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Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to take some action with respect to products,

ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. Advertising messages are usually paid for bysponsors and viewed via

traditional media; including mass media such as newspaper,magazines, television commercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages. Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption of their products orservices through "Branding," which involves the repetition of an
various image or product name in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercialadvertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or service include political parties, interest groups,

Nonprofit organizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as a public service announcement
religious organizations and governmental agencies. One definition of advertising is: "Advertising is the nonpersonal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identified sponsors through the various media." Advertising is nothing but a paid form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor with a view to disseminate information concerning an idea, product or service. The message which is presented or disseminated is called advertisement. In the present day marketing activities hardly is there any business in the modern world which does not advertise. However, the form of advertisement differs from business to business. Advertisement has been defined differently by different persons. A few definitions are being reproduced below: According to Wood, "Advertising is causing to know to remember, to do." According to Wheeler, "Advertising is any form of paid non-personal presentation of ideas, goods or services for the purpose of inducting people to buy." According to Richard Buskirk, "Advertising is a paid form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods or services by an identified sponsor." According to William J. Stanton, "Advertising consists of all the activities involves in presenting to a group, a non-personal, oral or visual, openly sponsored message regarding disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by an identified sponsor." The above definitions clearly reveal the nature of advertisement. This is a powerful element of the promotion mix. Essentially advertising means spreading of information about the characteristics of the product to the prospective customers with a view to sell the product or increase the sale volume. The main features of advertise are as under: It is directed towards increasing the sales of business. Advertising is a paid form of publicity

It is non-personal. They are directed at a mass audience and nor at the individual as is in the case of personal selling. Advertisement are identifiable with their sponsor of originator which is not always the case with publicity or propaganda. There are seven main aspects of a promotional mix.[1] These are: Advertising - Presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Examples: Print ads, radio, television, billboard, direct mail, brochures and catalogs, signs, in-store displays, posters, motion pictures, Web pages, banner ads, and emails.(Not Always Paid For) Personal selling - A process of helping and persuading one or more prospects to purchase a good or service or to act on any idea through the use of an oral presentation. Examples: Sales presentations, sales meetings, sales training and incentive programs for intermediary salespeople, samples, and telemarketing. Can be face-toface or via telephone. Sales promotion - Media and non-media marketing communication are employed for a pre-determined, limited time to increase consumer demand, stimulate market demand or improve product availability. Examples: Coupons, sweepstakes, contests, product samples, rebates, tie-ins, self-liquidating premiums, trade shows, trade-ins, and exhibitions. Public relations - Paid intimate stimulation of supply for a product, service, or business unit by planting significant news about it or a favorable presentation of it in the media. Examples: Newspaper and magazine articles/reports, TVs and radio presentations, charitable contributions, speeches, issue advertising, and seminars. Corporate image - The Image of an organization is a crucial point in marketing. If the reputation of a company is bad, consumers are less willing to buy a product from this company as they would have been, if the company had a good image. Direct Marketing is often listed as a the fifth part of the marketing mix Exhibitions - are try-outs. You make your product, and let potential buyers try the product, this way, you know directly what people see in your product. The downside, your competitor can see exactly what you are doing. .[2][3] Sponsorship is sometimes added as an eighth aspect. [4 It is not enough for a business to have good products sold at attractive prices. To generate sales and profits, the benefits of products have to be communicated to customers. In marketing, this is commonly known as "promotion".

Promotion is all about companies communicating with customers.


A business' total marketing communications programme is called the "promotional mix" and consists of a blend of advertising, personal selling, sales promotion and public relations tools. In this revision note, we describe the four key elements of the promotional mix in more detail. It is helpful to define the four main elements of the promotional mix before considering their strengths and limitations.

(1) Advertising
Any paid form of non-personal communication of ideas or products in the "prime media": i.e. television, newspapers, magazines, billboard posters, radio, cinema etc.

Advertising is intended to persuade and to inform. The two basic aspects of advertising are the message (what you want your communication to say) and the medium (how you get your message across)

(2) Personal Selling


Oral communication with potential buyers of a product with the intention of making a sale. The personal selling may focus initially on developing a relationship with the potential buyer, but will always ultimately end with an attempt to "close the sale".

(3) Sales Promotion


Providing incentives to customers or to the distribution channel to stimulate demand for a product.

(4) Publicity
The communication of a product, brand or business by placing information about it in the media without paying for the time or media space directly. otherwise known as "public relations" or PR. Integrated Marketing Communication Integrated Marketing Communication is more than the coordination of a company's outgoing message between different media and the consistency of the message throughout. It is an aggressive marketing plan that captures and uses an extensive amount of customer information in setting and tracking marketing strategy. Steps in an Integrated Marketing system are: Customer Database An essential element to implementing Integrated Marketing that helps to segment and analyze customer buying habits. Strategies Insight from analysis of customer data is used to shape marketing, sales, and communications strategies. Tactics Once the basic strategy is determined the appropriate marketing tactics can be specified which best targets the specific markets. Evaluate Results Customer responses and new information about buying habits are collected and analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the strategy and tactics. Complete the loop;

THE

OBJECTIVES

OF

ADVERTISING

The long-term objective of advertising, as of every other business activity, is to increase the firm's net profits over what they would be without it. In some cases, increased profits are also immediate objectives; but in others, they are not. Perhaps the most important short-term objective of advertising is to provide support for personal selling and other methods of promotion. Advertising is almost never used alone;

generally it is cast in a supporting role to other means of promotion. However, advertising is an extremely versatile communications tool. Depending upon the marketing situation, companies use advertising to achieve various marketing objectives: 1. To do the entire selling job (as in mail-order marketing) 2. To introduce a new product (by building brand awareness among potential buyers) 3. To force middlemen to handle the product (pull strategy) 4. To build brand preference (by making it more difficult for middlemen to sell substitutes) 5. To remind users to buy the product (retentive strategy) 6. To publicize some change in marketing strategy (e.g., a price change, a new model, or an improvement in the product) 7. To provide rationalizations for buying (i.e.,"socially acceptable" excuses) 8. To combat or neutralize competitors; advertising efforts 9. To improve the morale of dealers and/or salesmen 10. To acquaint buyers and prospective buyers with new uses of the product. The objective(s) of advertising imply the communication tasks to be accomplished. These tasks are directed towards specific customers that a company or organization is trying to reach during a defined time frame. An organization which involves in advertising activities usually strives to achieve at least one of the four common objectives of advertising i.e. trial, continuity, brand switching and switchback. The purpose of trial objective of advertising is to encourage customers to make an initial purchase of a new product which has been launched in the market. The next objective of advertising is continuity. Continuity is a typical strategy to keep current customers to stick to the same product. Thirdly, brand switching is one of the widely employed objective

of advertising. This technique is adopted when companies want customers to switch to their brand from their competitors brand. Brand switching strategy needs a convincing communication so that the mindset of the customer is changed. Last but not the least brand switchback objective is another strategy used by advertisers or brand owners to win back their former customers. Dagmar Approach is the task of measuring ad effectiveness will not be daunting if we clearly spell out the advertising goals. Russel H. Colley (1961) pioneered an approach known by the acronym DAGMAR Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results, where to establish an explicit link between ad goals and ad results, Colley distinguished 52 advertising goals that might be used with respect to a single advertisement, a years campaign for a product or a companys entire advertising philosophy. DAGMAR also focused attention upon measurement, encouraging people to create objectives so specific and operational that they can be measured. Characteristics of Objectives: A major contribution of DAGMAR was Colleys specification of what constitutes a good objective. Five requirements or characteristics of good objectives were noted 1. Concrete and measurable: the communications task or objective should be a precise statement of what appeal or message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience. Furthermore the specification should include a description of the measurement procedure 2. Target audience a key tenet to DAGMAR is that the target audience be well defined. For example if the goal was to increase awareness, it is essential to know the target audience precisely. The benchmark measure cannot be developed without a specification of the target segment

3. Benchmark and degree of change sought: another important part of setting objectives is having benchmark measures to determine where the target audience stands at the beginning of the campaign with respect to various communication response variables such as awareness, knowledge, attitudes, image, etc. The objectives should also specify how much change or movement is being sought such as increase in awareness levels, creation of favorable attitudes or number of consumers intending to purchase the brand, etc. a benchmark is also a prerequisite to the ultimate measurement of results, an essential part of any planning program and DAGMAR in particular. 4. Specified time period A final characteristic of good objectives is the specification of the time period during which the objective is to be accomplished, e.g. 6months, 1 year etc. The time period should be appropriate for the communication objective as simple tasks such as increasing awareness levels can be accomplished much faster than a complex goal such as repositioning a brand. All parties involved will understand that the results will be available for evaluating the campaign, which could lead to a contraction, expansion or change in the current effort. With a time period specified a survey to generate a set if measures can be planned and anticipated. 5. Written Goal Finally goals should be committed to paper. When the goals are clearly written, basic shortcomings and misunderstandings become exposed and it becomes easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspects of the DAGMAR approach.
Five Ms of Advertising An advertiser has to take decisions on the following aspects: Mission : This refers to the purpose/objective behind advertising. The objectives behind advertising are varied in character. They include sales promotion, information and guidance to consumers, developing brand loyalty, market goodwill, facing market competition effectively, making the products popular/successful and introduction of a new product. Decision in regard to mission is a basic one as other decisions are to be

adjusted as per the mission or objective or purpose of advertising decided. For consumer products like chocolate, tooth paste, soap, the mission/objective include facing market competition, sales promotion and making the product popular in the market.

Money :

This refers to the finance provided for advertising purpose (advertising budget). It means the budget allocation made by the company for advertising. Money provided is a limiting factor as effectiveness of advertising, media used, coverage of advertising, etc. are related to the funds provided for advertising purpose. Advertising is costly and companies have to spend crores of rupees for this purpose. Advertising should be always within the limits of funds provided. Naturally, decisions on advertising package should be adjusted as per the budget allocation for advertising. It may be noted that consumer products like tooth paste or chocolate are highly competitive with many substitutes easily available in the market. Naturally, extensive advertising on TV, newspapers, radio, etc. is required. These media are costly. Naturally, the manufacturing/marketing company will have to provide huge money for advertising purpose. Message : Message is provided through the text of advertisement. The message is given through written words, pictures, slogans and so on. The message is for the information, guidance and motivation of prospective buyers. Attractive and meaningful messages give positive results and the advertising becomes result-oriented. The services of creative writers, artists, etc. are used for giving attractive message to the consumers. Here, the advertiser has to decide the message to be given, the media to be used for communicating the message, the extent of creativity, the specific customer group selected for giving the message and so on. The message is also related to the decisions taken as regards mission and money provided for advertising. For advertising consumer product like chocolate, the message is important. The buyers are mainly children and others of lower age groups or for the benefit (pleasure and satisfaction) of younger generation. The advertising message should be simple and easily understandable with the help of picture or slogan. It should be also attractive and agreeable to younger generation. The pictures or slogans used should be short and impressive. Media : Media of advertising are already noted previously. The advertiser has to take decision about the media to be used for advertising purpose. Media differ as regards cost, coverage, effectiveness and so on. The selection of media depends on the budget provided, products to be advertised, and features of prospective buyers and so on. Wrong decision on media may make advertising ineffective and money spent will be wasted. This suggests that media should be selected properly and decision in this regard is important and critical. For advertising popular and extensively used consumer items like chocolate, the media should be selected properly. TV advertising particularly a cartoon channel, advertising in children books or newspaper supplements for children, advertising on radio programmes for children, etc. Measure : Measure relates to the effectiveness of advertising. An advertiser will like to make evaluation of advertisement in order to judge its effectiveness. If an advertisement is not effective /purposeful, it will be modified or withdrawn. This is necessary for avoiding expenditure on the advertisement which is not effective or is not

likely to give positive results. An advertiser has to measure the effectiveness of his advertisement programme/ campaign and take suitable decisions. This decisionmaking as regards effectiveness of advertising is equally important and essential. Such testing facilitates introduction of suitable remedial measures, if required.

Functions of advertising 1. To differentiate the product from their competitors 2. To communicate product information 3. To urge product used 4. To expand the product distribution 5. Too increase brand preference and loyalty 6. To reduce overall sales cost 7. Creates new demands To differentiate the product from their competitors

An important function of advertising is the identification function, that is, to identify a product and differentiate it from others; this creates an awareness of the product and provides a basis for consumers to choose the advertised product over other products this creates an awareness of the product and provides a basis for consumers to choose the advertised product over other products. The identification function of advertising includes the ability of advertising to differentiate a product so that it has its own unique identity or personality. There are four additional ways to differentiate your offering from the competition and increase your differentiation: leveraging the brand, innovating your service offering, as well as designing product and packaging in a way that creates an aesthetic beyond the functional. None of these methods are expensive. All are ways that can increase your perceived value to the customer and increase your market share. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_functions_of_advertising#ixzz1XwGUR5 LK To communicate product information Another function of advertising is to communicate information about the product, its attributes, and its location of sale; this is the information function. Product information communicated to the customers in manner that meets their information needs. Most consumers tend to discount the information in advertising because they understand that the purpose of the advertising is to persuade. Making an advertising message believable is not easy; though often it is sufficient to make the consumer curious enough to try the product. Such curiosity is often referred to as interested disbelief. Advertisers use a variety of devices to increase the believability of their advertising: celebrities or experts who are the spokespersons for the product, user testimonials, product demonstrations, research results, and endorsements. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_functions_of_advertising#ixzz1XwGiMM bK To urge product used The third function of advertising is to induce consumers to try new products and to suggest reuse of the product as well as new uses; this is the persuasion function. The basic function of advertising is to provide constant reminders and reinforcements to generate the desired behavior the advertiser wants from them. This is a particularly effective function in the long run as reminders and reinforcements register in the consumers' minds, becoming the base on which they shape their future decisions. Sampling in the way to urge the product using. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_functions_of_advertising#ixzz1XwGyeC Fp To expand the product distribution

When the consumer comes to know about the particular product from the advertisement he/she wants to try that new product. They go to shops to buy the product; if the new product is not available in a shop then the shopkeeper consults the distributor to make that product available in his shop. It is basically to provide the product all over market. It is necessary to make sure that product should be accessible to everyone. Availability of product effect the distribution. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_functions_of_advertising#ixzz1XwH4Z4K P To increase brand preference and loyalty Marketing is a moving thing. As your needs are changed your preferences are changed. When the product delivers the promised quality, service and value, it creates satisfied customers who become instrumental in spreading a favorable word-of-mouth. Satisfied customers also develop brand preference; each product features and uses are written on the product. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_functions_of_advertising#ixzz1XwH9Mu gB Brand loyalty Brand loyalty is a long-term customer preference for a particular product or service. Brand loyalty can be produced by factors such as customer satisfaction with the performance or price of a specific product or service, or through identifying with a brand image. It can be encouraged by advertising. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_functions_of_advertising#ixzz1XwHGFu G3 To reduce overall sales cost When a product is selling you have to teach the people about the product. Like if we would advertise through newspapers, TV, broachers and internet, it would cater huge sum of masses and if you do individually it would be more costly and time consuming. Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_functions_of_advertising#ixzz1XwHNUt hI Creates new demands Advertising have to create new demands they should educate the people about more and more new things coming up in the market. Each year new products, including line extensions and new brands are introduced into groceries and drugstores.

Read more: http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_the_functions_of_advertising#ixzz1XwHShc9 5 Why is Advertising Important? The aim of any business is to maximize the sales of that business. This maximization results into a lot of revenue and profits for the company. Advertising ensures that the sales of the business increase. The second importance is that the product which is sold under the banner of a specific brand also becomes a household name. For example, Coke or coca-cola is a house hold brand name. Same is the case of Pepsi. Such popular brand names have huge customer base that is loyal to the brand and continues to purchase the product for a prolonged time period. Such a customer base also introduces the product and brand to many other people. Creation of awareness is the primary objective of any advertisement. Thus, when any product is advertised, people become aware about its existence and as mentioned above, a need and craving to purchase and own the commodity. Importance of Advertising in Business From the business point of view, advertising not just optimizes sales and product promotion but the goodwill of the specific brand that is earned is an important asset. A well known brand not only has a good customer base but it is a great ground to introduce new products under the same banner. In such a case, there is a very high probability that people are going to purchase the new product out of curiosity. It is often said that reputation gained and maintained due to advertising helps out the business through out the life time. The logic behind that is simple. When advertising creates awareness, people know about the product and when they known about the product, they pay attention to its newer advertisements and the probability that the person will buy the product will increase. To conclude the paragraph it can be said that advertising helps business gain loyal customers as well as a good platform in the entire market. Importance of Advertising in Marketing Apart from gaining a loyal customer base, advertising is often successful in marketing the brand and conveying financial details about the brand to the consumers. The pricing details often generate an interest and the process of money planning, starts ticking in the person's mind. Offers such a buy 2 get 1 free or discounts are introduced to the consumers successfully through advertising. Such offers result into a spurt of sales and are quite instrumental for clearance sales, new introduction sales, re-release sales, etc. Advertising thus, plays quite a comprehensive role in marking policies. Importance of Advertising on the Internet There is a significant importance of online advertising due to the fact that an online advertisement results into global awareness. Today, when a person feels the need to purchase something, his first reaction is to search the web. With your advertisement being present on the web, there is a high possibility that the consumer is going to purchase your product. In fact, financially speaking, online marketing services are

much more convenient for consumers and cheap for producers as it drastically brings down the cost of advertising. The manifold advantages of advertising have been observed for a long period of time. However, the intensity and importance of advertising have greatly increased due to the technological advancements of the modern era. Unit-2 Essentials of advertisement copy Advertising profession aspirants often blindly jump into copywriting and then find themselves misfit for the same. Good writing skill, command on language and vocabulary are just not enough for it. Advertising copywriting seeks really different aptitudes. It seeks sense of humor, understanding of the consumer insight, and understanding of the market, playful attitude, sense of music, understanding of art and guts to experiment. An effective advertisement copy is the one which successfully draws attention of its target audience, creates a favorable attitude towards the product and induces action. A good copy should have the following basic requisites. It should be brief Most important criteria for copywriting is the ability to craft short, crisp yet extremely interesting lines. Thats one major quality that copywriters often boast upon the content writers. Since our attention span is getting shorter day by day and readers prefer short, crisp advertisements its always recommended to keep the copy short and compact. It should be simple and clear Advertisements are means of communication and not means of confusion. So avoid the temptation of writing big, mouthful heavy words for the sake of showing your words prowess. Advertisements should be easily comprehensible, self-explanatory. Avoid ambiguous, incorrect words. It should be apt Copy should never be irrelevant to the target audience or the product category. Often the copywriter overlooks consumers or the product and get obsessed with the ambition of crafting award winning lines. An effective ad carries copy which matches with its consumers insight, product features and adds panache of creativity. Objective of the advertisement is not to be forgotten. It should be personal An effective ad is the one which portrays that its just talking to you. It carries personal touch. Words like you, yours instead of a general message addressing all definitely works better. It should be honest Often advertising is accused of being manipulative and deceptive. But to remain in the business for a long run companies should always put forth honest and truthful communication. Communication can be wise and playful but not deceptive. It should not leave consumers with a false or wrong idea. It should conform to the norms All advertisements are supposed to conform to the standards, rules and regulations set by the advertising council of the country. Morally offending, community or religion humiliating, distasteful advertisement copies are banned all over.

The message strategy is like a foundation for all your marketing. It needs to be strong or your marketing efforts will fall apart. Your message strategy consists of a positioning statement and three support points. They address key target market problems by stating a benefit; i.e. why the target market should care about your product, service or company. A message strategy can be extremely detailed and is like a recipe for all marketing communication. Follow the recipe and you get a good dish. Ah story! Your message strategy makes it easier to deliver the same message across all marketing media including Web sites, brochures, advertisements and presentations to investors, industry analysts and prospects. Consistent execution of the same message is a critical factor in successful marketing. Messages that Matter uses a formal, systematic methodology to help you develop the right message strategy; one that communicates a benefit and can adapt to all marketing communications - brochures, product descriptions, Web sites, sales presentations public relations and advertisements.

Message Strategy

Message Strategy is the first step in creating an effective advertising message. It provides the foundation for the rest of the advertising campaign. According to Kotler the first step of developing a message strategy is "identifying customer benefits that can be used as advertising appeals" (Kotler 363). From past chapters and lectures we have learned that customers buy products based on their perceived value and benefits they offer rather than for the product in and of itself. An advertisement's success is rooted in its ability to communicate the products benefits and value to particular customers. The next step of message strategy outlined in Kotler is the development of a creative concept. This is defined as "the compelling big idea that will bring the advertising message strategy to life in a distinctive and memorable way" (Kotler 363). This may manifest itself as a phrase, a visualization, or both. Finally, the creative concept will provide guidelines for the construction of advertising appeals. These advertising appeals should have three characteristics: they should be meaningful, point out benefits that makes the product more desirable. They should be believable and thirdly they should be distinctive, meaning they should tell how the product is better than the competitor (Kotler 363).

The hit television series Mad Men features a scene in which one of the main characters Don Draper makes a advertisement sales pitch that illustrates the important qualities in a message strategy (unfortunately the embedded feature on this youtube video is disabled, sorry for the inconvenience):
Copywriting is the use of words and ideas to promote a person, business, opinion or idea. Although the word copy may be applied to any content intended for printing (as in the body of a newspaper article or book), the term copywriter is generally limited to promotional situations, regardless of the

television, radio or other media). The word copywriting is regularly used as a noun orgerund. The purpose of marketing copy, or promotional text, is to persuade the reader, listener or viewer to actfor example, to buy a product or subscribe to a certain viewpoint. Copywriters (as writers of copy are called) are used to help create direct mail pieces, taglines, jingle lyrics, web page content (although if the purpose is
medium (as in print, not ultimately promotional, its author might prefer to be called a content writer), online

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e-mail and other Internet content,television or radio commercial scripts, press releases, white papers, catalogs, billboards, brochures, postcards, sales letters, and othermarketing communications media. It can also appear in social media content including blog posts, tweets, and socialnetworking site posts.
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