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# DMD5422 PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN

## KOLEJ KEMAHIRAN TINGGI MARA PASIR MAS, KELANTAN

PREPARED BY:
En. En HAFIZUDDIN BIN ABU BAKAR

INSTRUCTIONAL AIMS
In the end of this topic, all students will be able to;
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

Explain about the definition of pressure vessel. List out the shape of pressure vessel. Explain about the classification of pressure vessel. State type, pressure vessel nature and function Know about a factor should be consider in selecting material. Explain about the failure will be occur into pressure vessel. l

INTRODUCTION
In generally, pressure vessel is designed according to ASME codes, section VIII, division 1. Design pressure vessel should be consider with high spec of safety factor and the rule as per ASME requirement. Also it should be consider all external loads

INTRODUCTION (Cont..)
The formula to find vessel thickness and maximum allowable working pressure can obtained from ASME. Generally, pressure vessel is a large diameter pipe and it will have an internal and an external components.

INTRODUCTION (Cont..)
Pressure vessel can be classified into several shapes which that are:
1. 2. 3.

## Cylindrical pressure vessel Spherical pressure vessel Rectangular pressure vessel

Customary pressure vessel used to keep petrol whether it is leaded or unleaded unleaded.

## RECTANGULAR PRESSURE VESSEL

DEFINITION
Was one reservoir which possess different pressure compared its atmospheric pressure and content t h i d t t liable liquid, gas or semi liquid.

## CLASSIFICATION OF PRESSURE VESSEL

Pressure vessel may be classed to several category which it is based on: t hi h i b d
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 5 6.

Vessel thickness. Vessel geometrical shape. End construction of pressure vessel. p Pressure will be imposed to vessel. Material used used. Usage

## TYPES OF PRESSURE VESSEL

Pressure vessel can be divided into 4 types which every type differ according ff to his use.
1. 2. 2 3. 4.

## PRESSURE VESSEL NATURE AND FUNCTION

FRACTIONATING TOWER
It is cylindrical vessel and have total length measurement 100 feet or over over. Having a lot of rating trays in the vessel. Function as fragmentation processing place products. For example petroleum.

## PRESSURE VESSEL NATURE AND FUNCTION (Cont..)

No chemical substance change happening during fragmentation process carried out. Occurrence of different temperature in every tray level where it its depend to product type wish to be produced.

FRACTIONATING TOWER

FRACTIONATING TOWER

## PRESSURE VESSEL NATURE AND FUNCTION (Cont..)

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR Also known as Overhead Accumulator. It is cylindrical pressure vessel. It will use to collect overhead product ill t ll t h d d t from a fractionating tower.

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR

REFLUX ACCUMULATOR

## PRESSURE VESSEL NATURE AND FUNCTION (Cont..)

REACTOR (REAKTOR)
Usually use in chemical industry. The shaped of reactor is cylindrical or sometimes it will spherical vessel. Contain ti C t i active catalyst t carry out chemical t l t to t h i l reaction. Reactor can be use to change molecules or structure of fluid.

REACTOR

REACTOR

REACTOR PROCESS

## PRESSURE VESSEL NATURE AND FUNCTION (Cont..)

SEPARATOR
It is cylindrical vessel as a horizontal or vertical vessel. ti l l Function to separate vapour from liquid and also to separate liquid content from liquid density different. different

SEPARATOR

SEPARATOR

SEPARATOR

## PRESSURE VESSEL MATERIAL

May be classed to 2 types of material namely: t i l l

Carbon Steel
eg; SA240 GR.50, SA240 GR.55

Stainless Steel
eg; SA240 SS310, SA240 SS340

## MATERIAL SELECTION FACTOR

Suitability i h hi S i bili with his use. Comply with ASME s needed (Boiler and ASME's Pressure Vessel Codes). Manufacturing cost. M f i Easy to obtain material.

## FAILURE FACTOR ON PRESSURE VESSEL

It can divided into 3 failure type where it its often happen on a pressure vessel. f Corrosion Failure Stress Failure Defective Material

## FAILURE FACTOR ON PRESSURE VESSEL (Cont..)

Corrosion Failure
This failure was brought by corrosion which occurred to pressure vessel vessel. Body thickness of p y pressure vessel will decrease during sand blasting process.

## FAILURE FACTOR ON PRESSURE VESSEL (Cont..)

Stress Failure
This failure was brought by condition of substance experience recurring pressure and exceeding his limit. Strength of material will be decrease and will not be able to accommodate high g pressures.

## FAILURE FACTOR ON PRESSURE VESSEL (Cont..)

Defective Material
This failure was brought by condition of substance suffer damage during process fabrication. Material suffer damage undetectable during screening process carried out. gp

QUESTION
1.

## List out 3 shapes of pressure vessel.

Cylindrical Spherical Rectangular

2.

## List t Li t out 2 of pressure vessel types. f lt

Reactor Separator Accumulator Fractionating Tower