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EM111 Materials & Energy:-

Engineering Materials Tutorial Questions


Dr. Joseph Stokes
Solutions will be only given out in Tutorials

Question 1 [25 Marks]
a) Sketch the tensile stress-strain curve for a ductile material and for a brittle material and
define the following:
1. Yield Point and Fracture Point
2. Elastic Range and Plastic Range
3. Permanent elongation and Elastic Recovery
4. Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (E) [8 Marks]
b) Define hardness, and describe briefly how it is measured [5 Marks]
c) Explain how the toughness of a material is measured experimentally [5 Marks]
d) The following data has been measured from two experimental tests, explain the relevance
of the results
Experiment Aluminium Steel Nylon
1 75 J 60 J 2 J
2 550 Hv 910 Hv 30 Hv
Table 1 [7 Marks]

Question 1 [25 Marks]
ANSWER
a) Sketch the tensile stress-strain curve for a ductile material and for a brittle material and
define the following:
1. Yield Point (#) and Fracture Point(#)
2. Elastic Range (1) and Plastic Range (2)
3. Permanent elongation (2) and Elastic Recovery(1)
4. Youngs Modulus of Elasticity (E) [8 Marks]









Modulus of Elasticity (E) =
Strain
Stress
N/m
2

b) Define hardness, and describe briefly how it is measured [5 Marks]
The hardness of a material is a measure of its resistance to abrasion or indentation. The
hardness of a material may be specified in terms of some standard test involving indentation
or scratching of the surface of the material.
c) Explain how the toughness of a material is measured experimentally [5 Marks]
An alternative way of considering toughness is the ability of a material to withstand shock loads.
A measure of the ability to withstand suddenly applied forces is obtained by impact tests, such as
the Charpy and Izod tests. Another measure of toughness that can be used is fracture toughness.
Stress
Strain
0
(a)
Stress
Strain
0
(b)
Breaks
Breaks
(#)
(#)
1
1
2
Fracture toughness can be defined as a measure of the ability of a material to resist the
propagation of a crack.



d) The following data has been measured from two experimental tests, explain the relevance
of the results
Experiment Aluminium Steel Nylon
1 75 J 60 J 2 J
2 550 Hv 910 Hv 30 Hv
Table 1 [7 Marks]
Aluminium is a tough material, followed by steel, however nylon is very poor. A tough material
can be considered to be one that resists breaking. This we can take as meaning that a tough
material requires more energy to break it than a less tough one. Aluminium must be very ductile.
Steel is very hard, with Aluminium following behind. Nylon should not be tested using the
Vickers Hardness test, but it is poor as a hard material.

Question 2 [25 Marks]
(a) A pipe has an outside diameter of 25 mm, an inside diameter of 15 mm and length 0.40 m
and it supports a compressive load of 40 kN. The pipe shortens by 0.5 mm when the load is
applied. Determine (1) the compressive stress, (2) the compressive strain in the pipe when
supporting this load.
[12 Marks]
(b) Sketch typical load/extension curves for (1) an elastic non-metallic material, (2) a brittle
material and (3) a ductile material. Give an example of each type of material.
[13 Marks]
Question 2 [25 Marks]
ANSWER
(a) A pipe has an outside diameter of 25 mm, an inside diameter of 15 mm and length 0.40 m
and it supports a compressive load of 40 kN. The pipe shortens by 0.5 mm when the load is
applied. Determine (1) the compressive stress, (2) the compressive strain in the pipe when
supporting this load. [12 Marks]
%) 125 . 0 ( 00125 . 0
4 . 0
0005 . 0
3 . 127
10 142 . 3
40000
2 4
= = =
= =
=
=

l
x
strain e Compressiv
MPa
Area
Force
e Compressiv
m Area
N force e Compressiv

(b) Sketch typical load/extension curves for (1) an elastic non-metallic material, (2) a brittle
material and (3) a ductile material. Give an example of each type of material. [13
Marks]





Question 3 [25 Marks]:
a) You as an engineer will test the material described in Table Q1.
Table Q1. Properties of a certain type of material.
Yield
Strength
@ 0.2%
Strain
Tensile
Strengt
h
Origin
al
Length
Resistan
ce
Cross-
section
al Area
Breakdow
n Voltage
Density Specific
Heat
Capacity
200MPa 220MP
a
100mm 5x10
13
O 10mm
x
10mm
0.6x10
6
V 1200
Kg/m
3
1000
J/KgK
For each test result determine:
Extension Extension Extension
L
o
a
d
L
o
a
d
L
o
a
d
Polyethylene Cast iron Mild steel
Extension Extension Extension
L
o
a
d
L
o
a
d
L
o
a
d
Polyethylene Cast iron Mild steel
(i) Modulus of Elasticity and briefly comment on the meaning of its result
[2 Marks]
(ii) Compressive Strength if a force of 30kN broke the sample and briefly comment on the
meaning of its result [2 Marks]
(iii)Percentage Elongation if the sample broke at an extension of 1mm and briefly comment
on the meaning of its result [2 Marks]
(iv) Electrical Resistivity and briefly comment on the meaning of its result
[2 Marks]
(v) Electrical Conductivity [1 Mark]
(vi) Dielectric Strength and briefly comment on the meaning of its result
[2 Marks]
(vii) Linear expansion if the sample extends by 2mm when the temperature is varied
by 10
o
C [1 Mark]
(viii) Mass of the sample [1 Mark]
(ix) Amount of heat required to raise the sample by 10
o
C [1 Mark]
(x) Specific Strength and briefly comment on the meaning of its result [2 Marks]
(xi) Vickers Hardness if the diagonal length of the indent was found to be 2x10
-4
m under a
force of 100N. [2 Marks]
(xii) Do the above results describe any particular type of material? [7 Marks]




Question 3 [25 Marks]:
ANSWER

b) You as an engineer will test the material described in Table Q1.
Table Q1. Properties of a certain type of material.
Yield
Strength
@ 0.2%
Strain
Tensile
Strength
Origin
al
Length
Resistan
ce
Cross-
section
al Area
Breakdow
n Voltage
Density Specifi
c Heat
Capaci
ty
200MPa 220MPa 100mm 5x10
13
O 10mm
x
10mm
0.6x10
6
V 1200
Kg/m
3
1000
J/KgK
For each test result determine:
ANSWER
(i) Modulus of Elasticity and comment on the meaning of its result [2 Marks]
E = Yield/Strain = [200x10
6
N/m
2
]/ [0.2%/100% strain)] = 100 x10
9
N/m
2
or100GPa
Proof stress possible used to get result, low stiffness value
(ii) Compressive Strength if a force of 30kN broke the sample and comment on the meaning
of its result
[2 Marks]
CS = F/A = [30 x10
3
N]/[10x10/(1000)
2
m
2
] = 300 x10
6
N/m
2
or 300MPa
The Comp Stress is higher than Tensile (220MPa) so material may be a ceramic
(iii)Percentage Elongation if the sample broke at an extension of 1mm and comment on the
meaning of its result
[2 Marks]
%El. = Delta L / L0 x100% = [1mm/100mm] x100% = 1%
So brittle material eg. ceramic
(iv) Electrical Resistivity and comment on the meaning of its result [2 Marks]
= RA/L
0
= {5x10
13
O x[10x10/(1000)
2
m
2
]}/[100/(1000) m] =5x10
10
Om
This is an insulator, eg. ceramic has value of 1x10
10
Om
(v) Electrical Conductivity [1 Mark]
Conductivity =[1/] =1/5x10
10
Om = 0.2x10
-10
O
-1
m
-1

(vi) Dielectric Strength and comment on the meaning of its result
[2 Marks]
DS = [Breakdown Volt]/[thick] = [0.6x10
6
V]/[10/1000 m] = 6 x10
7
V/m
Requires a DS similar to plastics to breakdown the material
(vii) Linear expansion if the sample extends by 2mm when the temperature is varied
by 10
o
C [1 Mark]
o = [DeltaL/L0]/[Delta T] = [2mm/100mm]/[10K] = 2 x 10
-3
K
-1
(viii) Mass of the sample [1 Mark]
= M/Vol = > 1200 Kg/m
3
= M/[100x10x10x10
-9
m
3
], M = 12 x10
-3
Kg or 12g
(ix) Amount of heat required to raise the sample by 10
o
C [1 Mark]
c = [Q]/[M x deltaT] => 1000J/KgK = Q/[12 x10
-3
Kg x 10K], Q = 120J
(x) Specific Strength and comment on the meaning of its result [2 Marks]
S.S. = [T.S./ ] =[220MPa]/ 1200 Kg/m
3
= 0.183 MPa/ Kgm
-3
or 183.3 MPa/ Mgm
-3

This SS is higher than steel so good material
(xi) Vickers Hardness if the diagonal length of the indent was found to be 2x10
-4
m under a
force of 100N. [2 Marks]
Area = d
2
/1.854 = [2x10
-4
m]
2
/1.854 = 2.157x10
-8
m
2
, Stress (HV) =F/A
HV=100N/( 2.157x10
-8
m
2
) = 4.64 x10
9
Hv (N/m
2
)
(xii) Do the above results describe any particular type of material?
[7 Marks]
The above material is a ceramic, with high elastic modulus, very low % elongation,
compressive strength higher than tensile, insulator, high dielectric strength and needs Vickers
hardness test to measure its high hardness



Question 4 [25 Marks]
(a) Describe briefly the effects of adding the following elements to alloy steels:
(i) 1% Aluminium
(ii) Chromium
(iii) Nickel
(iv) Silicon.
(v) Tungsten
[10 Marks]
(b)Figure Q2(a) shows a schematic taken from your Material Science notes, label the type of
Solid Solution produced in A and in B.
A B
[2 Marks]
(c) Figure Q2(b) shows the Copper-nickel phase equilibrium diagram. Describe what is
happening and how many phases exist; (i) Above the Liquidus Line, (ii) Between the
Liquidus and the Solidus Line and (iii) Below the Solidus Line.
[9 Marks]
(d)Sketch what you would expect to see at room temperature if you looked through a
microscope at a sample with weight composition; (i) 80%Cu 20%Ni, (ii) 50%Cu 50%Ni
and (iii) 20%Cu 80%Ni
[3 Marks]







Figure Q2(a)

















Figure Q2(b)





Question 4 [25 Marks]

ANSWER
(a) Describe briefly the effects of adding the following elements to alloy steels:
(i) 1% Aluminium
Enables steels to have a hard, wear-resistant skin by the process of nitriding
(ii) Chromium
The presence of small amounts of chromium stabilises the formation of hard carbides,
and improves the susceptibility of steels to heat treatment. Unfortunately the presence of
chromium also promotes grain growth. The presence of large amounts of chromium
improves corrosion resistance and heat resistance of steels (stainless steel).
(iii) Nickel
The presence of nickel in alloy steels results in increased strength by grain refinement. It
also improves corrosion resistance of steel. Unfortunately, nickel is a powerful
graphitiser and reduces the stability of any carbide. Nickel and chromium are often used
to complement each other's properties.
(iv) Silicon
The presence of up to 0.3 % silicon improves the fluidity of casting steels without the
reduction in mechanical properties associated with phosphorus. Up to 1 % silicon
improves the heat resistance of steels.
(v) Tungsten
The presence of tungsten in alloy steels promotes the formation of very hard carbides,
and induces sluggishness into the heat treatment of transformations. This enables the
1500-

1400-

1300-

1200-

1100-

1000-

900-

800-

-


-1500

-1400

-1300

-1200

-1100

-1000

-900

-800

-

0 20 40 60 80 100% Ni
100 80 60 40 20 0% Cu
Temperature (
o
C)
Composition
Molten solution of Copper (Cu)
plus Nickel (Ni)
Solid solution of Copper
plus Nickel
-1455
1084-
Liquidus (L)
Solidus (S)
L + S
1135
o
C
1190
o
C
1380

o
C
1410
o
C
steels to retain their hardness at high temperature. Tungsten is mainly found in high-
speed steels which are used for cutting tools and in high-duty die steels which have to
operate at high temperatures.

(b)Figure Q2(a) shows a schematic taken from your Material Science notes, label the type of
Solid Solution produced in A and in B.


A B


[2Marks]
A = Substitutional and B = Interstitial


(c) Figure Q2(b) shows the Copper-nickel phase equilibrium diagram. Describe what is
happening and how many phases exist; (i) Above the Liquidus Line, (ii) Between the
Liquidus and the Solidus Line and (iii) Below the Solidus Line.
[9 Marks]
(i) Above the Liquidus line both Copper and Nickel are soluble in each other.
(ii) Between the solidus and the liquidus is a solution of molten copper and nickel
together with crystals of a solid solution of copper and nickel.
(iii) Below the solidus the alloy consists entirely of crystals of copper and nickel in solid
solution.
[9 Marks]














Figure Q2(a)


























(d) Sketch what you would expect to see at room temperature if you looked through a
microscope at a sample with weight composition; (i) 80%Cu 20%Ni, (ii) 50%Cu
50%Ni and (iii) 20%Cu 80%Ni
[3 Marks]
(d)



[3 Marks]








1500-

1400-

1300-

1200-

1100-

1000-

900-

800-

-


-1500

-1400

-1300

-1200

-1100

-1000

-900

-800

-

0 20 40 60 80 100% Ni
100 80 60 40 20 0% Cu
Temperature (
o
C)
Composition
Molten solution of Copper (Cu)
plus Nickel (Ni)
Solid solution of Copper
plus Nickel
-1455
1084-
Liquidus (L)
Solidus (S)
L + S
1135
o
C
1190
o
C
1380

o
C
1410
o
C
Same amount of each

Primary or mostly Cu Primary or
mostly Ni
(i) (ii) (iii)

Question 5 [25 Marks]
(a) Define Phase [3 Marks]
(b) Below in Table Q3 are the solidus and liquidus for the germanium-silicon system.
Construct the phase diagram on graph paper for this system and label each region.
Table Q3
Composition Solidus Temperature Liquidus Temperature
(wt% Si) (
0
C) (
0
C)
0 938 938
10 1005 1147
20 1065 1226
30 1123 1278
40 1178 1315
50 1232 1346
60 1282 1367
70 1326 1385
80 1359 1397
90 1390 1408
100 1414 1414
[16 Marks]
(c) Indicate the following compositions as lines from liquid temperature to their solid
temperature; (i) 80%Gr 20%Si, (ii) 50%Gr 50%Si and (iii) 20%Gr 80%Si
[3 Marks]
(d) Sketch what you would expect to see at room temperature if you looked through a
microscope at a sample with weight composition; (i) 80%Gr 20%Si, (ii) 50%Gr 50%Si and
(iii) 20%Gr 80%Si
[3 Marks]
Question 5
ANSWER
The term "phase" may be defined as:
A portion of a system which is of uniform composition and texture throughout, and which is
separated from the other phases by clearly defined surfaces. [3 Marks]
































Graph plus 3 lines = 19 Marks

(c)










[3 Marks]







0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Composition (wt % Si)
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
o
C
)
Liquidus
Solidus
Liquid + Solid
Same amount of each

Primary or mostly Gr Primary or
mostly Si
(i) (ii) (iii)
Question 6 [25 Marks]
(a) What are the characteristics of a phase? [5 Marks]
(b) When a liquid solution of two metals (binary alloy) solidifies one of three things occur,
describe them? [5 Marks]
(c) Figure 1 (see overleaf) shows the iron carbide phase equilibrium diagram describe the
following:
1. The 6 phases which are shown on the diagram [5 Marks]
2. How the microstructure of an alloy of composition 0.5 wt% C, develops as the alloy
cools slowly from 1000
o
C [9 Marks]









Question 6 [25 Marks]
ANSWER
(a) What are the characteristics of a phase? [5 Marks]
The term "phase" may be defined as:
A portion of a system which is of uniform composition and texture throughout, and which is
separated from the other phases by clearly defined surfaces.
(b) When a liquid solution of two metals (binary alloy) solidifies one of three things occur,
describe them?
[5 Marks]
Temperature
(
o
C)
723
o
C



1400-


1200-


1000-


800-


600-


400-

0 1 2 3
Carbon content (%)
o + Fe
3
C

+ Fe
3
C

+ liquid


o
o+
Figure 1
With regard to metal alloys, when a liquid solution of two metals (binary alloy) solidifies one of
the following will occur:
- Metal, which are soluble in the liquid state, may become totally insoluble in the solid
state and separate out as grains in the pure state. Thus there will be two phases present,
with each phase consisting of many grains of the same composition.
- Metals, which are soluble in the liquid state, may remain totally soluble in the solid state
resulting in a "solid solution". Thus a single-phase solid solution will be present
consisting of many grains of the same composition.
- The two metals may react together chemically to form an "intermetallic compound".
Again a single phase consisting of many grains of the same composition.
(c) Figure 1 (see overleaf) shows the iron carbide phase equilibrium diagram describe the
following:
The 6 phases which are shown on the diagram [5 Marks]
(i) Ferrite (o), (ii) Austenite (), (iii) Ferrite (o) + Austenite (), (iv) Austenite () & liquid
matrix, (v) Austenite () & Cementite (Fe
3
C), (vi) Ferrite (o) + Cementite (Fe
3
C)
- Ferrite (o-phase) this is the weakest solution of carbon in BCC crystals of iron. There is a
maximum of 0.03% carbon in solid solution at 723 C falling to 0.006% carbon in solid
solution at room temperature. Ferrite is very soft, ductile and of relatively low strength.
- Austenite (-phase) this is a much more concentrated solid solution of carbon in iron than
ferrite. Austenite is formed when carbon dissolves in FCC crystals of iron in the solid
state. The maximum amount of carbon, which can be held in solution with iron in the
solid state, is 1.7% at 1150
o
C. Although this is the upper limit of carbon which can be
present in plain carbon steels, for all practical purposes there is no advantage to
increasing the carbon content beyond about 1.2 -1.4%.
- Cementite (iron-carbide phase) an excess of carbon combines with iron to form iron
carbide (Fe
3
C). Each molecule of iron carbide contains three atoms of iron chemically
combined with one atom of carbon. This is true up to the limit of 1.7% at room
temperature, beyond which the excess carbon is precipitated out as "free" or uncombined
flakes of graphite.

How the microstructure of an alloy of composition 0.5 wt% C, develops as the alloy
cools slowly from 1000
o
C [9 Marks]
In this example the steel contains 0.5% carbon. Again, the steel will commence to solidify at
temperature T
1
= 1000
o
C. The steel now consists entirely of crystal of the solid solution -phase
austenite. No further changes occur until the steel reaches temperature T
2
(800). When the steel
reaches T
2
crystals of ferrite will start to grow in the austenite so that both o-phase and -phase
crystals will be present. Since the o-phase crystals contain ferrite rather less than 0.03% carbon
in solid solution, the carbon content of the remaining phase austenite, increases progressively as
more and more ferrite is formed until 723 C, the structure will contain ferrite and austenite
which is eutectoid in composition. Thus at T
3
(723 C) the austenite will change suddenly into
the eutectoid composition of pearlite, and the final composition below T
3
will consist of crystals
of ferrite and crystals of pearlite. Figure shows a typical microstructure for annealed 0.5% carbon
steel.











Question 7 [25 Marks]:
(a) Briefly describe the following Heat Treatment Processes; Annealing, Normalising, and
Stress Relieving
[15 Marks]
(b) Discuss the effect of carbon on the properties of plain carbon steels and outline the uses of
the different classifications of plain carbon steel. (Use Figure Q2)







Figure Q2


[10 Marks]
900-

750-

600-

450-


0,100-

50-

0-

-300

-200

-100

-0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Ultimate
strength (MPa)
Brinell
hardness
Carbon content (%)
Pearlite
Ferrite
Ductility
(High)
(Low)
Hardness
Strength
Cementite Pearlite content (%)



Ferrite
Pearlite
Question 7 [25 Marks]:SOLUTION
(a) Briefly describe the following Heat Treatment Processes;
ANSWER:
- Annealing: In this process the component is heated above the upper critical temperature
(temperature at which the steel is fully austenite) and "soaked" to ensure uniform heating.
The furnace is then switched off and allowed to cool or the cooling rate may be
controlled by gradually reducing the furnace temperature. Annealing makes a component
as soft as possible.

- Normalising: When a material is formed by cold rolling, hot rolling, forging, stresses are
set up in the material. Normalising is the process that will remove these internal stresses.
The metal is heated to a prescribed temperature and allowed to "soak" until it is heated
throughout. It is then allowed to cool in air. The cooling rate is slightly faster than in
annealing. This gives a fine grain structure, which is free from internal stresses.

- Stress Relieving: This is the process in which the component is reheated and held at a low
temperature for a period of time and then cooled slowly, to remove all the thermal
stresses in the steel.
[15 marks]
(b) Discuss the effect of carbon on the properties of plain carbon steels and outline the uses of
the different classifications of plain carbon steel (Use Figure Q2).










ANSWER
900-

750-

600-

450-


0,100-

50-

0-

-300

-200

-100

-0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
Ultimate
strength (MPa)
Brinell
hardness
Carbon content (%)
Pearlite
Ferrite
Ductility
(High)
(Low)
Hardness
Strength
Cementite Pearlite content (%)
Plain carbon steel can be classified as to their uses as follows:
Low carbon steels, up to 0.15% carbon. Their main property is ductility and they are used where
cold forming is necessary. They are easily welded.
Structural steels, 0.15-0.3% carbon. These are less easily cold-formed, but they are stronger and
can still be easily welded. They are used for girders, ship plate and containers for gases and
liquids.
Medium carbon steels, 0.3-0.6% carbon. These steels are usually hot forged and are likely to
crack if welded. They have good strength and ductility and are used as axles, crankshafts and
connecting rods.
High carbon steels, 0.6-0.8% carbon. The main property is hardness and wear resistance. They
are shaped by hot forging and are used as springs, hammers, railway wheels and rails and wire
ropes.
Tools steels, 0.8-1.2% carbon. In cast or normalised state, these steels have very low toughness
due to a grain boundary network of iron carbide. Thermo-mechanical treatments allow these
steels to be used as chisels, cutting tools, saws, punches, files and knives.
[10 marks]
Question 8 [25 Marks]
(a) Define a Cermet? [5 marks]
(b) Each Polymeric/Elastomeric material has a specific application, unique to itself. Table
Q3 shows a list of Polymeric/Elastomeric materials, with the wrong application (uses)
across from it. List the corresponding Material letters with its correct corresponding
application number. (e.g. list as K-12, etc.)
Table Q3
POLYMERIC & ELASTOMERIC
MATERIALS
APPLICATIONS
A. Polyethylene (PET) 1. Motor Tyres
B. Polypropylene (PP) 2. Gears and Bearings
C. Polystyrene (PS) 3. Lenses and Dentures
D. PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC) 4. Electrical Plugs and Insulators
E. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) 5. High Temperature Seals
F. PolyMethyl MethAcrylate (PMMA) 6. Squeezy Bottles
G. Polyamide (Nylon) 7. Plant Pots
H. Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) 8. Non-Stick Coating for Cooking
Utensils
I. Silicon Rubber 9. Domestic Hardware
J. Polyisoprene 10. Foam Cups
[20 Marks]


Question 8 [25 Marks]
Answer
(a) Define a Cermet? These are materials, which combine that ductility and toughness of a
matrix with the hardness and compressive strength of ceramic particles to provide particle
reinforcement. Certain metal oxides and carbides can be bonded together and sintered into a
metal powder matrix to form important composites called cermets. This is short for CEramic
Reinforced METalS. [5 Marks]
(b) Place the corresponding Polymeric/Elastomeric material letter with its corresponding
application number (e.g. K-12)
POLYMERIC & ELASTOMERIC
MATERIALS
APPLICATIONS
A. Polyethylene (PET) 6. Squeezy Bottles
B. Polypropylene (PP) 9. Domestic Hardware
C. Polystyrene (PS) 10. Foam Cups
D. PolyVinyl Chloride (PVC) 7. Plant Pots
E. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) 8. Non-Stick Coating for Cooking Utensils
F. PolyMethyl MethAcrylate (PMMA) 3. Lenses and Dentures
G. Polyamide (Nylon) 2. Gears and Bearings
H. Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) 4. Electrical Plugs and Insulators
I. Silicon Rubber 5. High Temperature Seals
J. Polyisoprene 1. Motor Tyres
Or: A-6, B-9, C-10, D-7, E-8, F-3, G-2, H-4, I-5, J- 1 [20 Marks]

Question 9 [25 Marks]
(a) Name the two molecular structures found in Thermoplastic materials (support with
diagrams), and briefly describe the effects of increasing the temperature on these structures and
the material itself?
[10 Marks]
(b) Name three properties of the Polyethylene (PET) Thermoplastic material and list four
applications of the material. [10 Marks]
(c) What happens to Polyethylene when it is exposed to strong sunlight, unless it contains the
pigment carbon black. [5 Marks]

Question 9 [25 Marks]
ANSWER
(a) Name the two molecular structures found in Thermoplastic materials (support with
diagrams), and briefly describe the effects of increasing the temperature on these structures and
the material itself? =
1. Linear Chain Molecules
2. Branched Chain Molecules













Structure of thermoplastic polymers.

In both of these instances the bonding between adjacent molecules is secondary. Raising the
temperature of the polymer can weaken secondary bonds. Weakening of the bonding causes the

Chain Molecules
Low density polymer
Branched Molecules
High density polymer
material to become softer. This is the why these polymers can be moulded into different shapes
when they are heated.
Raising and lowering the temperature has no chemical effect on the bonding between the
molecules in a thermoplastic. They can, be re-softened and moulded repeatedly. Thermoplastics
are normally flexible. The flexibility decreases as the length of the chain increases and it also
decreases with increased branching.
[10 Marks]
(b) Name three properties of the Polyethylene (PET) Thermoplastic material and list four
applications of the material.
= (1)Tough and (2)Flexible (over a wide range of temperatures), and (3)good dimensional
stability
= pick 4 out of 5; (i)buckets, (ii)bowls, (iii)food containers, (iv)bags or (v)Squeezy bottles
[10 Marks]
(c) What happens to Polyethylene when it is exposed to strong sunlight, unless it contains the
pigment carbon black. = It Degrades [5 Marks]


Question 10 [25 Marks]
(a) Explain what is meant be fibre reinforcement and state how different classification of
fibres increase the strength of composites using engineering examples. [10 Marks]
(b)Given the data listed below, calculate: the reinforcement area fraction for the composite:
- Average fibre diameter 0.005 mm
- Average number of fibres per strand 200
- Number of strands 480
- Tensile modulus for polyester resin 3.8 GPa
- Tensile modulus of glass fibre 70 GPa
- Strength of polyester resin 50 MPa
- Strength of glass fibre 1450 MPa
- Diameter of component 25 mm
[15 Marks]



Question 10 [25 Marks]
ANSWER
Explain what is meant be fibre reinforcement and state how different classification
of fibres increase the strength of composites using engineering examples.
FIBRE REINFORCEMENT
This method of reinforcement can range from glass fibres used in GRP (Glass reinforced plastic,
explained in following section) plastic mouldings to the thick steel rods used to reinforce
concrete.

Reinforced Concrete
Concrete itself is a particle-reinforced material. It consists of mortar made from cement and sand,
reinforced with an aggregate of chipped stones. The stones are crushed to a rough texture and
sharp comers that will key into and bond with the mortar matrix. This basic concrete has a high
compressive strength but is very weak in tension. To improve its performance overall metal
reinforcing rods are added.

Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP)
The important composite material is produced when a plastic material, usually a polyester resin,
is reinforced with glass fibre in a strand or mat form. The resin is used to provide shape, colour
and finish, whilst the glass fibre, which are laid in all directions, impart mechanical strength.
The amount of reinforcement, which can be used, depends upon the orientation of the
reinforcement. With long strands laid parallel to each other the reinforcement area fraction can
be as high as 0.9. The reinforcement area fraction is the cross-sectional area of reinforcement
divided by the total cross-sectional area. With woven strand fabrics the reinforcement area
fraction can be as high as 0.75; with chopped strand mat the reinforcement area fraction is
substantially reduced but a figure of 0.5 should be considered the minimum for satisfactory
reinforcement. Obviously the lower the reinforcement area fraction, the weaker the composite
produced.
[10 Marks]
a.












Given the data listed below, calculate the reinforcement area fraction for the composite:
- Average fibre diameter 0.005 mm
- Average number of fibres per strand 200
- Number of strands 480
- Tensile modulus for polyester resin 3.8 GPa
- Tensile modulus of glass fibre 70 GPa
- Strength of polyester resin 50 MPa
Load
Load
Matrix
Reinforcement (area a)
Reinforcement area
fraction
=
A
a n

n = number of reinforcements
a = cross-sectional area of each reinforcement
A = total cross-sectional area of composite
Total cross-sectional area (A)
- Strength of glass fibre 1450 MPa
- Diameter of component 25 mm

Reinforcement area fraction =
A
a n

With n = number of reinforcements, a = cross-sectional area of each reinforcement, A = total
cross-sectional area of composite.
Diameter of a fibre = t(0.005/)
2
= 1.96 x 10
-5
mm
2
, Strand Area = (1.96 x 10
-5
mm
2
x 200) =
3.926 x 10
-3
mm
2
, so a = 3.926 x 10
-3
mm
2

A = t(12.5)
2
= 490.874 mm
2
, n = 480
Reinforcement area fraction =
874 . 490
10 926 . 3 480
3
x
= 3.84 x 10
-3
which is very low value
[15 Marks]

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