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4G Technology

K.Vamshi Krishna 08497 ECE

4G technology
Fourth generation of cellular wireless

standards. Standards are specified by ITU. 4G supports many applications. Provides comprehensive IP solution. Aims at higher data rates. Uses adaptive techniques. To solve remaining problems of 3G.

1G is implemented based on analog

technology. 2G systems use digital communication technology. Main technologies were CDMA and GSM. 3G supports for multimedia transmission. Uses only packet switching. Main technologies were CDMA and WCDMA.


Current Technology
Based on two transmission technologies


In TDMA, time-domain is divided into sub-

In CDMA, each mobile device has a unique

code(orthogonal) to encode the signal.

Limitations of 3G
Difficulty of CDMA to provide higher data

Need all digital network to fully utilize IP . Limitation of spectrum .

3G service is costly.

Desired features of 4G
High usability and global roaming. Multimedia support. Security and Privacy. Providing services to both non-IP-based as

well as IP-based devices.

Defining 4G
4G technology is broadly divided into two

Long Term Evolution (LTE) Advanced and Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave

Access (WIMAX).

4G evolution

LTE Advanced
Advancement of existing technology LTE. Data rates of LTE Advanced is fixed as 1Gbps

for peak download and 500Mbps for peak upload.

Key technologies are MIMO,OFDM and


Multi-carrier modulation takes place in OFDM

Divides into parallel bit streams. N orthogonal sub carriers modulate the

parallel bit streams.

OFDM transmitter accepts data from an IP

network, converting and encoding the data prior to modulation.

OFDMA is a multi-user OFDM. OFDMA distributes subcarriers among users. Different baseband modulation schemes can

be used for the individual sub-channels, e.g. QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM etc.

MIMO(Multi-Input Multi-Output) is a smart

antenna system. MIMO represents space-division multiplexing(SDM). Multiple antennas provide essentially multiple parallel channels. Transmission of multiple data streams is possible.


IPV6 support
IPV6 is employed because address space of

IPV4 is exhausting.
IPV6 removes the need for network address

translation (NAT).

Scheduling among users

Among sectors
Time slots are allocated according to the traffic

load in each sector. Information on the traffic load is exchanged in frequently.

Among users user scheduler will distribute time frequency regions among the users of each sector.

Virtual presence: video conferencing Virtual navigation: Database contains the

graphical representation of roads, buildings and physical characteristics of a location. Tele-geoprocessing: Questions regarding the information of a location. Crisis-management applications.