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Information and communications technology or information and communication technology, usually abbreviated as ICT, is often used as an extended synonym

for information technology (IT), but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers, middleware as well as necessary software, storage- and audio-visual systems, which enable users to create, access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. In other words, ICT consists of IT as well as telecommunication, broadcast media, all types of audio and video processing and transmission and network based control and monitoring functions. Information and communication technologies for development, (ICT4D) This is a general term referring to the application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) within the fields of socioeconomic development, international development and human rights. The basic hypothesis behind the approach is that more and better information and communication furthers the development of a society (be this to improve income, education, health, security, or any other aspect of human development). In our times, the most tangible and effective way to improve information and communication flows in a society consists in fostering ICT. The declared goal of ICT-for-development is to make use of this ongoing transformation by actively using the enabling technology to improve the living conditions of societies and segments of society. As in previous social transformations of this kind (industrial revolution, etc), the resulting dynamic is an interplay between an enabling technology, normative guiding policies and strategies, and the resulting social transformation. In the case of ICT4D, this three-dimensional interplay has been depicted as a cube. In line with the (Schumpeterian school of thought), the first enabling factor for the associated socio-economic transformations is the existence technological infrastructure: hardware infrastructure and generic software services. Additionally, capacity and knowledge are the human requirements to make use of these technologies. These foundations (horizontal green dimension in Figure) are the basis for the digitization of information flows and communication mechanisms in different sectors of society. When part of the information flows and communication processes in these sectors are carried out in electronic networks, the prefix "e-" is often added to the sector's name, resulting in e-government, e-business and e-commerce, e-health, and e-learning, etc) (vertical blue dimension in Figure). This process of transformation, represent the basic requirements and building blocks, but they are not sufficient for development. The mere existence of technology is not enough to achieve positive outcomes (no technological determinism). ICT for Development policies and projects are aimed at the promotion of normatively desired outcomes of this transformation, the minimization of negative effects, and the removal of eventual bottlenecks. In essence, there are two kind of interventions: positive feedback (incentives, projects, financing, subsidies, etc that accentuate existing

opportunities); and negative feedback (regulation and legislation, etc) that limit and tame negative developments (diagonal yellow-red dimension in Figure). The expression was first used in 1997 in a report by Dennis Stevenson to the UK government and promoted by the new National Curriculum documents for the UK in 2000. The term ICT is now also used to refer to the merging (convergence) of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the audio-visual, building management and telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management. This in turn has spurred the growth of organizations with the term ICT in their names to indicate their specialization in the process of merging the different network systems. Some of the dangers of ICTs include cyber-bullying, phishing as well as masquerading ICT is often used in the context of "ICT roadmap" to indicate the path that an organization will take with their ICT needs. It is also used as an overarching term in many schools, universities and colleges stretching from Information Systems/Technology at the organisational end through to Software Engineering and Computer Systems Engineering at the other. Standards Standards are very important for ICT, since they define the language that enables the technologies to understand each other. This is especially relevant because the key idea behind ICT is that information storage devices can communicate in media-frictionless manner with communication networks and computing systems. Open standards play a special role, as well as standards organizations such as the Telecommunications Industry Association in the United States and ETSI in Europe. The Scope and Importance of SIWES The scheme covers all science and technological based students in monotechnics, polytechnics and universities in Nigeria, resulting in a high population of students which is easily managed because of the public and private industries that partake in the scheme.SIWES enables students acquire industrial know-how in their field of study particularly in technological based courses. It also enables students experience the application of theoretical knowledge in solving real life problems.

1.4 The Role of the Student and the Institution


The role of the student is to partake in the program in such a way that he/she will achieve maximum benefit from the program. The student is advised to ask questions, be submissive, and adhere to all the rules and regulations of the organization where he is attached. Identification of placement opportunities, funding of SIWES supervisors and assessment of the student are some of the roles played by the institutions to ensure smooth running of the program.

1.5 OVERVIEW OF MY I.T. PLACE


I carried out my Industrial Training (IT) in British Oil and Gas Exploration limited (BOGEL) in Delta State. This branch of British Oil and Gas Exploration Limited has a Base office, two oil rigs and two camps. The base office is situated at No. 9, General Mike Ndubuisi Lane, Umuseti, Kwale, Delta State, Nigeria. The two rig sites are identified as rig 1 and rig 2; and the camps as camp 1 and camp 2. It is oil drilling large company and has the following organogram:

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 INDUSTRIAL EXPERIENCE GAINED


As indicated in the organogram of British Oil and Gas Exploration Limited in the previous chapter, the Rig Sites (Rig 1 and Rig 2) has maintenance departments headed by the Chief Electrician, Chief Mechanic and Mechanical Foreman. The company base also has mechanical and electrical department. My I.T. experience is tied to the mechanical departments, the logistics and auto department of the company for I worked in these departments.

2.1 EXPERIENCE GAINED IN THE MECHANICAL DEPARTMENTS


The nature of my experience in this section of the company is both theoretical and practical. The basic components of internal combustion (I.C.) engines primarily
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compression ignition engines were explained to me using the engine component were necessary and other concepts related to engines and the working of engines. The practical aspect involves training in maintenance of diesel engines (Perkins 4 cylinder engines found in 100kVA Mikano generator, Cummins 4BTA 3.9 engines) and repair/over hauling of Perkins 4 cylinder engines, Cummins 4 cylinder engine and CAT engine (V8 and inline engines).

2.11 Theoretical Experience I Gained in the Mechanical Department of BOGEL


Working in the mechanical departments/workshops, I came to identify and comprehend that key components of an I.C. engine which includes the cylinder head, crankshaft, piston and piston rings, connecting rod, camshaft, rocker arm, cylinder block, sump. In addition I understood the function of turbocharger, after cooler (charge air cooler) and concepts such as firing order, boost, knocking, camshaft designs, dead centers, 4stroke engine and hydrodynamic lubrication as applied in crankshaft operation. Four Stroke Engine : the 4-stoke which implies there are four movements of the piston before the engine firing sequence is repeated includes INTAKE, COMPRESSION, POWER and EXHAUST. The cycle begins at top dead centre (TDC). The power stroke is the main source of the engine torque and power. In a 4-stroke I.C. engines, the crankshaft make two

Fig. 1: the cylinder block of a 4-stroke engine with the crankshaft.

revolutions

for

every

one

revolution

of

the

camshaft.

Fig. 1: cylinder block & crankshaft of a 4-stroke engine.

Cylinder Head: the head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block and contains the poppet valves, spark plugs (in spark) ignition engine and part of the combustion chamber. The head also has ports or passages for the air or air/fuel mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold; for the exhaust gases to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold. There are two designs of the cylinder head; the overhead valve (OHV) and the overhead camshaft (OHC) design. In the OHV design, the cylinder head contains the poppet valves, ports for the inlet and exhaust gases, and spark
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plugs in spark-ignition engines. Here the operation of the valves is controlled by the camshaft which is sited within the cylinder block and the moment of its operation is transmitted to valves pushrods and the rocker arms mounted on a rocker shaft. In the OHC design, the head contains the valves, tracts for inlet and exhaust gases, spark plugs in spark-ignition engines as in the OHV design but the camshaft is now also contained within the cylinder head.

Fig. 2: cylinder head for CAT 3126 engine.

Fig. 3: cylinder head for Perkins 4cylinder engine

Crankshaft: this is the part of an engine which translates the reciprocating linear motion of the piston into angular motion. The crankshaft has crankpin, additional bearing surfaces whose axes are offset from that of the crank to which the connecting rods from each cylinder is attached. In order to reduce the pulsation characteristic of a 4-stroke engine, it connects to a flywheel and sometimes as in the CAT 3126 six cylinder diesel engines, a torsion damper at the opposite end to reduce the torsional vibration caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinder farthest from the output end.

Fig. 4: crankshaft & camshaft (CAT 3126 six cylinder inline engine)

Fig. 5: crankshaft for 4-cylinder Perkins engine found in a 100KVA generator

Piston and Piston Rings: the piston is a cylindrical piece of metal and moves up and down inside the cylinder. A piston ring on the other hand is an open ended ring that fits into the groove on the outer diameter of the piston. There are three types of piston rings; two of them are called compression rings and while also controlling oil, they are primarily for compression; the third type is called oil ring and controls the supply of oil to the liner which lubricates the pistons skirt and the compression rings. Basically, piston rings have three basic functions which include sealing the combustion chamber, supporting heat transfer from the piston to cylinder wall, and regulating engine oil consumption.

Fig. 6: piston & connecting rod for 4-cylinder Perkins engine.

Connecting Rod: the connecting rod connects the crankshaft and can rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and crankshaft rotates.

Camshaft: this is the shaft to which a cam is fastened. It is used to operate the poppet valves in I.C. engines and consist of a cylindrical rod running the length of the cylinder bank with a number of oblong lobes protruding from it, one for each valve. The camshaft is connected to the crankshaft either directly through a gear mechanism or indirectly through a timing chain or belt.

Cam Follower of a CAT 3126 engine.

Rocker Arm: the rocker arm within the I.C. engine is a reciprocating lever that conveys the radial movement of the cam lobes in linear motion at the poppet valves to open it. When the camshaft lobe raises the outside of the arm the inside presses down on the valve stem, opening the valve. When the outside of the rocker arm is permitted to return due to the camshaft rotation, the inside rises, allowing the valve spring to close the valve.

Fig. 7: Rocker arm for Perkins 4cylinder engine.

Poppet Valves: in I.C. engines, they are used to open the intake and exhaust port in the cylinder head. It is usually a flat disc of metal with a long rod known as the valve stem out one end. The stem is used to push down on the valve and open it, with a spring generally used to close it. Valve Seat and Valve Guide: the valve seat in an I.C. engine is the surface against which an intake or exhaust valve rests during the portion of the engine cycle when that valve is closed. On the other hand, valve guide is a tube-shaped piece of metal pressed into the head to positively locate the valve so that it makes proper contact with the valve seat. Sump: the sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of lubricating oil, which collects in the bottom of the oil pan.

Fig. 8: Sump or oil pan.

Turbocharger: a turbocharger is supercharger that is driven by the engines exhaust gases by means of a turbine. Turbochargers are forced induction system. It consists of a turbine and compressor on a shared shaft. The turbine converts the K.E of the engines exhaust and potential energy from the exhausts higher than atmospheric pressure into rotational K.E, which is in turn used to drive the compressor. The compressor draws ambient air and pumps it into the intake manifold at increased pressure, resulting in a greater mass of air entering the cylinder on each induction stroke. The application of a turbocharger to a naturally aspirated I.C. engine can yield power increase of 30% to 40%.

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Fig. 9: turbocharger (4-cylinder Perkins engine)

Fig.10: turbocharger (6-cylinder CAT 3126 engine)

Wastegate: to avoid detonation and physical damage, the pressure in the cylinder must not go too high; to prevent this, the intake pressure is regulated by a wastegate. A wastegate is a valve or a bypass which shunts the exhaust gases from the cylinder around the turbine directly to the exhaust pipe; this regulates the rotational speed of the turbine and thus the output of the compressor. Boost: this refers to the increase in pressure generated by the turbocharger in the intake manifold that exceeds normal atmospheric pressure. Firing Order: in a reciprocating engine, it is the sequence of power delivery of each cylinder in a multi-cylinder engine. In compression ignition engine, this is achieved by the sequence of fuel injection while in a spark-ignition engine it is achieved by sparking of the spark plug in the correct order. In a Cummins 4BTA 3.9 engine, the firing order is 1-3-4-2 whereas in a CAT 3126 six cylinder inline engine it is 1-5-3-6-4-2. Charged Air Cooler: when air is compressed in a turbocharger, its temperature increases. This can be problematic for excessive charge air temperature can lead to detonation. Intercooler or aftercooler is a type of heat exchanger which gives heat energy in the charge to the ambient air.

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Fig. 11: condenser & aftercooler of a Perkins 4-cylinder engine.

Knocking: when a fuel self-ignites before TDC or at TDC but before the piston has started to descend, the piston and cylinder can be damaged due to extreme heat energy concentrated into a very small space without relief. This damage is called knocking.

2.12

The

Practical

Experience

Gained

in

the

Mechanical

Department in BOGEL
The practical experience can be categorized into three : routine maintenance of generators, repair/overhauling of diesel engines use of key workshop tools, obtaining the relative density of diesel and testing for the presence of water, calibrating the reservoir tank for diesel and doing the appropriate calculations so the volume of diesel supplied to the Base can be obtained. Generator Maintenance. The generators are Mikano 100kVA (Perkin 4 cylinder engine) and 60kVA Cummins 4BTA 3.9 generators. Routine maintenance is carried out every 250 hour and involves changing the lubricating oil ( SAE 15W40), replacing lubricating oil filter, cleaning the air filter with a compressor, checking the coolant level in the radiator and topping it to proper
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level, checking the belt tension and for intersecting cracks and washing the engine. After 500 hours, in addition to taking the previous steps, the fuel filter has to be changed whereas after 10,000 hours the engine is due for overhauling. In working with the technicians and supervisor, I gained this experience for I was carrying out the maintenance myself subsequently: in carrying out maintenance, I removed the battery head from the terminals first and using a 17mm socket and ratchet, I removed the oil drain plug and drained the oil from the sump (this I did not too long after switching to the next generator, so the oil is still hot). Next, I used diesel and sometimes fresh clean oil (15W40) to flush the system so all the condemned oil comes out and then using filter wrench, I removed the oil filter and fuel filter. I filled the oil filter and fuel filter with clean 15W40 lubricant and clean diesel respectively and lubricate the o-ring seal before installation. I then filled the engine with clean lubricant to proper level. I also checked the coolant level in the radiator and filled with a mixture of 50% water and 50% antifreeze to the proper level, checked the belt for intersecting crack ,washed the engine, replaced the battery hear and steamed it a little. Repair/Overhauling of Diesel Engine Working with the technicians and supervisor, we carried out repairs on two Mikano 100kVA generators, one Cummins 60Kva generator and overhauled one 100kVA Mikano generator and one CAT 3126 six cylinder inline engine. The first Mikano 100kVA generator has a Perkins 4 cylinder engine and the oil was mixing with water. We dismantled the engine starting from removing the battery head; draining oil from the sump; removing the coolant from the radiator; losing out the exhaust manifold using 14-15 spanner combination; removing the key starter, charging alternator down to separating the engine from the alternator and found out that the cylinder block has crack. A new one was purchased and after lubricating the cylinders with oil, 15W40, we assembled the engine starting from mounting the crankshaft after putting the main bearings and the thrust washers, the piston and connecting rod, the camshaft, setting the timing gear, fixing the oil pump and sump down to bolting the head to the cylinder block, we mounted the engine.

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Fig. 12: Assembling of a Perkins 4-cylinder engine found in a 100KVA Mikano generator.

In the second Mikano generator, water was being blown out from the radiator. I worked with the technicians and the supervisor at the Base and we dismantle the engine and brought down the cylinder block. The gasket was damaged and after removing the gasket it was observed that the cylinder block needed to be re-faced. When it was brought back after re-facing it, we washed other components of the engine before we assembled it and mounted it. In washing the engine part, we decarbonizes the piston using sandpaper, positions to be fitted with gasket we was with sand paper and diesel and most other parts we washed with diesel. It worked and was working when I left.

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Fig. 13: a Perkins 4cylinder engine being assembled.

In the Cummins 60kVA generator, the fuel lift pump was bad; it was leaking oil and when it is chocked it doesnt raise properly. A new lift pump was bought and assisting the technician we replace it but put a seal before installing it.

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Fig. 14: fuel lift pump for 4-cylinder Cummins engine.

I also gained experience in the overhauling of engine. An engine is due for overhauling after ten thousand (10,000) hours and in overhauling, the piston; gaskets; seals; piston rings; belt; main bearings; thrust bearing; connecting rod bearings,etc are changed and sometimes the cylinder is re-sleeved. We overhauled the Mikano 100kVA generator and the CAT 3126 six cylinder engines. In each case, working with the technicians and supervisor, we first dismantled the engine before overhauling and washed the components appropriately.

Fig. 15: assembling of CAT 3126 six cylinder inline engine. 16

Furthermore, I gained experience in how to obtain the relative density of diesel. I was shown how to obtain the relative density of diesel using hydrometer, 1000mL measuring cylinder and water finding paste. Afterward, before supplying diesel in tanker to the company, I would be sent to take the sample from the three compartments, come back to the base and obtain its relative density as well as test for the presence of water using water finding paste. I gained knowledge of the different lubricant used in the company and they include 15W40 (for diesel engine like the CAT 500KVA generator, Perkins engines, Cummins engines, etc.), 20W50 (for gasoline engines), hydraulic 68 (for hydraulic pumps, transmission systems in cranes, hiab trucks, hydraulic jack, forklifts etc), automatic transmission fluid (for power steering, automatic transmission systems like Honda civic automatic gear box & torque converters etc.) Finally, when diesel was supplied to the Base, I was asked to calculate the volume in the reservoir tank. I calculated the volume of the tank per height of the tank in liters/cm using the dimensions of the rectangular cross-sectional tank and obtained 30.3litres/cm. From this I got the equation V=30.3H where H is the height of the tank. Looking at the transparent hose attached to the tank, one can see and read off the height of diesel in tank using the scale I calibrated in centimeters attached to the hose. Then from the equation V=30.3H, the required volume can be approximately obtained.

2.2 EXPERIENCES IN LOGISTICS & AUTO DEPARTMENT.


My experience in this section of the company can be categorized into auto maintenance and transportation. Auto Maintenance Here, I worked with the Base Co-coordinator and one other I.T. student. I was given the responsibility to prepare a maintenance file for each light vehicle, record the repair/maintenance carried out on each light vehicle daily, the cost of maintenance/repair and the spare parts used, and prepare the light vehicle maintenance report in Microsoft Excel at the end of the week and the month.
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Transportation Here, I also worked with the base co-coordinator and one other I.T. student. My responsibility was to issue gasoline to light vehicle at the base, take the various kilometer reading and prepare a record at the end of the week and at the end of the month. The report at the end of the week indicated the volume of petrol issued to each vehicle, the various kilometer readings, the volume of petrol sent to the rig sites and the volume of petrol purchased while the monthly report in addition to what is contained in the weekly reports, will contain the average kilometer per liter for each vehicle, the total in liter of petrol issued to each vehicle, the total volume sent to the rig sites, the total volume of petrol purchased for the month and the cost. It was also my responsibility to sign an IOU, collect money and purchase petrol when the base co-coordinator is not present at the end of the day, prepare journey management for vehicles leaving the Base and gate pass for vehicle leaving the Base with Materials, spare parts etc.

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CHAPTER THREE
3.0 CHALLENGES ENCOUNTEREED
I encountered a number of challenges during my Industrial Training in British oil and Gas Exploration limited and for simplification, I would like to categorize them into workshop tools, identification of basic engine components and computer applications. Workshop Tool The first month and a half, I found it difficult to work effectively with both the technician and the supervisor who expected me to know the basic workshop to for I could not Identify tools like filter wrench, torque wrench, shifting spanner, piston installer, different sizes of sockets, ratchet, ratchet extensions and to get the appropriate spanner mere looking at the bolt. When am asked to get say a particular combination of spanner, it takes me a little time to. Identification of Basic Engine Component Even though I knew a number of engine components, there were a lot I could not tell what they were. Most of them have been mentioned by my lecturers in the course of lecture and even explained. For example when I saw the cam and follower of a CAT 3126, I could not identify them. Other parts include pushrods, valves, top cylinder, thrust bearing, main bearings, gaskets, charging alternator, etc. Computer Applications

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When I was asked to prepare reports with tables and chart in Microsoft Excel, it was difficult initially but with much practice and effort, I made progress.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 CONCLUSION
The importance of students industrial work experience cannot be overemphasized or overstate. In mechanical engineering department, we take courses like mechanics of machine, mechanical engineering design, thermodynamic, fluid mechanic, instrumentation & measurement etc but without the opportunity to consolidate this education by undergoing training in organizations where we see, identify and confirm the workability or practicability of the engine components, mechanisms and principle we can never contribute the quota expected from us to national, economical and technological development. In addition it will be difficult to get employment after graduation and become immediately productive with little or no further training in our field of specialization. Finally, I wish to make the following recommendations;
1. From time to time students in this department should be given the opportunity to

consolidate the engineering education gained either through excursions, seminars or by means of teaching aids that will for example illustrates these theories, principles, mechanisms or engine component.

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2. SIWES should endeavor that student partake in the program and do so in establishment where they will be trained in areas relating to their field of learning.

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