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CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION 1.2WHY WE NEED IT? 1.2.1Advantages associated 1.2.2Advantage to consumers 1.3 TECHNOLOGY 1.4 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 2 2.1 SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS 2.1.1LNG SOURCES 2.1.2 WHAT DRIVES NATURAL GAS PRICE 2.1.3 LNG STUDY WHITE PAPER 2.1.4 COMPARISIONS WITH OTHER FUELS 2.1.5 ENIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUES RELATING LNG 2.1.6 LNG DIRECTLY TO STATIONS

2.2 ISSUES RELATED TO LNG 2.4 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 3 3.1 PRIMARY DATA ANALYSIS 3.1.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.2 ANALYSIS 3.3 RESEARCH FINDINGS 3.3.1 SWOT ANALYSIS 3.3.2 4 P`S OF MARKETING 3.4 CONCLUSION CHAPTER 4 4.1 IMPLEMENTING LNG AS A FUEL 4.1.1 FUEL TANK DESIGN 4.1.2 ENGINE TECHNOLOGY 4.1.3 CHALLENGES Bibliography ANNEXURE
1. 2. 3. Questionnaire. Expert Questions. Various LNG Outlet Images.

CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION


Liqufied Natural gas is becoming one of the most important primary energy sources for the 21st century. This is due to the large reserves throughout the world and because it is relatively clean fuel. This project is concerned with the utilization of the LNG directly as a fuel for vehicles. As the LNG is cheap and if it used directly without the cost of re gasification it would be a better and cheap fuel for the vehicles. With small improvement in the design of the vehicles, LNG can be significantly used as a direct source of fuel having high efficiency and more economical and most important environmental friendly fuel. Also if it be used as fuel it will curtail the government burden in terms of subsidy, which it gives in other fuels as Diesel or LPG.

1.2

WHY WE NEED IT
Currently fuel price ( diesel,petrol etc) are rising at rapid rate and it is assumed to rise further in near future. Moreover, Government is also planning to shed the subsidies on fuel in near future. This will cause further rise in price. Hence at this prevailing situation we need a source which is cheaper and economical and also at par in efficiency with these fuel. Also with growing environmental concerns through out the globe there is a huge pressure on developing countries like India to adopt clean eco friendly fuel which would decrease the global warming. Hence above and many more factors forcing to use LNG as a source of fuel for automobile.

1.2.1 Advantages associated


Low operating Cost. Safe to operate. Clean fuel burns with almost zero residue. Easily Available. Energy Security. High Octane number. Reliable. Less Maintenance. East to install in automobile and high flexibility.

Less knocking tendency in automobile. Produces less Sulphur content. Tax rebate in importing LNG ( budget 2012-13). Many organisation ready to promote this project.

1.2.2 Advantage to consumers


Less in cost. Less in operating cost. Safe operation. Affordable. Less hazardous. Being a gas it takes less time to fill compare to CNG and LPG.

1.3 TECHNOLOGY
In this project we have developed a way to utilize LNG as a fuel for automobile. This fuel directly be used without any re gasification. As LNG is imported then it be converted into CNG or LPG which later used as a fuel. Re gasification can cost around 30-40 % of the cost, but we have developed a technology to use it without re gasification. With a small change in the automobile design LNG can efficiently be used as a fuel. The modification be in case of Fuel tank, little bit in engine design ( cylinder lining, head). Thus with this project we are developing a fuel that would serve the future. According to our study and expert opinion S60G type of engine which is used for Natural gas drive can be used for this purpose. The fuel tank be replaced by Cryogenic tank for storing LNG at -161 degree centigrade.

1.4

CONCLUSION
With the use of LNG as a fuel various common aspect as like mileage, budget, burden on government and economy of common people can be met. Also environment can be protected and energy security of the country can be met. This project if implemented can change the whole prospects of automobile industry.

CHAPTER 2
2.1 SECONDARY DATA ANALYSIS 2.1.1LNG SOURCES
Various source countries of LNG are : ( Source :- IEA, International Energy Agency) Russian Federation Indonesia Australia Qatar US Trinidad & Tobago

LNG Import and Re gasification Terminals ( Source) (http://www.chevron.com/deliveringenergy/naturalgas/liquefiednaturalgas/ LNG is returned to a gaseous state at LNG import and re gasification terminals, which are designed and constructed according to stringent national codes and international standards. Worldwide, there are 101 import terminals designed to receive LNG shipments, 24 LNG liquefaction export terminals and more than 200 storage facilities where LNG is kept until needed. At present in India has 2 existing LNG receiving terminals and many others are proposed.

2.1.2 WHAT DRIVES NATURAL GAS PRICE ( Source: Research paper by Stephen P.A. Brown & Mine K.Yucel.)

2.1.3 LNG STUDY WHITE PAPER ( Source: - LNG study white paper, university of California, Riverside)

2.1.4 COMPARISIONS WITH OTHER FUELS


Gasoline No. 2 Diesel Biodiesel CNG Electricity Ethanol (E85) Hydrogen LNG

Chemical Structure C4 to C12

C10 to C20

Methyl esters of CH4 C16-C18 fatty acids 46 to 60 N/A

N/A

CH3CH2OH

H2

CH4

Cetane number

5 to 20

40 to 55

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Octane number Main fuel source

86 to 94 Crude Oil

8 to 15 Crude Oil

~25 120+ Soy bean oil, Underground waste cooking oil, reserves animal fats, and rapeseed oil

N/A 100 Coal; however, Corn, Grains, or nuclear, natural agricultural waste gas, hydroelectric, and renewable resources can also be used. ~ 80,000 Btu

130+ Natural Gas, Methanol, and other energy sources

120+ Underground reserves

N/A Energy Content per 109,000 - 125,000 128,000 - 130,000 117,000 - 120,000 33,000 - 38,000 Btu Btu Btu (compared to Btu @ 3000 psi; Gallon diesel #2) 38,000 - 44,000 @ 3600 psi 1.1 to 1 or 90% 3.94 to 1 or 25% Energy Ratio (relative to diesel) at 3000 psi; 3.0 to Compared to 1 @ 3600 psi Gasoline Liquid Liquid Liquid Compressed Gas N/A Physical State

~73,500 Btu

1.42 to 1 or 70%

1.55 to 1 or 66%

Liquid

Compressed Gas or Liquid

Liquid

Types of vehicles available today

All types of vehicle classes.

Many types of vehicles classes.

Any vehicle that Many types of runs on diesel vehicle classes. todayno modifications are needed for up to 5% blends. Many engines also compatible with up to 20% blends.

Neighborhood Electric Vehicles, Bicycles, Lightduty vehicles, medium and heavy duty trucks and buses.

Light-duty vehicles, medium and heavy-duty trucks and buses these vehicles are flexible fuel vehicles that can be fueled with E85 (ethanol), gasoline, or any combination of the two fuels.

No vehicles are Medium and available for heavy-duty truc commercial sale and buses. yet, but some vehicles are being leased for demonstration purposes.

See your local car/truck dealership Vehicle Conversion N/A Information Available Vehicles to purchase Produces harmful Environmental Impacts of Burning emissions; however, gasoline the Fuel and gasoline vehicles are rapidly improving and emissions are being reduced.

See your local car/truck dealership N/A

Visit the Vehicle Buyers Guide (http://www.ccities.doe.gov/vbg/) to learn more about light and heavy-duty

Visit the AFDC Web Sites Conversion page (http://www.afdc.doe.gov/afv/conversion.shtml)to learn more

Produces harmful emissions; however, diesel and diesel vehicles are rapidly improving and emissions are being reduced especially with after-treatment devices. Manufactured using imported oil, which is not an energy secure option.

Reduces particulate matter and global warming gas emissions compared to conventional diesel; however, NOx emissions may be increased.

CNG vehicles can EVs have zero demonstrate a tailpipe emissions; reduction in ozone- however, some forming emissions amount of emissions can be compared to some contributed to conventional fuels; power generation. however, HC emissions may be increased.

E-85 vehicles can demonstrate a 25% reduction in ozone-forming emissions compared to reformulated gasoline.

Zero regulated emissions for fuel cell-powered vehicles, and only NOx emissions possible for internal combustion engines operating on hydrogen.

LNG vehicles c demonstrate a reduction in ozo forming emissio

compared to so conventional fu however, HC emissions may b increased.

Energy Security Impacts

Manufactured using mostly imported oil, which is not an energy secure option.

Biodiesel is domestically produced and has a fossil energy ratio of 3.3 to 1, which means that its fossil energy inputs are similar to those of petroleum.

CNG is domestically Electricity is Ethanol is produced produced. The generated mainly domestically and it is United States has through coal fired renewable. vast natural gas power plants. Coal reserves. is the United States most plentiful fossil energy resource and coal is our most economical and price stable fossil fuel.

Hydrogen can help reduce U.S. dependence on foreign oil by being produced from renewable resources.

LNG is domestic produced and its typically costs les than gasoline and diesel fuels.

Fuel Availability

Available at all fueling stations.

Available at select Available in bulk fueling stations. from an increasing number of suppliers. There are 22 states that have some biodiesel stations available to the public.

More than 1,100 CNG stations can be found across the country. California has the highest concentration of CNG stations. Home fueling will be available in the fall of 2005.

Most homes, government facilities, fleet garages, and businesses have adequate electrical capacity for charging, but, special hookup or upgrades may be required. More than 600 electric charging stations are available in California and Arizona.

Most of the E-85 fueling stations are located in the Midwest, but in all, approximately 150 stations are available in 23 states.

There are only a small number of hydrogen stations across the country. Most are available for private use only.

Public LNG stations are limited (only 35 nationally), LNG is available through several suppliers of cryogenic liquid

AFV Fueling Station Locations Infrastructure Information

N/A N/A

N/A N/A

Visit the AFDC Web Sites AFV Fueling Station Locator (http://www.afdc.doe.gov/refueling_mapsite.shtm Visit the AFDC Web Site's "Infrastructure Development Information and Resources Page"

Maintenance Issues

Hoses and seals may be affected with higherpercent blends, lubricity is improved over that of conventional diesel fuel.

High-pressure tanks require periodic inspection and certification.

Service requirements are expected to be reduced. No tuneups, oil changes, timing belts, water pumps, radiators, or fuel injectors are required. However, the batteries must be replaced every 3-6 years.

Special lubricants may be required. Practices are very similar, if not identical, to those for conventionally fueled operations.

When hydrogen is used in fuel cell applications, maintenance should be very minimal.

High-pressure tanks require periodic inspection and certification.

Safety (Without exception, all alternative fuel vehicles must meet today's OEM safety standards)

Gasoline is a relatively safe fuel since people have learned to use it safely. Gasoline is not biodegradable though, so a spill could pollute soil and water.

Diesel is a relatively safe fuel since people have learned to use it safely. Diesel is not biodegradable though, so a spill could pollute soil and water.

Less toxic and more biodegradable than conventional fuel, can be transported, delivered, and stored using the same equipment as for diesel fuel.

Pressurized tanks have been designed to withstand severe impact, high external temperatures, and automotive environmental exposure.

OEM EVs meet all Ethanol can form the same vehicle an explosive vapor safety standards as in fuel tanks. In conventional accidents; vehicles. however, ethanol is less dangerous than gasoline because its low evaporation speed keeps alcohol concentration in the air low and non explosive.

Hydrogen has an excellent industrial safety record; codes and standards for consumer vehicle use are under development.

Cryogenic fuels require special handling procedures and equipment to properly store a dispense.

Average Cost/gge

You can get average costs for all fuel types through the Alternative Fuel Price Report (www.afdc.doe.gov/documents/pricereport/pricereports.html)

2.1.5 ENIRONMENT AND HEALTH ISSUES RELATING LNG ( Source:- Centre for Liquefied Natural Gas)
LNG being a safe, environmentally-friendly fuel.LNG is odorless, non-toxic and noncorrosive. When exposed to the environment, LNG rapidly evaporates, leaving no residue on water or soil. If spilled, LNG would not result in a slick because it evaporates quickly and disperses.

It produces relatively low emissions when burned to heat homes, generate electricity and fuel vehicles. LNG vehicles can demonstrate a reduction in ozone for Ming emissions compared to some conventional fuels; however, HC emissions may be increased.

2.1.6 LNG DIRECTLY TO STATIONS ( Source :- Research Paper Poster PO -12)

2.2

ISSUES RELATED TO LNG


The world has enormous quantities of natural gas, but much of it is in areas far from where the gas is needed. To move this environmentally friendly fuel across oceans, natural gas must be converted into liquefied natural gas (LNG). LNG is natural gas that has been cooled to 260 F (162 C), changing it from a gas into a liquid 1/600th its original volume. This dramatic reduction allows it to be shipped safely and efficiently aboard specially designed LNG vessels. After arriving at its destination, LNG is warmed to return it to its gaseous state and delivered to natural gas customers through local pipelines. LNG tanker is double-hulled and heavily insulated with a special membrane system. LNG is not new. It has been transported and used for more than 50 years and has a strong safety record. LNG vessels have traveled more than 151 million miles during the past 50 years, and more than 119,000 LNG carrier voyages have taken place without major accidents or safety or security problems, either in port or at sea.

An LNG spill would not damage the ground or leave any residue as it evaporates. In water, LNG is insoluble and would simply evaporate, making water-spill cleanup unnecessary. LNG is not a flammable liquid, so it will not explode or burn. Like other fuels, when it vaporizes and mixes with oxygen, it is flammable if it is exposed to an ignition source. Even then, there is a limited flammability range: If the concentration of natural gas in the air is below 5 percent or greater than 15 percent, it will not ignite. While converting natural gas to and from LNG, stringent safety and security measures are employed. The process of cooling natural gas into a liquid is called liquefaction. Like at any industrial facility, security issues for liquefaction facilities are tailored to regional and local concerns. Security can include physical barriers, personnel and equipment access control, site surveillance, and intruder alert systems. Shipping LNG Safely and Securely LNG ships are equipped with sophisticated leak detection technology, emergency shutdown systems, advanced radar and positioning systems, and numerous other technologies designed to ensure the safe and secure transport of LNG. LNG ships are double-hulled and heavily insulated, with an extensive cargo safety system. LNG is not stored under pressure. As in all modern oil tankers, sophisticated radar and positioning systems alert the crew to other traffic and hazards around the ship. Distress systems and beacons automatically send out signals if the ship experiences difficulty. Ships also employ antipiracy and boarding measures and must comply with the requirements of the International Ship and Port Security Code. The cargo control room is manned continuously when cargo is being transferred to and from the ship.

2.4

CONCLUSION
With the analysis of the secondary data available with us, this project is feasible and can be effectively utilized as a future fuel for automobile. As comparatively according to secondary data the fuel is cheap and have all the aspects which are required for a prosperous fuel. Hence switching towards LNG is a good option.

CHAPTER 3 3.1 PRIMARY DATA ANALYSIS 3.1.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


The Study on LNG as an Alternative Fuel was conducted through primary and secondary research. The secondary source was through Internet Sources, websites & Research Paper. It is with an objective of understanding this project better with information and tables wherever deemed necessary. Primary ResearchSample Design Used: Random Sampling Convenience Sampling

Sample Size: For the project the sample size taken was of 25 people.

Research Instruments: Primary data source used by us was Questionnaire & Scheduling. Interview with Expert Groups.

3.2 ANALYSIS
The data analysis of this research was carried out using Microsoft Excel software through various Pi- chart and diagram also through tables and calculation.

3.3 RESEARCH FINDINGS 3.3.1 SWOT ANALYSIS


1. Strength a) Highly reliable. b) Less operating Cost comparatively c) Safer to operate. d) Easily available. e) Environmental friendly. 2. Weakness a) High initial investment. b) Availability of Infrastructure. c) Less knowledge about the product. d) Availability. 3. Opportunitiesa) Can serve as a alternative of petrol , diesel, CNG, LPG. b) Can help to decrease the pollution level. c) Energy Security. d) Better mileage. e) Can help to decrease the monthly budget of consumer. 4. Threatsa) Serious competition from other fuel available in market. b) Political. c) Knowledge.

3.3.2 4 PS OF MARKETING 1. Product - LNG as a fuel for automobile. 2. Price - Price at which we are providing the product have less operating cost , better efficiency and moreover environmental friendly. But the initial investment is little bit more comparatively petrol and diesel vehicles. 3. Place Providing the fuel to all market segments, basically to car owners and for heavy vehicles.

4. Promotion Customers can be attracted through local TV channels, News paper and by door to door marketing.

CHAPTER 4 4.1 IMPLEMENTING LNG AS A FUEL

For implementing LNG as a fuel in automobile we can use the series 60 natural gas engine(S60G) which was developed Detroit Diesel corporation to fill a projected need for a low emission heavy duty high horse power engine that could be successfully employed.

4.1.1 FUEL TANK DESIGN


On-board fuel storage is considerably different between diesel and LNG. Standard diesel tanks are single-wall aluminum containers and cost in the hundreds of dollars, depending on size.Tanks for cryogenic LNG require double-wall construction from stainless steel with super insulation and vacuum inter-tank space. Typical tank pressures are between 20 to 150 psig, but the design must withstand more than two times that amount to compensate for heat gain when not in use. LNG fuel storage systems are significantly more complicated to design and manufacture and their cost is an order of magnitude greater than that of a diesel tank. The weight of LNG is approximately 3.5 lb/gal, compared to diesel at 7.6lb/gal. Unfortunately, the more complex LNG fuel tank is substantially heavier. In total, given the difference in tank design and fuel density, LNGpowered tractors have suffered a weight penalty. 4.1.2 Engine Technology Current dedicated natural gas engine technology, which includes the DDC S60G, uses a throttle, a low compression ratio, and spark ignition. Inherent to this engine strategy is a thermal efficiency penalty of 15% or more versus a diesel-

cycle engine. By comparison, the diesel engine does not use a throttle, has a high compression ratio and is ignited by heat of compression. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is sponsoring research that will potentially lead to natural gas engines with efficiencies similar to diesel engines. However, these new engine designs may take many years to perfect and commercialize.

4.1.3 CHALLENGES
First and foremost challenge will be to prepare a practical working model which will not only be efficient but also be cost effective. Convencing the automobile industry to implement necessary changes in there models. Manufacturing of Cryogenic tanks. Requirement of skilled people. Starting problem may arise. Under cooling may also occur.