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ACCURACY, CLARITY AND NATURALNESS IN INDONESIAN VERSION HARRY POTTERS NOVEL: THE CHAMBER OF SECRETA CONTENT ANALYSIS

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the study

Nowadays, the demand of translation in the world is increasing. In this globalization era when there is not any boundary in news, knowledge, science or even commerce, translation becomes a process that is necessary for human beings. People no longer need to learn a certain language to read overseas texts that are not written in their own language. They merely need to read the translation version written in their native languages. Translation has an important role in many fields. Lots of books and texts have translated from one language into different languages. The books and texts such as politic, economy, health, history, literature, information technology, novel, storybook or even news script and movie script have already translated by translators from different countries. The importance of translation also occurs in novel. In some countries, specifically in Indonesia, many foreign novels are translated into bahasa to make reader easily understand while reading the story. It happened because novel is a very popular piece of literature and it tells about part of human life. Kennedy and

Gioia (1995: 271) broadly define, a novel is a book length story in prose, whose author tries to create the sense that we read, and we experience actual life. Croft (2000:6) states that the word novel usually means something new- a novelty. Some of the earliest novels, written in the (2000:6) view that novel was: only some work in which the greatest powers of the mind are displayed, in which the most through knowledge of human nature, the happiest delineation of its varieties, the liveliest effusion of wit and homur, are conveyed to the world in the best choosen language. Novel does not only function to entertain but also to expand politic power. We can share our opinion or our perception through novel. Foreign country can share their ideology in novels; through translation. Automatically the ideology that a country wants to share will be read by many people in this world. Through translation, we know other event, culture, moments, information. Even some countries can expand their power or ideology through translation. Making a good translation is one of the tasks of the translator. A good translation is conveying the original message. Nowadays, translated novel can be found in many bookstores. Through, there are many translated novels; it doesnt guarantee that they are good in translation. However, not all translated books have a good quality of translation. A good quality of translation book can express the same meaning or deliver the same message to the readers as it is written in the source book (original book). On the other hand, those which do not carry the same message will lead the readers into different perception or even make them do not understand the context at all.

Producing good qualities of a translation text can be done by translating equivalently. A good quality of a translation text also should fulfill the criteria of an ideal translation. SIL International (available at

www.sil.org/translation/translationtheory.htm, 2008) mentions that an ideal translation will be accurate as to meaning and natural as to the receptor language forms used (p. 1). The ideal translation also makes the readers who are unfamiliar with the source language will readily understand the text. In short, the ideal translation should be accurate, natural and clear. That is why the success of a translation is measured by how closely it measures up to these ideals. Therefore, this study will discuss the accuracy, the naturalness and the clarity in Harry Potters novel: The Chamber of Secret (English-Indonesian).

1.2. Problem Statement How accurate, natural and clear is the translation version of Harry Potters novel: The Chamber of Secret?

1.3. Purpose of the Study The purpose of the study is to identify the accuracy, naturalness and clarity of the translation version of Harry Potters novel: The Chamber of Secret?

CHAPTER II THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1. Definition of Translation Many experts define translation in different aspects. Catford (1974) defines translation as the replacement of the textual material in one language (source language) by equivalent textual material in another language (target language) (p.20). The source text which is written in the source language is replaced by equivalent text in target language. Linguist Gideon Toury (available at www.completetranslation/translationandculture, 2008) notes translation as a kind of activity which inevitably involves at least two languages and two cultural traditions (p.5). Here, Toury not only considers the involvement of at least two languages in translating text but also those two culture traditions as well. Larson (1998) argues that translation is basically a change from one state of form to another form (p. 3). He also adds that translation should consist of transferring the meaning of the source language into the target language. One of the specific ideas proposed by Larson is about the dynamic of the text in translation. To be different from other theorists, Larson (1998) says that translation should maintain the dynamics of the original source language text (p. 6). This means that translation is presented in such a way that it will give the same response in another language. However, translation (www.completetranslation/translationandculture,

2008) is not only the reproduction of a text to another text equivalently, but rather a complex process of rewriting the original, which runs parallel both to the overall 4

view of the language, and to the influences and the balance of power that exists between one culture and another (p.2). From this quotation, the description of translation is getting clear. It is not only replacing the text from one language to another equivalently but it needs the process of rewriting the original text which the meaning is nearly the same and considers the influence and the balance of power that exists between one culture and another. The conclusion from all the definitions that are given is a translation is a process of changing from source language to target language which its aim is to transfer the same meaning or message equivalently.

2.2. Equivalence Over many years lots of further attempts were made to define nature of equivalence. It is because translation always relates to equivalent. Jakobson in Munday (2001) sees equivalence through a linguistic and semiotic angle. He approaches the problem of equivalence with the following definition: Equivalence in difference is the cardinal problem of language and the pivotal concern of linguistics. The problem of meaning and equivalence thus focuses on differences in the structure and terminology of languages rather than on any inability of one language to render a message that has been written in another verbal language (p. 37). From this quotation, it can be concluded that Jakobson focuses equivalence and meaning on the structure and terminology that differ from one language into another.

The important of equivalence in translation can be seen from many experts comments about it. Chesterman in Munday (2001) notes equivalence is obviously a central concept in translation theory (p. 49). In line with him, Munday (2001) also agrees that equivalence continues to be a central, if criticized, concept (p. 49). Here, it can be seen that equivalence is a main point in translation. Considering that translation text must be translated equivalently. International Bible Society (available at www.gospel.com.net, 2008) states that to obtain the closest equivalence in translation, it is necessary to consider three basic requirements: (1) the translation must represent the customary usage of the native language (2) the translation must make sense and (3) the translation must conform to the meaning of the original. In other words, the translation should be Natural, Clear and Accurate (p. 1).

2.3. Principles of Translation Duff (1991) mentions six principles should be considered by translators in translating texts (p. 9-10). They are: 1. Meaning: the translation should reflect accurately the meaning of the original text. 2. Form: the ordering of words and ideas in the translation should match the original as closely as possible. This is important in translating legal documents, guarantees, contracts, etc. But differences in language structure often require changes in form and order of words.

3. Register: languages often differ greatly in their levels of formality in a given context (say, the business letter). To resolve these differences, the translator must distinguish between formal or fixed expressions (Please find enclosed..., to whom it may concern) and personal expressions, in which the writer or speaker sets the tone 4. Source language influence: one of the most frequent criticisms of translation is that it does not sound natural. This is because the translators thoughts and choice of words are too strongly molded by the original text 5. Style and Clarity: the translator should not change the style of the original 6. Idiom: Idiomatic expression is notoriously untranslatable. (p. 6) The six principles above in line with the following principles which was proposed by French translator and humanist Etienne Dolet

(www.principlesoftranslation.htm, 2008), who in 1540 formulated the following fundamental principles of translation (p. 6). The following principles are

regarded as providing rules of thumb for the practicing translator. They are: 1. The translator should understand perfectly the content and intention of the author whom he is translating. 2. The translator should have a perfect knowledge of the language from which he is translating and an equally excellent knowledge of the language into which he is translating

3. The translator should avoid the tendency to translate word for word, for to do so is to destroy the meaning of the original and to ruin the beauty of the expression 4. The translator should employ the forms of speech in common usage 5. The translator should- through his choice and order of words produce a total overall effect with appropriate tone. The whole principles above lead to the aim of producing ideal translations or good quality of translations.

2.4. Ideal Translation Nida in Munday (2001) mentions four basic requirements of a translation. First is making sense, second is conveying the spirit and manner of the original, next is having natural and easy form, and the last is producing a similar response (p. 42) However, SIL International

(www.sil.org/translation/translationtheory.htm, 2008) explained that an ideal translation should be Accurate, Natural and Clear (p. 1). Nida (1996) in Hatim (2000) said the translator first analyses the message of the source language into its simplest and structurally clearest forms, transfers it at this level, and then restructures it to the level in the receptor language which is most appropriate for the audience which s/he intends to reach. In other words, these are the three principles which can be abbreviated CAN: Clarity, Naturalness and Accuracy. An idiomatic translation cannot be reached when one of these elements is missing. Thus, it is clear that all of the three principles are important and none of these

three principles is more important than the others. International Bible Society (available at www.gospel.com.net, 2006, p. 1) formulates the following formula: C+AN = Stilted, precise language that grates on the ear. C+NA = Clear communication of the wrong message. A + N C = No message or the wrong message.

2.4.1. Accuracy SIL International (available at

www.sil.org/translation/translationtheory.htm, 2008) defines accuracy in term of the translated version is reproducing as exactly as possible the meaning of the source language (p. 1). Suryawinata and Hariyanto (2003) believe that the accuracy of a translation is based on how the meaning is conveyed in the target language, instead of the equivalents of every word of the source language (p. 44). Here, the translators can change the SL form in order to preserve meaning. Thirumalai (available at

www.languageindia.com/jan2002/howling.html#chapter9, 2008) defines that accuracy depends upon the quantum of distortion of original information in the translated version (p. 4). It means that the accuracy of the translated version depends on how far the distortion of message happens in the translated version. He (2008) also adds that the translation achieved with least distortion must be considered the most accurate version (p.4). This distortion occurs in the process of maintaining clearness of the original source language text. Thirumalai (2002) notes a source of distortion is maintained by the tendency which favors loan translation (idea translation) in the developing countries (p. 4). The accuracy in

translation is also stated by Larson. He (1998) states that a good translation maintains the dynamics of the original source language text (p. 6). It means that the translated version should be accurate in term that the translator understood correctly the source text so that s/he does not add or delete some information in the source text. From all the theories of the accuracy, it can be concluded that in order to fulfill the criteria of accuracy, the translated text should: a. reproduce as exactly as possible the meaning of the source language (SIL International: www.sil.org) b. maintain the dynamics of the original source language text (Larson, 1998, p.6) Adding nothing (No information that is added) Deleting nothing (No information that is deleted)

c. avoid or minimize the distortion of message that happens in the translated version. (Thirumalai www.languageindia.com, 2008, p.4)

2.4.2. Naturalness Naturalness according to SIL International (available at

www.sil.org/translation/translationtheory.htm, 2008), means that the translator is using natural forms of the receptor language in a way that is appropriate to the kind of the text being translated (p.1). In order to produce good translation, the translator should use the normal language forms of the receptor language (Larson,

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1998, p. 6). The normal language form of the receptor language should be used in order to produce the translation text which is normal and sound natural in the target language. Leman (2008) in

www.geocities.com/bible_translation/natural.htm notes that any wording of an utterance is natural if it is in common usage across all segments of society which speak a language and/or it uses a grammatical pattern of the language which is in common usage for the particular words used. Every language has its own forms. That is why the naturalness of the translation text forms in the target language must be considered in order the target audience will understand the text. The naturalness is also important so that the translation text will not sound strange or foreign to the speaker of the target language. Komissarov (available at www.ets.ru) says that a major requirement to a good translation is that it should be natural or that it should read as an original. Even, the naturalness is aimed to make the audiences think as if it is not a translation but an original composition written in their languages. Some translation text, perhaps, are accurate in meaning and is attempting to communicate that information or it may even be understandable. However, as Larson (1998) says, if the forms may not be the natural idiomatic forms of the receptor language, the text will sound strange for the speaker of the language (p. 532). Therefore, in achieving the naturalness, the translator should produce the translation text which sounds natural to the receptor language audience in order to make the audiences understand what it is about. Nida in Venuti (2000) believes that naturalness in translation can be achieved by adapting lexicons and

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grammatical patterns fitting the receptor language and culture as a whole; No wrong or obscure grammatical forms and No awkward phrasing (p. 136). He also says that the natural translation should uphold the spirit of the original author i.e. level of formality, stylistic selection, emotional tone and faithful characterization (p.138). Larson (1998) gives the example of unnatural translation (p. 532). The source text is the same in the example of accurate and inaccurate translation that have been given. Unnatural Translation: There is a fish called Gede. It is black and white and white stomached. It is broad mouthed with whiskers on it. It lives in the holes of rocks. It goes into traps and gets caught. People also shoot it with a gun. It eats fish. People say it tastes good. Larson (1998) states that the reason why it is unnatural are although the individual sentences in the translation text above are correct English, the information is accurate and can be understood, the style is very unnatural and monotonous (p. 532). The information in the text is not told in interesting way in the target language. The forms which are used mostly the same so that it does not like as a coherent paragraph but an unnatural translation. Based on the theories of the naturalness above, it can be inferred that the following criteria should be fulfilled in order to be natural. The criteria are: a. The translation flows easily. (Larson, 1998, p.533) No place that seems too wordy No unnecessary redundancy Coherent; Logic

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Good cohesion; it runs smoothly

b. It adapts lexicons and grammatical patterns fitting the receptor language and culture as a whole (Nida in Venuti, 2000, p.136) No wrong or obscure grammatical forms No awkward phrasing

c. It upholds the spirit of the original author. (Nida in Venuti, 2000, p.138) Level of formality Stylistic selection Emotional tone Faithful characterization.

2.4.3. Clarity SIL International (available at

www.sil.org/translation/translationtheory.htm, 2008) states that clarity means the translated version is expressing all aspects of the meaning in a way that is readily understandable to the intended audience. Clarity here refers to communicative. A translation text should be communicative to the people who use the target language. Thirumalai (2002) explains that it varies also in consonance with the requirements of the audience for whom the translation is intended. Larson (1998) notes a good translation communicates, as much as possible, to the receptor language speakers the same meaning that was understood by the speakers of the source language (p. 6). It means that the clarity of the translation text depends on

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how far the text communicates to the target audiences so that they understand the text clearly. Here, the translators should consider who the target audiences are. Without considering the exact audiences, the clarity of the text cannot be achieved. Based on the theories of the clarity that have been mentioned, the study considers that the criteria below have to be fulfilled in order to produce the clarity in the translated text. The criteria are:

2.5. Ways of Testing a Translation Measuring all the criteria above can be done by several ways. Larson (1998) provides five ways to test a translation: (1) comparison with the source text, (2) back translation into the source language, (3) comprehension check, (4) naturalness and readability testing, and (5) consistency checks (p. 533). The first way to test a translation is to do a comparison with the source language. Larson (1998) emphasizes that the main purposes of doing this test is in order to check for equivalence of information content (p. 534). This check is done to make sure that there is no information left, nothing is omitted, nothing is added and nothing is different. This check is done by the translator him/herself. The second method is back translation. Larson (1998) explains that back translation here is done by having someone else who is bilingual in the source and target language; make a back translation of the translated text into the source language (p. 534). He (1998) also adds that the person who does the backtranslating should do this without having read the source text used by translator

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(p. 534). He (1998) notes that translating and back translating is different. In Back translating, literal forms are used to show up the structure of the translation being back-translated. On the other hand, in translating, one uses the natural and clear forms (p. 35). Agree with him, Thirumalai (2002) also suggests the usage of back translation to asses the accuracy of the translation text (p. 4). Back translation here can be done by translating back the target language text into the source language and comparing the result with the translated version of source language into target language. Comprehension test is the other ways to test the quality of translation. Larson (1998) believes that a good comprehension test is the key to a good translation (p. 537). He (1998) adds that the purpose of this test is to see whether or not the translation is understood by speakers of the language who have not seen the translation before (p. 537). This type of testing is design in order to make sure that the readers understand the translated-version. Here, the test is to check whether or not the translation text is clear or communicative. Larson (1998) explains that this test is done by persons who are fluent speakers of the receptor language (p. 537). The next method which was proposed is the naturalness and the readability tests. Larson (1998) notices the purpose of naturalness is to see if the form of the translation is natural and the style appropriate (p.542). The naturalness test is done by reviewers, while the readability test is done by asking someone to read a part of translation aloud. Reviewers should need to know enough about the principles of translation if the translator wants to have good result of translation check. The bilingual reviewers who have skill related to writing or translation may be the best

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person to do this kind of checking since their ability not only to check the naturalness but also the clarity and the accuracy as well. Moreover, Blight gives insights to some way of testing the issue of naturalness in translation. He (1992, p. 32) suggests that conform the translation to the patterns of the receptor language. Use native speakers reaction, naturalness counts and discourse analysis. The last method is consistency checks. Some of these have to do with the content of the translation and others have to do with the technical details of presentation. Consistency in editing requires careful attention. Larson (1998) notes there should be consistency in the spelling of the names of people and places, the used of capital and punctuation, the format text and any supplementary material (p. 546).

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CHAPTER III Research Methodology

This chapter consists of several points related to the methods used by the writer. The points include: research method, instruments of the study, technique of data collecting and technique of data analysis.

3.2. Research Method The method, which is adopted in this study, is texts analysis study by means of descriptive analytical-quantitative technique. L.R. Gay (1987) states, A descriptive study determines and reports the way things are, further more typical descriptive studies are concerned with the assessment of attitude, opinions, demographic information, conditions and procedures. (p. 10-11). Surakhmad (1990) states two features of descriptive study. 1. Memusatkan diri pada pemecahan masalah-masalah yang ada pada masa sekarang, pada masalah-masalah yang aktual. 2. Data yang dikumpulkan mula-mula disusun, dijelaskan dan kemudian dianalisa (karena itu metode ini sering pula disebut metode analitik) (p. 140).

Based on the explanation above, there are following steps that are done in this study. First is collecting the data of the study. Analyzing them in terms of the accuracy, the naturalness and the clarity by comparing the source text with the target text is the next step. Having analyzed the data, then the description and the interpretation concerning the result of the study are given in the chapter four.

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3.3. Source of Data The data are taken from Harry Potter Novel: The Chamber of Secret which is written in English and in Bahasa Indonesia. The analysis will only be taken from two chapters in the novel.

3.4. Instruments of the Study The instruments used in this study are the accuracy, the naturalness and the clarity-criteria sheet and questionnaire instrument. The data are collected and classified. With the aid of the accuracy-criteria sheet, the naturalness-criteria sheet and the clarity-criteria sheet, then, the data are analyzed. To avoid subjectivity, the study employs the questionnaire which is given to three people represent academician, users and practitioner. Finally, the result of the analysis is described.

3.5. Research Procedures Formulating the problem of the study was the first thing which is done. The second was to find literature review supporting the study. After that, the theoretical framework was made based on the review and developed the strategy to solve the problem of the study. After formulating the criteria of the accuracy, the naturalness and the clarity in translation, the analysis was begun by comparing them. Afterwards, asking for readers response was done in order to avoid subjectivity. This readers response test was delivered in the form of questionnaires. The purpose of the questionnaires is to identify whether the novel

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has fulfilled the criteria of accuracy, naturalness and clarity or not. The comparison was made from the responses of three people. The result of the survey was tabulated and calculated in order to find out the percentage of the accuracy, the naturalness and the clarity of translation. And finally, the interpretation is given based on the result of the study.

3.6. Technique of Data Collecting The data are collected through some steps as the following: 1. Reading the book thoroughly. 2. Identifying the accuracy, the naturalness and the clarity of each sentence 3. Classifying the sentences into accurate, natural and clear translation. 4. Finding the accuracy, the naturalness and the clarity of the translated text. 3.5. Technique of Data Analysis The data of the study are analyzed by: 1. Identifying the result of questionnaire. 2. Comparing and calculating the result 3. Giving interpretation

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REFFERENCES
Blight R.C. (1992). Translation Problems from A to Z. Texas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Complete Translation Services. (2005).The Principles of Translation. [Online]. Available: http://.principlesoftranslation.htm. Complete Translation Services. (2005). Translation and Culture. [Online]. Available: http://completetranslation.com.htm Gwett, P. Awareness. [On line]. Available: www.stataxis.com/interrater.htm Hatim, B. (2001). Teaching and Researching Translation. London: Longman International Bible Society. (2006). The Goal of Translation. [On line]. Available: www.gospelcom.net/ibs/niv/munger/5-5-1.php. Larson, M. L. (1998) Meaning Based Translation. New York: University Press of America, Inc. Munday, J. (2001). Introducing Translation Studies. London: Routledge Newmark, P. (1988). Approaches to Translation. London: Prentice Hall Nida, E. (1964). Toward a Science of Translating in J. Munday (2001). Introducing Translation Studies. London: Routledge

SIL International. (2006). Translation Theory and Practice. [On line]. Available: www.sil.org/translation/trtheory.htm Surakhmad, W. (1990). Pengantar Penelitian Ilmiah. Bandung: Tarsito Suriasumantri. (2007) Filsafat Ilmu Sebuah Pengantar Populer. Jakarta. PT. Pancaranintan Indahgraha. Thirumalai, M., S. (2002). How to Learn Another Language? [On line]. Available: www.languageindia.com/jan2002/howling.html#chapter9

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