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Introduction to information system

An information system is an organized combination of people, hardware, software, communications networks and data resources that collects, transforms and disseminates information in an organization

People

Hardware
Software Communication Networks Database

The term Information System (IS) sometimes refers to a system of persons, data records and activities that process the data and information in an organisation, and it includes the organisation's manual and automated processes. Computer-based information systems are the field of study for information technology, elements of which are sometimes called an "information system" as well, a usage some consider to be incorrect

In this way, the term "information system" has different meanings: In computer security, an information system is described by three objects (Aceituno, 2004):

Structure Repositories, which hold data permanently or temporarily, such as buffers, RAM, hard disks, cache, etc. Interfaces, which exchange information with the non-digital world, such as keyboards, speakers, scanners, printers, etc. Channels Which connect repositories, such as buses, cables, wireless links, etc. A Network is a set of logical or physical channels. Behaviour

Services, which provide value to users or to other services via messages interchange. Messages, which carry a meaning to users or services. In geography and cartography, a Geographic Information System (GIS) is used to integrate, store, edit, analyse, share, and display georeferenced information. There are many applications of GIS, ranging from ecology and geology, to the social sciences. In knowledge representation, an information system consists of three components: human, technology, and organisation. In this view, information is defined in terms of the three levels of semiotics. Data which can be automatically processed by the application system corresponds to the syntax-level. In the context of an individual who interprets the data they become information, which correspond to the semantic-level. Information becomes knowledge when an individual knows (understands) and evaluates the information (e.g., for a specific task). This corresponds to the pragmatic-level. In Mathematics, in the area of domain theory, a Scott information system (after its inventor Dana Scott) is a mathematical 'structure' that provides an alternative representation of Scott domains and, as a special case, algebraic lattices. In Mathematics rough set theory, an information system is an attribute-value system. In sociology information systems are also social systems whose behaviour is heavily influenced by the goals, values and beliefs of individuals and groups, as well as the performance of the technology. In systems theory, an information system is a system, automated or

manual, that comprises people, machines, and/or methods organised to collect, process, transmit, and disseminate data that represent user information. In telecommunications, an information system is any telecommunications and/or computer related equipment or interconnected system or subsystems of equipment that is used in the acquisition, storage, manipulation, management, movement, control, display, switching, interchange, transmission, or reception of voice and/or data, and includes software, firmware, and hardware. In organisational informatics, an information system is a system of communication between people. Information systems are systems involved in the gathering, processing, distribution and use of information and as such support human activity systems. The most common view of an information system is one of Input Process-Output.

All organizations exist as part of a larger system. Information systems are used to assist management by providing feedback on the firm's performance. Feedback refers to the outputs of a system that are transformed back into inputs in order to control the system's operation. Information systems are used to compare the data on the actual performance with the standards developed earlier. Based on the information about the discrepancies, managers can formulate corrective actions, which are then fed back into the firm's operations.

Components of Information Systems Information systems consist of the following general components: 1. Hardware 2. Software 3. Databases 4. Human resources 5. Procedures Hardware Multiple computer systems: microcomputers, minicomputers, mainframes, together with their peripherals. Computer system components are: a central processor(s), memory hierarchy, input and output devices. Software Computer software falls into two classes: systems software and applications software.

Systems Software: Manage the resources of the computer system and simplifies programming. An operating system is the principal system software. It manages all the resources of a computer system and provides an interface through which the system's user can deploy these resources. Application Software: Are programs that directly assist end users in doing their work. They are purchased as ready-to-use packages. Applications software directly assists end users in doing their work. Databases Databases are organized collections of interrelated data used by applications software. Databases are managed by systems software known as database management systems (DBMS) and shared by multiple applications. Human Resources

Professional information systems personnel include development and maintenance managers, systems analysts, programmers, and operators, often with highly specialized skills. End users are the people who use information systems or their information outputs, that is, the majority of people in today's organizations. Procedures Procedures are the policies and methods to be followed in using, operating, and maintaining an information system.

Role of information systems


Information Storage and Analysis
At the date of publication, many companies no longer manage their data and information manually with registers and hard-copy formats. Through the adoption of information systems, companies can make use of sophisticated and comprehensive databases that can contain all imaginable pieces of data about the company. Information systems store, update and even analyze the information, which the company can then use to pinpoint solutions to current or future problems

Assist With Making Decisions


The long-term success of a company depends upon the adequacy of its strategic plans. An organizations management team uses information systems to formulate strategic plans and make decisions for the organization's longevity and prosperity. The business uses information systems to evaluate information from all sources, including information from external references such as Reuters or Bloomberg, which

provide information on the general economy. This analysis of and comparison to market trends helps organizations analyze the adequacy and quality of their strategic decisions.

Assist With Business Processes


Information systems aid businesses in developing a larger number of value added-systems in the company. For example, a company can integrate information systems with the manufacturing cycle to ensure that the output it produces complies with the requirements of the various quality management standards. Adoption of information systems simplifies business processes and removes unnecessary activities. Information systems add controls to employee processes, ensuring that only users with the applicable rights can perform certain tasks. Further, information systems eliminate repetitive tasks and increase accuracy, allowing employees to concentrate on more high-level functions. Information systems can also lead to better project planning and implementation through effective monitoring and comparison against established criteria.

Automation of Manual Tasks

Information systems architecture can assist an organization in automating manual tasks. Automation can save time, money and resources and enhance organizational workflow. There are various types of information systems that automate manual tasking, ranging from robotic information systems used in areas such as health and medical services to logistical information systems (automated warehouses and distribution systems).

Hardware and Software Integration

An organization can have several different computer platforms (hardware and software). The concept of information systems as a scalable platform can merge different hardware and software systems. A system can process, store and distribute information if integrated into the workflow of an information system. For example, a local area network (LAN) can integrate into a mainframe system that processes accounting information through a concept called a "gateway." An open architecture information system allows for integration at all levels throughout an organization.

Support of a Multi-Processing Environment

An information system can support a "real-time" multi-processing environment through the concept of "time-sharing application." Time-sharing application allows for the prioritizing of applications based on user-id and system priority assigned to an application, device, and database or system catalog. These features are important to an organization that process transactions while developing and testing program applications. In a multi-processing environment, various departments, divisions or branches can have access to the system at the same time intervals.

System Partitioning

The layout of an information system is partitioned according to data security policies, user access and program applications. The partitioning of the physical hard drives, memory and storage space related to software applications creates system balance and effective use of the system Central Processing Unit (CPU). System partitioning programs, tools and routines keeps the system from overloading, which slows down system performance. Extra files paged to memory that are not being used can slow down a customer support system, which relies on timely processing of customer inquiries. System partitioning is maintained by a process of "preventive maintenance" which ensures the integrity of system partitioning.

Types of information systems

Information System Operation Support System

Management Support System

TPS

Process Control System

MIS

DSS

EIS

Executive Support Systems(ESS) supply the necessary tools to senior management. The decisions at this level of thecompany are usually never structured and couldbe described as "educated guesses." Executivesrely as much, if not more so, on external datathan they do on data internal to their organization. Decisions must be made in thecontext of the world outside the organization.The problems and situations senior executivesface are very fluid, always changing, so thesystem must be flexible and easy to manipulate.

Provide critical information from MIS, DSS and other sources, tailored to the information needs of executives. Examples: systems for easy access to analysis of business performance, actions of all competitors, and economic developments to support strategic planning. example
Without ESS: A Re-Active Business Decision A CEO receives a call from an online advertising company offering an incredible rate on pay-per-click ads, but for a limited time. Now its up to the CEO to quickly figure out which products will yield the most return on the advertising investment. First the executive logs into an online advertising dashboard to compare costs, response rates and return from previous campaigns. Then he gets on the phone with a warehouse account manager, or logs into an inventory management database. From the warehouse, he finds out the cost to ship each product, the list price of each product and which products have been sitting on the shelves the longest or accruing the most storage fees. With all of this data and information in place, the executive can figure out which product will likely yield the highest return and finally respond to the advertising offer before the deadline expires. With ESS: A Pro-Active Business Decision Now lets work backwards from that example, but with an ESS in place. The ESS sends an alert to the company CEO that product X was stored for X number of days, or that the warehouse storage costs for product X have exceeded a certain total dollar amount. Working from that report, the executive alerts his sales and marketing employees to research the most cost-effective ways to move product X off the shelves. Here the CEO is not scrambling to reply to an outside call from an advertising company. The ESS alert put him in the drivers seat and gave the sales and marketing team lead time to find the best solutions to move those products.

Operations Support Systems OSS stands for Operations Support Systems,, i.e. an IT system for a telecommunications network. OSS software are dedicated specifically to providers of telecommunications services. The processes supported by OSS systems include service management and maintenance of the network inventory (modules: Service Inventory Management and Network Inventory Management), configuration of particular network components as well as fault management. The term OSS is often associated with BSS (Business Support System), i.e. business systems which focus on handling customer-related processes such as billing, payments etc. Sometimes one can come across the two terms joined as B/OSS. From the historical point of view, OSS comprises BSS, since initially OSS referred to all systems for the management of operations and processes, including business systems.

OSS (Operations Support System) software applications allow operations and IT personnel to administer the operational processes focusing on the network and services, including service quality monitoring, network and server performance, logical and physical resources management (also referred to as element and network management), and provisioning.

Transaction processing systems These process data resulting from business transactions, update operational databases, and produce business documents. Examples: sales and inventory processing and accounting systems.

Transaction processing systems provide three functional areas: System runtime functions Transaction processing systems provide an execution environment that ensures the integrity, availability, and security of data. It also ensures fast response time and high transaction throughput. System administration functions Transaction processing systems provide administrative support that lets users configure, monitor, and manage their transaction systems. Application development functions Transaction processing systems provide functions for use in custom business applications, including functions to access data, to perform intercomputer communications, and to design and manage the user interface.

A Transaction Processing System (TPS) is a type of information system that collects, stores, modifies and retrieves the data transactions of an enterprise.

A management support system is c ompos ed of a mo del, supporting data files, a solver to exercise the mode l, a nd int e r f a ce facilities be twe en these things and the manager 's world, all integrated and organized so as to support managerial decision-making within a prescribed domain on a continuing basis. ODS is such a system for strategic and tactical distribution planning problems.

Management support systems provide information and support needed for effective decision making by managers

Process control systems monitor and control industrial processes. A process control system monitors the manufacturing environment and electronically controls the process or manufacturing flow based on the various set-points given by the user; here's more to process controls, and process control systems application design and tuning.

MIS

A Management Information System is used bymanagers throughout the organization to helpthem in directing, planning, coordinating,communicating, and decision-making.

MIS (Management Information Systems) is a generalterm for the computer systems in an enterprise that provide information about its business operations. It'salso used to refer to the people who manage thesesystems.Typically, in a large corporation, "MIS" or the "MISdepartment" refers to a central or centrallycoordinatedsystem of computer expertise and management, oftenincluding

mainframe systemsThe study of effective systems for the development anduse of information in an organization.
M = Management = Practical Use of Power of Decision Making I = Information = Useful Data S = System = Technique of Use of Data for Business Management information system is that system in which raw data is collected and analyze it. After making it useful, it is used for decision making of business.

An MIS can be a data bank, predictive, decision making or decision taking system.

"An integrated user-machine system for providing information to support operations, management and decision making functions in an organization. The system utilizes computerized and manual procedures; models for analysis, planning, control and decision making; and a database."

DSS

Decision Support Systems (DSS) are a specific class of computerized information system that supports business and organizational decision-making activities. A properly designed DSS is an interactive softwarebased system intended to help decision makers compile useful information from raw data, documents, personal knowledge, and/or business models to identify and solve problems and make decisions. Typical information that a decision support application might gather and present would be:

Accessing all of your current information assets, including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts Comparative sales figures between one week and the next Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions The consequences of different decision alternatives, given past experience in a context that is described

A Decision Support System (DSS) is a collection of integrated software applications and hardware that form the backbone of an organizations decision making process. Companies across all industries rely on decision support tools, techniques, and models to help them assess and resolve everyday business questions. The decision support system is data-driven, as the entire process feeds off of the collection and availability of data to analyze. Business Intelligence (BI) reporting tools, processes, and methodologies are key components to any decision support system and provide end users with rich reporting, monitoring, and data analysis.

A Decision Support System (DSS) is a computerized system that assists in corporate decision making, with a decision being a choice between alternatives based on the estimated values of those alternatives. Supporting a decision means to assist people working alone, or in a group, to gather intelligence, generate alternatives and make choices. Generally, decision support systems are interactive, flexible, and adaptable information systems, developed to support the solution of non-structured management problems for improved decision making. For example, medical decision making often involves making a diagnosis and selecting an appropriate treatment. The closer we get to completely automating our lives, the more crucially we depend upon these kinds of decision-making to be correct beyond a shadow of a doubt! Imagine a wrong decision being made about a medical diagnosis, or even in terms which we would encounter each and every day, decisions about money or our own wealth simply cannot be wrong! Decision support even extends into the justice system and is therefore another area where mistakes simply cannot be made. (Imagine a judgment being made on an individual, assisted by DSS. If the judgment goes against that individual, the evidence for such a conviction has to be beyond reproach! Fortunately, it is still only a Decision Support System, not a Decision-Making System as yet.