7 AB will cdntain any ding Part of B as oft as CD contains the aliquot like aliquot Part of D, and confequently (by the fame proportion Defin 5.) AB will have A C Oto B as CD to D.
to
23
COROLLARY.
C onverfion
of Proportion.
The
If
to
to
AB
D, then
as CD to C. For (by the preceding) : and has the fame proportion to B, as C to {by the CorolL of the 16.) B will have the fame and therefore to C proportion to A, as them, AB will have the fame compounding proportion to A, as CD to C.
CD
*,
frequent Ufe of this manner Argumentation in almoft all Parts of the " Mathematicks.
'
"
The
USE.
We have
of
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.'
XIX.
If the Whole be in the fame Proportion, as the Parts that are taken away from them, the Rein ainders will
the Quantity
AB
has
'ABTcdTbTd,
16,
4.
2,
A,C^AB,CD,
12, 6, 16,
i,
D,
fay,
will
have
236
AC to CD.
to
fuppos'd to have the fame proportion therefore alternatively (acCD, B to to the 16. has the lame proportion cording to and by Converfion of Proto B, as ^ to portion ABwill have the fame proportion there to C 5 and again alternatively, A, as to CD, as wj!1 be the lame proportion of
is
AB
as
AB
CD
CD
AB
of
A to C.
c
The
* 1
USE.
c
c
This Proportion is commonly made ufe of of in the Rule of Fellowship. For inftead the Rule of Three tor every parworking by ticular Aifociate or Partner, having done
it
c *
*
c
Remainder of the Gain fuppofing that if there be the fame proportion of the whole. Sum of all the Principals to the whole
Gain, as of the Principal of one Aflociate to Gain 5 there will be alio the fame propoition of the Principal that remains to the Remainder of the Gain. c The 2 b and 2 1 Propofitions are not ne
his Part of
ceffarv.
c c '
PRO
23?
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,
The Proportion of Equality
If divers
XXII.
orderly placed.
Terms be proposed and an equal Numher others compared, whb the.nl, Jo that of thofe
in the
fame
the
\j\der
Lafis wilt
be alfo proportional
1
D
ii 2 ,6
26,3,
a ^
.ni
B
1,
F
of
as
A will
as
If to F,
can contain the Ialf of C, oftner than Let us fuppoie then the Halt of Half of F. C to be contain'd twelve Times in A,' and the
td the Quantity B will contain the Half of F, C ? as oft as E contains the Halt of F Sup^
i
caufe
Now
C
as
be
Q,
'pofa
2^8
pofe then thofe Halves to be contain'd fix Times in each, Band E. A* which contains the Half c f C twelve times, will have a greater proportion to B, which contains the fame Half of C fixtimes^ than D which contains! the Half of F eleven times only, to E, which contains the fame Half of F fix times $ andj have a greater proportion confegaently A will to B, than D to E, which is contrary to what
j
fras fuppos'd.
PROPOSITION
A
The
XXIIL
THEOREM.
plac'd.
be in the farie Propor If tiro Orders of Term, d iforderly plac'd: the fir avd the kj ft tkiij
of both Orders
will be ProjportMtal.
AJB CD,E,F.G,
}
12,6,3. 8,4,2.1.
Number,
E, f be in th
A has the fame B to C, as D to E A will have the fam proportion to C, as D to F, Suppofe B to hav
if
fame^ proportion,
and
thefiame proportion to Cl as
to G.
th
23$
Since there is the fame proportion of to as of E to F, and of B to C, as of F to p, has the fame proportion to C, as E to G G, (by the 22.) Further, fince B has the fame
,
and alfo as F to fame proportion to E ? as F to G, (by the it.) and alternatively, (according to the 16.) D will have the fame proportion to F, as E to G. Now we have before prov'd , that as E to G, f A to Cj
proportion to C, as
D to E,
Gj
D will have
the
:herefore, as
A to C,
fo
D to
F.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XXIVi
the fecond, as the third to the fourth $ anl. alfo the fifth to the fecond, ajthe fixth to the fourth: the firft with the fifth will have the
fame Proportion
as the third
to IF B,
s
ffi
F
2 > 9>
%
AE
ame proportion
to B, as
CF
67
AB,QD,
Since
Demoyfiration*
id
240
to
aliquot Part of B, like aliquot Part of l)t(byt)efin 5.) In like manner, E will contain the fame aliquot Part of B, as oft as F will and fo that contains the like of
D,
as oft as
,
contain any aliquot Part of B, as oft as C and F contain the like aliquot Part of * therewill have the fame proportion to B, fore
AE
as
CF
to
D.
uJLi*
i
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
are
XXV.
the
proportional, tffour Magnitudes and the leaji will exceed the other two.
greatejl
the four Magnitudes AB CD E, F, be proportional 8, and AB the greateft and F th ea ftj AB ail(i F w iU exceec f'I A,t\E CD and E. Since AB has thi fame proportion to CD as E to F, and AB fuppos'd greater than E, CD will be alfi
B,D,
TF
'
"
'
D
of
the
AB
14.)
Divide there
CD
Magnitude
that the
A may
I;
b<
Magnitud<
Since
A to
Demonjlration,
to
CD at
C,
241
AB
to
CD,
will be greater and E, which are equal, be added F and C, which are alfo equal, and F will be equal t C and E h and adding to the two firfl: B, which is the greater, and
CD, B
And AB being
to the
!
two
laft
AB and
USE.
By
r
this
r Property
r whereby
from that which' For in this latter the. * two middle Terms are equal to the two Ex' treams*, but in the former, (as has been r prov^d,) the greateft and the leaft exceed the r two others.
it is
iscall'd Arithvietical.
Tho' the nine following Propofitions are not Eacli d's , yet, becau'fe many make ute of them, and quote them as if they were his, I thought I ought not to omit them.
Q.3
PR<
242 * 
PROPOSITION
!
i
XXVI,
A THEOREM.
has a greater Propoition to the fecoiti Jf the frft than the third to the fourth, the fourth will have a greater Proportion to the third than
the fecoid to thefirjr.
fi
F A has
to
a greater proportion
than
C to D, D
will have
a greater proportion to
A
f;
to
D, A
will be greater than E, (by the 10J Demonfration. There is the fame proportion of
of
E to B, a* therefore (by the Corollof the i&. has the fame proportion to C, as B to E. But B has a greater proportion to E than tc
to D:
PRO
243
PROPOSITION,
A THEOREM.
XXVII.
If the fir has a greater Proportion to the fecottd ft than the third to the fourth, the firft will alfo have a greater Proportion to the third than
thefecond to the fourth.
*
will have a greater propor E. tion to C than B to D. Let E have the fame proportion to B, as C to in that Cafe muft be greater ^ than E.
9/4'
6, 3,
A,B*C,D,
&
Demonftration,
has the fame proportion to B, as C to D: therefore (by the 16.) E has the fame proportion to C, as B to D. And becaufe A is greater than E, the proportion of A to G will be greater than that of E to C. Thererore the proportion of to C, is greater than that
ofBtoD.
Q.4
PRO
244
PROPOSITION
XXVIII.'
I
A THEOREM.
has a greater Proportion to the feIf the ftft cond than the third to the fourth, thefrft aid thefecond will have a neater Proportion ta
third
tat,
I F
*
A, ii,C,D
3.
the proportion of
alfo be greater to D. Suppofe
AB
to
will
proportion to B, as
C tp D.
C
to
De?nopJlratiott.
the fame proportion to B, as D: therefore (by the 18.) EB has the to And proportion to B, as
.
E has
fame
being
con*
greater than
EB,
CD D AB will have a
:
AB
greater pro
and
frrmemly than
CD
to D.
PRO
245
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
If the
firft
XXIX.
with the Jecond has a greater Prothan the third with the fecond, portion to the fourth the the firft will have* fourth
to
,
than the
1 F
*
the proportion of AB to B be greater than the proporto D,the proportion tion of ef A to Bwill be alfo greater
9,4;
CD
than that of C to D. Suppofe EB to have the fame proportion to B, as to D then EB will be lefs than AB, and lefs than A.
:
CD
E
Demonfiratioju
Since
EB
CDtoD,
fame proportion to
to D, (by the 17 .) E, the proportion of to B will be greater than that of E to the fame B, and confequently than that of C %o D.
as
And
246
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM,
If
the Proportion
XXX.
of the
firft
the Proportion fourth with the to the firjl^ will firjl of fecond be lefs than that of the third with the fourth to the third.
the
A,B J* 4
c, 5
DJ
3J
lefs
*"
will be
TF the proportion of AB
to
proportion of AB to B is fuppos'd to be greater than that of CD to therefore to B will be the 29.) the proportion of (by greater than that of C to D ^ and (by the 26.) to C will be greater than the proportion of
The
D A
that of
B to
therefore being
CD
compounded to C, will
AB
PRO*
S
247
PROPOSITION
1
XXXI.
A THEOREM.
are in a greater Proportion If many Quantities among themfelves, than an equal Number of
ner
other ghiantities, placed after the fame manthe frfi of the frfi Order will be in a 1
to the lajl of that Order , greater Proportion than the fijt of the fecond Order to the lafi
of
that,
IFAhasagreaterproportion to B, than D
to
and
portion
~*
A will D to F.
have a
Demonjlration.
has a greater proportion to B than to E, A will alfo have a greater proportion to than B to E, and becaufe B has a greater proportion to C than E to F, B will alfo have a greater proportion to E than C will have a greater, protoF. Therefore than C toF^ and alternatively portion to will have a greater proportion (by the 27.) to F. toG, than
Since
D A D
PRO
148
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XXXII.
If many Qjtantities are in greater Proportion among themfelves^ than an equal Number of ether Quantities placed after a different manner y the fijl of the firjl Order will have
,

a greater Proportion to thelafi cf that Order , than thefrji of the fecond Order to the laft of
that Order.
13, 6, 2,
A,C,e'
B,
12,
tiontoCthanItoK,and
proportion to
,
F,
H,I,K C a greater
than
34, 2,1
H to I A will have a
H to K.
tion to to
as
H to I
'tis
greater proportion to E,than Suppofe B to have the fame proporas I to and C the fame proportion ?
then
A will "be
greater than B,
and
than E.
Demonftration.
fuppos'd that B has the fame proto F as to C as I to K, and tol* portion will have the fame proportion to F, as has a greater proporto K, (by the 23.) But
Since
tion to F, than B to the fame F, (by the 8 J and the proportion of A to E is greater than to F, becaufe F is greater than E : that of
to E, is greater
PRO
249
PROPOSITION
If the Whole has
XXXIII.
A THEOREM.
Ifhole than
the Part
taken away, the Remainder will have a greater Proportion to the Remainder than the Whole to
the Whole.
F AB
CD
A ^ j^ ~
l
CD is greater
We fuppofe
of
AB
to
to
than that of
to
D;
there*
fore (by the 27.) the proportion of to D: and is greater than that of
AB
of
CD AB to
(by the
A,
is lefs
than
of
to C.
PRO
2^0
The Elements of
E'i:liJ.
PROPOSITION XXXIV.
A THEOREM.
If two Orders
the
of Magnitudes be proposed,
mil
to the Proportion of the firfi of the firfi, that of firfi of the fecond, be greater than the fecond to the fecond; and that greater
the. than that of the third to the third, whole firfi Order will have a greater Proportion to the whole fecond, than the whole firft
&c
Order except its firfi Magnitude, to the whole fecond Order except itsfrft Magnitude, But a lefs Proportion than thai of the firfi Magnitude of the firfi Order, to the firfi Magnitude
.
of the fecond andlafily, a greater Proportion than that of the laft Magnitude of the firfi
*,
Order,
to the laft
of the fecond,
to
the
of
A to
:
BCtoFG.
fupposM the proportion of A to E is greater than that of B to F , and therefore
'Tis
Demonftration.
gu
251
to
B
to
is
by com
ot
AB
to F and again greater than that of EF the proportion of AB to EF alternatively, And becaufe the greater than that of B to F. of the Whole AB to EF is greater proportion than that of the Part B to the Part F, the to the Reproportion of the Remainder mainder E, will be greater than that of the
Whole
I
AB
to the
Whole EF. In
like
manner,
5
may prove the proportion of B to F greater than that of BC to FG, and confequently that of A to E r much greater than that of BC to FG. Therefore alternatively, the proporto BC is greater than that of E to tion of
and compounding them, the proportion of A , B, C, to BC, greater than that of E,F,G, therefore the proportion of A, B, G* to FG to E, F, G, will be greater than that of BG
;
:
FG
toFXj.
to E, is Secondly, the proportion of than that of A, B, C, to E, F, G. greater Demovjlratvm. I have demonftrated, that the proportion of the Whole A, B, C, to the Whole E, F, G, is greater than that of the Part BC to the Part FG therefore the proportion of the to the Remainder E, will be Remainder greater than that of the Whole A, B, C, to the
1
Whole, E, F,
G,(bytbe&)
Third'
252
.
The proportion of
that of
to
that of
A to B is
E to F 5
AB to B will be greater than that of EF to F, and again alternatively, that of ABtoEF But the will be greater than that of B to F. proportion of B to F is greater than that of C
to
to therefore the proportion of to 5 and that of greater than that of
(X
AB
EF is
AB to
G, and therefore 5 the proportion, of A, by compounding them, B, C, to G,will be greater than that of E,F,G, to G * and that of A, B, C, to E, F, ? greater
C greater
than that of
EF to
than that of
C to G.
PRO
53
OF THE
O

ELEMENTS
F
CLI
~>
of
Proportions
in
general
particular Matters 5 the moft Ample Figures, i. e. Triangles, it gives Rules to determine, not only the proportion of their Sides, but alfo that of their
Capacity, Area, or Superficies. In the next Place we learn from it, how to find out pro* portional Lines, and to augment, or diminifh
any Figure, according to any proportion aflign'd. Here alfo is. demonstrated the moft ufetul Rule of Three, rand the Forty feventh of the Firft extended to any Figure whatfoever. Laftly, it lays; down the moft facile and moft certain Principles to con
oi
Dimenfions,
E^
2<j4
21b*
Elements of Euclid.
DEFINITI ONS.
I
.
T3
fimilar, when thei: are equal, and tto Angles Sides, that form thofe Angles
c
XV
Edtilineal Figures ar
proportional.
*
As
the Tri
will b
angles
*
ABC, DEF,
5
fimilar, if the
D,
B and
E,
C and F, be equal
2.
Angles
and
A ant AB ha
DF
and
AB
to
DE
to
b
*
r
when
Figures are reciproca the}'' may be fo con par'd, that the Antecedent ( one Proportion and the Cor fequent of another are bot
* *
found in the fame Figure a the Analogy begins and en< That is, in the fame Figure. As if AB has the fam
evi
CD, as DE to BF. \ Line is divided according to e: 3. tream and middle Proportion , when th whole Line has the farr.
proportion to
jut
ICC
1
A
*
proportion
to
the
great<
AB
AC,
as
AC
to
CB
tl
*>$j
AB is divided
a
according to extream
gure
{
is
Perpendicular
its
lrawn from
its
Sum miry
to
Bafe.
'
As
in the Trian
gles
ABC, EFG,
thePer
F GB
c
pendiculars
AD
and EH,
within or without the
whether
they
fall
Triangles, are their Heights. Fierce it follows, that all Triangles and Parallelograms,
that have
equal Heights, may he placd within the fame Parallels. For having fet
their Bafes
pendiculars
5
)f
.
upon the Line HC, if the PerDA and HE be equal, the Lines
is faid
proportion
others,
many
when
hofe proportions being multiply'd, make c nother. To underftand the true Intent of
this Definition, it
every proportion,
proportion, takes its Denomination from a certain Number, denoting that Refpect or Relation that the Antecedent of the propor*6
tion bears to the Confequent.
As
if
two
Magnitudes were proposed, one of twelve Foot in Length, and the other of fix we mould call that proportion of 12 to 6 the
* Demminators.
Exprcflible by true
Kum'ers,
*
double
256
double proportion. In like manner, if 4 and 12 were propos'd, we mould give that
the
its
Name
Denominator
that the proportion of 4 to 12, is the fame as that of ~ to Unity, or as one to three. This Denominator is call'd the ^iianuty ot\l
Suppofe therefore three 12, 6, and 7\ the firft of 12 to 6 being double, its proportion
Proportion.
the
two,
the fecond of
to
2 being Triple, its Denominator is three$ the proportion therefore of 1 2 to 2 is faid to be compounded of that of 12 to 6, and of 6 to 2, the double and the Triple pro
an
three by two, and the Product 6 will fhou the proportion of 1 2 to 2 to be fextiiple to fix. This is that whicl f. e. as one is
Mathematicians
*
c
commonly underftand
though
call'd
.11
bj
'it
compound Proportion,
it
methink: Pro
"8
PRO
257
58
equal to ing equal among themfelves are the aliquot Parts of the Triangle DEM. As oit there contains thofe aliquot lore as the Bale of EM, fo oft does tho Triangle AGC Parts contain the aliquot Parts of the Triangle DE
DEM
GC
will happen in every Diviflor h which alfo whatfoever therefore the Triangle AGC ha: the fame proportion to the Triangle DEM, a; the Bafe GC to the Bafe EM.
:
Mow
fame
.
Parallelograms,
defcrib'd
upon th
v.
Bafes.
and
inclos'd
Parellels, are double the Triangles, (by th 41 1 .) therefore they are in the lame propoi tion as the Trangles, 2. e. as their Bales.
Tie USE.
not only ferviceablei thofe that follow, but alio demcnftrating great life in dividing large Fields, or Plain As for Example, fuppofe you were to tal 4 the third Part of the Tr
is
<
This Proportion
ill
i
i
*
4
F
1
*
"
and taking BG tl AD, third Part of BE, draw AG, I fay the Tr 5
'
&
angle
1
ABCD,
259
are Equiare
AD
and
and
AD
CE CE
arc
the Trianequal the Triangles are equal, and confequently gle ABE, is equal to the Trapezium ABCD. is the third Part of But the Triangle
therefore (by the
26. 1.)
iS
ABG
(
the Triangle
ABE,
ABG
the Trapezium
ABCD.
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
A
divides
II.
Line drawn in a Triangle parallel to its Bafe, and the Line its Sides proportwially,
Sides
of a Triangle proporti
F
Bafe
iwill
z.
in the Triangle
I" Line
DE
BC,
the Sides
AB
and
AC
be divided proportionally. will have the fame to proportion to DB, as AE, the Lines DC and EC, Draw
e.
AD
Triangles DBE, and ECD, having the fame Bafe DE, and being enclos'd within4
BE.
The
s6o
(by the 37.
DE
and BC,
are equal
DejnGvftratioTi.
The
Triangles
ADE
and
DEE
AD
may be plac'd within the Line AB, and another Parallel to it drawn through the Point E, and confequently have the lame proportion as their Bates, (by the il 2. e. the Triangle ADE has the fame proportion to the Triangle DBE, or its Equal CED. as AD to DB But the Triangle ADE ha< like wife the fame proportion to the Triangle CED, as AE to EC, and therefore AL) has the
1
fame proportion
to
DB,
as
AE
to
to
EC
Secondly, frppofe I fay to DB proportion to EC. as Lines DE, and BC will be Parallels.
:
AE AD
Demoyjlration.
AD
has the
ADE to the Triangle to DEB,(fl the i ) and AE has the fame proportion DC, as the Triangle ADE to the Triangl<
the Triangle
tc
fame proportion
to
DB,
CLDi
and conic quently the Triangle ADI has the fameproportion to the Triangle 1 EB has to the Triangle CED as the fame Therefore (y the 9. 5.) the Triangles BDI and CED, are equal, and (by the 29. \ ) be uveen tie fame Parallels. Therefore th
ADE
Lines
>
LE and EC are
arallels.
Th
261
necelTary
U
is
S E.
'This Propofirion
t
abfolutely
for the
It
may
lions
As
'
were to meafure the Height of BE ^ having creeled a Staff or Pole DA, there will be the fame proportion of CD to DA, as of
Dimenif you
'BCtoEE.
PROPOSITION
A
two
Pai
ts
III.
THEOREM.
Triangle into
into
Eafe
two
Proportion as the
Sides.
And
if
it
Pai ts yrovdHional to the Sides, the Angle into two equal Parts.
I F
1
the Line
AD
AB
AC as BD to DC.
CA,and
The
two
Angle
5
internal Angles
1
to the
which
being equal,
by the
AE
262
AE and AB are equals the Angle BAD, which is the Half of BAG, will be equal to one of them, fuppofe ABE: therefore (by the 27. 1.) the Lines AD and EB are parallel, and (by the 2.) there is the fame proto . portion of EA or AB to AC, as of if AB has the fame Secondly, proportion to AC as BD to DC, the Angle BAC will be
DB
DC
AB
AC,
as parallel
or
EB and AD are and (by the 29. 1.) the alternate Angles EBA and BAD,asalfo the internal BE A and the External DAQwill be equal and the
:
EA has BD to DC
5
therefore
Angles
fore the
BEAand EBA
Angle
BAD an&DAC
equal Parts.
BAC
being equal,the Angles will be alfo equal. Therewill be diviaed into two
The USE.
*
*
make Ufe of this Proportion chiefly to find the proportion of the Sides oi Tri'
'
We
angles.
PRO
263
PROPOSITION.
A THEOREM.
The. Sides of equiangular Triangles
portional,
IV.
are pro~
IF DCE, be equiangular,
if the
the Triangles
ABC
and
i.
e.
will have the fame proporto CE, and B tion to BC as will have the fame proportion to alfo
DC
AC as DE to
CB
EC. Joyn the Triangles after fuch a manner, that the Bales BC and CE may be upon the fame Line, and produce the Sides
,
BA and ED till they meet in F fince the Angles 'ACB and DEC are equal, the Lines AC and EF are Parallels, (by the 28. 1.) and by the fame Reafon CD andBF are Parallels, and therefore AFDC is a Parallelogram.
De?nonftration.
FE
is
parallel to
AB
BC
to
CE
BC,
CD
to
CE.
In
264
CD be
FD or AC
,BD
to
CE,
{by the 2 )
and alternatively,
tion to
AC has
CE.
BC,
as
DE to
The
USE.
it
This Propofition isfo of general life, that may pais for a moil univerfal Principle in taking all manner of Dimenfions. For in
place all the Methods of meafuiing inaccejfible Lines, by defcribing a fmall Trifimilar to that which is form'd upon
firft
'
the
angle
it, as alfo the of thofe mathematical Ivftruments, upon which are defoiVd Triangles, fimiliar to thofe of which we defire to take the Dimenfions, as the Geometrical Square^
the ground,
preatefl:
is
founded upon
Part
the
Sec.
Pantometer,
the Arbaleft or
Crqfsftaff,
Nor could we knew how to raife the Plane of any Place, but by the Help thereof.
So that in
fine,
to
it
this Propofition,
tranferibe the
whole
Book of
frafiical
Geometry.
PRO
265
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Triangles,
V.
which
the
ABC and
has the
A
^
e.
if
AB
fame proportion to
DE. to EF \ anr alfo fame proportion to
BC as B AB the
c
<j
AC
as
DE to DF,
FEG
to the
the Angles and DEF, D, C and F, will be equal. Make the equal to the Angle B, and
ABC
A and
Angle
equal
EFG
Angle C.
Demonjlration.
ABC and EFG hare two Angles equal, therefore (by CorolL 2. of the 32. 1.) they are equiangular*, and (by the 4.) Aft has the fame proportion to BC as GE to EF. Now 'tis fuppos'd, that DE has the
The
Triangles
fame proportion
fore
to
EF
as
AB
to
BC,
there
DE
EG to DE and EG are equal. After the fame manner DF may be prov'd equal to FG, and con* the Triangles DEF ) fequently (by the 8. and GEF are equiangular. But the Angle GEF
1
has the fame proportion tp EF as EF, and cenfequently (by they. 5.)
was
266
The Elements of
to
Euclid.
the
B,
therefore
Angle
DEF DFE
is equal to the Angle B, and the Angle and confequently, the to the Angle C
,
Triangles
are equiangular.
PROPOSITION
A
VI.
'
THEOREM.
gidar.
and tfeefg. the Triangles B and E equal, preced~\ have the Angles has the fame proportion to and the Side and to EF, the Triangles as Make the Angle will be equiangular. and the Angle EFG equal to the Angle B,
ABG
DEF
IF
AB
BC
DE
ABC
DEF FEG
Demonjlration.
The Triangles
(by Coroll.
ABC
2.
and
the
GEF
are equian*
fore (iytfee 9
of gular has the fame proportion to BC, fo is EF (by the 4.) But as has the fame proporroJEF, therefore to the fame EF h and theretion to EF as are e 3 ual > and
AB
AB
GE DE
DE
GE
*)
DE
EG
Angle
167
Angle B, and the Sides DE and FG equal, with the Side EF common to both, will be the 4, 1 .) therefore equal in all Refpe&s, (by will be equiangular ^ and the Tiiangle they
EGF being equiangular to ABC,the Triangles ABC and DEF are equiangular.
The Seventh Propoftion
is
of no Ufe.
PROPOSITION VIII.
A THEOREM.
A Perpendicular,
drawn from the right Angle of a rectangular Triangle to the oppojite Side, di*
it.
the Perpendicular
BD
he
right Angle to the oppofite Side AC, it will divide the rectangular A" into two TrianTriangle
ABC
ABC
ABC and ADB have the fame Angle A, and the Angles ABC and ADB
The
right Angles, therefore they are Equiangular, (byCoroll 2. of the 32. 1.) In like manand have the ner, the Triangles
BDC
ABC
Angle
C common
ABC
and
BDC
both,
alio
268
The Elements of
and
Euclid.
:f
ABC, BDC,
c
ADB,
The
USE.
By
s
the
ter
Square.
As
tor
Example,
It I
were to
DC
.,
having
drawn
A
the Perpendicular Bi), and plac'd Square upon the Point Bin 'filer) a m.aimr, that
my
BC I could obferve the the other the Point by 'tis evident, there would be the fame proto DC. to DB, as of portion of Therefore multiplying DB by it felf, and dividing the Product by AD, the Quotient
by oneoj
Point
its
Sides
C) and
AD
DB
m
j
would be DC.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
from a Line givsn
to cut off
IX.
i
ET
the Line
propos'd
,
t!
X'j be AB, from which defire to take away 3 you fifth Parts. Make an Angle FXD, and upon one of its
Sides
Parts, three of
me
n;
CD
til
CF:
$$$
then taking CE eijual to AB, dratv the Line DE r and another parallel to that FG j :he Line CG will contain three fifth Parts of
!F
:
:,
<r
AB.
Demonjlration,
In the Triangle ECD, FG being parallel to hp Bafe DE, CF will have the fame proporion to FDas CG to GE, (by the 2.) arc compounding them (by the 18. 5) CE will have" he fame proportion to CG as CD to CF * and the Coroll of the 16. 5.) CG will have the 'by ame proportion to CE as CF to CD. But 3F contains three Fifths of CD, therefore CG
/ill
CE or AB.
**sr
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To divide a Line after the ther Line given
is
X.
*
fame manner
divided;
as atto\
the [F Line AB
ame manner
livided,
as
AC
*^'C t&X
\
I
is
make with
**cil_i
\
the
L what Magnitude you X>'' then draw the )leafe: LineBC, and parallel to it the Lines EO, TV* and S
CAB
^V^tl^4> B
.Ljjj'H
2 fO
The Elements of Euclid. and the reft. The Line AB will be after the fame manner that AC is.
divided
and AC proportionally (by the 2.] fame may be faid of all the reft. To do this more eafily'you may draw th< Line BD parallel to AC, and transferring the Divifionsof AC^toBD, draw Lines from one
Sides and the
Demonftrathn, is drawn Since in the Triangle BAC, to the Bafe BC, it will divide the parallel
HX
AB
to the other.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
Two Lif@ s
XI.
F you
would
T,
and upon one AE and BC, one immediately after the other; and upon the other Side take AD equal toBC then draw the Line BD, and parallel to it the Line CE and the Line DE will be that which
*,
mab EAC
A!
br
you feek.
271
In the.Triangle E AC the Line DB is parallel the Bafe CE, therefore (by the 2 J there is ilhe fame proportion of AB to BC, as of AD
I
ji
LrBCtoDE.
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
fa'es
XII.
<?
ET
the
three Lines
A
c
*><
"
ZT^ r
be
the Lines and to DE ; C, and upon AF the \lm equal icn draw the Line DB, and parallel to it FC:
AC
Angle
^L
AB
AD
DE
AD
to
DF.
Demonjlration.
In the Triangle F AC the Line DB is parallel the Bafe FC there is therefore the fame to DF, (by ropcrtion of AB to BC, as of
=,
AD
>*2.)
Tf
2 j2
c
c
<
The Ufe
grounded upon thefe four Proportions, fc that Inftrument teaching us to divide a Lin
as we pleafe, to make ufe of the Rule ofthre without the help of Arithmetic^ to extrai the ftjuale^ arid cubick Roots, to double th Cube } to meafure all forts of Triangles ; t find the Capacity of Superficies's, and theSc lidity of Bodies and to augment or diminif!
r,
<
4
c
*
c
to
what proportion w
El
'
by
PROPOSITION
APROBLEM.
Two
Lines being given to
ajfign
XIII.
a middle Pt b
LV
lie
portionah
JT
TF
you
defire
t
midd
betwec
to
and
VK
f<
yr~\ having
that
v
'V
plac'd
them
***
but 6r
divic
equj
two
Parts in
M,
and having
a Sem
die
275
from the Center, draw the Perircle pendicular VT, which will be a middle Pro* and VR. Draw the )ortional between
LTR
LV
^ines
LT, andTR.'
m
Demoyjlration.
a right Angle, (by the. 31.3.) and are and the 8.) the Triangles by therefore there is the fame proporimilar*
LVT
TVR
LV to VT in the Triangle LVT, as VT to VR in the Triangle TVR (by the 4) ierefore VT is a .middle Proportional beween LV and VR.
ion of
The
c
USE.
any rectangular Pabe reduc'd to a Square. For rallelogram may Example, in the Re&angle contained under LVand VR. the Square of VTls equal to
By
this Prcpofition
LV
and
VR
as I fhall
Sj
PRO:
274
PROPOSITION.
A THEOREM.
equiangular gi/^Z Sides reciprocal
XIV.
r
have
the]
Parallelograms
,
and equiangular
Parallel*
a\
b c
D
'
*
the Parallelograms
to
an
ar
r
[,
be
i.
equiangular
e.
equal,
ciprocal,
CD
will hai
FG
the
as
1
D
thi
t
CD
may ire'To
join'd
and DE,
FD
ar
right Lines,
(byt
^The Parallelograms
L and M
being
equ;
will have the fame proportion to the Paral i But the proportion of L logram
BDEH
is as
BDEH,
the Bafe
the Bafe
or
CD to
the Bafe
D
\
and that of
M,
DFGE,
to
FD
to the Bafe
DB
BDEH,
is
(by the
Thej
275
CD
jprocal,
Secondly, if the Parallelograms L and equiangular, and have their Sides recithey will be equal.
De?no7tfiratio7U
The Sides of
(proportion but as the Bafe
rallelogram
(by the 1.)
CD CD is
FD
to
DB
to
DE
fo is the Pa
FD M to BDEH therefore L has the lelogram fame proportion to BDEH as M to the fame
and
^ ^
BDEH
BDEH,
grams
S 4
PRO
$j$
*he
Elements of Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A
XV,
THEOREM.
And
red
that have one Avgle equal each 'Equal Triangles, to the other, have the Sides that jorm that
reciprocal. if thofe Sides be will be equal frocaly they
Avgle
I F
*
the Triangles
equal,
being
Angles
ACB
and
DCE
e?
qua), thofe Angles, will be recii. e. will have procal the fame proportion to CE
,
form
BC
as
to CA. Place the Triangles fo, that the and Sides may majee one right Line and DCE and then becaufe the Angles are fuppcs d to be equal, BC and CE willalfo
CD CD
CA
ACB
(by Coroll.
of the
i .)
Demonftration.
to the Triangle ACE, as the Triangle equal to the former, to the fame ACE, (by the to ACE, fo is the Bafe 7. 5.) Eut as
LCD
ABC
EC
to the Bafe
fa n^e
CE,
the
Height $ and as
ECD to ACE,
having both
fo is
the
277
to CA, (by the fame:) therefore the Bafe to has the fame proportion to CE, as ]BC CA. But if the Sides be fuppos'd reciprocal, i. e. that BC has the fame proportion to CE to CA, the Triangles ABC and as will be equal, becaufe they will both have
CD
CD
CD
CDE
ACE.
PROPOSITION
A
XVI.
THEOREM.
the ReBangle conIffour Lines be proportional, tain d under the fir[t and the fourth, will be equal to the Rectangle contain d under the
And if the ReBangle fecond and the third. contain d under the Extreams be equal to that
contain
T F the
*
Lines A, B, C, D, be
A
c
B and C.
Re&angle
con
Demonftration.
Rectangles have one Angle equal each to the other, becaufe 'tis a right Angle in both ^ their Sides alfo are reciprocal there:
The
fore
In
278
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If
tabid under the
XVII.
three Lines be proportional, the ReSaftgle con* and the third, will be firft
And the middle Term. equal to the Square of the Square of the middle Term he equal to if under the Extreams^ the three the
the three Lines A, B, D, be proportional, the Rectangle will and contained under
}F
'
he equal to the Square of B. Take C equal to B, and there will be the fame proportion of therefore to B, as of C to j
Demonfir ation.
to that under B and C, (by the preceding) B but the laft Rectangle is a Square fthe Lines and C being equal) therefore the Re&angle the is equal to and contain d under Square of B.
279
like manner, if the Rectangle under be equal to the Square or B, will to D: the fame proportion to B as
will
have the
to
D.
USE.
be demon' Rule in Arithmetick, which is 'commonly call'd the Rule of Three; and
flrated that
i
*
confequently,
Falfe,
FellowJIrip,
of
and
depend upon
fuppofe three
proportion.
For Example,
c
c c c c
c '
Numbers given, 8, B 6, and C 4, and it be requird to find a fourth proportional Number, which taking as found, I will call D. The Rectangle then contain'd under
and D,
I
'
1
plying B by C, i. e. Six by Four the Product will be Twentyfour 5 therefore the Rectangle is alfo contain'd under and twenty
,
may
equal to that under Band C. But have this latter Rectangle by multiis
four*, and therefore dividing that Number by A, which is 8, the Quotient Three will
be the
Number fought.
PRO
280
PROPOSITION.
A PROBLEM.
To
defcribe
XVIIL
to another
upon a
ET A B be the Line
afllgn'd,
upon
are
re
you
JF
quired
to
defcribe
make a Triangle ABH fimilar to the Triangle CFE, h e. make the Angle ABH equal to the Angle CFE, and BAH equal to FCE for then
:
Polygon fimilar to the Polygon CFDE, having divided the Polygon CFDF into Triangles, upon the Line
&&
will be equiani. of tbe 32. I.) Make alfo gular, (byCoroll. a Triangle equiangular to upon the Line
the Triangles
ABH
BH
and
CFE
FDE.
Demonjlration. Since the Triangles, which are Part of the Polygons are equiangular, the two PolyFurther, fince the gons are equiangular. and CFE are equiangular, Triangles will have the fame Proportion to as CF to FE, (by tbe 4J In like manner, the
ABH
AB
3H
Triangles
BH will
281:
EF
to
FD
and by Equality^ (according t& AB will have the fame ProporCF to FD. And the fame may
be faid of
Defin.
1 .)
all the other Sides. Therefore (by the Polygons are fimilar.
The
USE,
this Proportion is grounded the Part of Pr attic al Geometry, that greateft relates to the raifing the Plan of any Place, as of a Building, Field, Foreft, or a whole For having divided a Line into Country equal Parts, to anfwer the Feet or Yards contain'd in the Plan, you may defcribea Figure fimilar to, but lefs than, the Original, in which you may fee the proportion! of all its Lines. And having by Experience
Upon
found
it much more eafie to travel upon Paper, than to take a tedious Tourney either
by Land
wife afford us Afliftance in this refpect ^ informing us in almoft all the Parts of Geode*
Jia,
and Cborography ^ and giving Inftruilions how to compofe Geographical Charts, and Maps h which are nothing elfe but Methods
,
of reducing great Figures to fmall. Further, the Ufe of this Propofition extends its felf to almoft all thofe Arts, that require the
PRO
q.%2
PROPOSITION
XIX.
A THEOREM.
of
duplicate Proportion ibeir homologous Sid: s.
EG
C
7
BC EF, e. the proportion of the Triangle* ALC to the Triangle DEF will be the Duplicate of the proportion of BC to EF fo that
BC and iF, and making EC to have the fame pr portion to EF, as EF to HI, the T Jangle EC'will have the fame proportion to DEF as the Line BC to the Line HI v which is to have to it a duplicate proportion (by J) fin. Take BG equal to HI, and draw the j S Line AG.

IF be fimilar, DEF
the Triangles
ABC and
HI
to the Lines
Deviojijlraticn.
The*Angles B and E of the Triangles ABG and DEF are equal} and befide.% j(jnce the ABC and DEFare firhilar, AB lyill Tria, have the lame proportion to E)E as BC to
;
I> (h
the fourth.)
But as
BC to
Er,
fo
EF
to
285
fo
HI or BG toBG} and
therefore as
AB to DE,
EF
eonfequently,
'
and DEF being reciprocal, Triangles And the Triangles will be equal, (by the 15; (by the 1.) the Triangle ABC has the fame proportion to the Triangle ABG, as BC to or HI} therefore the Triangle ABC has the fame proportion to the Triangle DEF, as BC
ABG
BG
to
HI.
The
e
USE.
may
help
to correct
Thefe Proportions
who
c
c '
two
or
Squares,
two
Circles, Hexagons, Pentagons be proposed, and the Side of the firft be c double that of the fecond, the firft Figure c will be quadruple the fecond: if the Side of c the firft be triple that of the fecond, the * firft Figure will be nine times greater than ' Therefore to make a Sauare the fecond. * triple to another, you muft feek a middle ' proportional between one and three, and
c
two
PRO
284
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
Similar
Polygons
XX,
Number
may be divided into an equal of Triangles, and are in the duplicate Ft oyortion of their homologous Sides.
the Polygons
IF ABCDE"
GHILM
laiy
and
fimi*
e
be
they
mzy b
of
divided into an
qual fimilar Triangles^ which will be the fimilar Parts of their Wholes. Draw the Lines AC, AD, GI, GL.
Since
Number
the
will Angles have the fame proportion to BC as GH to HI, (by Defin. 1.) therefore the Triangles ABC and G HI are fimilar, (by the 6.) and (by the 3.) BC has the fame proportion to CA
5
B and
H will be equal
Polygons
Demonflration. are
fimilar,
their
and
AB
<
has the Further, becaufe fame proportion to BC as IL to IH, andBC as HI to IG ^ by Equality* the fame to as will have the fame proportion to
as to GI.
HI
CD
CA
CD
IL
CA
to
GL Now
the Angles
BCD
and
HIL
being
T/je
Sixth
Booh
285
and GI.H, King equal, if the Angles be taken from them, the vhich are equal, will remain equal. Angles ACD and GIL the Triangles ACD and Therefore (by the 6.) jIL will be
fimilar.
all
ACB
In like
the
afie to run over fimilar. Polygons, and to prove them that the Triangles I add further,
are in
Since all the Triangles are fimilar, their Sides will be proportional, (by the 4.) but sach Triangle to its fimilar is in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides,' (bytb$
'
therefore every Triangle of one'T"^to every Triangle of the other, is in the gon duplicate proportion of their.Sides which be19.)
,
the duplicate proportion muft r be the ame ? and there will be the fanne proportion of each Triangle to its Similar, as of all the Triangles of one Polygon to all
ng the fame,
Triangles of the other Polygon, (by the 2. e. of one Polygon to the other. Coroll. 1. Similar Polygons are in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides. Coroll 2. If three Lines be in continual proportion, a Polygon defcrib'd upon the firft will have the fame proportion to a Polygon defcrib'd upon the fecorid, as the firft
the
12. %.)
Line
$$6
tine to the
e.h will be in the d plicate proportion, of that of the firft Lii to thefecond.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Tolygovs,
XXI,
fa
J
that
an Jo
are fimVar a Jo
to
another
Polygo
I
amov^Jl them]elves.
IFmilar
will
two Polygons be
to a
fo
to: i
be
many
are in the third.
But
h
an:
amongft themfelvei becaufe Angles equal to a third, are equ; amongft themfelves^ and the Angles of tl
thofe
urn
prii
to!
tati
!L
tie
h
jt
.
.
287
XXII.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
\Sitnilar
Polygons defcrib'dtiponfour proportio7ial And if the Poly* Lines, are alfo proportional. Lines arefo too. the gons be proportional?
IF portion
toMN,
will
alfo
BC
EF
as
HI
ABC
proportion
HL
to the Lines BC Seek a third Proportional and LF, and to the Lines HI and MWanother
third Proportional P, (by the 11.) Since has the fame Proportion to EF as HI to to P ^ by equality, and EF toG as will have the fame proportion to G, as
MN
MN
BC
BG
HI
to
P : and this
in the duplicate proportion of that of BC to EF, (by the 20) that is, as BC to G, and the Polygon has the fame proportion to
DEF
is
HL
MO,
as
HI to
P.
Therefore
ABC
has the
fan?*
a88
fame propprtiorL
DLF^
as
HL
to
MO.
Ant if the fimilar Polygons be proportional the Lines being, in thefubduplicate proportion
to them, will be alfo proportional.
The
'
1
USE.
#V^ M
jp'.p'
'
!
W&l CTD, A
n
.
T his
, c
eafily
'
h
li
the
Numbers
A B C D; U
:
'
j
>." .u'.
*
*
which is more in
proportional, their Square; < E, F, G, H, will be to too very ferviceable in Arhbmetick, and
/
'
algebra.
'
"
: ',
PROP O SITION
f
XXIII.
THEOREM.
K
Ml
b H
D
to
will
be
toj
compounded
of that of
AB
to
&
,FG
BE, and
Joyn
that of
BD
DF.
lb,!
the Parallelograms
BD
may make
DE another
jng
"J
Tfje
Sixth Book.
be done
289
Parallelogram
BDEH.
Demovjlration.
The Parallelogram
tion to the
,
(by the 1) and the the fame proportiParallelogram to the Parallelogram DFGE, i. e. M, as thd iBafeBD^tt) DF. But the proportion of the Pa:
to the Bale
r
AB
BH or DE BDEH has
on
I
rallelogram
pounded
of that of
logram M. Therefore the proportion of E is compounded of that of AB to DE, [to land that of BD to DF. For Example, let A& and make as4 to, 7, jbe8, DE$,BD 4, DF7 to 8{ by which means you will have* jTo :hree Numbers, 8, 5, and 8^, 8 to 5 being the
BDEH,
and of that of
BDEH to
the Paralle
M
<>
AB
DE BDEH
L to BDEH,
5 to
8f that
PRO
290
'
"
>
1 1
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XXIV.
In aU Parallelograms, thofe through which th Diameter pajjes, are Jimilar to the great one.
Parallelogram pafs thro the Parallelograms EF,  fay they are fimilar to the Paral lelogram AC.
s Uppofe
AC
GH
Demovjlration.
a
1
Parallelograms AC and EF, have th feme Angle B, and becaufe in the Triangl BCD, IF is parallel to the Bafe DC, the Tri angles BFI and BCD are equiangular. There fore (by the fourth) BC has the fame Propoi
The
/I
lei
and confequently thi ii In lik< proportion. manner 1H being parallel to BC, wii b; to BC have the fame proportion to HI as lei. the Angles are alfo equal, all the Sides beinj Parallels: therefore (by Defn. 1.) the Paralle
as
CD
BF toFI,
in the fame
DH
DC
GH are fimilar to
The
the Paralle
fc
USE.
laft
I:
monftrate the
o Progofition of my
Bool
<0
$<)i
of
to
have fhown a
way
to the Original,by
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
o defcribe
XXV.
dfii
F you
lal to
defire
to de*
e*
fcribe a
Polygon
Uelogram CE equal to the Polygon B, (by 44 i J and upon the Line DE make anoer
Parallelogram equal to the Re&ilineal A* ythe 45. ii) Then find a middle proporti* and DF, (by the 13.) between lal
GH
ftly,
make upon
A.
CD GH a Polygon O, fimilar
B,
s&ilineal
Demonftraiion*
a continual the Rectilineal B defcrib'd upon oportion, e firft, will have the fame proportion to e Rectilineal defcrib'd upon the fecond,
Since
'DtoDF,
CD to
DFj
But
T4
CE to FEJ
zgi FE,
to
Therefore
to
A, and conflquently
O A and
O
*
c
TbeU S E. 7 his Propcfition teaches how to change one Figure iiito another, retaining ftill its ui etui ill equality to 3 third:, which is very
c
are equal.
'
Fi
PROPOSITION XXVL
AIf
in one
lefs,
THEOREM.
vpn
the Angle, of the
1
....
F
__ i
Parallelogram DG, fi miiar to the other,, the Diameter BDwill pais by the Point G For if it do not pals by that Point, fuppof< and t( Point I, it then to pals by. the
a leflei
make
lei
the Line.BlD.
paral
to'HD.
Demonstration.
be fimilar
tc
the
295
Parallelogram
DG
it, therefore the Parallelograms DI and would be fimilar, which is impoffible * for if fo, HI would have the fame proportion to IE
DG
or
6.
GF,
as
HG to the
fame
GF
HI and
GH
PROPOSITION
A PROBLEM.
To
divide a
XXX.
Line
LE
ding
T AB
C B
may have the proportion, z. e. fo, that as to CB. fame proportion to Divide the Line by the 11. 2.) fo, that the Redand CB may be angle contain'd under
AC
of
AB AC
ABC
AB
AC.
Demonjiration.
fame proportion
17)
'
USE.
is
This Proposition
'
tecnth
Book of
Euclid,
294
c
The Eleme?its of
EuctidL'
* *
Sides of the five regular Bodies. And Friar Lucas, of the Holy Sepulcber, has composed a' whole Book concerning the Properties of a
to the
extreme and
PROPOSITION XXXL
A THEOREM.
ReBangu
equal to the two fnnilar Polygons defcrib'd upon the other Sides of the fame
Triangle.
Angle BAG of the Triangle ABC be a right Angle, the Polygon D, de* fcrib'd upon its Bafe BC, will be equal to the two fimilar
the
*
T&
upon
the Sides
AB and
Polygons
F and E
defcrib'd
AC.
Demonfiration.
F, are amongft in the duplicate proportion of their homologous Sides BC, AC, and AB, (by and if Squares were defcrib'd the 20.)
themfelves
upon the fame Sides, they alfo would amongft themfelves be in the duplicate proportion of their Sides*, but (by the 47.1.) the Square of
>>1J!
*95
and !BC would be equal to the Squares of defcrib'd upon the Polygon therefore the Bale BC, will be equal to the fimilar Po
AC
AB
AB
The
US
is
and AC.
E.
* *
4
This Proportion
or diminifh all
made
ufe of to aug
6
*
manner of Figures, bement more univerfal than the 47. 1. which ing
yet
is
exceeding ufeful, in as
much
as almoft
all Geometry is
The
3 2 Proportion
vfelefs.
PROPOSITION.
XXXIIL
A THEOREM.
In equal Circles, the Angles as well at the Center as a as the Seltors, are in lfo Circumference^
the
fame proportion
as
fa
fbeyftan'i.
the Circles
the
will
Ag
tt
Kl
Suppofe AG,
let
DF.
GH,
be
di
AC* and
DF
29 6
it
divided into as
contains the veft.
,
many
Parts,
equal to
AG,
as
All the Angles, ABG, GBH, HBC, DEI, 1EK, and the reft, are equal, (by the 27. 3.)
fo that AG, an aliquot Part of the Arch will he cohtain'd in the Arch DF, as oft as the Angle ABG, an aliquot Part of the Angle ABC,,
AC
therefore the is contain'd in the Angle DEF 5 Arch AC will have the fame proportion to the Arch DF, as the. Angle ABC to the Angle DEF. And becaufe N and Q are, the halves
of the Anglei ABC and DEF/ tney will be in therefore the the fame proportion as thefe has the fame proportion to the Angle Angle O, as the Arch AC to the Arch DF.
:
holds likewife in the Sectors for il you draw the Lines AG, GH, HC,DI 3 IK, and the reft, they will be equal, (by the 29/ 3, J and each little Sector will be divided into a
.
The fame
Triangle, and a Segment. But the Triangley will be equal, (by the 8. 1.) and the little Segments will alfo be equal, (by the ^4. 3.) there*, fore the whole little Sectors will be equal
x
;
f>
fo many aliquot Parts of the Sector ABC will; be contained in the Sector DEF. Therefore the Arch has the fame proportion to the Arch,
.
THE
398
c
* * '
The Elements of
Euclid.
and the Tra&s concerning the cutting of precious Stones, arifing chiefly from their Eminences, and rais'd Parts, not eafily reand their being conprefented upon Paper,
tain'd under
many
Superficies,
are jender'd
4
'
*
4
and eafy by the previous Knowintelligible of the Doftrine of Solids. ledge 4 have omitted the feventh r eightjh, I ninth ancl tenth Books of the Elements of
Euclid,
*
c
*
being of little, or no ufe in any And I have Part of the Mathematicks oft wondred how they obtain'd a Place the Elements, finee tis evident
for
to fettle the Dodlrine of Incommenfurables ^ * which being little better than a vain Curio*
c c
fity,
* *
*
the ought n~t to be receiv'd into the which treat of Books, f ft Principles of the Science, but to make a particular The fame may be faid Treatife by it felf. of the thirteenth Book, and thofe that fok
low
it.
And
therefore
'tis
my
the
Opinion, that
*
*
f
almoft all Parts of the Mathematicks miay underftood by the help of fufficiently be
thefe
Eight
Bpojcs
of
EletnwtS
of
f Euclid.
DE
2 99
DEFINITIONS.
J.
Solid
Body
is
that
X
thicknefs
As
whofe
NX,
breadth
NO, and
"LN.
The Extremes or Terms of
a Solid
Body
are Superficies's.
or peris right, to a Plane, when 'tis pendicular perpendicular to all the Lines,
q.
Line
meets in the Plane. will be right " to the Plane CD, if it be perpendicular to " the Lines CD and FE, which being " drawn upon the Plane CD, pafs by the Point
"
which
it
As the Line AB
"
iC
ABF, are right Angles. 4. One Plane is perpendicular to another, when a perpendicular
to the
common
Section, is alfo
perpendicular to the other. c We call the Line that is common to the common Section of I both the Planes,
'
fthe
goo
t
The Elements of
Euclid.
the Planes: As the Line AB, which is as well in the Plane AC, as in the orher AD. *f therefore the Line DE, drawn on the
Plane
AD
the Line BE the Angle ? Is the Inclination of the to the Plane Line,

perpendicular to AB, be alfo perpendicular to the Plane AC, the Plane will be right to the Plane AC. 5. If the Line AB be not perpendicular to the Plane CD, and from the Point a Perpendicular be drawn to it, AE, and alfo
AD,
ABE
AB
CD.
6. The Inclination of one Plane to another, is the acute Angle fornrd by the two Perpendiculars drawn upon each Plane to their common Sectic As the Inclination of the Plane AB on. * to the P^ne AD, is nothing elfe but the * Angle BGD, form'd. by the Lines BC and
' 1
CD, drawn upon the two Planes, pendicular to their common Sc&ion AE.
7.
per
man
ner, if their Arigks of Inclination are equal. 8. Planes. are parallel, if being continu'd
as far as
you pleaft, they ftill retain the difiance one from the other.
fame
Solid Figures are Similar, which are 9. contained within, or terminated by, an equal number of limilar Planes j as two Cubes.
c
This
3 or
This Definition does not agree to thofeFias the gures, whofe Superficies are crooked Sphere, the Cylinder, and the Cone.
j
o.
tained within, or terminated by, an equal numc ber of equal and fimilar Planes. Infomuch, c that if they were fuppos'd to penetrate each
r other, neither of them * other, having their Sides
1 t
.
folid
Angle
is
'
'
and
Concourfe of the Lines AB^ AC, AD, which are in different Planes
1 2.
a folid Figure, terminated by Triangles,whofeBafesare in the fame Plane. As the Figure ABCD.
is
A Pyramid
13. Parallelepipedon is a folid Figure contained within fix quadrilateral Planes, of which the Oppofites are parallel. Prifm is a folid Fi14.
gure,
having
two
parallel
in the Figure
AB.
is
Its oppofite
Planes
15.
may
be Polygons.
a folid Figure,
3
Sphere
terminated
from which divers Lines being drawn to a Point in the middle Some the Figurfy they will be all equal.
by one only
Superficies
&
'
define
50 2
*
The Elements d[
Euclicf.
motion of a Sem? upon its Diameter*! * which remains immoveable. 16. The Axis of a Sphere, is that immovel able Line about which the Semicircle isfe
'
turn'd.
17.
The Center of
the
fil
The Diameter of
a Sphere,
its
is
any Line
whatfoever, paflihg through terminated at the Superficies. 15. If a Line, immoveable at onel of its Points, taken above the Plane of a Circle, be mov'd about the Circumference, it will defcribe a Cone
e
Center, and
As if
the
LineAB,
the Point A, be Circumference BED, it will defcribe the * will be its SumCone ABED. The Point
BED
ront;
1
its
fell
frill
20.
*
The Axis of
from the
a Cone, is the Line drawn Vertex to the Center of the Bafe, 2i.
it
be
As AC.
If a Line be mov'd about the Circumference of two parallel Circles, fo that it remains always tne P ara ^ e l tG a ^ine drawn fr
J
Kll{
d 1'"Ib v
V_y
to
22.
30^
22. Cones are faid to be right, when the Axis is perpendicular to the Plane of theBafe.
Alfo Right Cones are fimilar, when their Axis's and the Diameters of their Bafes are in But Inclin'd Cones are the fame proportion.
tion
hot fimilar, unlefs they have a third Condi* that their Axis's be equally inclined to 5 the Planes of their Bales.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM,
I.
A right Line
cannot have one of its Parts upon a Plane, and the other above, or below it.
the Line
AB
it
IF AD, plane
be upon the
will not, being continu'd, either rife above, or fall below it, but all its Parts
will lie upon the fame. For if it be poffible that BC can be a Part of AB con* the Line tinud, draw upon the fame Plane
AD
alfo
BE
perpen*
The Angles
ABD
and
DBE
AB
and
BE
and confequently
BC
3C4
is no Part of the Line continued otheiwife two right Lines CB and EBwculd have the fame Part AB in common, which is repugnant to the 13. Axiom of the firft
EC
AB
Book.
The
c
USE.
is
LT pon
this Picpcfition
built a Piinciple
in Gtiomojiicks,
prove, that the Shadow of the Style cannot fall out of the Plane of a great Circle, in which is the Sun. For the Extemity of the Style being
by which we
taken for the Center of the Heavens, and confequently of all the greater Circles, and the Shadow being always in a right Line with a Ray drawn from the Sun to the opacous Body, and this Ray being in the Plane of this great Circle , the Shadow muff be fo
likewife.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Lhiesthat cut each other, are
as are
alfo all the in the
II.
fame Plane]
Paits of a Triangle.
F the two
I
Lines
BE
and
CD
the Point
A
v
I fay, drawing the Bafe BC, all the Parts of the Triangle
ABC
TTfe
ABC are in
BE
the
Eleva t ) Booh.
and CD.
Demovfiration,
.
cannot be faid that any Part of the Triangle ABC is in a Plane, and another Part of the fame Triangle not in the fame Plane, but it muft be alfo affirm'd, that one Part of a right Line is in a Plane, and another Part of the fame Line is not in the fame Plane, which
It
And becaufe the Sides is contrary to Prop 1 of the Triangle muft be in the fame Plane in which is the Triangle, the Lines BE and CD will be alfo in the fame Plane.'
.
The
'
US&
c
*
This Propofition fuffieiently determines a Plane, b)r the concourfe of two right Lines, I'have alfo made ufe of or by a Triangle.
it
in Opticks,
rallel
c
Table,ought
in
'
to be reprefented
a Point.
PRO
%c6
PROPOSITION
A
The common
III.
I
is
THEOREM.
Planes
Seffion of two
one right
Line.
the Planes
AB and CD
EF
i
t~d
cut
common
each
one right Line. For if not, take two Points common to Loth Planes as E and F, and draw a right Line from the Point E, to the Point F upon the Plane AB, which fuppofe to be EHF. Draw likewife upon the Plane CD a right Line from the fame Point E to F; and if it be not the fame with the former, fuppofe it to he EGF. Demonfration. Thefe Lines drawn upon two Planes are two different Lines, and enclofe Space ^ which is contrary to the 12. Axiom of the 1. Therefore they will make but one right Line, which being in both the Planes will be their com
mon
*
Se&ions.
The
This
is
*
USE.
Propofition, fuppos'd in divers Parts of the Matbematicks, though it be not always quoted. Particularly, it is taken for granted in
a fundamental
Gnomomch',
'
when?
jo 7
the HourLines are reprefented upon Dials, by marking only the common Section of their Plane, and that of the "Wall.
when
PROPOSITION
IV.
A THEOREM.
to two others that If a Line be perpendicular cut each other, it will alfo he perpendicular to the Plane of the fame Lines, _
perpenLines CD and EF, which cut each other at the Point B, fo that
*
TF
the Line
AB be
dicular to the
and ABF,
(which
cannot conveniently be reprefented a Plate,) it will be alfo perpendicular to upon and EF, i. e. to all the Plane of the Lines the Lines that (hall be drawn upon the fame
CD
Plane through the Point B as, for example, the Line GBH. Let the Lines BC, BD, BE, and BF, be equal, and draw the Lines EC, DF, AC, AD, AE, AF, AG and AH.
,
Demonftration.
The four Triangles ABC, ABD> ABE, and ABF, have each a right Angle at the Point B and the Sides BC, BD, BE, and BF equal,
5
with
ocS
AB common
EBC
to
all.
Therefore
are equal,
will be in
2.
The Triangles
DBF
their Sides BC, BD, refpecjs equal, having BE, and BF, equal and the Angles CBE and
DBFwill
fes
there
fore the
and
alfo .the
Sa
EC and
DF.
DBH, DBH,
having
equal
5
as alfo the
Sides
BC
and the
BH,
1.)
CG
and
4.
The Triangles ACE and AFD, having Sides AC, AD, AE, and AF, equal and
DH,
EC
and
ADF
5.
DF alfo equal
*,
Sides
ACE will be equal, (by the 8. The Triangles ACG and ADH have the AC and AD, CG and DH equal, with
and
1 .)
the Angles
AG
Laftjy,
all their
ADH and ACG, therefore their AH are equal. the Triangles ABH and ABG have
ABG
Sides equal} therefore (by the 8. 1.) the Angles and will be equal, and the Line AB perpendicular to GH. Accordwill be perpendicular to ingly, the Line any Line drawn through the Point B upon the Plane of the LinesCD and EF, which I call
ABH
AB
The
309
USE.
:
t
c
This Proportion occurs very oft in the for example, to firft Book of Thcodofms (kmonftrate that the Zixli of the World is
Equiperpendicular to the Plane of In like manner in Gnomonich, 'tis noctial. demonftrated by this Propofition, that the
EquinoBical Line in Horizontal Dkh Nor is pendicular to the Meridian
is
the
c
i 1
per
i.
it lefs
1 c
as
of precious Stones.
PROPOSITION
A
V.
.
THEOREM.
at the
If a Line he perpendicular
cut each, other
to three others,
which
fame
Point,
they will
he
all
IFlar
be perpendicuLines BC, BD, and BE, which cut each other at the fame Point B \ the Lines
to three
the Line
AB
BC, BD, and BE are in the fame Plane. Suppofe the Plane AE to be that of the Lines AB and BE, and CF that of the Lines BC and BD. If BE be the common Se&ion of both the Planes, it will
be
3io
was
BC
and BD,
z%
but if
Section.
BE
be not, let
BG
be
their
common
perpendicular to the Lines BC and BD, therefore it is perpendicular to their Plane CF, (by the 4.) and (by Defn. 3.} A3 will be perpendicular to BG. But it is alfo fuppos'd perpendicular to BE 5 therefore the
AB is
Demowjlration.
Angles
and
be but part of the other. Therefore the two Planes can have no other common Section but BE. BE is therefore in the Plane CF.
confequently equal though one
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
are parallel.
VI.
TF
*
the Lines
AB
to
and
CD
be
perpendicular
'Tis evident,
the fame
ABD
BDC
.,
it remains 'Angles* but that is to be prov'd, that AB and CD are in the fame and flane. Draw perpendicular to BD, to AB 5 draw alfo the Lines BG, AG, equal
not enough
DG
and AD.
De z
Sides
ABD and BDG have the and DG equal, and BD common to both} and the Angles ABD and BDG are right Angles, therefore their Bafes AD and BG
The
AB
Triangles
4..
1.)
ABG
and
ADG
have
a right Angle, becaufe AB is and is alfo a to the Plane, perpendicular is perTherefore the Line right Angle. to three Lines CD, DA, and DB, pendicular which confequentfy are in the fame Plane, {by the %) But the Line AB is in the Plane of the Lines and DB, (by the 2.) therefore are in the fame Plane. AB and CorolL Two parallel Lines are in the fame Plane.
ABG being
ADG DG
AD
CD
The
c
USE.
\
*
c
By this Propoiition we demonftrate, that the Hourlines, in all Planes that are parallel to the Axis of the World, as the Polars,
Meridional, and others, are parallel
themfelves.
among
PROS
313
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
VII.
is
in
being drawn Point B of the .Line AB to the Point C of the Parallel CD, is (I fay; in the Plane with the Lines AB and CD.
Demonfi ration.
The Parallels
Plane
:
AB
and
CD are
in the
fame
from the fame with CB^ otherwife two right Lines would enclofe Space, contrary to the 12.
in which if you draw a right Line the Point B to the Point C, it will be
Axiom of
the 1.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
VIIL
1
If one of two parallel Lines be perpen&i&iilar a Plane, the other will hefo alfo. V
to
of the two parallel Lines and &P, ee be perpenFig. Prop. 6.3 the one dicular to the Plane EF, the other will
IF U
AB AB
CD
be
312
:
Draw
the Line
DB
fince the
is a right and Angle Angle, and are fuppos'd to be Parallels, the Angle will be a right Angle, (by the 29. 1.) there
ABD
AB
CD
is
CDB
Angle
CDG
that
to
CD
is
Make
AB
a right
The
Sides
Triangles
ABD
and
BDG
have the
AB
and
DG
,
and the Angles ABD and BDG are right Angles ^ therefore (by the 4, The 1.) their Bafes AD and BG are equal. ADG and ABG have all their Sides Triangles
BD
common
to both
equals
therefore (by the 8. 1.) the Angles are equal : but the latter is
is a right Angle, becaule fuppos'd to be perpendicular to the Plane EF, therefore the is a right Angle, and the Line Angle and being perpendicular to the Lines DA, will be perpendicular to the Plane of the Lines and DA, which is the fame, in which are the Parallels AB and CD. Therefore the Angle is a right Angle, (by De
AB
DG
DB
DB
GDC
falk. 2
PRO
314'
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Lines that are parallel to a third ,
rallel
IX;
rfrg
^//b
pd~
the
among tbemfelves,
though not
all
in
fame
Plane.
I
L
the Lines
AB
parallel to the
Line
HG
not in the fame Plane; Upon AB and EF draw the to AB ; which will be perpendicular
alfo perpendicular to EF, (by the Lemma after the 26. 1.) In like manner, upon the Plane of
per
being perpendicular to the Lines and HI, is ib alfo to the Planes of the Lines HG and HI, (by the 4.) therefore and CI are perpendi(by the 8.) the Lines of the LinesfiH and Hl,and cular to the Plane
The Line
EH
GH
AG
(by the 6
1
.)
The
'
USE,
315
t
i
c
c
(.
of parallel Lines upon a Table asalfo in the cutting of precious Stones, to prove the Sides of the Pannels to be parallel among themfelves, becaufe they are fo to a Line in a different Plane. In Gnomonlch likewife we are fometimes oblig'd to prove, that the Vertical Circles ought to be defcrib'd on becaufe the Walls by perpendicular Lines
,
i
C
Lines, that are the common Sections of them and the Walls, are parallel to a Line drawn from the Zenith to the Nadir.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
&
X.
to
two
they
in
different Flane %
make
equal Angles.
CF IF
not
CD,
AE and
yet the Angles BAE and DCF will be equal. Let the Lines AB and CD, AE and CF be equal, and draw the Lines BE, DF, AC, BD, and EF.
be parallel, though they be all four upon the fame Plane, <"\
and CD are fuppos'd to be and equal, therefore (fy ^033.1.) both parallel,
Demoitjtration.
The Lines
AB
the'
316
the Lines
as alfo
The Elements of
Euclid.
AC and BD AG and EF
and and
BD
and
EF are parallel,
equal.
and (by the preceding) and equal, and con35. 1.) BE and DF will be
^
DCF have all their Sides eangles and (by the 8. r,) the Angles BAE and qual } will be equal. Coroll. Many the like Propositions might Be made, which would not be altogether unufeful^ as for example, if upon a parallel be drawn parallel to the Plane the Line Line AB, and the Angles BAE and DCF be e
BAE
DCF
CD
cjual,
theLines AE and
CF
S
will be parallel. 
IheU
c
* *
f
f
demonftrate, that the Planes of the Hourcircles with a Plane parallel to the Equator , are equal to the Angles made by them with
the;
By this Propofition we
Angles made by
PRO
3*7
PROPOSITION A PROBLEM,
To draw a Perpendicular
given out
to
XL
of
the Plane.
IF pendicular
draw a perfrom the Point C to the Plane AB, draw the Line ED at pleafure, and CF
you
defire to
perpendicular to it, (by the 12. i.) And again (by the ii. i.) upon the Plane AB draw
dicular to
I fay,
ED, and
CG
AB. Draw
GH parallel to FJE.
Demonjlratioyu
The Line [EF being perpendicular to the Lines CF and FG, will be perpendicular to the Plane CFG, (by the 4.) and being parallel to EF, will be alfo perpendicular to
HG
the fame Plane, (by the 8.) And becaufe is perpendicular to the Lines GF and GH,
will be
the
CG
it
AB,
(by
PEO
318
PROPOSITION XII.
A
PROBLEM.
to
To draw a Perpendicular
a Plane through a
.
Perpendicular AB through the Point C. Draw from the Point E, taken at pleafure out of the Plane, the Line ED perto the fame Plane, (by the 1 ) pendicular
F E
T* O
draw
to the Plane
Draw
CF
CF
DE. AB,
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Iwo
Lines perpendicular to
XIII.
a Plane cannot be
through Point C 7 were perpendicular to the Plane AB and CF the common Section of the Planes of thofe Lines, with the Plane AB 3 the Angles
_m /
E \
and
CD
fame
the
\/_ \ 5 F \
ECF
319
be drawn from the fame Point for having drawn the Line CF there would be two right Angles, DCF and DFC, in the fame Triangle, ^contrary to
AF cannot
:
DC and DF,
the 32. I.
The
c
USE.
This Proposition is necefiary to fhow,' that a Perpendicular to a Plane was fufficiently .defcrib'd, in as much as but one fuch
can be drawn through the fame Point.*
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Flanes, to which the fame Line are parallel,
is
XIV.
perpendicular}
IF
lar
AB
=
AC
Bt), they will be parallel, ;. e. they will in all places be equally diftant from each otherDraw the Line parallel to A B, (by the ai^d join the Lines and'AC.
DC
3 1
1 .)
BD
JBr
ja'o
AB
Planes
is
AC and BD,
which is parallel to it, will be alfo perpendicular to them, (by the 8.) and coniequentand C, will be ly the Angles B and D,
Lines
AC
ABDC a Parallelogram, Therefore the Lines AB and CD are equal, (by the 34. 1.) the
i.
Parallels,
A and C, B
may be drawn through arty other Point whatfoever j therefore the Planes AC and BD are equally diftant, in all Places, the one from the other.
The
*
I
J
USE.
and
c
*
*
the two Tropkks, to be parallel, becaufe the Jxh oi the World is perpendicular to i
their PJane.
md
fRO
$21
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If two Lines, meeting at a Point,
Lines of another Plane, thofe Lines will be parallel.
tjpo
XV.
be parallel to
the Hanes
of
TF
AB
AC be
DE
Huk v JX \S
3
DE
FD
ABandAC,
Bmonjlratfan.
BG
is
a right Angle, as alfo the Angle All}. Therefore (by the 4.) the LineAi is perpendicular to the Plane GH'j
and being
the Planes
BC and GH,
1^.)
BG,
or
FE,
will be pa
PRO^
322
PROPOSITION
A
If a
Fictiie
XVL
\
THEOREM,
two
others which
will
cut
are parallel,
together
their
cemmon
SeBions
with
them he parallel.
the Plane
AB
cut
two
o
BD
For
ther parallel Planes, and I fay their common Secti3 ons and BE will be parallel:
AC
AF
if not,
e.
AC and BD
and therefore (by the i .) can never be either above, or below them therefore if they concur at the Point G, the Planes muft do fo likewife, and confequently they would not be parallel, which is contrary to what
,
Was fuppos'd.
The
6
USE.
'
* '
By thisPropofition we demonttrate, in the Treatife of Conick and Cylhdrick Sections, that if the Cone or Cylinder be cut by a Plane parallel to its Bale, the Sections are Circular, By the fame we defcribe AJtrolabes 5 and prove in Gnomonich^ that the Angles, which
the
.
325
Plane parallel to a great Circle, are equal to thofe which they make in the Circle it felf 5 and
again
that the Images of the objective Lines perpendicular to the Table,concur at the Point of Sight.
in Perfpeftives,
make with a
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Two
Planes.
XVIL
the Lines
AB and CD
IF be
palfing through the Plane EF at the Point Draw alfo AC, BD, FG, aud GE.
AD,
The Plane of
ons
ABD
cuts the
BD and EG
,
has the fame proportion to EB, as to GD. In like manner the Plane of the Tricuts the Planes EF and AC, thereangle are parallel ^ and fore the Sections and FC has the fame proportion to FD as to
AE
AG
ADC
e.
AC
'
FG
AG
GD,
i,
asAEtoEB.
X4
PRO
r
'j
24
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If a Line be perpendicularpendicular
to a Plane, all the in which that Line is found, are perPlanes, to the fame Plane.
be perpendithe Line to the Plane ED, all cular the Planes in which it is found
AB
the Plane AE, having for a common Section with the Plane ED the Line BE * to which draw a Perpendicular FI.
Demovflration.
therefore the Lines $ and (by the 8.)FI will ke perpendicular to will the Plane ED. Therefore the Plane
AB
AE
be perpendicular to thePlane ED, (by Defin. 4.) * The fame may be prov'd oi the Plane AD. The USE. Vp
<
m
The
firft
*
*
*
Propofition
in
Gnomonich,
which
may pafs for a fundamental one, is built upon this Propofition 5 which is alfo
frequently madeufe of, in Spherical Trigonoin jail metry, in PerfpeSives, and .generally 1 thofe
325
PROPOSITION
A
XIX.
THEOREM.
to the fame.
each other he perpendicuIf two Planes cutting lar to another, their common SeSion will be
perpendicular
I ED,
dicular
cat
each other,
IK, their ction EF
be perpenthe Plane
common
is
Seper
alfo
AB being perpendicular to the Plane the Line GF will be perpendicular to the IK, fame Plane. Draw likewife perpendicuit will be lar to the common Section DF fhall alfo perpendicular to the Plane IK. have therefore two Perpendiculars to the
the Plane
be not perpendicular to the Plane IK, upon the Plane AB draw the Line GF : perpendicular to the common Sedtion BF and
If
EF
FH
We
526
The
c
USE.
'
*
c
Proportion we demonftrate, that the Circle which paiFes through the Poles of r the World and the Lenith, is the Meridian, and cuts all the diurnal Arches into two equal Parts, and that the Stars fpend as much time in their Motions from their Ri
By this
as
from
this
Circle to
PROPOSITION
'
"
XX.
A T H E O R E M.
If three plain Amies make one folii one, any tiro of them ought to he greater than the third.
F the Angles BAC, BAD, and I CAD, make the folid Angle A,
eft
and the Angle BAC be the greatAngle h the two others, taken
are
together,
CAE
Angle CAD,
equal
\
AD
and
AE to
be
Demovfiration.
AD
and
At
AC
com
mon
327
and
CAD
1 .)
CAE
their Bafes
CD and CE are equal But the Side CD and DB are greater than the Side CB alone, {by
1.) therefore taking away the equal Lines CD and CE, the Line BD will be greater than BE. Further, the Triangles BAE and BAD have the Sides AE and equal, and the Side BA common, and the Bafe BD greater than the Bafe BE: therefore (by the 18. 1.) the Angle BAD is greater than the Angle
.
AD
BAE
CAD
1
adding therefore the equal Angles and CAE, the Angles BAD and CAD will be greater than the Angles CAE and
,
BAE,
7.
r
.
e
1
1
the Angle
,
BAG
1
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
All the plain Angles,
are
lefs
XXL
*
T F the plain Angles BAC, BAD and CAD, make the folid An
gle A, they will be lefs than four right Angles. Draw the
Lines BC, BD, and CD, and you will have a Pyramid, whofe Bafe
angle BCD. The folid Angle at
gles
is
the Tri
Anthe
ABC
and
Bafe
Elements of Euclid. Bafe alone CD. In like manner ACB and ACD are greater thanf^CD alone, and the
528
TJ:e
and are greater than Angles alone. But all the Angles of the Bafe are equal to two right Angles, therefore the Angles
ABC
ADB
CDB
ABC, ABD, ACB, ACD, ADC, and ADB, are And becaufe greater than two right Angles. all the Angles of the Three Triangles BAG, BAD, and CAD, are equal to fix right Angles *
taking away more than two right Angles, there will remain lefs than four, for the Angles made at the Point A. But if the folid confijft of more than three plain Angle io that^he Bafe of the Angles, Pyramid be a a Polygon, it may be divided into Triangles $
up
will that all the plain Angles, which make the fblid one, are always lefs than four
right Angles.
The
c
USE.
Thefetwo Proportions fhow when many plain Angles may make up one folid one,
often neceiTary in the Treatifes of of Stones, and in the following cutting Proportions. The 22, and 23. Propoftms are of no life.
which
is
c c
.'
PRO
329
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
If a
folict
XXIV.
the
Body be terminated by parallel Planes, Sides mil be Jimilar and $qual apptijite
Parallelograms.
the Solid
AB be terminated
be fimilar
The
BE
and
AC and
FE
:
therefore their
(by the 16.)
common
Sections
are parallel,
fo likewife
DF
and
AE
therefore
AD
Parallelogram. After the fame manner I may demonstrate, that AG, FB, CG> and the reft are Parallelograms. I add, that and FB, the oppofite Parallelograms, e. g. are fimilar and equal. The Lines AE and
will be a
AG
EG
there* are parallel to the Lines and are equal, fore the Angles (by the 10) Accordingly I may demonstrate
:
FD
and
AEG
DB FDB
Pa
>
PRO
The Elements of
Euclid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XXV.
If a Far allele'pipe'don be divided ly a Plane parallel to one of its Planes , the two Jolid Bodies which arife by that Divijion, will have
thefame
be IF
CD,
AB
Planes
AF
AC
BD
to the Bafe
fliov/s
equal Parts as you pleafe j for ten thoufand ^ which we may take .example, as Indivifibles, i. e. without reflecting upon
into as
many
the poifibility of their being further fubdivided Suppofe alfo fo many Superficies's parallel to the Bafe AI, as there are Parts in I have defcrib'd only on OS ^ the Line fo that the Solid AB be compounded of all
AH
fame thicknefs, as a Ream of Paper compounded of all its Tis laid one upon another. .Sheets and Quires fo the Solid AC will be com.evident that
is
pounded
331
pounded of ten thoufand Superficies's equal to the Bafe AI, (ij the preceding) and the
Solid
DB
ficies's
Every Superficies of the Solid fame proportion to any ot the of the Solid DB as the Bafe A I
AC
has the
becaufe they are every one of them equal to their Bafes therefore (by the 12. 5.) all the Superficies's of the Solid taken towill have the fame proportion to all gether,
,
DG
AC
Bafe
lid
DB, as the Bafe AI to the DG. Brit all the Superficies's of the SoAC make up the Solid AC, which has no
other Parts but thofe Superficies's: and all the Superficies's of the Solid DB are nothing therefore the Solid elfe but the Solid DB } has the fame proportion to the Solid DB, as
AC
the Bafe
AI
to the Bafe
DG.
which
The
1
USE.
,
is
'
*
*
4
ought > meafur'd the thicknefs of the Superficies's, be taken in the fame refpe&in both the Terms. I iliall make ufe of it hereafter, to render fbme intricate and perplex'd Demonftrations more
is
provided
it
beus'd as
it
PRO*
352
The Elements of
Euclid.
<
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Parallelepipedon
is
XXVI.
A
B
divided
into
two
equal
331
are of
and 28.
Proportions
no ufe
PR OPO
S.
A THEOREM.
Paralklepipedons of the fame height, having fame or equal Bafes, are Equal,
T>
u?
"Vs.
KH
534
iriariy in
tJieir
Recording to their
refpeftive
Heights,
is
equal.
has the fame proportion to The Bafe the Bafe CI, as each Plane KL to OM. But they being equal in number in both, all the Antecedents (by the 2.5.) will have the fame proportion to all the Confequents, i. e. the whole Solid AB to the whole Solid CD, as the to the Bafe CI. But 'tis fuppos'd Bafe that the Bafes are equal, therefore the Solids are equal. Coroll To find the Solidity of a Parallele'tis ufual to multiply the Bafe by' jfnpedon, the height taken perpendicularly, becaufe that Perpendicular mows how many Superficies's equal to the Bafe are contain d in it. As for example, if I take a Foot for my Indivifible Meafure, z. e. which I will not after wards fubdi vide 5 if the Bafe contain twelve
AH
DemonJ!ratio?i.
AH
Feet fquare, and the perpendicular height ten,, Ifhallhave an hundred and twenty cubick Feet for the folidity of the Body AB. Foi the height containing ten Feet, I may make ten Parallelelograms equal to the Bafe, having but the Bafe with each a Foot in thicknefs one Foot in thicknefs makes twelve Cubicfc Feet the whole therefore will make an hun dred and twenty ,if the height contain ten Feet
,
PRO'
XXXII.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
the Tarallelepipedovs of
fame
height
are in the
Have prov'd
this Propofition
AB
to the Parallelepipedon CD, as the Bafe Bafe CI. (See Fig. pecel) Cor oil. Parallelepipedons that have equal Bafes, are in the fame proportion as their
AH
Heights. As the Parallelepipedons AB and AL, whofe perpendicular Heights are AKandAE. For if you divide the Height AK into as many aliquot Parts as you pleafe, and AE into as
as it contains equal to the former, and draw, according to each Part, Planes parallel contains of the to the Bafe} as many as
many
AE
aliquot Parts of AK, fo many will the Solid contain of the Superficies's equal to the Bafe, which are the Aliquot Parts of the Solid* AL*, therefore (% Defou 5. 5.) the Solid will have the fame proportion to the Solid
AB
AB
AL,
as the
Height
AE
to the Height
AK.
The
33^
USE.
The
*
c
c
*
ways of meafuring Parallelepipedons, and msy be efteem'd as nrft Prin3 Tis after the fame ciples for that purpofe.
almoft
manner alfo that we take the Dimensions of the Solidity of Walls, by multiplying their Bafes by their Heights.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Similar
XXXIIL
Parallelepipedom
are
in
the
triplicate
IF ABParallelcpipeand CD be dons
fimilar,
i. e.
the
if
all
the
like
,'
and
Angles equal, fo that they may be plac'd ana right Line, z. e. that AE and EF,HEand EI, GE and EC, may make right Lines*, and
as
HE
to
EC
Solids in continual proportion according to the proportion of the Side EA to that, which
is
homologous to it,
EF
or JDI.
De
jj7
Parallelepipedon AB his the fama proportion to EL of the fame Height, as the to the Bafe EO, (by the 5 2.) But' the .Bafe has the fame proportion to the Bafe Bafe
The
AH AH
as
EO,
AE to
EF,
to El, and of GE to EC, was fupposM to ba and confequently, the Solid the fame has the fame proportion to EL as EL to EK, and as EK to CD. Therefore (by Dfot. 1 t. 5.) the proportion of AB to CD will be the tri* plicate proportion of that of AB to EL, or
*,
to ED, li e. that of the Solid EK has the fame prolaftly, to portion to the Solid EN, as the Height the Height EC, (by the Coroll. of the 32.) or the Line EF for their common Height) jf taking as the Bafe GI to the Bafe CI, 7. e. as to to EF, of EC. But the proportion of
to the Bafe
EO
EL
HE
EL
And
GE
GE
AE
HE
AS
E F.
Coroll. If four Lilies be in continual proportion, the Parallelepipedon defcrib'd upon the firft, has the fame proportion to another
funilar Parallelepipedon defcrib'd upon the fecond, as the firft to the fourth } for the proportion of the firft to the fourth, is the triplicate proportion of that of the firft to the
fecond.
c
The
US
a
E.
this
You may
perceive
by
Propofition that
33S
\
'
that that famous Problem of the Duplication of the Cube, propos'd by the Oracle, confiftsj
c
,
two middle Terms in continual proportion. For if you make the fide of the firft Cube the firft Term, and the double of that the fourth ^ having found two middle Proportionals, the Cube defcrib'd upon the firft Line will have the fame proportion to
in finding
as the firft
By* thisPropofition alfo may be corrected their Error, who fancy fimrar Solids to have the
t.
,
e.
as one to two.
fame proportion as their Sides as if a Cube of one foot in length was the half of a Cube two Foot long when indeed it is* tut the
,
1
eighth
4
*
i
Part thereof. This is likewise the Foundation of the Rule concerning the fize of the Bores of cannons and is applicable not oply to Bullets, but to all forts of fimiFor example , fhould a Man,alar Bodies. bout to build a Navy, and refolving to retain the fame proportion in all his YelTels, reafon thus with himfelf if a Ship of an
:
,
,
hundred Tun require fifty Foot in Keel anc other of two hundred Tuns ought to have an \ hundred Foot in Keel*, he would be guilty * of a great Miftake: for inftead of making
:
:
*;
.,
a Yeflel twice as large as the former, would make one eight times fo much.
He He
, lefs
ought toafiign to the fecond Veffel foiiiewhat. than fc ty three Feet. PP.O
'The
Eleventh BooK
Zl9
PROPOSITION XXXIV.
A THEOREM.
Equal Parallelepipedom have their Bafes ani Heights reciprocal, and thofe that have their Bafes and Heights reciprocal are eqiial.
the Paralle
IF lepipedons ?AB
and
CD
be equal,
and Bafes Heights will be reciprocal, i. e. the BafeAE will have the fame proportion to to the Height) the Bafe CF, as the Height AG. Having make CI eqnal to AG, draw the Plane IK parallel to the Bafe CF.
their
CH
Demonftratlon.
has the fame pro^ Parallelepipedon to K, being of the fame height, as portion the Bafe AE to the Bafe CF, (by the 32.) BuC. as AB to CK, fo is to the fame CK, be
The
AB
CD
caufe
CK,
AB and CD
CD
to
is,
lb
to the Height CI, (by the CorolL the Height the 3 2.) therefore as the Bafe to the of Bafe CF, fo is the Height to the Heighfi ~ CI or AG.
CH
AE
CH
I add
34a
AB
be equal.
Demowjlvatiort.
CD to
has the fame proportion to CK, being fame Height, as the Bafe AE to the Bafe CF, (by the 22.) Alfo the Height CH has the fame proportion to the Height CI or AG, as
fcf the
AB
CK;
but
we fuppofe
as
that
to
AE
CI
has the
or
CH
AG
has the fame therefore the Solid tion to the Solid CK, as the Solid.
AB
CD
proporto the
CD are equal,
the
*
US
E.
*This
*
c
*
Reciprocation
Solid very eafy to be mea And the Proportion feems to bear fur'd. feme Analogy to the 14. Prop, of the 6. which
aflerts,
Paralle
lograms have their Sides reciprocal ^ and the Practice of the Rule of Three may be de* aicnftrated from botb.j
'
The
35. Prop,
may be
omitteH.
PRC
34*
PROPOSITION
Tf three Lines be
ralleleplpedon to an equal
XXXVI.
A THEOREM.
in continual proportion,
a Pa^
made of
thoje three
Lines
is
equiangular
Sides
which has
Line.
all its
equal
IF portion,
thofe three Lines, the SideFI being equal to the Line A, equal to B> and HI equal to C, is equal to the equiangular Parallelepipedon KL; whofe Sides LM, MN, and KN, are each of them equal to the Line B. From
HE
which Lines will be equal, becaufe the folid Angles E and K are fuppos'd equal, (fo that if ^tney could penetrate, neither would exi
ceed
3 42
Th e Elements of
Euclid.
EH and KN
Deinovjlration.
to
LM to HI
B,
:
Parallelogram under FI and IH, is equal to the Paralleloand MN, both gram LN contain'd under
the
FH
contain d
LM
equal to B, (by the i6> 6.) therefore the Bafes are equal. But the Heights and NQare
HP
1 .)
alfo equal
the
Par'al
PROPOSITION
If four Lines be
proportional,

XXXVII.
A THEOREM.
the Parallelepiped
defcviVd upon thofe Lines are proportional : and if the Jimilar Par allelepipe dons be their homologous Sides will bs proportional,
alfo proportional.
dom
C to proportion to B as the fimilar ParallelepiP, the Lines pedons, whofe homologous Sides are be In the fame proportion. A, B, C, D, will
*'
Demonjlratmi. The Parallelepipedon is ia the triplicate of proportion to the Parallelepipedon B, " that
!
545
to the Line B, or that of that of the Line the Line C to the Line D. But the Paralleleis alfo pipedon C to the Parallelepipedon in the triplicate proportion of that of the Line C to the Line D, (by the 33.) Therefore has the fame, proporthe Parallelepipedon
PROPOSITION
XXXVIII.
A THEOREM.
If two Planes be perpendicular to each other , a Point in one ^Perpendicular drawn from a
of the Planes
to the other
will fall
upon the
common
Se&ion.
TF
*
the Planes
AB
and
CD being

B
a
'
perpendicular
to
the Plane a Line perpend icular to the Plane CD, it will fall upon the common Sedion of the
Planes.
AB
\*
AlF &
Draw EF
mon
Sedition: AG.'
Demonftration.
AG
CD,
and
becaufe
344
becaufe
Point E perpendicular to the Plane CD, (by the it,) every Perpendicular will fall upon
the
'
Th USE,
'Tis of ufe to us in the
This Proportion ought to have follow d next aftjer the 17$, becaufe it refpe&s So*
lids in
*
general.
Treadfe of Apoiabe^ to prove that in the Analemma all the Circles, perpendicular to
the
Mm Jim,
Lines.
PROPO SITION

XXXIX
A
If
'
THEOREM.
in a Paralklepipdon be drawn two Planes^ which divide the vppojite Sides into two dqual the DiameParts, their common SeBion and ter will divide each other into two equal
atfo
Parts.
Qi O Uppofe
BA
G, GK,
AH
and HL.
prove
firft,
that;
345
(and
of thefe,
BG
and GK,
AH and HL.) make but one right For the Triangles DGB and have becaufe they their Sides DB and equal, are the Halves of equal Sides $ as alfo and GM. Further, DB and being parallel, the alternate Angles BDG and will be equal, (by the 29. ij and therefore (by the will be 4. 1.) the Triangle DBG and and confequently the equal in all refpe&s, and (bytbeCoroll of Angles BGDand the 15. 1.) BG and GK make but one right
Line.
KM
KMG
GD
KM
GMK
KGM
KGM
and therefore ALBK Line, as alfo is one Plane, in which are found both the Diameter AB, and the common Sedtion of the Planes GH. The Plane ALBK cutting the and CD, their common parallel Planes will be parallel Sections and and
:
LH
HA
AN
GH
AK
will have the fame proporto and therefore tion to GK, as \ to GK, fo the 18. 5.) as to BO* (by
(by the 2. 6.)
BG
BO BK
fo
OA
BA
and
to
(by the 4.
6)
GH
or
AK
to
OG.
is
But
BK is
double to
BG,
therefore
BA
double
equal to GH, double to GO. Therefore the Lines GH, and AB divide each other equally at the Point CoroU. 1 All the Diameters are divided at the Point O.
Here we may add fome Corollawhich depend upon divers Proportions. ries, for example, that triangular Prifms of
CoroU. 2.
the
5 4"
The Elements of
Euclid.
the fame height are in the fame proportion as for the Parallelepipedons, of which they are the halves, are (by the 32.) in the fame proportion as their Bafes therefore the halves of their Bafes, and the halves of the Parallelepipedons, i e, the Prifms, will be in the fame Proportion.
their Bafes:
:
.
Coroll. 3.
are alfo in the fame proportion as their Bafes, becaufe they may be refolv'd into triangular
ones, each of which will have the portion as their Bafes.
Coroll. 4.
fame pro<
of the Proportions concerning Parallelepipedons are alfo applicable as for example, that equal Prifms to Prifms have their Heights and Bafes reciprocal 5 and that fimilar Prifms are in the triplicate proportion of that of their homologous Sides.
reft
:
The
The
*
USE.
*
c
1
'
This Proportion may help us to find out the Center of Gravity in Parallelepipedons^ and to demonftrate fome other Proportions in the thirteenth and fourteenth Books of
Euclid.
PRO
347
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
A Prifm,
double to the triangular
XL.
equal to
it %
LE
and CDG be two triangular of the fame height, and the Prifms, Bafe of one the Parallelegram AE, double to the Triangle FGC, the Bafe of the other I fay thefe Prifms are equal. SupPrifin the Parallelepipedon and GI were pofc
T ABE
AH
compleated.
348
The Elements of
,
Euclid.
GK are equal and confequently, the Paralfelepipedons AH and GI, having the fame Bafes
and the fame Heights, are equaU and
there
fore the Prifms, that are the Halves, (by the 26.) will be likewife equal.
THE
imnwMi
349 3
TH
ELEMENTS EUCLID
after having in the preceeding Books deliver'd the general PrinciETJcVilyof folid Bodies, and explain'd ples the manner of Meafuring the moft regular of them, that is, fuch as are terminated by
plain Superficies's; treats in this of fuch Bodies as are contain'd in Superficies's thai are crooked, as the Cylinder, Cone, Arid
Sphere comparing one with another, and giving Rules, relating both to their Solidity, and the manner of taking their Dimenfions. The Book is of exceeding great
:
ufe,
becatife in it
we
upon which the moft learned Matljema* tlciam have built fo many famous Demonfixations concerning the Cylinder, the Cone,
I
PRO
350
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
I.
Similar Polygons, infcrib'd in Circles are in the fame proportion as the Squares of the Diameters oj the fame Circles.
IF ABCDE,
FGHKL,
bed
be
will
the Polygons
and
infcri
in
Circles,
fimilar,
they
the
be
in
fame
as the Squares of the f)iameters
proportion
AM, FN.
Draw
the Lines
and FH.
I
Demonjiration.
'Tis fuppos'd that the Polygons are Similar* that is to fay, that the Angles B and are has the fame proportion and that equal,
AB
I infer,
and (by the 6. 6.) that the Triangles are equiangular, and that the Angle9 are equal $ fo that likewife and
ABC
FGH
ACB
FHG
being in a Semicircle, are right Angles, ( the%i. 3.) and confequently, the Triangles
are equiangub
Twelfth Booh 351 ( the 4. 6.) AB has the fame proportion to by to FN, and (by the 22. 6.) if two FG, as fimilar Polygons be defcrib'd upon AB and FG, as thofe that are propose!; and two and FN, other fimilar Polygons upon which fhall be two Squares $ the Polygon ABCDE will h&ve the fame proportion to the
The
AM
AM
Polygon
c 1
FGHKL^
FN.
as the Square of
AM
to
the Square of
ftrate that
LEMMA.
If a
^iianttiy be lefs than a Circle, 4 regular Tolygon may be htfcrWd in the fame Circle greater than that Quantity.
certain
f he
SUppofe A Figure
'
to
be
lefs
than
Circle
\ c
the a
5'
* c
*
c
be inferib'd
in the
fame Circle* which fhall be greater than the Figure A. Let the Figure G be the and the difference between the Figure
Circle,
and
taken
to
35^
*
together,
*
may
be equal to the Circle B. InB the Square CDEF, (by and if the Square be greater
<
4
t c
c
c
.
than the Figure A, we fhall have what we wanted. If it be lefs, divide the four Quarters of the Circle CD, DE, EF, and FC, each into two equal Parts at the Points H,I, K, L, that fri you may have an O&ogon. But if the Oclcgon be fiill lefs than the Figure A, fubdivide its Arches, and you will have a Polygon of flxteen Sides, afterwards of thirtytwo, and then of iixtyfour. I fay, at lergth 37011 will have a Polygon greater than the Figure A, 2. e. a Polygon whofe difference from the Circle is lefs than that of the Figure A, that is, lefs than the Figure G. Demovjfratzon. ' The inferib'd Square is more than half of
the Circle, being half of the Square defcrib'd about the Circle ^ and in jdefcribing the Oclbgon you take more than half of the Remainder, i.e. of the four Segments CHD,
*
1
DIE,EKF,andCLF. For the Triangle CHD isthehalfof the Re&angle CO, (by the 34.
r.)
therefore it
Arches. In like manner, in dethe Polygon of fixteen Sides, you 'fcribing c take more than half of what was left of the c Circle ^ and fp in all the others. Therefore
all the other
*
'
Segment
CHD
at laft a
lefs
Quantity than 6,
355 G. For 'tis evident, that two unequal Quanr tities being proposed, if you take away more than half 01 the greater, and afterwards more than half of what remains, and again more than half of what is ftill left behind y at

length that which remains will be lefs than the fecond Quantity. Suppofe the fecond Quantity to be contain'd in the firft an hun.
dred times: 'tis evident, that dividing the into an hundered Parts, in fuch fort, that the firft Part may have a greater proportion to the fecond, than two to one 5 the laft will be lefs than the hundredth Part fo that at laft you will obtain a Polygon, which will be lefs exceeded by the Circle, than the Circle exceeds the Figure A, that is to fay, that what will remain of the Circle, when the Polygon is taken; away, will be lefs than G. Therefore the Polygon will be greater than the Figure A.
firft
:
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
IL
Squares
I the Circles
and
prove that
A
Z
*
are [c
in the
fame
3
proportion 3
as
554
and EF. Sappofe the as the Squares of to have the fame proportion to Figure
CB
the Circle B, as the Square of to the of EF if the Figure G be lefs than Square the (Circle A, (by the preceding Lemma^) a regular Polygon, may be infcnb'd in the Circle A, greater than G. Let a fimilar regu? lar Polygon bealfo infcrib*d in the Circle B.
:
CD
will ha ve* the fame proportion to the Polygon of B, as to the Square of EF, i. e* the Square of to the Circle B but the Quanthe fame as is lefs than the Polygon infcrib'd in; tity
.
The Polygon
CD
accordingly therefore (by. the 14, 5.) the Circle B muft be lefs than the Polygon infcrib'd in it,
jnufl:
A:
which
is
manifeftly
falfe.
It
1
therefore be granted that the Figure G, being lefs than the Circle A, cannot have
the fame proportion to the Circle B, as the Square of CD to the Square of EF, and con fequently, that the Circle A, cannot have a greater proportion to the Circle B, than the Square of CD to the Square of EF : Nor can it be faid to have a lefs ? for then the Circle
*
would have a greater proportion to ths Circle A, and the f$me Dernonftratjon would be applicable to it,
Coroll. 1
.
portion of that of their Diameters 5 becaufe ihe Squares being fimilar Figures, are in the du? V^*j
ft
369
propor
to be well obferv'd
When
may
nearer and nearer to them, and at laft degenerate into the Figures themfelves, are in the fame proportion ^ the Figures that contain them are alfo in the fame proportion.
proach
ftill
What
would fgy
is
this,
That
fimilar re
gular Polygon^, infcrib'd in divers Circles, are always in the fame proportion as ths Squares of the Diameters * and being made of more Sides, fo as to approach ftill nearer and nearer to the Circles, they ftill retain the fame proportion , and the Circles themfelves the Squares of are in the fame proportion as This manner of meafuring their Diameters. round Bodies, by infcribing in them others,
is
of great
ufe.
US
c
'
enables us to argue about Circles, in the fame manner as we do of Squares. For example, we fay (in the 47. 1.) That in a redfcangle Triangle the Square of the Bafe alone is equal to the Squares of both the S;des
taken together.
We may
Z 4
356
Circles, f. e. That the Circle defcrib'd upoi* the Bale of a Rectangle Triangle, is equal to the Circles, whofe Diameters are the Sides.
And in
the fame
We
in the duOptichy that Light decreafes diftances plicate proportion of that of the of the lucid Bodies.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
III.
Every Pyramid, whofe Bafe is triangular, hay be divided into two equal Ptifms, whub make the Pyramid, and into up more than half of
two equal Pyramids.
IN *
the
Pyramid
EBFI,
be
ABCD
EHKC,
than
may
be
Prifms,
and
which will
greater
half the Pyramid. Divide the fix Sides of the Pyramid equally at the Points G, F, E,
J,
H, K, and draw the Lines EG, GF, FE, EI, Jil, FH, IK, and EK. ;
jDemonJlration.
In the Triangle
proportion
to
ABD, AG
Tias the
Tame
GB as AF to FD,
becaufe
AB
357
and
are
AD are
equally divided in G,
>
and therefore (by the 2. 6.) will be the half of rallels*; and
GF
ED
Pai. e.
GF
BI, FE and HI, will be parallels, and equal and (by the 15. 11.) the Planes GFE and BHI will be parallel, and confequently EBFI will be a Prifm. The fame may be laid of the Figure HEKF, which will be alfo a Prifm equal to the other, (by the 4. 11.) the Parallelogram Bafe HIKD being double the Triangular BHI,
equal to
BH. In
like manner,
GE and
BD,
:
1.)
AEFG, and
ECKI,
The
Triangles
(by the 8.
1.) as alfo
likewifeAGE, andEIC, and fo of all the other Triangles of the Pyramids therefore the Pyramids are equal, (by Befn. 10. 11.) They are alfo fimilar to the great Pyramid ABDG lor the Triangles AGE and ECI are fimilar (by the 2.6.) the Lines GE and BC being Parallels*, and the like may be demon:
Pyramids.
Laftly, I fay the Prifms are more than half of the firft Pyramids. For if each was equal to one of the lefler Pyramids, both would be equal to the half of the greater Pyramid. But they are each of them greater than one of
thofe
35^
thofe
Th e Elements of Euclid*
the
Pyramids; as the Prifm GHE contains Pyramid GBHI, and fomewhat more, and that Pyramid is equal and fciilar to the others, having all their Triangles equal and fimilar to thole of the Pyramid AGFE, as
be eafily prov d by the Prallelifm of their Sides: from whence I infer, that the two Prifms taken together, are greater than
may
the two Pyramids j and confcquently greater than half of the great Pyramid.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
IV.
Jftwo Tiicmguhr Pyramids of the fame height be divided into two Prifms and two Pyramids, and the latter Pyramids fub divided after the all the Prifms of one Pyramid fame manner
have the fame proportion to all thofe of the other, as the Bafe of one Pyramid to the
will
Bafe of the
other.
the
two
IF mids
DEFG,
Pyra
ABCD,
of the fame
height,
and having
method
laid
down
ner,
359
as
many
Divifions of one as of the other, you have the fame number of Prifms in both^ I fay, that all the Prifms of one will have the fame proportion to all the Prifms of the other, as
Demonftration. or the fame height, the Prifms produced by the firft Divifions, will have alfo the fame height, becaufe they have
their Bafes.
each the half of that of their Pyramids. But Prifms of the fame height are in the fame proportion as their Bafes, (by theCoroll. of the 39. 1 1 ,) The Bafes BTV and EPX are fimiand having lar to the Bafes BDC and EGF for their Sides the half of thofe great Bafes, they can make but the fourth Part of them ^ but they are in the fame proportion as the great Bafes are h therefore the firft Prifms will have the fame proportion as the great Bafes. After the fame manner I may prove that the Prifms produc'd by the fecond Divifion, i e. of the lefTer Pyramids, will be in the fame proportion as the Bafes of thofe lefler Pyramids, which are in the fame proportion as the great Bafes. Therefore all the Prifms of one have the fame proportion to all the Prifms of the other, as the Bafe to the Bafe.
*,
The
cc
ct
USE.
Thefe
to
<c
their Dimensions.
PRO
360
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Triangular Pyramids of the
V
proportion as their BaFor if *hey were not, H one of them, e. g. ABCD, would have a greater proportion to the Pyramid EFGH, than the Bafe BCDtotheBafe FGH* fo that a Quantity lefs than ABCD would have the fame pro, portion to the Pyramid EFGH, as the Bafe BCD to the Bafe FGH. Divide the Pyramid
fes.
ABCD
are in the
of the third Propodivide alfo the Pyramids that refult rtion $ from the firft Divifion, into two Prifms and two Pyramids, and thofe again into two other Prifms, continuing the Divifion as long as there fhall be cccafion. Since the Prifms of the firft Divifion are more than half of the
Pyramid ABCD, (by [the 3.) and the Prifms of the fecond Divifion more than half the remainder, i. e, of the two leffer Pyramids,
and
thofe of
more
than
36 1
is left ^ it is evident, that fo many Divisions may be made, that that which remains fhall be lefs than the excefs of the Pyramid above the Qaan*
ABCD
tity L, that
is,
Make
gether fhall be greater than the Quanty L. as many Divisions of the Pyramid
JEFGH, fo
that
as there are in
have as
many
Prifms
Demonjlration.
have the fame proportion to the Prifms of EFGH, as the Bafe to the Bafe but the proportion of the Bafe BCD to the Bafe is the fume with that of the Quantity L to the Pyramid therefore the Prifms of have the fame proportion to the Prifms of EFGH, as the Quantity L to the Pyramid EFGH. But alfo the Prifms of are greater than the Quantity L therefore {by the 14.5.) the Prifms contain'd in the Pyramid
The Prifms of
ABCD
BCD
FGH
FGH
EFGH
ABCD
ABCD
EFGH
would be greater than the fame Pyramid EFGH, which is evidently falfe 5 becaufe the Part cannot be greater than the Whole. Therefore it muft be granted, that no Quantity lefs than one of th e Pyramids can have the fame proportion to the other as the Bafe to the Bale and confequently neither or the Pyramids can have a greater proportion to
,
PRO
^G i
i.<
TION
r
VI.
A TH
Ail J oris of lyrtwiids
the
FOR P.M.
have
Jamc
THE
vide the
fame Height* are in the fame proportion as the DiBafefl BC and FFG.
Bats
into Triangles,
Ikmovjlratiov.
and I)F, bearc in the fame Height, proportion as (heir Bafts, fiy fie 7.) So alfo and DP arc in tile tii;u::Mil;ii' Pyramids
in^
TIic triangular Pyramids of the fame
AB
AC
the lame proportion as their; Baft*. There fore the Pyramid' ABC has the lame proportion to the Pyramid DEE, as the Bafe BC;fO the Bafe \A'\ (bftbe 12. 5) Fmther, Una: the Pyramid 1)1 F has the (a flic proportion to the Pyramid ABC as the Bafc EF to the Bafe
BC
and again,
fame proportion
Bafe
to
will alfo
Pyramid DG has the Pyramid ABC, as the the Bkfe BG > the Pyramid DEfW have the fame proportion to
the
to
\h.c
1
as the Bale
PPG
to the Bafe
PR
'
TbeTwelfth Booh
>*.
36 j
V R
O POSI T O N
I
VII.
A T Hi: OR KM.
r.uny Pyramid
the triangubfe
pro
ving ono
ACHE
or
BDF
Bafe,
"
F
as the
Pyramid
ACEF,
Draw
Part
AV\
three Paiallelogiams.
Donmijlrat'um.
The Prifm is divided into three equal IV ramids, ACFE, A( Fl), and CFBD* then
i
of the Piilin.
Bafefc the
The two
Triangles
AEF and
for
their
are equal, and for their Height the Perpendicular drawn from the Tap C to t!ie Plane of their Males AF, will be the prei equal* (by
ting,)
have the equal Triangles ADC and the fame Top F, will be alfo andDCB,
(by
the
equal,
fHceditg.)
ol
thdfe
Point
the Perpendicular drawn from the the Plane of the Bafe ACE, is the third Part of the fame Prifm. If the Prifm
which
F to
be a Polygon it muft be divided into divers triangular Prifms $ and the Pyramid, which has the fame Bafe and the fame Height, will be alfo divided into as many Triangular Pyramids, each of which will be the third Part
Therefore (r<y the 12. 5.) the will be the third Part of the JPolygoh Pyramid Prifm. Polygon
its
of
Prifm.
^PROPOSITION
A
VIII.
THEOREM.
the Pyramids be triangular, compleat the which will be alfo fimiiar, becaufe will have certain Planes the fame with they thofe of the Pyramids. But the fimiiar Prifms are in the triplicate proportion of the homo? logons Sides, (by Coroll 4. of the 39. 1 1 j there
JF
I rifins,
fore:
the Pyramids, which (by the preceding) are the third Parts of the Prifms, will be in the triplicate proportion of that of their ho* the
iriologoui Sides.
Eeduc'd to
The
Twelfth Booh
IX.
365
PR QPOSITION
A THEOREM.'
Equal Pyramids have the Heights arid Bafes recihave their Heights atti procal; and tbofe that
Bafes reciprocal, are equal.
two equal triangular Pyramids be promake Prifms upon the fame Bales, and of the fame height. Since every Prifm is
IF pos'd,
triple his Pyramid (by the 7.) they will alfa be equal. But equal Prifms have their Bafes and Heights reciprocal (hy Cor oil 4. of the 39. 11.) therefore the Bafes and Heights of the Pyramids which are the fame with thofe of the Prifms, will be alfo reciprocal. Secondly, if the Bafes and Heights of the Pyramids be reciprocal, the Prifms will be equal, as alfo the Pyramids, which are the third Parts of the Prifms. If the Pyramids proposed be Polygons, they; muft be reduced to triangular Pyramids. Coroll. Other Proportions may be made
,
That
Pyramids of the fame height, are in the fame proportion as their Bafes*, and thofe that have the fame Bafes, are in rhe fame proportion as
their Heights.
The
*"
USE.
From thefe Propofitions is drawn the manner of Meafuring Pyramids, which is,
Aa
by,
%66
by multiplying their Bafes by the third part of their Heights. Other Propofitions may alfo be made, as, That if a Prifm be equal to a Pyramid, the Bafe and the Height of the Prifm, with the third part of the Height which of the Pyramid, will be reciprtical is as much as to fay, that if the Bafe of the Pyramid has the fame proportion to the Bafe of the Prifm, as the Height of the Prifm to the third part of the Height of the Pyramid, the Prifm and the Pyramid will be equal.
,
LEMMA.
If a Quantity lefs than a Cylinder be proposed, a Polygon Prifin maybe infcrib'd in the Cylinder greater than that Quantity.
A IF be lefs
the
the Quantity
than
is
Cylinder,
whofe
Bafe B,
the Circle
Polygon
Prifm
Cylinder
circum
may
in
'
' <
c
1
be infcrib'd
the
A.
The Square
CDEF
PJLQ.
infcrib'd
in,
and
GH1K
is fcrib'd about, the Circle, Draw the Tangent an O&ogon incfrib'd. had fo many Pnfms and
CLDMENFO
all
f
fuppofe you
as there are
of the
lame
367
That which
*,
has the circumfcrib'd Square for its Bafe, arid that encompafs the Cylinder whofe Bafe is the infcrib'd Square, will be
alio infcrib'd in the Cylinder.
'
.
Demoujt. Prifms of the fame height are in the fame proportion as their Bafes,( by CorolL 3. of the 39. 1 1.) and the infcrib'd Square
of
that which
is
circum
and therefore, more than the half of the Cylinder. And making the Prifm with c the Odogon Bafe, you take away more than 6 half of what remain'd of the Cylinder, after * the Prifm of the infcrib'd Square was taken c from it, becaufe the Triangle is the c Half of the Redangle CQ. And becaufe c Prifms of the fame height are in the fame * proportion as their Bafes, the Prifm, whofe * Bafe is the Triangle CLD, will be the half of 4 the Prifm, which for its Bafe has the Red* c angle DCPQ: it will therefore be more c than the half of that part of the Cylinder, ' whofe Bafe is the Segment DLC* The fame * may be faid of all the other Segments. 6 After the fame manner I may demonftrate, i that making a Polygon Prifm of fixteen * Sides, I take away more than half of what ' remains of the Cylinder* after the Odogon * Prifm is taken from it fo that there will * reiBainat laftapart of the Cylinder, lefs a 2 { then
other,
CLD
568
*
*
than the exeefs of the Cylinder above the Quantity A. We fhall have therefore a
*
*
Prifm infcrib'd in the Cylinder, which fhall be lefs exceeded by the Cylinder than the Quantity A. i.e. which {hall be greater than the Quantity A. The fame way of arguing
will hold of the Pyramids infcrib'd in a Cone.
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
X.
A Cone
is the third Part of a Cylinder, having the fame Bafe, and being of the fame Height.
a Cone and a C ylinder have the Circle A for their Bafe, and be of the fame height,
the Cylinder will be triple the Cone. For if the proportion of the Cylinder to the Cone was greater than the the Quantity B lefs than triple Proportion, the Cylinder would have the fame proportion and (by the preto the C one as three to, one a Polygon Prifm may be inceding Lemma) fcrib'd in the Cylinder greater than the Quantity B. Suppofe that whiclr has for its Bafe to be fuch an one the Polygon y
:
CDEFGH
Pyramid
in
Gone.
Cylinder,
the Cone,
Demonflr.
The
the
369
the Pyramid,
therefore the Prifm is the triple of {by the 7.) But the Quantity
the triple of the Cone ^ therefore the Prifm has the fame proportion to the Pyramid, as the Quantity B to the Cone : and {by
the 14. 5.)
the Prifm being greater than the B, the Pyramid Would be greater Quantity than the Cone, in which it is infcrib'd,
which But
is
impoflible.
it
if
be faid,
that the
Cone has a
greater proportion to the Cylinder than one to three, the fame Method may be made ufe
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
XL
in
Cones of the fame height are Cylinders ani the fame proportion as their Bafes.
LET Cones,
or
two
be
:
propos'd having for their Bafts the Circles and B I fay, they are in the fame proportion as their Bafes. For if not, one of them, would have a greaterproe.g. the Cylinder
has
jjo
B, fuppofe then that the than the Cylinder A, has the fame proportion to the Cylinder B as the Bate A, to the Bale B. Therefore a Polygon Prifm may be iijfcrib'd in the Cylinder A, Which (hall be greater than the Quantity L. Suppofe it that therefore, whofe Bafe is the
Quantity L,
and infcribe a fimilar PolyPolygon CDEF in the BafeJB, which is alfo the gon GHIK Bafe' of a Cylinder. of the fame height. Demovjlr. The Prifms of A and B are in the fam? proportion as their Polygon Bafes, {by Coroll 4. of. the 39. 1 1.) and the Polygons are in the fame proportion as the Circles, (by Coroll 2. of the 12.) therefore the Prifm A has the fame proportion to the Prifm B, as the Circle A to the Circle B. But as the Circle
*,
A to the Circle B,
Cylinder B
B.
;
fo is the
therefore as the
Prifm B, fo is the Quantity L to the Cylinder But the Prifm A is greater than the Quantity L, and confequently (by the 14. 5.) the Prifm B, infcrib'd in the Cylinder B, would be greater than its Cylinder, which is impoffible.
Therefore neither of the Cylinders has a greater Proportion to the other, than its Bafe to the other's Ba(e Coroll' Cylinders are triple the Cones, of the fame height, therefore Cones of the fame height are in the fame* proportion as their
Bafes.
4
FRO
371
PROPOSITION XII.
A
THEOREM.
Cylinders and Cones, that are fimilar, are in tlfi that of the Diameters triplicate proportion of
of their Bafes.
LET
two
two
or
Cones
be propos'd, ha*
I fay, that the pro^ of the Cylinder to the Cylinder B portion is the triplicate proportion of that of the Diameter to the Diameter EF. For, if it be not the triplicate proportion ; let the Quantity G,lefs than the Cylinder A, be to the Cylinder, in the triplicate proportion of that of the Diameter to the Diameter EFs
vingthe and B
DC
DC
and
infcribe a
than G, and another fimilar to it in the Cylinder B they will be of the fame height with the Cylinder, becaufe fimilar Cylinders; have their Heights and the Diameters of their Bafes proportional, as well as Prifms, (by De:
fin. 22.
11
has the fame Demonftr. The Diameter proportion to the Diameter EF as the Side Dl to the Side EL, or as to EF, as I have
DC
DC
are in
the
57^
mologous Sides, {by the Cor 611/^. of 39.1 1.) thereis to the Prifm Bin the trifore the Prifm
DC
to
EF.
But
pro
in refpedt
of the Cylinder
was in the
triplicate
^
Prifm A will have the fame the Prifm B. as the Quantity G to the Cylnv der B ^ and (by the 4. 5 J the Prifm A being greater than the Quantity G, the Prifm B,
1
portion of that of
DC
to
EF
anfcrib'd in the Cylinder B, will be greater than the Cylinder B, which is impoifible. Therefore fimilar Cylinders are in the triplicate pioportion of that of the Diameters of
their Bales.
Cones
PROPOSITION
ATHEOREM.
If a
XIII.
that is parallel to Cyli7icler be cut by a Plane, its Bafe, the Parts its Jxis will be in the of
as the Parts of the Cylinder.
fame proportion
the Plane parallel to its Bafe: I fay, the Cylinder AF will have the fame proportion to the Cylinder FB, as the Line AF to the
LE
Line
The Twelft h Book. 375 Line FB. Draw the Line BG perpendicular to the Plane of the Bafe A. Draw alfo upon
the Planes of the Circles
DC
and
A the
Lines
FE
and AG.
Deviovjlrat'iott.
The Plane of
parallel Sections
the Triangle
BAG
cuts the
the
i^.
11 J So that
AF
GE
aliquot
and
EB
into Parts equal to it, draw fo many Planes Bafe A^ then will you have parallel to the fo many Cylinders of the fame height ^ which
having
their Bafes
and Heights
equal, will be
yided
Further, the Lines AF and FB will be di* after the fame manner as EG and EB, the 17. 11.) fothat the Line AF will as (by oit contain any aliquot Part of the Line FB, as the Cylinder AF contains the like aliquot Part of the Cylinder FB \ therefore the Parts
of the Cylinder will be in the fame proportion as the Parts of their Axis.
Parts of the Perpendicular are in the fame proportion as the Parts of the
Coroll.
The
Cylinder.
PRO
574
The
&eMe?rts of Euclid.
XIV.
are
PROPOSITION
A
THEOREM.
Cylinders of equal Sabeing proposed, as AB
and Cones, havhtg the fame Bafes, Cylinders in the fame proportion as their Heights.
TWO
fes
and CD, cut in the greater a Cy4 linder of the fame Height with the lefs, drawing a Plane EF parallel to its Bale.
Tis evident
the Cylinders CF has the fame GH, or (by the Cor oil. of the preceeding) as the Height of CF to the Height of CD;, therefore has the fame proportion to CD, as the
CF and AB
AB
Height of
CF
or
AB to the
Height of GD.
of Cylinders,
third Part
fame
PROPOSITION
A THEOREM.
Cylinders
XV.
and Cones, that are equal, have their Baand Heights reciprocal: and thoje that have fes their Bafes and Heights reciprocal, are equal.
CZ>c ^^
CD
to
The Twelfth Book. 37 ^ to the Height AB. Take the Height DE equal to the Height AB. Demovftr. The Cylinder AB has the fame proportion to the Cylinder DE, of the fame
\
height, as the Bafe B to the Bafe D, (by the 11 J But as the Cylinder AB is to the Cylinder DE,
fo
is
the Cylinder
linder
ABorDE.
Bafe D, fo
to the
the
Secondly, if the Bale B to portion to the Bafe D, as the Height will the Height AB, the Cylinders AB and be equal. For the Cylinder AB is in the fame as the Bafe B , proportion to the Cylinder and the Cylinder CD will to the Bafe have the fame proportion to DE, as the to the Height therefore Height
HeighyCD
CD CD
DE
CD
proportion to
5.)
and
(by the 9.
the
as
will be equal.
"
and 17. Propositions are very and of no other ufe but to prove 'difficult, " the 18. which may more eafily be done by " the following Lemma's.
16.
" The
L E M
I.
If a
Qiiantity be proposed lefs than a Sphere, Cylinders of the fame Height may be infaWd in
ghmthy.
Sup
%"j6
\
\
1
'
cor
f
*
eT~
a
:
*f^f
^te^o
C ^PPf BC
we
treat,
lefs
D to be the
Quantity
I fay, feveral Cylinders than that Sphere c of the fame height may be infcrib'd in the c Sphere, which taken together will be greater * than the Quantity D. For if the Hemifphere * exceed the Quantity D, it will exceed it by * fome Magnitude^ let it then be the Cylinder MP, fo that the Quantities and c taken together may be equal to the Hemi
MP
4
'
1 * c
Makea great Circle of the Sphere fphere. to have the fame y^roportion to the Bale to the Height R. Then MO,as the Height
MN
1 1
EB
to the
Line
AG,
defcribe
the infcrib'd
and
*
* c
grams. will exceed that of the infcrib'd by But all the Rectangles circumfcrib'd
The number of
will
* c
*
furpafs all the infcrib'd by the little Redanof gles through which the Circumference
ft
*
*
the Circle palTes^ all which taken together I imagine are equal to the Rectangle AL. the Semicircle to be turn'd about upon then
the
Diameter
EB
by
that
377
and the
Motion
defcribe a Hemifphere,
Keclangles inferib'd fo man)*" Cylinders in* and thecircumfcrib'd in the Hemifphere icrib'd, other Cylinders circumfcrib'd.
,
'
Demnytftr.
The
circumfcrib'd
Cylinders
furpafs the inferib'd more than the Hemifphere furpaffes the lame inferib'd Cylinders, it being contain'd within the circum: the the Cylinder therefore the Hemifphere will furpafs thofe
fur
by
AL
inferib'd Cylinders by lefs than the Cylinder defcrib'd by the Rectangle AL. But the
Cylinder
AL
is lefs
for there is the fame proportion of a great Circle of the Sphere, which is the Bale of
to the Cylinder AL, to MO, as of the preceding) a Cylinder, which therefore (by fhould have a great Circle of the Sphere for
,
MN
its Bafe, and the Height R, would be equal to but the Cylinder AL, tho* the Cylinner
MP
it
its
than R therefore the Cylinder AL is lefs than the Cylinder MP. Confequently the Hemifphere, that exceeds the Quantity by the Cylinder MP, and the inferib'd Cylinders by a Quantity lefs than AL^ exceeds the inferib'd Cylinders by lefs, than it exceeds the Quantity D ^ therefore the is lefs than the Quantity Cylinders inferib'd in the Hemifphere.
lefs
Height
CL
is
PRO
378
c
fphere,
LEMMAII.
Similar Cylinders, ivfcrib'd in two Spheres, are in the. triplicate proportion of the Diameters
of the Spheres,
two
linders
fi
IF milar CyCD
and
the
EF
and
inferib'd
be in
Spheres B, they will be in the triplicate proportion of and NO. Draw the Lines the Diameters
LM
GD and
c
The
*,
lar
KD DG asPF to FI. Confequently the Triangles GDK and IFP are fimilar, the fame (by the 6. 6) therefore KD has as LM to proportion to PF as GD to IF,
to
DR
Demovjlration. and EF are fimiright Cylinders has the fame proportion therefore to FS, as alfo has the fame as
IF.
CD
HD
QF
proportion to
fimilar Cylinders
CD and EF
the
12J therefore the fimilar Cylinders CD and EF, inferib'd in the Spheres A and B,
x
and are in the triplicate proportion of the Semidiameters of their Bafes (by PF,
KD
379
XVIII.
A THEOREM.
Spheres are in the triplicate proportion Diameters.
of their
and EF. Spheres, fuppofe A, will be in a greater proportion to B, than the Triplicate of that of the t)iameters CD and EF*, therefore the Quantity G lefs than the Sphere A, will be to the Sphere B, in the triplicate proportion of and then fome Cylinders that of CD to EF to Lem. 1.) be inferib'd in the may {according Sphere A, greater than the Quantity G. Infcribean equal ijufiiber of Cylinders in the Sphere B ? fimilar to thofe in the Sphere A.
meters
,
THE CD
Spheres
A and B
cate proportion
Demonfir. The Cylinders of the Sphere A to thofe of the Sphere B are in the triplicate proportion of that of CD to EF,but the Quantity G to the Sphere B is alfo in the triplicate proportion of that of CD to EF: therefore the Cylinders of the Sphere A have the lame proportion to the fimilar Cylinders of the
Sphere
380
The Elements of
Euclid.
Sphere B, as the Quantity G to the Sphere B. Confequently the Cylinders of being greater than the Quantity G, the Cylinders of B, i.e. infcrib d ir* the Sphere B, will be greater than the Sphere B, which is impoffible. Therefore
the bpheres and B are in the triplicate proof that of their Diameters. portion Cor oil. Spheres are in the fame proportion as the C ubes of their Diameters becaufe Cubes
,
being iimilar Solids, are in the triplicate proportion of their Sides, (by the 33. 11.)
The
END.
Knapton.
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