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Subject ..
Verb ..
Object ..


:
They study mathematics,,,,,,,

They ......Subject
study....Verb
mathematics...Object

Subject ..
Verb ..
Object ..



:
Study they mathematics

..
.

Pronouns
( pronoun)
) .. Noun
Noun phrase )

Nawal eats apple




She eats apple

: Demostrative pronouns

:
(this/that/these/those/such)

That is incredible
I will never forget this



Such is my belief

: Personal pronouns

:
:
Subject personal pronouns

I, you ,he , she , it , we
I , he , she , it
We
You

She took the bus last night


He is aschool boy
We are Muslims
I stayed at home
You need another blanket

:
Object personal pronouns

Me ,you , him , her ,it , us

John took it
Umar gave me abook
We sent you a letter
He adores her.
I saw it with my own eyes
They have just invited us to their wedding
We went with him
: Possesive pronouns

:



Mine , yours ,his , hers , ours , yours , theirs

This book is mine


This pencil case is yours
Mary is a relative of his
I've found hers
Ours need watering
Yours are bigger than mine
These are your notebooks and those are theirs

: Reflexisive pronouns

Self selves :
my, your, our, him, her, it, them

myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
ourselves
yourselves
themselves

She made this skirt herself


The queen herself was among the demostrators
The mayor himself spoke for the abolition of the dealth penalty



: Interrogative pronouns

Wh
:
what, which, who, whom, and whose
/ Examples
What did you say

Who said that?

Which do you prefer?

...
: Negative pronouns


no-one, nobody, neither, none and nothing

Nobody is here
She is neither a British nor American

: Reciprocal pronouns

:
each other / one another
:

They write to each other / one another once a month
..
: Relative pronouns

:
(who/whoever/which/that)



The student who studies hardest usually does the best

: Quantifier

:
some, any, something, much, many, little, few , a lot

I have few litrary books



They like orange so much

Nouns
( )

What is anoun
: ( person) (a thing)
( aplace ) ( an animal ) ( an idea )
( Noun )
A/ an/ the
( Noun)
( Nouns)
dog, cats, women, Sally, justice, strength, departure
apples, England, Califonia, Steve Young, mice
school, beach, kindness, food


Samar and Nora made a cake




( + )
The moon is far away from the earth

( )
His kindness was appreciated

( )
The plane will depart in twenty minutes

( )
) )
Concrete & abstract nouns
(concrete N)


Examples /
honey --
pillows --
fish --
juice --

........
) ) Abstract N
:

Examples /
Thought --



Wisdom --
Freedom --
Creativity --

I could smell dinner ****ing
(Concrete N )
I don't have much knowledge on the subject, Professor
(abstract N)

Proper & common Nouns
:
Proper N

.


) )
Examples/
Nawal
Ramadan
Friday
Chrestianity
Islam
First World War


I will go with Sara tomorrow



:
Common Noun

.

Examples/
This woman is my sister

This is my teacher


Plural & singular forms

S es

Friend
Friends
S
:
X , O , S , Sh , Ch , Z
Es
:
Box -- Boxes
Wash -- washes
Buzz -- buzzes
Class -- classes


S/es

Man -- men
Child -- children
Mouse -- mice
Foot --feet
Goose -- geese
Tooth -- teeth
Ox -- oxen
Woman -- women
louse -- lice
Y

I , o , u , e , a


Y

I
:
One country -- three countries

Y


S

Toy-- toys

F / fe
Ves

Leaf -- leaves

Nouns
( )


Examples /



Dear--- dear
Fish --- fish
Means --- means
Series--- series
Sheep--- sheep
Species --- species
Possessive Nouns

:

S

The girl
Naser
My wife
A lady

The girls
Nasers
My wifes
A ladys

The red suitcase is Cassandra's
) )
This is Nasers pen
) )
:
) )
S

'The girls--- the girls


'Their wives --- their wives
'The ladies--- the ladies




#
S
Man--- men
Child --- children
Mouse--- mice
Foot--- feet
Goose --- geese
Tooth --- teeth
Woman--- women
louse--- lice

S

The men--- the mens


My children--- my childrens

Countable & Non-Countable Nouns

: Countable Nouns

.. ..... ..

Book --- books



We painted the table red and the chairs blue


1-
A/an
2-
S/es




Many , a lot of ,some , two , three . four
A chair--- many chairs
A chair --- a lot of chairs
A chair --- some chairs
A chair --- three chairs

How many ..?

How many apples are there


: Non-Countable Nouns
(or mass noun)

....
:
1- A/an
2- S/es

Much , a lot of , some
water--- some water
water--- a lot of water
water--- much water

How much?

Verbs

What Is A Verb
. :

Subject + Verb+ Object

Samar reads a book






1- ( a verb)

I come from Canada



( come)
2- ( Compound Verb )

It will snow tomorrow



(will snow)
Will snow

Present simple
past simple
Future




Regular verbs & Irregular Verbs

We talk to our father


( ) ( talk)

ed
We talked to our father

Talk--- talked

ed

They go to school

Go ed

They went to school


Go --- went
ed Go

Present simple

What do we mean by Present simple






Present simple
present continous

How to form present simple

Present simple
: Subject + verb (s) +object
(s)
: (s)

1- :
He , She , It
( s)

(s)
/ Examples
He sings in his room

She eats the apple

It snows in Alaska

(s)



He , She , it

We , they , I , you
( s)
2- :

( s)
/Examples
Naser sings in his room


Samar eats the apple


The Internet stops suddenly


: Subject + verb +object
( s)

*
/ Examples
I , you , they ,we
They watch the T.V every day

We watch the T.V every day

You watch the T.V every day

I watch the T.V every day



( s)
They watches the T.V every day
(s) They
He , She ,it

Is , am , are
( is)
(She , He , it )
Is >>>>singular
/ Examples
She is a muslim

He is a muslim

It is a nice book

Huda is a muslim girl

Are (They ,we , you)

Are>>>>>plural
/ Examples
They are Muslims

We are Muslims

You are Muslim

Am I
/ Examples



I am from Saudia Arabia

I is are
( Helping verb)


When to use the present simple
/

.(Actions which happen regularly (every day, every week, etc
/Examples
They go to school every day


She takes ashower every Friday


) / ...)
/Examples
The sun rises from the east


The earth goes round the sun

/

/Examples
Nurses look after patients in hospitals

* Do / Does
do



I , you , they ,we
does
He , she ,it
not Do / Does
Do / Does+ not
/Examples
I do not like rice

She does not like rice


How to form questions in present simple

/Examples
She is amuslim



V+Subject+the rest of the sentence + ?

Is she amuslim

They watch the T.V every day


:
Do they watch the T.V every day
*
Always, usually, often

!"
Present Continuous



What do we mean by the term Present Continuous
) (

**




When to use the Present Continuous
:




Now
/ Examples
Fahad and Mohammad are playing football now




)) ))



:



/ Examples
Ahmad is working for an oil company

)) ((


))((

Sara is studying music in New York

)) ((


)) ((

:



/ Examples
We are buying anew car as soon as the new models come out

)) ((



As soon as

The new student is arriving next week



)) ((



Next week
:

always
/Example
My young son always is learning new things



/Example
Wake up ! you are always sleeping


:

/ Examples
I am taking six course this semester


She is writing another book this year






How to form The present Continuous


(ing)

(is-am- are)

I + am + V - ing
I am ( I am)
( ing)
/Example
I am reading a nice story now

she-he-it) + is + V- ing)
She-he -it
is ( ing)
/ Examples
She is trying to improve his work

It is raining



we-you-they)+ are+ V -ing)
we-you-they
are ( ing)
/ Examples
They are sleeping now

You are singing beautifully

)) / ))!!!




/
Mental state
(know-realize-understand-recognize-believe-feel-suppose-think-imaginedoubt-remember-forget-want-need-prefer-mean)


He is knowing

He knows
/
Emotinal state
(love-like-appreciate-hate-dislike-fear-envy-mind -care)
/
Possesion(posses-have-own-belong)



/
Sense perception
(taste-smell-hear-feel-see)
/
(seem-look-appear-cost-owe-weigh-be-exist-consist of- contain-include)


How to form the negative

not

They are sleeping now



not

Is-am-are

They are not sleeping now


How to form Questions in Present Continous

They are sleeping now



Are they sleeping now

"
The Present Perfect tense
:
(What do we mean by the term(Present Perfect

.......- ) ) _


* .
*

)
)

) (



Samar: Read this book , it is very nice
Nora: I have read it already




How to form the present perfect tense?

Have / has
Past participle

Has / have + Past participle



has



She-he-it has

(Subject+has+ V (past participle

She-he-it has

/ Examples
She has learned French already

He has lost his keys

have
I-you-we-they have

(Subject+have+ V (past participle

I-you-we-they
have

/ Examples
I have met many people since I came here in june

We have been here for two weeks

They have studied the lesson very good


When to use the Present Perfect tense?




)(
since

I have met many people since I came here in June





He has spoken English since he was achild


( ) ( )
:
) (
for

He has studied English for along time




) (

They have been here for several years


) (

:
( (



He has played football from time to time



He has appeared on television Occasionally

He has just left



She has worked very hard this week

Since for
Since

I have met many people since I came here in June

For
He has studied English for along time


How to make questions?


They have studied the lesson very well



X

?Have they studied the lesson very well
have they ...

The negative
not never
have / has

They have studied the lesson very well

They have not studied the lesson very well



already

She has already gone



Just

-

?Do you like something to eat


No I have just had lunch
Yet


I have written the letter but I havent posted it yet


?Has it stopped raining yet

:

This is the first time I have driven a car






Have you ever+V past participle

?Have you ever eaten caviar


?
?Have you ever read Hamlet
?

#

The present perfect continuous tense
Or
The present perfect Progressive tense




What do we mean by Present Perfect tense
()
( (
( (
:
( (
) (
( (

How to form The present perfect continuous tense

Have Has

Been

Ing

Have/has +Been+ V- ing
Been
Ing

: Singular
has


She-He-It

Subject + has+ been + V ing



He has been working
: Plural
have


I we you - they

Subject + have+ been + V ing

They have been working



When to use The present perfect continuous tense
( )


/ Examples
I have been sitting here since seven oclock
). .
)
You have been studying for five hours

) (

It has been raining all day






Since for



All morning

All day

All week




The Present continuous


The Present Perfect continuous


I am writing the lesson

He has been repairing the car since seven oclock






( live-work- teach)
- -

I have lived here since 1985



I have been living here since 1985

$%

The Past simple

..

The Past Simple




What do we mean by The past Simple Tense

.

..
) )

How to form the Past simple Tense


) : )
( ed)
.



Regular Verbs

Subject+ V-ed+ Complement
Ed

It rained yesterday

Rain
ed
Naser arrived last night


ed
: ed



Irregular Verbs
..
) (
.

) )

Irregular Verbs
When to use The Past Simple

/

Yesterday
last night



year ago
last week
last month

It rained yesterday

Naser arrived last night

They came here ayear ago

/

Examples
He went to town


He spoke to the captin about it
) . )
The negative


I walked to school yesterday

did not



Didnt


I Didnt walk to school yesterday


How to form Q
did Didnt

Did you go out last night



did

When did Yaser die

/ be is-am-are
was -were
/ did
was -were

&

The Past Perfect



What do we mean by the Past Perfect

( )










How to form the Past Perfect


Has/have+V-past participle


Had+ V-past participle
had
had
She - he - it - you - they - we - I

I had eaten the apple before I went to school yesterday






O.K



When to use the Past Perfect
( )

( )

/Examples
My Parents had already eaten by the time I got home

:
:

I had finished my work before the captin came



:
:

He had never seen a cigarette before



:
:

He had already heard the story



:
:

He had called the doctor when I got there



:
:



' (! )

The Past continuous tense
or
The Past Progressive tense


? What do we mean by the Past continuous tense


)
)


?How to form the Past continuous tense

Be+V-ing
Be is-am-are





was/were+V-ing
was/were ing


/ Was+V-ing
was she-I-he-it

I was playing
She was playing
He was playing
it was raining
/ were+V-ing
were we-you-they

were+V-ing

They were playing


We were playing
You were playing


When to use the Pastcontinuous tense

( (



/
Mental state
(know-realize-understand
recognize-believe-feel-suppose-think-imagine
-doubt-remember-forget-want-need-prefer-mean)
/
Emotinal state
(love-like-appreciate-hate-dislike-fear-envy-mind -care)
/
Possesion
(posses-have-own-belong)
/
Sense perception
(taste-smell-hear-feel-see)
/
(seem-look-appear-cost-owe-weigh-be-exist
consist of- contain-include)

/

I was eating dinner when Adel called me





( called)

While they were playing tennismit rained



+

I was walking home when I met Khaled



+


This time last year I was living In Syria

At eight Oclock last night I was studying

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