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Fundamentals of Tawheed

Islamic Creed

29 April 2012

The following notes are taken from the text book The Three Fundamental Principles of Islam written by Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab.

Fundamentals of Tawheed
How to understand the book (Three Fundamental Principles of Islam) Anything above the line is from Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab the original writer of the book and anything below the line is from the translator whose name is Muhammad ibn Saalih al-Uthaymeen.

The four matters that must be obtained before learning about Islam 1. Knowledge. Having knowledge should precede ones saying and actions lest one becomes ignorant when they speak or act. It is important to have knowledge of manners before Islamic laws and regulations and it is important to have knowledge of Allah before gaining the knowledge of the Deen (Shariah and Sunnah acts).

There are six levels of a persons understanding of knowledge, the first and highest is: a). Knowledge: - having complete comprehension with certainty (TRUE KNOWLEDGE!) b). Slight knowledge: - there is an absence of the full comprehension thus there is bits of ignorance in the persons understanding c). Aggravated ignorance: - the person has an opposite understanding of the real meaning of something. For example it is known that riba (interest) is haraam but there are some people out there that believe that it is permissible to deal with riba as they fail to grasp the significance of the word haraam d). Delusion: - the person believes something to be true while there are clear facts that state otherwise e). Doubt: - there is uncertainty in what they have gained in knowledge because they have knowledge, which contradicts what they have just learnt f). Conjecture: - it is like guess work where a proposition has been unproven but is thought to be true while it has not been disapproved

Question_ How does a person gain knowledge of the three fundamental principles of Islam? Answer_ Through the understanding of the Quran and Sunnah as well as reflecting upon Allahs (swt) signs that are evident around the universe i.e. how trees grow, the human phases of life, the planets orbiting, the sun and the moon running its course and so on. 2. Action. To practice what is learnt and apply to ones daily life. 3. Calling to what is learnt (dawah). To give dawah to family, friends, brothers and sisters in Islam; and also to the disbelievers.

Fundamentals of Tawheed
4. Patiently preserving and bearing any harm encountered upon that way (when giving dawah or practicing what is learnt). Patience is towards three (1). patience with the obedience of Allah, (2). patience upon the prohibitions and avoiding that which Allah has made forbidden, (3). patience concerning the decree of Allah.

These four matters are proven in the Quran Chapter Al Asr (103) in which its translation states: by time, indeed mankind is in loss except for those who have believed, and done righteous good deeds and advised each other to truth and advised each other to patience.

Explanation : Allah swears that all mankind is in loss except for those who have these four characteristics: 1. 2. 3. 4. True faith without shirk Righteous actions Enjoining one another with truth commanded by Allah i.e. dawah Enjoin one another with patient perseverance

Ibn Al Qayyim says that striving against ones own self (jihadun neffs) has four levels: 1. 2. 3. 4. Strives to learn the guidance and the true religion Strives to act upon what is learnt Strives to call to it (dawah) and teach others who do not know Accustoms the soul to having patience upon hardships involved in dawah

Companions of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w never left the following five deeds: The Companions never left the congregation and would always be with the Muslim community The Companions would never leave the Sunnah of the Prophet s.a.w that it did not phase them when others would reproach them as they performed a Sunnah act The Companions would, whenever they had an opportunity, build a Masjid The Companions would always be reciting the Quran at least everyday The Companions would never leave jihad (for the sake of pleasing Allah)

Fundamentals of Tawheed
Pre requisites of the fundamental principles 1. Allah created us (pg. 51) And provided sustenance for us (pg. 53) He did not leave us without a purpose (pg. 55) Rather He sent a Messenger (pg. 56) So whoever obeys him (s.a.w) will enter Paradise (pg. 58) And whoever rejects and disobeys Him will enter the Fire (pg. 60) 2. Allah does not like that anyone is associated as a partner with Him in worship (pg. 61) 3. Whoever is obedient to Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) and singles out Allah in all forms of worship and good deeds will not befriend/associate with a disbeliever or take them as a protector because the disbelievers love to corrupt the Muslims and turn the Muslims into disbelievers like them (pg. 64)

Fundamentals of Tawheed
THE FIRST Allah created mankind, jin and all that exists and He also provided sustenance for all creation. Allah created mankind and jinn especially to worship Him Alone. Allah brought Prophet Muhammad s.a.w up to the seven Heavens (Isra wal Miraj) and gave him s.a.w the commandment of fifty prayers while knowing that the Prophet s.a.w would ask to reduce the number of prayers until it was five times a day. This was to highlight the fact that the life of a person should revolve around worshipping Allah instead of indulging in the materialistic desires of this world; if the commandment of fifty prayers had been established a Muslim would be obliged to pray every half hour or so to complete their obligation to Allah but in actual fact this is a difficult task as the temptations of this world will get the better of most of the Muslims; therefore, the five daily prayers serves as a reminder to bring the Muslim back to Allah and to leave the materialistic desires of this world behind them. Allah created everything with a purpose; if He swt had not created a thing without purpose He would be doing an injustice towards it. Allah instructed mankind towards that which is good (halal) and to forbid evil (haraam) then He explained that He will hold a person accountable for their deeds. Allah sent Messengers to warn mankind and jinn against His Hell-Fire and to remind mankind, jinn and all that exists about their duty and obligation towards Allah. In fact the first commandment found in the Quran (2: 21-22) is to worship Allah alone and not to associate partners to Him in worship and obedience. Allah commanded obedience towards Him in order to be free from Jahanam (Hell Fire/punishment) and to receive the glad tidings of Jannah (Paradise). 1. Submission. 2. Being pleased and content. 3. Abstaining from evil. = Right guidance

THE SECOND Not to associate partners with Allah as He is the One and Only free from imperfection. And so this is not to worship others with Allah in belief and actions. Partner refers to anything that is tangible (statues, amulets, people, rocks, moon, sun etc) or intangible (take pride of ones abilities, trust in others than Allah) big or small and all types of shirk are serious in its punishment whether it is considered a major shirk or minor shirk (a major and minor shirk are determined through the intentions) they are both transgressions, sins, criminal offences and the likes thereof. Allah has called the act of shirk in Quran 4: 48 the greatest type of dhulm and dhulm can be translated as taking away someones rights so in this case worshipping Allah is His right alone as there is none equal to Him and it is a great injustice to worship others besides or alongside Allah. However if a person sincerely regrets their actions and repents then Allah will forgive them but if they die beforehand then Allah will punish them with the Hell Fire (see Quran 14:30) but if a person commits a minor shirk (eg. showing off) and does not repent then their matter lies with Allah and He will do as He wills (that person may be forgiven and permitted to enter Jannah or that person would have to bear the punishment in Hell Fire until they are purified and there is a Hadith recorded by Muslim that anyone with even an atoms weight of pride cannot enter Jannah).

Fundamentals of Tawheed
Also the difference between major and minor shirk is that major shirk takes a person out of Islam while minor shirk does not do so but it is rather an imperfection of their tawheed. Shirk comes in the form of belief, speech and actions and the types of major shirk includes the likes of idol worshipping, fortune telling, supplicating towards grave, people or jinn, total obedience to other beings while neglecting Allah and it is also fighting the Muslims and defending the disbelievers. The types of minor shirk includes the likes of pride and showing off, wearing amulets for protection instead of putting ones trust in Allah or swearing by something other than Allah.

Types of shirk : - Qilaadah means amulet that are put on animals to protect them from evil (TOTALLY HARAAM) - Tameemah means amulet that are worn on people to protect them from evil (TOTALLY HARAM BUT IN CERTAIN CASES MAY BE HALAL for example: Quran verses hung on the wall to learn how to say it and not for protection) though the correct opinion and to perfect ones imaan is that tameemah is in all forms haraam because it is a gateway to shirk and it is an imitation of the people who commit shirk. - Ruqah means chanting or singing (TOTALLY HARAM BUT IN CERTAIN CASES MAY BE HALAL for example: Quranic recitation) - Tiwalah means bewitchment such as placing spells on a couple in order to break their marriage or placing a spell on a person to make them fall in love or marry someone else. (TOTALLY HARAAM) There is protection from this and it is to say dua (supplications) in the morning and evening. - Tashbih means to imitate the disbelievers. For example: A Muslim wearing an Allah necklace such as the Christians wearing the cross necklace. Even if a Muslim does not intend to commit shirk but there is a possibility that it may lead to kufr (disbelief) or other people might think that they are committing shirk or other people might think it is acceptable to do so and they may be led to kufr. If a person refutes the rules regarding tameemah, qiladah and tiwalah as being haraam the evidence that shows that tameemah, qiladah and tiwalah are haraam is from the following Hadith relating to the man who wore a copper bracelet as he believed it helped him to cure his disease but when the Prophet s.a.w found out what this man was doing he told him to take it off for the copper bracelet was increasing him in sickness rather than curing him of it. There is another Hadith that the Prophet s.a.w stated that whosoever wears an amulet and thinks that it will protect him, Allah will replace His protection upon the person with that amulet that has no power to protect, which of course is his loss as Allah is the best of those who Protect. Hidden shirk is showing off and self pride which is so hidden that even the person may not be aware that they are falling into the act of showing off and self pride and this is a very dangerous form of shirk. There is a Hadith that narrates that the three to enter the Hell-Fire is the person who is a recitor of the Quran, a person who fought in jihad and has achieved martyrdom and the third being a rich person who is charitable. Though these three are seemingly righteous characters but in fact, as Allah is aware, these people had a certain trait in them, which prevented them from perfect tawheed and from entering Paradise. This trait is self pride / showing off. The recitor of the Quran did so to receive praise for his beautiful recitation which moved his audience to tears, the martyr only fought to be seen as brave and courageous in the eyes of his people and the rich person only gave charity to

Fundamentals of Tawheed
show others that he was wealthy and able to do so; therefore, as their intentions were not to please Allah or to seek His forgiveness or to enter His Paradise their actions became void and all they achieved was a gateway to the Hell Fire.

The difference between kufr (disbelief) and shirk (associating partners to Allah) : Shirk refers to the worship of idols and other created beings whilst also acknowledging Allah. The person who does this is called a mushrik. Kufr is the general term which means a disbeliever in Allah (i.e. denial and concealment of the truth) whether they commit shirk or other transgressions. The difference between kufr and mushrik is that a kaafir denies and conceals the truth all together (not believing in Allah) while a mushrik believes in Allah but associates partners with Allah; therefore, every mushrik is considered to have indulged in kufr while a kaafir does not necessarily commit shirk in order to fall under the category of kufr.

Categories of Shirk : In relation to shirk of the three categories of tawheed, it is as follows: Shirk in tawheed Uluhiyah (worship) directing any act of worship towards other than Allah is shirk, associating to someone or something the power, sustenance etc with Allah is also shirk. Shirk in tawheed Uluhiyah can be classified as minor or major shirk eg). minor shirk is showing off riya which is glorifying oneself and major shirk is idol worshipping. Shirk in tawheed Ruboobiyah (Lordship) denying the Lordship of Allah as the Atheists and the Pharaoh in the time of Musa a.s did, denying the existence of Allah and His right that He is perfectly entitled to His title of Lordship and affirming of the Lordship of others and believing in other gods such as the fire worshipers, these are all classified as shirk and it is major shirk. Shirk in tawheed Asma was-Sifat (His Names and Attributes) comparing the creation to Allah and comparing Allah to His creation, seeking the advice of saints who claim to know of the unseen and giving idols attributes and names from Allahs list of His Names and Attributes, these are all shirk and it is major shirk.

THE THIRD Obedience to Muhammad (s.a.w) and singling out Allah in all worship (upon tawheed), and not to associate with the disbelievers or take a disbeliever as a friend or close ally as the disbelievers only seek to corrupt the Muslims. Whoever is obedient to Allah and Muhammad s.a.w would feel a certain degree of hatred towards those who do not obey the commandments of Allah and follow the Sunnah of the Prophet s.a.w. In order for acts of worship to be accepted by Allah Azawajal, there are two factors that must be met and that one it is sincerity for the sake of pleasing Allah and two it is in accordance to the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w. So if a person who is sincere and wishes to please Allah but in doing so he neglects the Sunnah and instead prays for example the maghrib prayer which is usually three rakaat into a four rakaat prayer out of sincerity and love for Allah, it cannot be accepted by Allah

Fundamentals of Tawheed
because it was not done properly (as recorded in the Sunnah of the Prophet s.a.w) and had he known the correct method of showing sincerity and love in acts of worship to Allah he would have added a two rakaat sunnah prayer before and after the maghrib prayer instead of changing the Sunnah on his own and without authority it would have been far better for him and acceptable to Allah Azawajal. Muslims do not take non-Muslims as their close friends but that is not to say that Muslims should not be kind and courteous towards them. It is permissible to enter business contracts with them and converse with them but only with the intention to help Islam and to show them the truth of Islam. If a Muslim is inclined towards a non Muslim because the non Muslim person is friendly towards them then it is natural to feel love of friendship between them but a Muslim should never prefer a non Muslim (friend or not) over their Muslim brother or sister as that is a betrayal to the trust of ones fellow Muslim brothers and sisters to support and protect one another against the enemy (shaytaan and the non Muslims) who seek to corrupt the Muslims.

Introduction to Tawheed The three types of tawheed (the concept of the uniqueness and oneness of Allah All Mighty) 1. Tawheed Rububaiyah which is the Lordship of Allah 2. Tawheed Uluhiyah which is the Worship of Allah 3. Tawheed Al Asma a Was-sifat which is the Divine Names and Attributes of Allah The first knowledge that should be gained or given in dawah is tawheed Rububaiyah (Lordship of Allah). No one had ever dared to deny the Oneness of Allah except the Pharaoh of Egypt (but even then when he was drowning and about to die he admitted to the existence of Allah) also at the time of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) the Arabs believed in the tawheed Rububaiyah but denied the tawheed Uluhiyah as they would also worship idols and dealt with soothsaying and fortune telling which are types of shirk (associating partners to Allah All Mighty). The most important aspect of tawheed is Uluhiyah (Worship of Allah) as it is a confirmation of belief through action and the Prophet s.a.w tried to convey this message of tawheed Uluhiyah especially to his people by repeatedly instructing them to leave their idol worshiping and to worship Allah Alone and being obedient to Allah and His Messenger Muhammad s.a.w. The epitome of our worshipping Allah is explained in the Quran and I (Allah) did not create the Jinn and Mankind, except to worship Me (Allah). *Quran 51: 56+ The third part of tawheed (but definitely not the least) is tawheed Al Asma a Was-sifat (Divine Names and Attributes of Allah) which should be comprehended and reflected upon as part of ones daily routine i.e. to thank Allah for all the blessings He has showed out of His Mercy and Generosity, or to remember that Allah is the All Knowing (and nothing is outside of His Knowledge as He is the

Fundamentals of Tawheed
All Hearer and All Seerer) and so it helps one to refrain from committing sins and to ease the heart from its pain. The meaning of tawheed comes from the word worship. Tawheed also comes from the Arabic word wahada meaning unify or one therefore tawheeds technical term is the oneness of Allah in worship. Tawheed is the basis of a Muslims belief; therefore, it is important to understand and implement, as one will be asked about their faith in their grave to determine their eternal future resting place in the Hereafter. Those who refute the studying of tawheed have been misguided as it is not an innovation in the religion but a means of understanding Allah in the correct manner; for example the compilation of the Quran into a Book was not an innovation but a means to preserve the Words of Allah or the akham (rulings) of the Shariah is not an innovation as it helps to clarify laws into degrees. Tawheed may be classified under the above mentioned three types or it may be classified as two types, Tawheed Uluhiyah is the first type and the second type is Tawheed Rububaiyah and Tawheed Al Asmaa Was-sifat which is combined as it is both in regards to belief while the first type in this case is in regards to actions. Imam Hanafi has written that: Allah should be called upon (dua) upwards and not downwards, because lowness is not from the Attribute of Rububaiyah and Uluhiyah. (Fiqh ul Asbat pg. 45)

The Decree of Allah (swt) Ibaadah (worship) is of two types : 1. Ibaadah Al Kawniya which is where everything is in submission to Allah whether they believe in Him or not i.e. by the will of Allah everyone grows old in age whether they are Muslim or a non Muslim and so Allah will not ask them concerning this matter and there is no reward or punishment in it. The reward or punishment is only when the person appreciates and gives thanks to Allah for what they have received and in turn they will be punished by Allah if they are ungrateful for what they have received. 2. Ibaadah in servitude to Allah this applies to the Muslims whereby they are rewarded for their obedience in performing the acts of worship and in turn punished for their disobedience in neglecting the acts of worship. Furthermore, these acts of worship have two aspects required to ensure that it is accepted by Allah and that is sincerity (in seeking the pleasure of Allah) and it is in accordance to the Sunnah (of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w).

Fundamentals of Tawheed
The three fundamental Principles of Islam (main topic of this book)
FIRST FUNDEMENTAL PRINCIPLE (pg. 82) Who is Allah?

SECOND FUNDEMENTAL PRINCIPLE (pg. 115) Knowledge of the religion of Islam with its proofs

THIRD FUNDEMENTAL PRINICPLE (pg. 199) Knowledge of the life of the Prophet Muhammad s.a.w and his s.a.w prophet-hood

The answers to the three questions, which a person is asked in the grave, are the fundamental principles of Islam. These three questions are: 1. Who is your Creator Allah? 2. What is your Deen (religion)? 3. Who is or what do you think about the man Muhammad? It is important that a Muslim knows the answers to these questions when they are still alive so that they may apply it to their daily lives which ensures (to the best of their abilities) that their acts of worship and good deeds become a proof of their conviction in Allah and in His Messenger Muhammad (s.a.w) by doing so for His pleasure and to seek His forgiveness then Allah will make it easier for the person to pass the tests of the grave and enter Paradise of the Hereafter.

FIRST PRINICPLE Who Is Allah Our Lord, Our Creator?


Ar Rab (The Lord) came from the word tarbiyah (to nurture) therefore Allah nurtures all creation with His Favours and Blessings and prepares them for the purpose of which they were created and He supports them with all of their needs *See Quran 20: 49 50]. And from this conclusion Allah is the only One deserving of worship. *See Quran 21: 25 and 98: 5+ We did not send any Messenger before you, O Muhammad except that We revealed to him that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah, so make all your worship purely for Him. Quran 21:25

Allahs existence is evident through His signs and everything contains a sign showing that Allah is One in existence. There are two types of signs:

Fundamentals of Tawheed
1. Signs in creation i.e. the perfection and wondrous abilities of His creations is a reflection on Allahs perfect attributes and abilities. The sun is a perfect example of one of Allahs signs as it runs it fixed course under the command of Allah; its abilities to provide the living things with heat and light is a great favour from Allah *see Quran 36: 38+ but Allah warns not to worship the sun (though it has great benefits for humanity) because it is neither proper nor logical to worship the sun rather one should worship Allah who created the sun and who is the One in control and command of all affairs *See Quran 41: 37 and 7: 54+. And from His signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Do not prostrate to the sun nor the moon but prostrate to Allah who created them, if you truly worship Him. Quran 41: 37

2. Signs in His Shariah i.e. the just and fairness of the laws in the Shariah are a reflection on Allahs complete and perfect power and wisdom.

Hadith Qudsi: O son of Adam, were you to come to Me with sins nearly as great as the earth and were you then to face Me, ascribing no partners to Me; I would bring you forgiveness nearly as great as it. [Tirmidhi]

This profound Hadith Qudsi highlights the fact that Allah hates that partners are ascribed to Him but He loves that His slaves worship Him in the correct manner (without ascribing partners to Him) and return to Him humbled in repentance. Therefore, when one singles out Allah in all worship they seek to avoid Allahs anger and punishment and Allah is pleased with them and that is how one gains taqwa. And taqwa is to do whatever Allah has commanded and to keep away from all that He forbids; it is also referred to ones piety and fear of the Hell-Fire. Allah has commanded certain types of worship like Islam, imaan and ihsaan as part of the Deen (religion i.e. way of life). Also note that these types of worship are also the three levels of a faith; For example Islam is having the lowest level of faith, which is to submit and obey Allah, then imaan is the second step in which a Muslim acquires true and complete faith involving the heart, speech and actions of the limbs and finally ihsaan the highest level of faith which is to perfect these acts of worship. Also note that anything that Allah had praised is an act of worship.

The types of worship towards Allah are explained below;

Dua

This is supplication or invocation towards Allah but supplicating or invoking others besides Allah is considered a major shirk.

Fundamentals of Tawheed
Khawf (fear) There are three types of fear, which is 1. a natural fear which is permissible but can become haram (prohibited) when the natural fear causes one to leave a commandment of Allah, 2. Reverential fear which is the deep and respectful fear of Allah such as fearing His punishment or His anger and 3. Supernatural fear which is misleading type of fear as it is the fear of ghosts, zombies and the likes thereof and this fear is a type of shirk as only Allah deserves to be feared *see Quran 3: 175+

Rahbah (fear, dread)

It is defined as fear, which causes one to run from what they are afraid of. So Rahbah is a type of fear, which is accompanied by an action *see Quran 21: 90+

Al Khashyah (fear, awe)

This is another type of fear due to the acknowledgment of the greatness of the One whom he fears *see Quran 35: 28+ so this type of fear is founded from gaining knowledge.

Raja (hope or longing)

This is defined as hoping for something that is far away (yet it is close) in a humbled manner, such as hoping for the mercy of Allah. however, it is unacceptable to do so without taking the means of attaining His mercy *see Quran 18: 110+. The life of a believer is like a bird, a bird cannot fly with one wing but it needs two wings to fly and move forward so the bird flaps one of his wings and hopes to move forward and then he flaps the other wing and fears Allah.

Tawwakul (trust and reliance)

It is to have complete trust and reliance on Allah, which is considered the completion of ones imaan. There are three other types of tawwakul and that is: 1. to trust in someone such as a Prophet or Angel or evil person covertly or overtly and this is shirk, 2. to depend on someone that one regards as having a higher status then himself eg): depending on a person that one believes is higher in rank than himself to provide sustenance and this can become a form of shirk unless he is certain that the person providing his sustenance is just a means. More importantly there is a fine line in identifying when one has committed shirk of tawwakul and that is based on the intention of the heart 3. relying on someone eg): Prophet Yunus relied on his sons to find out information for him or when the Prophet s.a.w relied on Ali with the zakat *see Quran 5: 23 and 65: 3+

Prophet Muhammad s.a.w said: "seventy thousand shall enter Paradise without reckoning. Those people are those who do not treat themselves with Ruqya, nor do they believe in bad or good omen (from birds, stars etc) nor do they get themselves branded (cauterised) but they put their complete trust in their Lord "On that 'Ukasha bin Muhsin said. "Am I one of them, O Messenger of Allah

Fundamentals of Tawheed
(s.a.w)?' The Prophet s.a.w said: "yes." Then another person got up and said: "am I one of them?" The Prophet (s.a.w) said: 'Ukasha has anticipated you." [Bukhari]

Raghbah (keen ambition)

This is known as keen and enthusiastic desire or ambition. One has love and desire for Allah through obeying Him and worshipping Him.

kushoo (complete concentration)

To be humble and submissive to Allah *see Quran 21: 90+

Innabah (repentance)

This is to turn to Allah in obedience and in sincere repentance as one depends solely on Allah and fleeing for refuge to Him *see Quran 39: 54+

Istiaanah (seeking assistance)

Appealing to Allah for assistance with complete humility and to submit and entrust ones affair entirely to Him and to be absolutely certain that it is exclusively Allah Who is fully sufficient for oneself. There are other types of seeking assistance and that is 1. seeking assistance with people. This is permissible so long as it is to assist them towards good *see Quran 5: 2+ or to assist them to avoid the harmful and evil things; eg): one cannot assist someone to the cinema because the cinemas is a haram place *see Quran 1: 5+. 2. seeking the assistance of any deceased person is shirk as well as to seek assistance from a living person for a matter of the unseen, which is also shirk.

Istiaadah (seeking refuge)

This is to seek refuge, shelter and protection from Allah, which involves ones complete need and attachment of Him and to be certain that He is sufficient as a source of protection *see Quran 113: 1-2]. Other types of seeking refuge are 1. to seek refuge in one of the Attributes of Allah eg): the Prophet s.a.w said I seek refuge in the perfect Words of Allah from the evil of that which He created [Saheeh Muslim] and so the Prophet s.a.w sought refuge in one of the Attributes of Allah which was His Speech. In another report when the Prophet s.a.w was suffering from pain, he s.a.w said I seek refuge in the Might and Power of Allah from the evil of what I feel and am wary of [Saheeh Muslim] therefore the Prophet s.a.w sought refuge in the power of Allah to heal him s.a.w, 2. to seek shelter with some person or in some place as long as it serves the purpose of providing shelter. Note that one must provide shelter for someone seeking refuge from an oppressor, but one must not provide shelter for someone seeking refuge from an obligation to Allah or someone seeking refuge in order to help him commit a haram act, 3. seeking refuge either with the dead or living who are not present and are unable to provide refuge then this is shirk.

Fundamentals of Tawheed
See Quran 72: 6 - regarding men of mankind who used to travel in valleys and seek refuge from the leader of Jinn residing in the valley for protection but this only increased them in transgression. The Jinn increased in arrogance and men increased in their disbelief and in a weaker opinion they fear of Jinn. Nevertheless seeking refuge towards Jinn is useless and an act of shirk.

Istighaathah (seeking rescue)

This is to seek the rescue of Allah from difficulty and destruction *see Quran 8: 9+. There are several types of seeking rescue and that is 1. it is shirk to seek deliverance or to be rescued either from the dead or the living that are not present and are not able to provide rescue because it is as if one believes that those people have some control over the unseen; therefore, they have shared the Lordship that is exclusively for Allah, 2. seeking to be rescued by a person who is alive, available and able is permissible *see Quran 28: 15+ but if the person is not available or present at that time and is also not able to provide rescue then it is not allowed to seek rescue from them as mentioned before it is a type of shirk and it is not logical as well.

Sacrifice

This is to kill by spilling blood of the animal in a particular manner that Allah has made permissible. This sacrifice is done either as an act of worship, out of hospitability for a guest or for trade and charity. It is required to recite in the Name of Allah before a sacrifice to bless the food. Sacrifices are done at the time of Hajj, waleemah (wedding reception), aqeeqah (birth of a new baby party) and for charity or to be sold.

An Nadr (vows)

A vow is a promise made to do something but it must not comprise of anything that involves the disobedience of Allah. For example if a person promises never to speak to his brother again (out of anger) then he must break that promise as it is a sin to sever the ties of kinship for more than three days. Vows must not involve the promise to do an obligatory act, as those must be fulfilled regardless. For example a person cannot vow to pray on time if they pass their school test as praying on time is an obligation already set on the person, vows can involve the promise to do a voluntary act. Vows are of two types 1. conditional vow means that it depends on something to happen and it is the stronger type of vow eg): a student may make a promise to fast for one week if they pass their exams. 2. unconditional vow means that the promise is not dependent upon something happening and so it is a general vow eg): a person attending a charity event may make a promise that they will give $1,000 to the charity for the sake of pleasing Allah. The vow must also include the words I will and not I intend because an intention is not a certain nor a strong promise as I will do such and

Fundamentals of Tawheed
such. Therefore imam Nawawi mentioned that vows are not binding unless it is spoken and not a mere intention in the heart however there are differences of opinion in this case.

Conditional vows are makruh (disliked) because it promotes stinginess and so when an act of worship was performed only because they had made a bargain with Allah the reward of this act is not as much as one would achieve if they had intended to perform it purely to please Allah. In fact, Allah is not in need of their acts of worship nor does it change their destiny as whatever happens had been decreed fifty thousand years before existence in the preserved tablet known as Lawhul Mahfoodh. Hence a person should not ask Allah for something and in return they will fulfil certain acts of worship for Him because of the reasons that have just been mentioned. But if a vow has been made it must be fulfilled especially if it is an act of worship. If it is not fulfilled then Allah may punish them by placing hypocrisy in their heart and all sorts of destructive burdens. If a vow to commit sin or wrongdoing has been made then it should not be fulfilled, as the fulfilment of that vow is a sin itself.

There are expiations for failing to fulfil a promise and that is to free a slave by a contract but if that cannot be done, then the expiation is to feed ten poor people (with lunch or dinner which is the societal standard and not with money as the person may use the money for other things) and if that cannot be done then to clothe ten poor people with clothes suitable for prayer but if that cannot be done then to fast for three consecutive days and the expiation for a broken promise becomes compulsory (see Quran 5: 89). Multiple expiations must be completed for multiple vows that were made at the same time. And in any case where a person vows to do something but an obligation overrides the vow then they must comply with the obligation and offer an expiation for example: a person vows to fast every Saturday; however, there was a time that Eid fell on a Saturday, that person must not fast because of Eid but he must offer an expiation. There are four matters which cannot be retracted and that is to free a slave, divorce, marriage and vows.

SECOND PRINCIPLE Knowledge of Islam with proofs


The Deen (religion of Islam) has three levels, one above the other, which is:

1. Islam - the five pillars of Islam. And the proof of this is found in the following Hadith of Bukhari : The Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w) said: Islam is built upon five: 1. The testification that none has the right to be worshipped except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah (this is known as

Fundamentals of Tawheed
the Shahadah in Islam), establishment of the prayer (this is known as the five daily prayers in Islam), payment of zakaat (this is known as the obligatory tax paid yearly from ones property and wealth which is then used for charitable and religious purposes), fasting in the month of Ramadan and Hajj to Allahs sacred House. [Reported by Bukhari]

2. Imaan - the six pillars of imaan, which is proved in Quran 2: 177. It lists the six pillars as follows: 1. Believe in Allah, 2. His Books 3. His Angels 4. His Prophets and Messengers 5. The Day of Judgement and 6. Qadr and Qadar (divine decree of good and bad).

3. Ihsaan - which literally means to do well or perfectly performing these types of worship. [see the Hadith of Angel Jibreel regarding iman and ihsan narrated by Bukhari and Muslim].

THE FIRST LEVEL OF THE DEEN Islam Islam comes from the root word istislam (submission) and it does not come from the root word salam (peace) as some may believe; although Islam is a peaceful religion. From this it is concluded that Islam is the submission of one to Allah with tawheed (unity of Allah in worship) and to disassociate oneself from all acts and beliefs of shirk (associating partners to Allah) and the people who practice shirk. A great example that one can learn from is the example of Prophet Ibraaheem (a.s) who disassociated himself from his father who indulged in an act of major shirk - idol worshipping; instead Prophet Ibraaheem (a.s) persisted in warning his people to worship Allah as He should be worshipped and to leave all forms of shirk as this is a great injustice to Allah *see Quran 60: 4+. Islam also means the obedience to Allah with tawheed, and there is a great example from Prophet Ibraaheem (a.s) when he saw in his dream that Allah ordered him to sacrifice his son Ismail (a.s), without question or hesitance he approached his son who willingly submitted and as the two were about to accomplish the order, Allah removed Ismail and replaced him with a sheep or ram which Prophet Ibraaheem slaughtered instead of his son.

The first level is based on the fulfilment of the five pillars of Islam which are briefly outlined below:

1a). Shahadah This is a declaration of faith and it is the basis of any act of worship and it is acknowledged by the best of creations (the Angels and the people of knowledge) (see Quran 3: 18). The Shahadah is a statement that a person makes to affirm with their tongue and heart that there is nothing that is worshipped rightfully except Allah the Mighty and Majestic...la ilaaha illAllah.

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This statement comprises of a denial and an affirmation. As for the denial it is la ilaaha which means none has the right to be worshipped and as for the affirmation then it is illAllah which means except Allah. Therefore when a person decalres the Shahadah then they are denying all other gods except Allah (Who has the only right to be worshipped) and as they continue the second portion of the shahadah which is Muhammadar-Rasul-Allah and which means Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, they are affirming that they insist on following the example of Muhammad s.a.w, a man who is a slave and worshipper of Allah. The Shahadah does not mean theres no god except Allah because there are polytheists and idol worshippers who believe in other multiple gods, but a Muslim denies all other gods as these other gods are all created beings while Allah is not created nor does He have a beginning or end so these gods are only false gods which they worship (and they have no ability to out match Allah Most High) and it is Allah alone that is deserving and that has the right to be worshipped. The key word in the Shahadah is worthy hence the Shahadah affirms that while there are polytheists and idol worshippers there is none worthy (deserving, has the right) of worship besides Allah. so their gods which they have invoked besides Allah could not save them from the punishment of their Lord when it came, nor repel any of it from them. Quran 11: 101

Worship Allah alone, there is none besides Him deserving and having the right to your worship. Quran 7: 59

Conditions of Shahadah (ilm) To have knowledge of what is the shahadah, what it means and how to practice it (yakin) To be absolutely certain and have no doubts in the belief of the shahadah (Kabul) To accept the shahadah entirely and without restrictions or conditions (inqiyad) To be submissive and to comply to the physical enactment which the shahadah entails (sidiq) To be truthful and honestly meaning it when stating the shahadah (ikhlas) To have sincere and genuine intentions (marhaba) To love the implications and meanings of the Shahadah

There are two extra conditions that have also been included and which are as follows: Denial of worshipping every other false gods Al Bara means to free oneself from worshipping every other false gods. Adherence

1b). Salah (prayer) and 1c). Zakaat (charity)

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The evidence for salah and zakaat is found in Quran 98: 5 - and they were not commanded except that they should worship Allah alone, making their worship and obedience purely for Him, upon the true religion and free from shirk; and that they should establish the prayer and pay the zakat.

The above verse begins in a general sense instructing mankind to worship and obey Allah with the correct tawheed and not associating partners to Him (i.e. to remain on the straight path with no crookedness) but then Allah specified the prayer and zakaat towards the end of the verse as two types of worship because of its significance.

1d). Sawm (fasting) The evidence for fasting as an obligation upon the Muslims as it was obliged upon nations before them is found in the Quran 2: 183 O you who believe, fasting is prescribed as an obligation for you as it was prescribed as an obligation for those who came before you.

Allah loves those who fast for He had prescribed it for every nation that came before Islam and its benefits are numerous, some of which is to increase the awareness and fear of Allah and attain the characteristics of taqwa (god consciousness), to maintain the health of ones body and to practice self restraint and discipline.

1e). The pilgrimage of Hajj The evidence for Hajj being an obligation upon every sane and adult Muslim who is financially able to perform Hajj is found in Quran 3: 97 and Hajj to Allahs House is an obligation upon those able to perform it; and whoever refuses and rejects the obligation of Hajj to Allahs House, then Allah has no need of him or of any of the creation.

The Hajj is a great spiritual journey that occurs in Dhul Hijjah (the 12th month of the Islamic calendar) to gain nearness to Allah, to expiate all sins from the past and to obtain the blessings of Allah in this life and Hereafter. The one who performs an accepted Hajj will be rewarded with nothing less than Paradise. "From one Umrah to another becomes an atonement for the sins committed during the period intervening between them. And the reward of Hajj Mabroor (pure and accepted Hajj) is paradise itself and nothing less." [Bukhari & Muslim]

THE SECOND LEVEL OF THE DEEN Imaan (faith) There are seventy odd branches (parts) of faith and the highest branch of faith is the declaration of shahadah, which involves the belief in it and the action of it.

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The lowest branch of faith is to remove an obstacle or harm from the pathway and another branch of faith is to have modesty and shame (al haya). Al Haya is experienced when one is embarrassed to do an evil deed. And another branch of faith is said to be patience.

Imaan is the Arabic word for belief or acceptance and to take something to be true. In Shariah imaan means to have certain faith in the heart, speech and actions of the limbs; however, there are some people known as Murjah who believe that imaan does not involve actions. This is refuted in Quran 2: 143 which Allah states that He will not render the believers faith to go unrewarded, Allah uses the word faith to represent the prayer and praying is an action so from this conclusion making actions relating to faith in Allah is valid and acceptable by Allah Azawajal.

The second level of the Deen is the adherence to the six pillars of faith which are briefly outlined below:

Faith in Allah:

Faith in Allah comprises of four matters, which are the following:

1). Faith in Allah is to believe of Allahs existence which is proven by natural disposition (fitrah), the intellect (all things created was done so by the Creator since it is impossible for any being to create itself (see Quran 52: 35-38), the Revelation (the four books of Revelation) and what is experienced and perceived (one witnesses with his own eyes when supplications are granted, and those in distress who call on Allah are relieved to such an extent that it proves the existence of Allah).

2). Faith in Allahs Lordship Tawheed Ruboobiyah) is to believe that Allah is One and none has a share in His Lordship, His Sovereign and His Power as He is The Creator Who Commands (see Quran 7: 54). None of creation denies the Lordship of Allah except they do so out of arrogance such as Pharaoh during the time of Prophet Musa a.s (see Quran 17: 102). Those who are mushriks (ascribe partners to Allah) still affirm the Lordship of Allah (see Quran 23: 84-89, 43: 9 and 87).

3). Faith in Allahs sole right to be worshipped (Tawheed Uluhiyah) is to believe that Allah alone deserves and has the right to be worshipped and no share of any worship is to be directed to anyone else besides Allah (see Quran 2: 163, 3: 18, 22: 62, 53: 23, 7: 71 and 7: 59) and to worship Allah with love and veneration.

4). Faith in the Names and Attributes of Allah (Tawheed Asma Was-sifat) is to affirm to whatever names and attributes that Allah has affirmed for Himself in Quran or in the Sunnah of His

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Messenger s.a.w and without twisting its meaning or changing the words. (see Quran 7: 180 and 42: 11).

Faith in His Angels

Malaikah is the Arabic word for angel. Allah has created a large number of angels by light who are unseen to mankind. They were created without free will; they were only given the will to worship and obey Allah; they do not have Divine qualities like their Creator Allah, which is why it is not right to worship angels. In a Hadith of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w he described that when he s.a.w ascended to the seven Heavens he witnessed seventy thousand angels entering Bayt al Mamoor (Much Frequented House) to pray everyday and when they leave they do not return but another group of seventy thousand angels arrives and this occurs everyday [Bukhari].

Faith in angels comprises of four matters, which are the following: 1). To believe in their existence 2). To believe in their attributes which has been described in Quran and Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad s.a.w 3). To believe in the duties they carry out by the command of Allah 4). To believe in the names of the angels that were revealed such as Angel Jibreel but also to believe in all angels even if the names are unknown

Faith in His Books

These are the Books that Allah had sent down to His Messengers. In it is mercy and guidance to attain success and happiness in this life and Hereafter. These Books proves that Allah takes care of His servants as He sent down to each nation a Book for their guidance and did not leave His creation to be led astray. It also shows the great wisdom of Allah in prescribing each nation suitable laws for their condition. Faith in His Books comprises of four matters, which are the following: 1). To believe in these Books whose names are known i.e. The Quran (which was sent down to Muhammad s.a.w), The Tawrah (which was sent down to Moses a.s), The Injeel (which was sent down to Isa a.s) and The Zaboor (which was sent down to Dawood a.s). And generally it is believed that all the Books of Allah that are known or unknown by their names exist. 2). To affirm whatever reports are established as being contained in these Books such as whatever is reported in the Quran and reports that have not been changed or distorted from previous Books. 3). To act upon whatever rulings these Books contain which have not been abrogated (cancelled) or distorted. As the Quran is the final book sent down from Allah and to all of mankind it is current until the last day; thus, submission to the Laws of the Quran is vital even if the wisdom behind the laws in the Quran is known or not.

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4). To believe that these Books were sent down by Allah Most High.

Faith in His Messengers

A Messenger are the ones that Allah has sent to a nation to convey a message and body of laws (see Quran 16: 36). The first Messenger was Noah, then Ibraheem, Moses, Jesus and finally Muhammad (may Allah be pleased with them all). All Messengers of Allah are human beings with no share of Lordship with Allah nor had they any right to share in the worship and divinity of Allah; therefore, whosoever claims that the Messengers of Allah were not human but were angels, or sons of God have made a serious mistake that should be corrected immediately (see Quran 14: 10-11). Messengers are the slaves of Allah and they experience all factors of life such as illness, need for food and drink and death. The Prophet s.a.w said: I am human just like yourselves, I forget just as you forget so if I forget, then remind me. *Muslim+ (see Quran 72: 21-22, 26: 79-81, 38: 45-47, 43: 59) Allah has shown great compassion towards His servants as Messengers were sent to each nation to guide them to His mercy and to clarify the best method of worship to Him, which is pleasing to Him. Mankind should love and respect the Messengers of Allah as Allah has favoured them and because they established worship towards Allah alone by conveying the message of Islamic monotheism whilst enduring hardship after hardship.

Faith in His Messengers comprises of four matters, which are the following: 1). To believe in each of them and in particular whose names are known and to generally believe that all Messengers whose names are not known also existed (see Quran 40: 78). 2). To affirm whatever has been authentically narrated by their reports. 3). To act in accordance to the revealed law of the Messenger that was sent to his nation. 4). Muhammad s.a.w was the final Messenger sent to mankind; therefore, the Quran which was sent down to Muhammad s.a.w is the recent and current revelation from Allah and so it is the one that must be adhered.

Faith in the Last Day (Day of Resurrection)

There will be a day in which all humanity that had ever lived on earth will be resurrected from their graves and taken to the place of judgement. It will be an especially hard day for the disbelievers and wrong doers who denied this day. People will be naked, uncircumcised, scared and hot from the sun, which will be brought down to a hand span from the head of the people. The help of Allah will only come to those who acquired imaan and good deeds for the sake of pleasing Allah. The Day of Resurrection will lead to the Day of Judgment in which every single soul will be held accountable for their actions and rewarded or punished accordingly (see Quran 23: 15-16, 115, 21: 47).

Fundamentals of Tawheed
Faith in The Last Day comprises of four matters, which are the following: 1). To believe that the Day of Resurrection will occur when the trumpet will be blown a second time to revive the dead and the people will stand before Allah for their judgment. Whoever meets Allah with a good deed, shall receive ten times its like in reward; and whoever meets Him with an evil deed shall not receive recompense except with its like; and they shall not be wronged. Quran 6: 160 2). To believe in the accounting and retribution as Allah says: indeed to Allah will be the return of the unbelievers, and it is Allah Who will bring them to account. Quran 88: 25-26 3). To believe in Paradise and Hell-Fire as the final and eternal place of return for creation. Paradise is the place of bliss for the pious and obedient believers who sincerely worshipped Allah alone and followed His obligations and His Messengers (see Quran regarding Paradise 98: 7-8) and Hell-Fire is the place of punishment for the rebellious people who disbelieved in Allah and His Messengers (see Quran regarding Hell-Fire 18: 29, 33: 64-66). 4). To believe in everything that will occur after death such as the trials of the grave, as Angels will ask the deceased the three important questions of the grave (1. Who is your Lord? 2. What is your religion? and 3. Who is your Messenger?) Whoever answers these questions correctly will experience bliss and peace inside their graves (see Quran 41: 30) but whoever does not answer these questions correctly will experience hardships upon hardships(see Quran regarding the punishment of the grave 6: 93).

To have faith in Qadr - the pre-decree of good and bad

Allah has written all that He had pre decreed fifty thousand years before creation in the preserved tablet called al Lawhul Mahfoodh (see Quran 22: 70) and the proof of Qadr (pre-decree) is found in Quran 54: 49 We have created all things in accordance with a pre-decreed measure.

Belief in Qadr does not negate the fact that mankind also has free will and ability whenever they have an opportunity to choose (see Quran 78: 3, 64: 16) but in regards to matters that are predecreed then this knowledge can only be known once it has occurred or else only Allah alone has the knowledge of pre-decreed matters that have yet to occur. The individual knows the difference between things that occur within their will such as walking alone and things that occur involuntarily such as trembling with fear. So an individual may choose to do actions such as buying, selling, eating and drinking and this all comes under his free will but when a thing occurs without his will such as falling off a roof, or car accident he neither chose nor desired these things which happened to him so it comes under the pre-decreed matters. The desire and will of a person to commit an action is not based upon the fact that he has knowledge of Allahs pre-decree. However, in any case the will and ability of a person exists only by the will and power of Allah.

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A person cannot use the excuse of pre-decree for abandoning obligatory duties or committing sins because Allah has prescribed punishment for such actions, which shows that He does not accept this excuse. In Quran 6: 148 Allah states: Those who worship others along with Allah will say: if Allah had willed us to believe and worship Him alone, then we could not have worshipped others along with Him, nor would our forefathers; nor would we ourselves have declared things forbidden. So the fact that He did not prevent us shows that He is pleased with what we do. In the same way did the evildoers before them deny and reject the truth, until our punishment came upon them. Say to them O Muhammad (s.a.w): do you have any proof that you can produce that Allah is pleased with that? Rather you are just following conjecture and inventing lies against Allah.

Bukhari recorded that Prophet Muhammad s.a.w said: there is none of you except that his place in the Fire or Paradise has been written. Then a man from the people asked: shall we not just depend upon it. And Prophet Muhammad s.a.w replied: No, act! for everyone will have that made easy for him. This shows that inaction and dependence upon pre-decree is forbidden.

If a person stood at a cross roads, one of which would lead him towards a land filled with anarchy and torment, and the other would lead him towards a land filled with stability and security, which road will this person take? Any sane person would strive to attain that which benefits him and he would not strive to attain that which harms him so it is impossible for any sane person to take the first road leading to the land of total destruction and then use pre decree as an excuse. So in regards to the affairs of the Hereafter why would a person take the road to Hell-Fire and not the road to Paradise and use pre-decree as his excuse?

Faith in Qadr comprises of four matters, which are the following: 1). To believe that Allah encompasses all knowledge both the general and specific details. 2). To believe that Allah wrote all of this in the preserved tablet called al Lawhul Mahfoodh fifty thousand years before creation. 3). To believe that everything in existence exists by the will of Allah whether it is in relation to His actions (i.e. Will of Allah) (see Quran 28: 68) or in relation to the actions of the creation (i.e. a persons choices) (see Quran 6: 137). 4). To believe that everything in existence is a creation of Allah, both the attributes and their activities are a creation of Allah (see Quran 39: 62, 25: 2). Belief in Qadr has many benefits. The first benefit is that it teaches one to depend upon Allah after carrying out all the necessary means to an end; however, he does not depend on the means itself as everything that occurs has been pre-decreed by Allah. The second benefit is that the person is not amazed at himself when he accomplishes his goals and desires but it is a blessing granted by Allah which came about through the means of good and success which Allah decreed. The third benefit is

Fundamentals of Tawheed
that it gives one peace of mind as whatever occurred has been decreed by Allah so he does not become distressed when something he loves does not come to him or something he dislikes comes to him. All of this had been pre-decreed and if it happened then it was supposed to happen and could not be avoided but also know that whatever a believer experiences good or bad is of benefit and a blessing from Allah. Allah states: no calamity befalls you in the earth or in yourselves except that it was written in the preserved tablet before We created the souls. Indeed creating the souls and recording all the calamities that will befall them is something easy for Allah. We have informed you of this so that you should not grieve over worldly matters that escape you; nor exult over others due to what He has given to you; and Allah does not love the proud who exult over others due to the worldly things they have been given. Quran 57: 22-23

Abu Suhayb ibn Sinaan narrated that Prophet Muhammad s.a.w said: How amazing is the case of the believer; there is good for him in everything, and this characteristic is exclusively for him alone. If he experiences something pleasant, he is thankful, and that is good for him; and if he comes across some diversity, he is patient, and that is good for him [Muslim].

THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE DEEN Ihsaan perfect obedience and worship of Allah The famous Hadith of Jibreel defines the three levels of the Deen, including ihsaan, which is as follows : It is reported by Umar ibn Al khattab (peace be upon him) who said: while we were sitting with the Messenger of Allah s.a.w, one day a man came up to us whose clothes were extremely white, whose hair was extremely black, upon whom traces of travelling could not be seen, and whom none of us knew, until he sat down close to the Prophet s.a.w so that he rested his knees upon his knees and placed his two hands upon his thighs and said, 'Muhammad, tell me about Islam.' The Messenger of Allah s.a.w said, 'Islam is that you witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and you establish the prayer, and you give the Zakat, and you fast Ramadan, and you perform the hajj of the House if you are able to take a way to it.' He said, 'You have told the truth,' and we were amazed at him asking him and [then] telling him that he told the truth. Then he said, 'Tell me about imaan.' He said, 'That you affirm Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day, and that you affirm the Decree, the good of it and the bad of it.' He said, 'You have told the truth.' Then he said, 'Tell me about ihsaan.' He said, 'That you worship Allah as if you see Him, for if you don't see Him then truly He sees you.' Then he said, 'Tell me about the Hour.' He said, 'The one asked about it knows no more than the one asking.' He said, 'Then tell me about its signs.' He said, 'That the female slave should give birth to her mistress, and you see poor, naked, barefoot shepherds of sheep and goats competing in making tall

Fundamentals of Tawheed
buildings.' He went away, and I remained some time. Then he asked, 'Umar, do you know who the questioner was?' I said, 'Allah and His Messenger know best.' He said, 'He was jibreel who came to you to teach you your deen. *Bukhari & Muslim+

The Hadith above mentions ihsaan as having perfected ones worship and belief in Allah so much so that they do so while keeping in mind that Allah is ever an All Watcher and All Knower of all His creation. Allah is aware of every little movement and thought made. Allah states: and put your trust in the All-Mighty, The Most Merciful, Who sees you when you stand up (for prayer at night) and (who sees) your movements among those who prostrate themselves (to Him). Verily He is The All Hearer, The All Knower. Quran 42: 217-220

Having ihsaan ensures that a persons actions and intentions are purely for the sake of pleasing Allah. When having attained this level the persons every limb submits to the worship and obedience of Allah in that they refrain from all harmful and evil acts that is displeasing Him; furthermore, every good act committed becomes an act of worship and obedience, which can be rewarded up to ten times the likes thereof. More importantly, this also includes the mundane acts such as sleeping, eating and even relieving oneself, which can be rewarded as worship or obedience to Allah because it is done so in the perfect manner (according to Quran and sunnah) and it is done so with the pure intention (to please Allah, seek His mercy, blessings and so on). Allah mentions verily Allah is with those who have tawqa (dutifulness to Allah) and those who have ihsaan. Quran 16: 128

THIRD PRINCIPLE Knowledge of the final Messenger of Allah - Prophet Muhammad (s.a.w)
His name was Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul Muttalib ibn Hashim. He was born in the year of the elephant. He was born in Makah into the tribe of Quraish which has many branches and one of which is called the Hashim tribe. The Quraish were from the Arabs who descended from Ismaeel the son of Prophet Ibraaheem (a.s). Muhammad lived for sixty-three years. Forty years before prophet hood then twenty-three years as a Prophet and Messenger of Allah Azawajal. He was sent as a Prophet with iqra *i.e. the beginning of Quran Chapter Al Alaq+ recite in the name of your Lord Who created man from a clinging substance. Recite and your Lord is the Most Generous Who taught by the pen. Taught man that which he knew not. No! (but) indeed, man transgresses because he sees himself self sufficient. Indeed to your Lord is the return... And as a Messenger with the Words of Allah found in Quran Chapter Al Mudaththir :

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O you (Muhammad) wrapped in garments! Arise and warn your people and venerate and worship your Lord and purify yourself, your garments and your deeds; and shun the idols; and do not give up anything in order to receive something more in return; and patiently preserve for the sake of your Lord in the face of any harm you encounter. Additional notes: The six major Hadith collectors are known as Islams source books. These include: 1. Sahih Bukhari, collected by Imam Bukhari (d. 870), includes 7275 Hadith 2. Sahih Muslim, collected by Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875), includes 9200 Hadith The above two source books concentrate on different topics such as ibadat, aqeedah, akhlaq, seerah etc and they have compiled Hadiths, which are all authentic. 3. Sunan al-Sughra, collected by al-Nasa'i (d. 915) 4. Sunan Abu Dawood, collected by Abu Dawood (d. 888) 5. Jami al-Tirmidhi, collected by al-Tirmidhi (d. 892) 6. Sunan ibn Majah, collected by Ibn Majah (d. 887)

Bukhari studied over 600,000 Hadiths but included only 7425 Hadiths in his book. Abu Dawood studied over 500,000 Hadiths but included only 4800 Hadiths. The above four source books concentrate on fiqh topics and include Hadiths, which are both good and weak. Sheikh Albani is an example of a modern scholar who has extensively researched the above four source books and has noted which Hadiths are hasan (good) sahih (authentic) and deaf (weak).

In order to study Hadith a student must go through each one and understand it completely and literally and then implement it and only when that is accomplished should they move on to the next Hadith. Some Hadiths are self explanatory and more concise while some are more extensive and require more time for understanding. It should take a student roughly four five years to complete a source book understand it and implement it and memorise most of it if the student is studying under a scholar or else it can take two weeks for a student to complete a source book because they are merely reading without understanding or memorising or implementing it.

The hikmah (wisdom and to put everything in its right place) behind the utterance of the basmallah before an act is to: Reap the benefits of doing that act Deter ourselves from committing sins i.e. as we put on the CD player in our cars we say bismillah at which point we remember that music is haraam so instead we turn off the music or we change music for Quran recitations or Islamic lectures.

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Remember the blessings upon us Remember that without the permission of Allah we would not be able to perform that act

The seven Heavens (otherwise known as the seven skies) which are mentioned in the Quran or Sunnah of Muhammad s.a.w is different to the Paradise that is mentioned in the Quran or Sunnah of Muhammad s.a.w. This is important to note as many believe that the Heavens and Paradise are one in the same while the seven Heavens begin from the lowest sky that the human being can see with their naked eye and which is adorned with stars and it is layered (seven times) one above another while Jannah is Paradise and its a place that every Muslim anticipates to attain through righteous good deeds and acts of obedience. Jannah is found within the seven Heavens. The Prophet s.a.w visited the seven Heavens on his s.a.w night journey of Isra wal Miraj and he s.a.w saw the beauty and splendour of Jannah as well as the horrors of Jahanam (Hell Fire). The soul of the deceased Muslim roam in the seven Heavens and it is only after their meeting with Allah on the Day of Judgement will they be able to enter Jannah. The Hadith that mentions the martyr being raised to Jannah is temporary so the martyr will have to return to the seven Heavens and only after their accounting on the Day of Judgement will they enter Jannah for eternity. Their (i.e. the martyrs souls) will live inside green birds that dwell in designated lamps which hang on the Throne of Allah they will roam freely in Paradise as they please, then return to these lamps (obviously this description does not befit the realm of this world and so one should not begin to imagine with the perception of this worldly life but accept this Hadith as truthful). [Saheeh Muslim]

Please note that this booklet has been compiled to the best of my ability and any errors made are due to my own weaknesses so please forgive me for any errors. And accept only all that which is correct as it is from Allah Most High.