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UNIT-I INTRODUTION Definition: It is defined as the process of artificially supplying of water to soil for raising crops.

It is a science of planning and designing an efficient, low cost, economic irrigation system tailored to fit natural condition.

Benefits of irrigation
1. Increase in food production Yield increases due to controlled and timely supply of water. With assured supply of water, superior crop takes the place of inferior crops and thus the value of crop is increased. For a given crop the optimum quantity of water required may be determined experimentally and applied scientifically to the crop. 2. Protection from famine The construction of irrigation work helps during the famine and draught period. Employment can be provided during construction work. Water can be utilized during the famine from the irrigation structures. 3. Cultivation of cash crops We can grow the cash crop like sugar-cane, indigo, tobacco, cotton etcetera by scientific irrigation methods. 4. Elimination of mixed cropping Due to lack of irrigation facilities farmers adopt mixed cropping. Irrigation may eliminate this problem. 5. Increases property of people Income from the crop will be more. It changes the standard of living. 6. Addition to the wealth of country Collection of more revenue from irrigation project. Collection water tax. Crops grown can be export to the foreign country. Saves foreign exchange of food crops. 7. Generation of hydroelectric power Hydroelectric power can be generated together with the irrigation. 8. Domestic and industrial water supply Water can be supplied to the city or village for domestic purpose. Water can be supplied to the industrial are. 9. Inland navigation Inland navigation from the large cannels.

10. Improvement of communication Inspection roads of canal can be used for communication. 11. Canal plantation Along the bunds of canal plantation can be done This plantation increases the timber wealth. 12. Improvement in the ground water Constant percolation and seepage of water leads to the increase in water table. Water table remains well below the root zone of crop. 13. Aid in civilization Cultivation leads to civilization.

Ill effects of irrigation

1. Breeding places for mosquitoes Filling up of water in depression due to leakage of water. 2. Water-logging By over irrigation water table reaches the crop root-zone and gets fully saturated. This causes efflorescence and area becomes water logged. 3. Damp climate Area becomes damper and colder due to irrigation.

Types of irrigation