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Iraj Bashiri

PERSIAN FOR BEGINNERS


Fourth Edition

Tape Manual

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Copyright 1991, 1981, 1975, 1972 by Iraj Bashiri

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form whatsoever, by photograph or mimeograph or by any other means, by broadcast or transmission, by translation into any kind of language, nor by recording electronically or otherwise, without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in critical articles and reviews.

Library of Congress catalogue number: 90-092057

ISBN 0-915327-04-X

Manufactured in the United States of America

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Contents
Introduction The Sounds of Persian Persian Vowels Persian Semi-vowels Persian Consonants 1. Persian r 2. The Glottal Stop ' and h 3. The Consonants k and g 4. The Persian Sound x 5. The Persian Sound q The Suprasegmentals of Persian Question in Persian Intonation Pattern of Address Stress in Persian Harmony Spectrogram

Transition Phonological Differences Morphological Differences Syntactic Differences Unit One Unit Two Unit Three Unit Four Unit Five Unit Six Unit Seven Unit Eight Unit Nine

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Unit Ten Unit Eleven Unit Twelve Unit Thirteen Unit Fourteen Unit Fifteen Unit Sixteen Unit Seventeen Unit Eighteen Unit Nineteen Unit Twenty Glossary Persian-English English-Persian

THE SOUNDS OF PERSIAN


INTRODUCTION Most of the sounds in Persian are quite similar to those in English, but none are exactly the same. Some minor and some crucial differences distinguish the sounds of Persian from similar sounds in English. And there are some sounds in Persian for which there exist no English equivalents. These are mostly guttural sounds represented in everyday English by kh, gh, and the like. The sounds of Persian can easily be divided into three main categories: vowels, semi-vowels (diphthongs) and consonants. In "The Sounds of Persian," we will examine the feature distinctions mentioned above and focus mostly on what makes Persian sound different from English.

PERSIAN VOWELS Vowels are sounds which are produced with no closure in the vocal apparatus. The air stream flows unimpeded from the lungs. The position of the tongue and the rounding of the lips determine the features of the vowel. The six vowels of Persian are differentiated by the height of the tongue: high, mid, low; and by the place in the mouth where each vowel is produced: front or back. The chart below shows this distinction:

front high mid low i e

back u o a

chart 1: Persian vowels

Persian vowels In length, Persian vowels are almost the same. The vowel which receives the word stress, however, is always slightly longer in duration than other vowels in the word, and longer than itself, were it to be in an unstressed position. Note that only vowels carry stress. The most common place for Persian word stress is on the vowel of the last syllable. There are, however, some words such as ge 'if' that are exceptions to this rule. Below we will examine the six vowels of Persian and compare them to those sounds in English that come closest to them:

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6 1. The vowel i is pronounced roughly like ee in the English word seen. The difference lies in the y-glide that follows the English i. The Persian i is not followed by this glide: Compare: Persian sn bn kn dn English seen been keen dean

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Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: : kf, bst, n, l, bin, mell i: birn, bidr, gils, inj, irn 2. The vowel u is pronounced roughly like oo in the English word mood. The difference lies in the w-glide that follows the English u. The Persian u is not followed by such a glide. Compare: Persian rd mr r pl tr Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: : g, xam, br, ras, , n u: mur, ku, ut, unj, ku, un 3. The vowel o is pronounced roughly like the o in the English word gold. The difference lies in a w-glide that follows the English sound. The Persian o is not followed by such a glide. English rude moor sure pool tour

7 Compare: Persian gl t d bn Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: : xl, xk, dorst, t, jel, pol o: ostd, omd, kolh, bolbl, otq, otobs English goal tow dough bone

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4. The vowel e is fairly close in pronunciation to the vowel e in the English word bed. Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: : sm, dan, xah, lng, xan, lan e: delb r, en, sep r, ketb, emz, emrik 5. The vowel is pronounced roughly like a in the English word bad. The difference lies in the -glide (movement of the tongue to a neutral position) that follows the English sound. The Persian is not followed by this glide. Compare: Persian j m rm sd cp dm English jam ram sad chap dam

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Drill Repeat the following after your instructor:

: gr, sb, br, sng, m rd, n : kbb, srb, kmr, smr, fsn
6. The vowel a is fairly close in pronunciation to the vowel a in the English word father.

Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: : n, b, m, xk, aq, xod a: ad m, ab, kaf r, ka, dam n, kesal t

Important Note: The glides that distinguish the English vowel sounds from those of Persian do not usually affect the meaning of the words. If one were to pronounce the Persian words with the English vowels, he would be understood, albeit as a non-native with a heavy accent. The difference between and a, however, is one that may constitute a meaning distinction. The fact that English speakers find it difficult to distinguish these two vowels makes it imperative to learn to distinguish from a at an early stage. Furthermore, as we learn more about Persian, we realize that this distinction is essential for writing Persian as well. In Persian only the long vowels, in this case a, are written using a letter. is represented by a vowel sign (see "The Persian Writing System," for details). The words that follow illustrate how one might confuse the listener by using for a and vice versa: Compare: xr dr t k kr bd donkey door unique deaf bad xr dr tk kr bd a thorn gallows vine work wind

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PERSIAN SEMI-VOWELS (diphthongs) There are two diphthongs in Persian: ey and ow. These diphthongs are pronounced roughly like the ai in the English word bait, and the oa in the English word boat respectively.

Drill Repeat the following after your instructor: ey : syf, syl, qyd, myl, eyvn, dy ow : owqt, owz', howlh, dowlt, nowbt, twr Contrast: e - ey : sr syr, xr xyr, sl syl, qr qyr o - ow : ql qwl, kn kwn, kt kwt, bl bwl

PERSIAN CONSONANTS Consonants are sounds which are produced when the air stream initiating in the lungs is checked in one or two places at, or between, the vocal cords and the lips. A full closure produces a stop ( e.g., p). A partial closure produces a fricative (e.g., f ). If the vocal cords vibrate when producing the sound, the consonant is voiced (e.g., b, v). If the vocal cords do not vibrate, the consonant is voiceless (e.g., p, f). This text teaches the sounds of Persian through imitation of given models, rather than through instruction; it assumes that the instructor supplies the students with a fair knowledge of the rudiments of phonology. And that students, especially those who use this text as a teach-yourself manual, consult a good introductory linguistics text, listen to tapes and to a native Iranian. This procedure insures that the sounds they produce are fairly close to those produced by a native speaker. The following consonants of Persian are pronounced approximately the same in English and Persian. Drill Repeat after your instructor: p b t pl, p, kpr, sepr, tp, p b, br, ab, bab, kbb, hobb tp, tr, str, ketb, dst, pakt

Bashiri dst, dm, sed, medd, mrd, keld frd, fl, felfl, nft, kf, tsadf vm, vb, divr, jelv, dv, srv

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d f v

j s z

rx, b, b, ar, g, m
jn, jng, ajl, hjm, snj, brj sng, sin, asmn, mesl, rqs, xs zbn, zoql, kuz, vzn, grz, mz


m n l w y

m, otr, xord, rown, h, nq rf, ulid, kdm, mo, g, d


mur, kmr, rmz, sm, xtm, zxm noqr, kenr, xn, payn, mtn, dfn lal, lgr, jolg, dlr, gl, dl owqt, owld, twr, twq, jelw, paltw yk, yr, siy, dony, ky, my

The following consonants are either not found in English at all, or their distribution in the two languages is somewhat different. 1. The Persian r The Persian r is pronounced differently from the English r. In intervocalic positions (i.e., between two vowels), Persian r is trilled. It sounds somewhat like the Spanish trilled r in perro 'dog'. At the end of a word, the Persian r is a flap. In other positions it is a single tap.

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Drill Please repeat after your instructor: r between vowels : drr, rk, borad, traz, rr r word final : sr, axr, adr, dr, dr r in other positions: rz, rg, fars, drd, fr 2. The glottal stop ' and h The glottal stop is produced by the opening and closing of the glottis. ' is produced in the area immediately in front of the glottis. Unlike the glottal stop which is produced by a complete closure of the glottis, h needs only a partial closure (h is a fricative) at the area in which it is produced. Glottal stop and h are found in both English and Persian. The environment in which these sounds occur in English, however, is more restricted than in Persian. In English h occurs in words such as house and bah!; the glottal stop occurs in certain exclamations like 'oh 'oh! Drill Repeat after your instructor: h : h, hol, mah, mhr, mh, gorh, hr, nhr ' : 'j, 'd, r'd, 'r, jm', o'', b'd, j'd, s'd It should be noted that after vowels both the glottal stop and h may be dropped and their place be taken by the lengthening of the vowels that precede them. This is usually referred to as compensatory lengthening of the vowel preceding the deleted consonant. Compare:

hr nhr
mh r'd b'd j'd

m: r:d b:d j:d

:r n:r

city stream moon thunder later curl

[r [nr [m [rd [bd [jdd

evil ] male ] we ] refusal ] bad ] ancestor ]

It was mentioned earlier that Persian vowels in stressed positions are always slightly longer than those in unstressed positions. The compensatory lengthening, brought about by the deletion of ' and h, produces enough duration to eliminate any confusion that might arise.

Bashiri Compare:

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hr = :r r bhs = b:s bs s'd = s:d sd r'd = r:d rd


3. The Consonants k and g

nhr = n:r nr shm = s:m sm b'd = b:d bd d'v = d:v dv

jhl = j:l jl rhm = r:m rm m'n = m:n mn b's = b:s bs

Compare the sound of k in the English word cool with the same sound in the English word kitten. It is apparent that the two sounds differ, albeit minimally, both in their release and in their place of articulation. The k in cool has a clear and sharp release, produced further back in the mouth than the k in kitten. The k in kitten has a somewhat aspirated or a y-glide release and, of course, it is produced further forward in the mouth than the k in cool. These features of the English k are shared by all English words in which the k sound precedes a front vowel (e.g., cane, cat, keel); and by those words in which the sound k occurs before a back vowel (e.g., code, comb, coast). This important distinction exists in Persian as well. Here, however, the distinction is more prominent than in English. Listen to your instructor pronounce these words, then repeat: before back vowels: kh, kd, krd, kr, km, knd before front vowels: kf, k, krm, ketb, krd, km elsewhere: xk, kk, k, trk, ordk, tkml, mktb As is evident, the front/back distinction explained for English also holds true for Persian. Namely, before i, e, and (front vowels) the sound k is produced further forward in the mouth, and it has a y-glide release. When it occurs in front of u, o, and a (back vowels) it is produced further back in the mouth and does not have a distinct release. The y-glide release discussed above results from the raising of the front portion of the tongue when k is before a front vowel, or when k is in word, or syllable, final position. The intensity of the release differs from speaker to speaker. For some speakers, the release of k in a word such as ketb 'book' can be strong enough to sound like a . Drill Repeat after your instructor: kh, kd, kn, ks, kin, kis, kj, tk, ptk, lkl, kd

13 In the same environment, the manner as k. Drill Repeat after your instructor: gr, gv, gils, gr, gll, gel, grm, rg, sg mrg, gm, ngr, sngn, rgbr, sggrg 4. The Persian sound x

Tape Manual g-sound of Persian behaves in exactly the same

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The sound x does not occur in English. It is a guttural sound and Americans usually replace it with either an English k or an h. To avoid mispronunciations such as *keyli kub and *heyli hub for xeyli xub 'very good,' these three sounds are presented below in contrast to one another. Drill Repeat after your instructor: xr, bxt, sxt, xord, txm, xm, zxm, rx, tnasx, nosx, bx, sx, rxt, bxt, xb, mx, sxt, dxt, axr, xtr, mxml, axnd, xorm, rx, bx. Repeat after your instructor: x : xr, xk, boxr, bxt, x, sx k : kh, kn, 'ks, kin, kj, tk h : h, hol, mah, mhr, mh, gorh Please contrast: lx lk, Contrast x and k: xd kd, xk kk, xm km, xr kr, rx rk, xl kl, xr kr, xb kb bx bk, rx rk, xl kl, xt kt

Bashiri Contrast x and h: Please repeat: xr hr, xz hz, xl hl, Contrast k and h: kl hl, kr hr, kr hr, kr hr, km hm, kn hn Contrast x, h, and k: xm hm km, 5. The Persian sound q xr hr kr, xl hl kl, xn hn kn

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x h, xm hm,

xr hr

Like x, q is not one of the sounds of the English language. To produce this voiceless stop, place the farthest back portion of the tongue against the uvula and try to say k. Drill Repeat the following words three times after your instructor: qb, qr, bq, otq, qm, qbr, qz, qt, meqdr, qomr, rqs, sqf, qtr, qws, qesmt, qlb Contrast q and g qnd gnd, qern gern, q g, qol gol, qbr gbr, qz gz Contrast q and x qb xb, qm xm, qnd xnd, q x, qal xal, qomr xomr Contrast q and k qk kk, qsb ksb, q k, qm km, qr kr, ql kl

15 Contrast q, x and k q x k, ql xl kl, qr xr kr, qk xk kk, qm xm km, qnd xnd knd, qr xr kr

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The voiceless stop q has a voiced fricative variant symbolized by . For some speakers this variant replaces q in intervocalic (between vowels) position, before voiced consonants and in syllable final positions. For other speakers it may replace q altogether. Speakers using are familiar with Arabic. They use the Arabic pronunciation of the words borrowed from Arabic into Persian in quite the same way that some actors put on a French or Spanish accent. Drill Repeat the following words three times after your instructor: q : rqs, sqf, vqf, vqt, sqt, rtq, ftq, mqtl, nq : d, a, toiyn, ot, sor, elm, neb, n Contrast q and dqq d , aq a, olq ol, fqr fr, mqbl mbl, sorq sor, brq br, meqdr medr

THE SUPRASEGMENTALS The suprasegmentals are intonation patterns, stresses, emphases, and other elements that affect the pronunciation.

1. Question in Persian Questions in Persian are made either by using a question word like e 'what', and koj 'where' or by changing the intonation contour of the declarative sentence. This section deals with the latter sentence types (yes/no questions). Both the declarative and question sentences in Persian carry a sentence stress. Both start at the same level pitch contour. The contour of both types rises at the sentence stress. After the rise both contours fall, except the contour of the question resumes the original level while that of the statement falls below the original level. Example:

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Statement: Contour:

u dr bazr kar mikone.

Question: Contour:

u dr bazr kar mikone?

One can transform the statement "He works in the market" into a question sentence in English by raising the intonation. However, the intonation contour of English sentences of this type rises sharply at the end of the sentence and does not level off: Question: Does he work in the market?

Contour:

Drill Repeat the following, first as statements then as questions. The words that carry the sentence stress are emboldened: statement in ketb e question in ketb e

un man

un man e

m fars yd mgirim om fars drs mdid t dr tehrn zendeg mkoni

m fars yd mgirim? om fars drs mdid? t dr tehrn zendeg mkoni?

17 un dr dane g drs mxunn n ketbe n ma ne in erqe 2. Emphasis in Persian

Tape Manual un dr dane g drs mxunn? n ketbe? n ma ne? in erqe?

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We have already seen how question formation changes the intonation contour of the declarative sentence. This unit deals with intonation change when it signals emphasis on one or more parts of the sentence. Compare the following sentences and their respective intonation contours:

Statement:

pedre

mn

tuye

bazre.

Contour (1):

Contour (2): (emphasis on mn).

Contour (3): (emphasis on tuye)

The second intonation contour indicates that the speaker's father is in the market, not, for example, the hearer's. The third intonation contour indicates that the father is in the market, not outside or near it. The same phenomenon, of course, occurs in English. Compare the following sentences. The words that are emphasized are emboldened: statement: emphasis on my: emphasis on in: emphasis on in: My father is in the market. My father is in the market. My father is in the market. My father is in the market.

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Multiple Transformation Drill The instructor repeats the model sentences three times. The students listen. Then the instructor gives the first declarative sentence to individual students and the students give the other four possibilities: Example: xahre

Statement:

unja

rus

mixune

Question:

xahre xahre

unja

rus

mixune?

(emphasis on xahr) (emphasis on unj)

unja

rus

mixune

xahre

unja

rus

mixune

(emphasis on xahr+ question)

xahre

unja

rus

mixune ?

1. bradre inja kar mikone 2. zne iraz danega mire 3. pesret unja drs mide 4. ma tuye danega hendi mixunim 5. madretun zinja betehran mire 6. oma unja kar nemikonid 7. u zma kmi pul migire 8. mn tuye in hotel zendegi mikonm 9. mn tuye bazarm

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3. Intonation pattern of address When using people's names in Persian a distinction is made between when a person is being talked about, and when he is being addressed. The former carries the normal Persian stress pattern: hs n; the latter does not: h sn. The intonation patterns of the two forms are also different. When speaking about someone, the intonation pattern is low, it rises and reaches its peak at the end where the stress is located. On the other hand, the intonation pattern for addressing a person starts high where the stress is located (at the initial syllable). It falls as it passes the peak. Compare the following:

mentioning or naming

addressing h

hm d

mid

rez

r za

aqaye qaz

qaye qazi

4. Stress in Persian Some verbal prefixes like the negative marker n - and the imperative marker b- are always stressed. This is in contradistinction to the nominal stress pattern of Persian--only a few forms have initial stress. To illustrate this point some nouns and verbs are contrasted below: b-de b-zn b-xun b-gu b-gir b-pr b-xr give! hit! read! say! take! jump! buy! be-d be-zn be-xn be-g be-gr be-pr be-xr to the village to the woman in blood to the ball to the pin to the feather to the donkey

These illustrations show that the shift of stress on some basic forms can affect the meaning of a given form. To prevent confusion, it is important to learn the verbal prefixes that carry stress.

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Another example of stress shift is where Persian uses an unstressed i to denote indefiniteness and a stressed to make abstract nouns out of adjectives and nouns. An accidental shift of stress on the same basic form, thus, may create confusion. Compare: km- xub- mrd- bozorg- delavr- pir- jvan- lack goodness manhood greatness heroism old age youth km-i xb-i mrd-i bozrg-i delavr-i pr-i jvn-i a little a good one a man a noble one a hero an old person a youth

5. Harmony Although not a feature of the Persian sound system, there are instances of both vowel and consonant harmony: a. Vowel Harmony In spoken Persian, when the prefix b- (either for forming the imperative or the subjunctive) is used, the -- may be changed to i, o, or u to match the vowel of the stem. This change does not affect the stress pattern. Example: b + bin b + xor b + xun b - bin b - xor b -xun see! eat! read!

b. Consonant Harmony Second members of consonant clusters tend to assimilate to the first. Example: dst bstn dzd mzd dss bssn dzz mzz hand ice cream thief wages

Spectrogram One of the ways to see some of the differences outlined above for the sounds of Persian is to look at spectrographs produced for individual sounds in the language laboratory. The spectrograph indicates where stops, fricatives, etc. begin and where they end. It also shows how vowels make a gradual transition into the consonants and out of them. The following spectrograms show a) how the sound h is overtaken by the vowel , b) how the geminate consonant tt is different from the simple consonant t.

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Transition
Spoken and written Persian share the same phonological system, morphological derivations, and syntactic constructions. Spoken Persian, however, is a somewhat abbreviated form of the written language. Written or formal Persian is employed by public speakers, the print media, radio and television and by educational forums for the dissemination of various national programs. Tajiki and Dari languages are very close to this version of the language. Unlike formal Persian, which enjoys international prestige, spoken Persian is restricted by geography and by local idiosyncrasies. It is the language used among the members of the family and among friends; a refined version is spoken by businessmen and professionals. The spoken language presented in these materials is based on the speech of the educated and professional Iranians of the Tehran region. The basic differences outlined above for the written and spoken languages are broadly categorized below as phonological, morphological or syntactic. They are not, however, all the differences that distinguish the two levels of Persian. Students are thus urged to listen to their instructor, to tapes, and to native speakers and to ask questions regarding forms that sound familiar but which do not fit the patterns they already recognize. In the following discussion, the formal language is written out in the Persian script; the spoken version of the same is transcribed.

Phonological Differences
a. The following correspondences show that spoken Persian uses u before a nasal (i.e., m or n); written Persian uses a represented by an lef: Example: written spoken nun rzun un xiyabun mehmun midunm gerun xune meaning bread cheap; inexpensive that street guest I know expensive house

r rZdcZ r r r Z rZ

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Newly formed words, words borrowed from other languages, and some Iranian names remain the same for both the written and colloquial. Example: written spoken university university student restaurant tea cup Sasan, boy's name apartment Turan, girl's name

sZa Za rZcc rZ r rc rZc

b. Some syllables that are pronounced with an e in the written, change the e into i in the colloquial. Example: written spoken ku ik meaning small what work look what English

c s Z

ikar
niga

ingilisi

Again, borrowed words such as c 'sigar' (cigarette) are not affected. c. Some words ending in c -re in the written language are pronounced with a final -e in the colloquial. Example: written spoken ge dige mge meaning if other surprise marker

Z a

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undergo assimilation ( Example:

= ss) in the colloquial.

written

spoken bssni dss niss xsse duss

meaning ice cream hand is not tired friend

a ta

Consonant clusters might lose one or other of their members in the colloquial. Example: written spoken hf h meaning seven eight how how much thought city love happy morning

c c p

etow eqd

fek

:r
me:r sob xoal

e. Some forms that end in sZ ah in the written lose the final h in the colloquial. Example: written spoken danega kola siya meaning black university hat king department store

s sZa s s st

foruga

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Morphological Differences
The discussion of morphological differences here is restricted to differences that affect the endings that fulfill grammatical functions: I. Nouns and Pronouns a. The plural marker for written Persian is Example: written spoken miza drxta ketaba sndlia meaning tables trees books chairs

-ha; for the colloquial it is -a.

ca [

Note: Often, in order to soften the transition from i to a, in the spoken language, a buffer - y - is pronounced. The pronunciation then is sndli-y-a; the -y- has no meaning. b. The definite direct object marker in formal Persian is

Zc

ra. In colloquial

Persian ra is pronounced as an o after consonants and ro after vowels. Example: written spoken bino toro meaning Bizhan-def. d. o. marker you (sing.)-def. d. o. marker

Zc r Zc

Note: When this marker, or others like the possessive endings, is added to words that end in I- eh, the -eh changes to before the o or the possessive ending is added.

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Example: written spoken xunro meaning house-def d. o. marker

Zc
c. The conjunction

is written independently in all instances in written Persian

and is pronounced v. This conjunction, which becomes an integral part of the preceding word, is pronounced o (vo after vowels) in colloquial Persian. Example: written spoken meaning Shabnam, Reza and I

t c t
d. The word language. Example: written

bnmo rezavo mn

hm (also), is reduced to m or just m in the colloquial

spoken

meaning I also you (pl.) also

omam

mnm

e. The possessive endings are pronounced somewhat differently in the two levels. Compare: written spoken ketabm ketabet ketabe ketabetun meaning my book

r r r

ketabemun ketabeun

Bashiri In written Persian, forms that end in s -e, add an

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lef to carry the vowel of the

endings. This lef is optional for the plural forms (i.e., we, you [pl.], they). In the spoken language, the rule explained in the Note after (b), above, applies. Example: written spoken xunm xunt xun xunmun xuntun xunun meaning my house

qZ \Z fZ r r r

Similarly, nouns ending in Z -a and

-u add a

w -ye to the written to carry the

vowel of the endings. The vowels of the endings are dropped in the colloquial. Compare: written spoken ptum ptut ptu ptumun ptuun pam pat pa pamun patun paun my foot ptutun meaning my blanket

r r r r r r

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The same procedure applies to prepositions that take the ezafe. Compare: written spoken bram bam meaning for me with me

Z
II. The Verb "to be"

When the verb to be appears on a noun, or on an adjective, the following differences can be distinguished: a. The third person singular is Z st in the written. In colloquial Persian is pronounced e. Example: written spoken in mize un drxte meaning This is a table. That is a tree.

Z Z
Z ca r

b. The second person plural is always -id in written, but either -id or -in in the colloquial. Example: written a spoken oma doxtrid/in meaning You are a girl. You are girls.

c. The third person plural is always nd in the written, n in the colloquial.

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Example: written ca spoken una madrn meaning They are mothers.

In forms such as (child), which end in a s -e, an Z lef precedes the endings for the written (cf., ), and the -e is dropped for the colloquial. Example: qZ wZ Z bm bei bss beim bn I am a child

Z Z Z Z

beid/in

If the form ends in

lef or

u, the vowel of the ending is dropped in the

colloquial; an added lef carries the vowel of the ending in the written. In these cases the independent forms of "to be" (i.e., ... - ) are preferred. Example: written spoken babam babai babass babaim babaid/in baban meaning I am a father.

= qZ = wZ = Z = Z = Z = Z

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III. Other Verbs The present stems of some verbs are abbreviated in the colloquial. Example: written spoken mirm miri mire mirim mirid/in mirn meaning I go

qtc wt at t t t

Other such abbreviated present stems are: written spoken xa ar meaning to want to bring to become to give to put to say to sit

sZ ct sa cZ

d zar g

in

When the present stem ends in a vowel in the written, a w ye or a hamza precedes the endings. The short form of the endings is used in the colloquial. Example: written spoken miyam miyai miad miaim miaid/in mian meaning I come

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Similarly:

Z Z Z Z Z Z

mixam mixai mixa(d) mixaim mixaid/in mixan

I want

Note: The s he in the present stem of s

Z xah is part of the full form of the stem. The t

is silent before lef. Some stems are not abbreviated but include some of the phonological changes explained earlier. Compare: written spoken xun dun run meaning to read to know to drive

rZ rZa rZc

Compound verbs may include one or more of the changes outlined above. Example: written spoken fek mikonm duss dare niga konid/in meaning I think. He/she likes. look!

acZa ta s

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Syntactic Differences
There are no great syntactic differences between the two levels of Persian. A few exceptions are worth mentioning. 1. While the verb of the sentence invariably appears at the end of a sentence, in the spoken language other elements might follow the verb. Example: written: spoken:

qt Z
mixam berm xune I want to go home.

As can be seen, in such cases the preposition colloquial sentence.

be (to) is dropped from the

2. In the colloquial language, often the definite direct object is repeated as an ending on the verb. The ezafe is usually dropped. Example: written: spoken:

qa r w ca Zc
hsno tu xiyabun didme I saw Hassan on the street.

3. There are two types of prepositions in Persian; those like which do not take the ezafe and those like tu,

zir,

tc

ca dr,

be, etc.,

ru, etc., which take the

ezafe. In the formal language, the preposition that takes the ezafe follows the one that does not. In the spoken language, the latter is used without its ezafe. Compare: written:

Z nZ w Z nZ ca Z nZ w ca
hsn tu otaqe Hassan is in the room.

spoken:

4. In colloquial Persian, the conjunction Z ge (if) may be dropped, but must be retained in the written language.

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Example: written: spoken: ...Z

Zc Zc Z
to tell you the truth...

rasse o bexay...

5. Certain constructions are used on only one level. The formal future, for instance, c Z - c Z - c Z (I will go, etc.), is a feature of written Persian. Another feature of colloquial Persian is the addition of a stressed -e to the noun or adjective to indicate definiteness. Compare: spoken: kuike male mne pesre tu xiyabune bud

The small one belongs to me. The boy was in the street.

Features of this type may pertain only to certain dialects of colloquial Persian. An example of this is in colloquial Shirazi where the -e is replaced by -u. Compare: spoken: kuuku male mne pesru tu xiyabunu bud End of Transition

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Unit One
The Verb 'to be' The verb 'budn' (to be) appears as a set of endings on nouns and adjectives. For instance, the combination of the noun 'mrd' (man) and '-e', the third person singular of 'budn', results in 'mrd-e' (He is a man). The full conjugation of 'budn' is presented below. This Unit focuses on the third person singular of 'budn': spoken mrdm mrdi mrde mrdim mrdid / in mrdn written meaning I am a man. You (sing.) are a man. He is a man. We are men. You (pl.) are men. They are men.

qa wa Z a a a a

The endings representing 'budn' never carry the stress. The ending for second person plural has a frequently used variant represented by '-in'. In the example above, the endings are added to a noun that ends in a consonant. When the noun ends in a vowel, a buffer '-y-' is used between that vowel and the ending: 'sndl-y-e' (it is a chair).

Vocabulary: Please repeat: spoken mz sndl telefn dr written meaning table chair telephone door lamp

erq

ca lZ

Bashiri man televiziyn ketb drxt n n hotl Basic Sentences spoken n mz-e n telefn-e n sndl-ye n erq-e n ketb-e n hotl-e n drxt-e n man-e written meaning This is a table. This is a telephone. That is a chair. This is a lamp. That is a car. This is a book. This is a hotel. That is a tree.

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r [ ca Z r

car television book tree this that hotel

/ Z Z / Z Z / Z r / Z lZ Z / Z r / Z [ Z / Z Z / Z ca r

Repetition Drill The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. The students listen. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern. Example: spoken teacher: n mze teacher: n mze teacher: student: teacher: student: n mze repeat n mz-e repeat written

/ Z Z

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teacher: n mz-e student: repeat

Please Repeat: spoken n telefne n sndlye n erqe n hotle n drxte n ketbe End of Unit One n mane written

Z Z Z r Z lZ Z Z r / Z Z / Z ca r / Z [ Z

/ / / /

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Unit Two
The Verb 'to be'--Negative To negate 'mrd-e' (He is a man), replace '-e' with '-st' and prefix 'n-', the marker for negation, to it. This marker is always stressed. The combination of this marker and '-st' is, of course, 'n-st' ([it] is not). Here is the negative of the conjugation of 'mrd' and 'budn': spoken mrd n-st-m mrd n-st-i mrd n-st mrd n-st-im mrd n-st-id/in mrd n-st-n written meaning I am not a man. You are not a man. He is not a man. We are not men. You (pl.) are not men. They are not men.

/ a / a / a / a / a / a

This Unit also teaches how to form a question by affixing 'budn' (3rd. sing., usually) to '' (what). Vocabulary spoken n-st written meaning is not what (question word) what is... repetition

-ye
tekrr

? ? Z cZ

Basic Sentences spoken n -ye n -ye written meaning What is this? What is that?

? Z Z ? Z r

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n mz n-st n sndl n-st n hotl n-st n ketb n-st Repetition Drill

/ Z / r / Z / [ r

This is not a table. That is not a chair. This is not a hotel. That is not a book.

The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. The students listen. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: spoken teacher: n mz nst teacher: repeat teacher: in miz nist student: repeat teacher: in miz nist student: repeat teacher: in miz nist student: repeat Please repeat: spoken n sndl nst n hotl nst n ketb nst written written

/ Z

/ Z / r / [ Z

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Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: spoken n telefne teacher: in telefone student: repeat teacher: in telefone student: repeat Please substitute: teacher: student: teacher: student: teacher: student: teacher: student: book in ketabe repeat car in maine repeat written

/ Z Z

teacher: hotel student: teacher: in hotele student: repeat teacher: tree student: teacher: in drxte student: repeat teacher: lamp student: teacher: in eraqe student: repeat

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Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitution the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: spoken n ketb nst written

/ [ r

teacher: un ketab nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: un ketab nis(t) student: tekrar Please substitute: teacher: tree student: teacher: un drxt nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: chair student: teacher: un sndli nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: door student: teacher: un dr nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: lamp student: teacher: un eraq nis(t) student: tekrar teacher: hotel student: teacher: un hotel nis(t) student: tekrar End of Unit Two

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Unit Three
Personal Pronouns The subject of a Persian sentence using the verb 'budn' is marked by the following dependent pronouns: '-m', '-i', '-e', '-im', '-id/-in', and '-n'. The use of these pronouns is obligatory. Persian also uses a set of independent pronouns. Except in cases when these latter are used to emphasize or clarify the subject of the sentence, the use of independent pronouns is optional. The independent pronouns are: Spoken (mn) (t) () (m) (om) (un) written meaning I you (sing.) he/she we you (pl. or sing. polite) they

tZ

The independent pronouns may thus appear with the conjugation of the verb 'budn' and a noun. The parentheses indicate that the independent pronouns are optional:

Affirmative: spoken (mn) mrdm (t) mrdi () mrde (m) mrdim (om) mrdid/in (un) mrdn written meaning I am a man

qa ) * wa ) * Z a )tZ * a )* a )* a )*

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Negative: spoken (mn) mrd nstm (t) mrd nsti () mrd nst (m) mrd nstim (om) mrd nstid/in (un) mrd nstn Vocabulary Please repeat: spoken zn doxtr mo'llm written meaning woman; wife; lady girl; daughter teacher, instructor student; apprentice doctor boy; son father mother brother sister written meaning I am not a man

/ a ) * / a ) * / a )tZ * / a ) * / a ) * / a )*

agrd
doktr pesr pedr

madr bradr xahr Basic Sentences spoken mn doktrm. m agrdim. t mo'llmi. un pesrn. doktre.

rd a a a c ca caZ Z

written

/ qa / a / / / Z a tZ

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m pedr nstim. t madr nsti. doxtr nst.

om agrd nstid.
Translation

/ c / ca / a tZ / a

I am a doctor. We are students. You (sing.) are a teacher. They are boys. He/she is a doctor. We are not fathers. You are not a mother. She is not a girl. You (pl. or sing. polite) are not a student. Note: Normally Persian does not distinguish gender. Thus '' can be translated as either 'he' or 'she,' depending on context.

Repetition Drill See Basic Sentences, above. Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken mn mo'llmm written

teacher: doctor student: mn doktorm teacher: student student: mn agerdm

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teacher: mother student: mn madrm teacher: father student: mn pedrm teacher: man student: mn mrdm teacher: woman student: mn znm

Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken m agrdim written

/ a

teacher: daughter student: ma doxtrim teacher: sister; brother; teacher; man Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken t doktri teacher: u student: u doktore teacher: oma; una; mn written

/ wa

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Substitution Drill (4) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken m doktr nstim teacher: student student: ma agerd nistim teacher: teacher; girl; woman; mother; boy Substitution Drill (5) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken agrd nst written written

/ a

/ a tZ

teacher: I student: mn agerd nistm teacher: they; you (sing.); we; he; you (pl.) End of Unit Three

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Unit Four
The 'ezaf' : a Brief Note The 'ezaf' relates two nouns to each other in a possessed/possessor relationship. The thing possessed is cited first followed by an 'ezaf'; the possessor follows the 'ezaf'. The 'ezaf' is pronounced with the noun representing the object possessed. Example: spoken ketb-e mn written meaning my book

In the example above 'ketb' (book) is the thing possessed; '-e' marks the 'ezaf' and 'mn' (I) is the possessor. spoken ketb-e n ketb-e mn-e written meaning his/her book This is my book.

tZ [ / Z [ Z

For more information on the 'ezafe' and its uses see Lesson Four. Vocabulary Please repeat: spoken slm slm 'lykom hl written meaning hello response to slm condition how (question word) bad thankful God protector, keeper Reza, first name male Shabnam, first name female

etw(r)
bd motkkr xod hafz rez

bnm

q q p c Z c

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Basic Sentences In Persian, as in English, there are various ways of greeting, paying respect or saying good-bye. The following dialog is one of the more common ways:

Dialog Please listen: spoken slm bnm slm 'lykm, rez. hl-e om etwr-e? xod hafz beslamt Translation: Hello, Shabnam. Hello, Reza. How are you? It (i.e., my 'hl') is not bad, Thank you. Good-bye. Good-bye (response to 'xod hafz'). Note 1: Note that the verb 'budn' in 'hl-e om etwr-e?' (How are you?) is singular. The reason for this is that the inquiry is made with regard to the listener's 'hl' (health, condition) and not in relation to himself. Note 2: The mc 't'arf' system is one of the interesting aspects of the Iranian culture. And it is a complex one at that.The few remarks that follow are intended to acquaint the student with the rudimentary elements of this system. The remarks are strictly for information purposes; the student need not memorize them yet. The cultural aspects outlined below deal with the way Iranians meet and try to make each other feel comfortable. In a Persian way of putting it, "They tarff". In this context, the 't'arf' system is a way of socializing which, within its simple formulae, allows the bd nst, motkkrm written

q / c q ? Z c p / q - / Z /

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experienced to find delicate ways of expressing approval, willingness, refusal, and the like. Indeed, through the introductory remarks, one can communicate the tone of a whole conversation. 1. Greeting 'slm' (hello) is the standard way to greet at all times. 'slm 'rz mkonm' (hello [lit., I offer peace]) is also frequently heard. 'slm 'lykm' is the standard response to the above greetings. Among friends a mere 'slm' will do. 'slm z-bnd' (hello [lit., hello from this slave]) expresses humility on the part of the person responding. It also may indicate that the person responding is in a lower social category. 'hle om etwre?' (How are you?) is the standard way to inquire about someone's health. This is, however, the colloquial or the informal way. A more formal way is 'hle om etwr st?'. The word "om" may be replaced by a number of honorific terms of address to indicate the social status of the addressee. Thus greetings such as 'hl-e rf etwr st?' or 'hl-e jenb-e 'al etwr st?' or 'hl-e hzrt-e 'al etwr st?' are also heard. These latter terms of greeting, however, occur in conversations that are formal and that take place at a high level of society. Below the "om" level, if we can call it that, is 'to' (you singular, informal or familiar). 'hlet etwre?' (How are you?) is said to a ild, a close friend, a member of the family or to a servant. 2. With Company There are certain terms of 't'arf' that have acquired "universal" usage. They may be used in more than one situation. In each situation, however, the word is interpreted differently. One such word is 'bfrma'id'. Like its Turkish equivalent buyurun , 'bfrma'id' is an invitation to action. If it is said when pointing to a chair, for example, it means please take a seat; if it is used when entering or leaving a place, or in the course of a conversation, it means please go ahead; if said when offering tea, sweets, fruit or other foodstuffs, it means please help yourself. In all such cases 'bfrma'id' is accompanied by a gesture indicating the action to be undertaken. Some of these gestures are facial; others involve motion of the head, hand or hands. If, when visiting a friend, he or she offers you something or, if he or she prepares food, you say: 'dste om drd nkone' (Thank you! [lit., may your hand not ae!]); in return you hear: 'sre om drd nkone' (Thank you! [lit., may your head not ae!]).

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When a friend offers to prepare food or drink for you or, if he or she offers to put you up for the night, you say: 'nmixam be om zhmt bdm' (I don't want to inconvenience you) and, in return, you hear: 'xah mkonm, hi zhmti nst' (That's all right; or, Please, that's all right [lit., I beg of you. It is no inconvenience at all]). If you accidentally bump into someone, step on his or her toe in a dark place, or if you want to attract someone's attention, perhaps someone sitting directly behind you, you say: 'm'zert mxam' (excuse me!). In return you will hear: 'xah mkonm' (that's all right [lit., I beg of you]). Normally, if someone is sitting directly behind you, you may say: 'm'zert mxam (or, bbxid) ptm beomst' (Excuse me, I have my back towards you!). In return you might hear: 'xah mkonm, gol pto ru ndare' (please, don't bother. That's all right. [lit., I beg of you, a flower has no front or back!]). If a guest enters your house you say: 'xyli xo mdid, bfrma'id tu' (You are very welcome. Come in!). Your guest, in turn, will say: 'motkkrm' or 'mrsi,' (Thank you!). Sometimes the phrase: 'sf avrdid' (Welcome [lit., you brought serenity with you!]) is added to: 'xo amdid'. To make your guest more comfortable, you say: 'xunye xdetune' (Treat here as if it were your own house [lit., this is your own house!]). Your guest will say: 'sahbe zend be' (May its owner live [a long life]!). If someone is wearing a new dress or a new suit, you say: 'mobark be' (May it be auspicious!) The wearer will answer with: 'slamt bid' (May you remain healthy!) and 'motkkrm' (Thank you!). As a compliment to one who wears a new suit, you may say: 'in lebs xyli beom (or betn) myad' (This suit suits you very well!). The answer again is: 'motkkrm' or 'mers' (Thank you!). A warning might be in order here with regard to what is usually known as 'pik' (gift). When you compliment a person on a nice tie or a nice watch, the chances are that he or she might try to give the tie or the watch to you as a gift . The acceptance or rejection of such a gift depends on how close you feel you are to the person and whether, in similar circumstances, you would be ready and willing to respond in kind. If someone is working hard at something, you say: 'xst nbaid' (Working hard! [lit., don't be tired]). The answer is: 'slamt bid' (Thank you! [lit., May you remain healthy!]). If a person sneezes, you say: 'affiyt b e' (Bless you!) and the person will answer: 'slamt bid' (Thank you!). The same phrase is used if you encounter someone leaving a bathhouse or when someone has just taken a shower or a swim. The answer remains the same.

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3. Leave-taking Leave taking can be as elaborate as greeting. When you are about to say good-bye, you say 'ba ejazye om mn morxxs mm' (With your permission, I now take my leave!), or: 'mn bayd zhmto km knm' (I should diminish the trouble). To both of these elaborate ways of saying 'I have to leave,' the host says: 'koj trf mbrid?' (Why do you wish to leave? [lit., where are you going?]), and may also add: 'hal ke zde' (It is still early [for you to leave]). When the guest is on the way out, the host repeats the phrase used in greeting the guest, i.e.,: 'xyli xo mdid, sf avrdid', and adds: 'inall dobar trf byarid' (God willing, come back again!). The guest responds with: ' m, inall dobar xedmt mresim' (Of course, I [lit, we] will come to your service again). The last remark before saying good-bye may be: 'xyli zhmt kedid' (You went into a lot of trouble!). The host answers: 'qabli ndare' (No trouble at all!). The final leave taking is: 'xod hafz' and the response is either 'bslamt' or just a repetition of 'xod hafz'. The host may here, as a last remark, say: 'lotfn be-... slm brsunid' (Please say hello to...). The guest responds with: 'm' (of course) and adds: 'omm slm bresunid' (you, too, say hello [to your family or whomever]). The word "enallh" (also pronounced 'inalla' and 'ialla') is frequently used in conversation. It has many meanings among them "God willing". It is used at the beginning or planning stage of an action, or as a wish for bliss for the present. 'inall hle om xbe?' (lit., God willing, are you feeling fine?) or 'i all key be-esfhn mrid?' (God willing, when are you going to Isfahan?). A humorous way of asking about someone's health is: 'dmqe om qe?' (How are you [lit., Is your nose fat?]). The answer to all inquiries about one's health can be simply: 'xbm' (I am fine.); 'xbm, mers' (I am fine, thank you!); 'xbm motkkrm' (I am fine, thank you!). And all these answers may be preceded by the Arabic phrase: 'lhmdolellh' (Praise be to God). Other phrases such as: 'ltfe om ziyd' (Thank you! [lit., may your kindness increase!]); 'sayye om km ne' (Thank you! [ lit., may your shadow never decrease or diminish!]); or the more formal 'sayye jenbe 'al km ne' or 'sayye hzrte 'al km ne' are also heard frequently, albeit in very formal conversation.

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If a friend receives a piece of good news, or if a relative returns from a journey, you say: 'me om rown' (I heard the good news [ lit., may your eye be lighted!]). As an answer you might hear: 'mo dle om rown' (Thank you! [lit., may your eyes and heart be lighted!]). If you unexpectedly see someone far from home you say: 'om koj, inj koj?' (What are you doing in this neck of the woods? [lit., you where, here where?]). The person responds with an explanation of the circumstances that have brought him to the place.

Repetition Drill The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. The students listen. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: spoken teacher: slm bnm teacher: tekrar teacher: slam bnm student: tekrar teacher: slam bnm student: tekrar teacher: slam bnm student: tekrar Please repeat: spoken slm 'lykm, rez. hl-e om etwr-e? xod hafz. beslamt bd nst, motkkrm. written written

/ q

/ c q ? Z c p / q - / Z /

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Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken slm, bnm teacher: Reza student: slam, reza teacher: John, Bill, Mary, Tina, Ray Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken slm 'lykom, rez teacher: Shabnam student: slam 'lykom, bnm teacher: John, Bill, Mary, Tina, Ray Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken hle om etwre? teacher: u student: hale u etowre? teacher: mn; ma; to written written written

/ q

/ c q

? Z c p

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Substitution Drill (4) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken bd nst. motkkrm. written

/ q

teacher: we student: bd nist, motkkerim teacher: you (pl.); I; you (sing.) End of Unit Four

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Unit Five
Plural in Persian Persian uses a number of suffixes to form the plural of a noun. Of these, only '-' is used on all nouns at all times. This marker is always stressed; the stress is shifted from the last syllable of the noun to this suffix. Example: spoken ketb ketab- written meaning book books

[ [

The full form of '-' is '-h'. When the noun ends in a vowel, the full form of the ending is used: spoken xod xoda-h written meaning God gods

Z Z

For more details on the plural see Lessons One and Five. This Unit also deals with the demonstrative adjectives 'in' (this) and 'un' (that). A discussion of these as well as a discussion of the pronouns 'in' and 'un' is found in Lessons One and Five.

Basic Sentences spoken n -ye n mz-e in- -ye in- mz-e written

? Z Z / Z Z ? Z Z / Z Z

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n ketb xb-e n ketab- xb-e n zn xb-e n zn- xb-n n agrd xub nst

n agerd- xub nst-n Translation: What is this? This is a table. What are these? These are tables. This book is good. These books are good. That woman is good. Those women are good. This student is not good. These students are not good. Repetition Drill

/ Z [ [ Z / Z [ Z / Z [ rd r / d r / [ a Z / [ a Z

The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. The students listen. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: spoken teacher: n -ye? teacher: tekrar teacher: in i-ye? student: tekrar teacher: in i-ye? student: tekrar teacher: in i-ye? student: tekrar written

? Z Z

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Please Repeat: spoken in mize ina iye? ina mize in ketab xube in ketaba xube un zn xube un zna xubn in agerd xub nist written

in agerda xub nistn Drill Contrast singular and plural: singular spoken ketb hotl drxt sndl mz mrd zn televiziyn doxtr dr pedr doktr pesr n n written

/ Z Z ? Z Z / Z Z / Z [ [ Z / Z [ Z / Z [ rd r / d r / [ a Z / [ a Z

plural spoken ketab- hotel- drxt- sndli-y miz- mrd- zn- televiziyon- doxtr- dr- pedr- doktor- pesr- in- un- written

[ ca a rd r a a c a Z r

ca a d a a c a Z

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Transformation (1) Transform singular into plural: singular spoken n ketb n hotl n drxt n sndl n mz n mrd n doxtr n pedr n dr Transformation (2) Transform singular into plural: singular n ketbe n mze n drxte n erq nst n hotl nst n sndlye n dr nst n man nst plural in ketbe in mze un drxte in erq nst un hotl nst in sndlye in dr nst un man nst written spoken n ketab- n hotel- n drxt- n sndli-y n miz- n mrd- n doxtr- n pedr- n dr- plural written

[ Z r ca Z r Z a Z a r c Z ca r

Z r ca Z r Z a Z a r c Z ca r

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Transformation (3) Transform singular into plural: singular n mrde n doxtre n doktr nst n mo'llme n agrd nst n pedr nst n madre n zne plural in mrdn un doxtrn in doktr nstn un mo'llmn in agrd nstn un pedr nstn in madrn un znn

Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken in ketb nst written

/ [ Z

teacher: ina ketab nist. student: tekrar teacher: ina ketab nist. student: tekrar teacher: ina ketab nist. student: tekrar Please substitute: teacher: table student: ina miz nist teacher: chair; telephone; television; hotel; door; tree

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Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken n man xbe written

/ Z [ Z

teacher: in main xube. student: tekrar teacher: in main xube. student: tekrar teacher: in main xube. student: tekrar Please substitute: teacher: televiziyon student: in televiziyon xube teacher: eraq; hotel; miz; sndli; mrd; agerd; doxtr; doktor

Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: spoken n agerd xub nstn / teacher: in agerda xub nistn. student: tekrar teacher: in agerda xub nistn. student: tekrar teacher: in agerda xub nistn. student: tekrar written

[ a Z

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Please substitute: teacher: teacher student: in mo'llema xub nistn teacher: woman; girl; father; boy; mother; doctor; man

Substitution Drill (4) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: spoken n main xbe teacher: in maina xube. student: tekrar teacher: in maina xube. student: tekrar teacher: in maina xube. student: tekrar Please substitute: teacher: television student: in televiziyona xube teacher: lamp; hotel; table; chair; man; student; girl; doctor End of Unit Five written

/ Z [ Z

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Unit Six
The Imperative For a discussion of the imperative see Lesson Eight of the main text . Vocabulary Please repeat: spoken ltf lotfn g bdid/in g knid/in tekrr tlffz jvb loqt y'ni joml b'd z mn Basic Sentences spoken lotfn g bdid lotfn g knid lotfn tekrr knid lotfn tlffz knid lotfn jvb bdid in loqt y'ni ? in joml y'ni ? written written meaning kindness please listen! listen! repetition pronunciation answer word what does it mean? sentence after me

f f cZ [Z ? dZ

" f " f " cZ " " [Z ? Z ? Z

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Translation: Please listen! Please listen! Please repeat! Please pronounce! Please answer! What does this word mean? What does this sentence mean? Repetition Drill: The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. The students listen. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: spoken teacher: lotfn g bdid teacher: tekrar teacher: lotfn gu bedid student: tekrar teacher: lotfn gu bedid student: tekrar teacher: lotfn gu bedid student: tekrar Please repeat: spoken lotfn g knid/in lotfn tekrr knid/in lotfn tlffz knid/in lotfn jvb bdid/in in loqt yni ? in joml y'ni ? End of Unit Six written written

" f

" f " cZ " " [Z ? Z ? Z

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Unit Seven
The Present/Future Tense To form the present/future of Persian verbs proceed as follows: 1. take the present stem of the verb 2. except for 'datn' (to have), prefix the present tense marker 'm-' 3. add the personal endings: '-m', '-i', '-e', '-im', '-id/in', '-n'. Example: m-r-m I go m-r-i m-r-e m-r-im m-r-id/in m-r-n With regard to the formation of the present tense, two points need to be explained; the first concerns the present stem of verbs while the second relates to the endings that indicate person. The Present Stem Often the stem used in the spoken language is an abbreviated version of the one used in the written/formal language. The majority of written and spoken stems, however, are the same. Here is a list of the most frequently used present stems: spoken meaning r go g say bin see kon do xor eat gir take d give xun read dun know (a thing) for sell xr buy ns know (a person) zn hit dar have, own

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The Personal Endings The personal endings are basically those used for the written except for the use of '-e' for the written '-d' and minor changes for the second and third persons plural, i.e., the use of '-id/-in' and '-n' in the spoken, discussed earlier. For a complete study of the present tense, see Lesson Six of the main text. Important Note The section called "Transition" taught us how to transform formal/written Persian into informal/colloquial Persian. Transcription, i.e., rendering the sounds of spoken Persian into Latin equivalents, helped us achieve that goal. Units One through Six placed the spoken language at the side of the written and allowed us to observe the rules of Transition at work. The differences were minimal, not so the amount of effort needed to make those rules work smoothly. Starting with this Unit, the use of Persian orthography is discontinued so that we can concentrate all our efforts on learning the patterns introduced. The student is urged to use the text only for the first time that he/she listens to the tape. Thereafter, it is advantageous to refer to the text only when patterns become too difficult to repeat after one exposure. If the patterns cannot be repeated comfortably in this fashion, the chances are that the student is not ready for the unit being studied. He/she must be advised to backtrack to a more comfortable unit and start from there. Vocabulary lotfn tekrar konid: fars yd yd mgirim drs drs mdid/in dr bazr kr kr mkone tehrn zendeg zendeg mkoni daneg mxunn drs mxunn k

Farsi; Persian language memory we learn lesson you (pl. or sg. polite) teach in market work he/she works Tehran; capital of Iran life you (sg.) live university they read; they sing they study who (question word)

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bank koj kojst key bebehotl Special Vocabulary spoken ingilis/engelestn frans/frans rus/rusiyy tork/torkiyy hend/hend(ustn) alman/almn 'rb/mesr, etc. fars/irn

bank where (question word) where is when (question word) to; in the direction of to the hotel meaning English/England French/France Russian/Russia Turkish/Turkey Hindi/India German/Germany Arabic/Egypt Persian/Iran

Basic Sentences ma fars yad mgirim oma fars drs mdid/in u dr bazr kar mkone to dr tehrn zendegi mkoni una dr daneg drs mxunn un mrd kye ? bank kojst ? ky behotl mri ? Translation We (are) learn(ing) Persian. You (are) teach(ing) Persian. He works in the market. You (sing.) live in Tehran. They study at the university. Who is that man? Where is the bank? When are you going to the hotel?

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Repetition Drill The instructor repeats the basic pattern two times. The students listen. The students then repeat after the instructor's third and subsequent repetitions of the basic pattern: Example: mo'llem: ma farsi yad migirim. mo'llem: tekrar mo'llem: ma farsi yad migirim. agerd: tekrar mo'llem: ma farsi yad migirim. agerd: tekrar mo'llem: ma farsi yad migirim. agerd: tekrar Please repeat: oma farsi drs midid. u dr bazar kar mikone. to dr tehran zendegi mikoni. una dr danega drs mixunn. un mrd kiye? bank kojast? key bebank miri? Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: mo'llem: oma farsi drs midin. mo'llem: oma farsi drs midin. agerd: tekrar mo'llem: oma farsi drs midin. agerd: tekrar mo'llem: oma farsi drs midin. agerd: tekrar mo'llem: ingilisi agerd: oma ingilisi drs midin. mo'llem: franse agerd: oma franse drs midin.

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mo'llem: rusi agerd: oma rusi drs midin. mo'llem: torki agerd: oma torki drs midin. mo'llem: hendi agerd: oma hendi drs midin. mo'llem: almani agerd: oma almani drs midin. mo'llem: 'rbi agerd: oma 'rbi drs midin. Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: mo'llem: ma farsi yad migirim. mo'llem: to agerd: to farsi yad migiri. mo'llem: u agerd: u farsi yad migire. mo'llem: mn agerd: mn farsi yad migirm. mo'llem: una agerd: una farsi yad migirn. mo'llem: oma agerd: oma farsi yad migirid. mo'llem: un zn agerd: un zn farsi yad migire. mo'llem: in doxtra agerd: in doxtra farsi yad migirn.

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Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: mo'llem: u dr bazar kar mikone. mo'llem: alman agerd: u dr alman kar mikone. mo'llem: torkiyye agerd: u dr torkiyye kar mikone. mo'llem: engelestan agerd: u dr engelestan kar mikone. mo'llem: tehran agerd: u dr tehran kar mikone. mo'llem: mesr agerd: u dr mesr kar mikone. mo'llem: rusiyye agerd: u dr rusiyye kar mikone. mo'llem: franse agerd: u dr franse kar mikone. Substitution Drill (4) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: Example: mo'llem: to dr tehran zendegi mikoni. mo'llem: I agerd: mn dr tehran zendegi mikonm. mo'llem: they agerd: una dr tehran zendegi mikonn. mo'llem: we agerd: ma dr tehran zendegi mikonim.

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mo'llem: you (pl.) agerd: oma dr tehran zendegi mikonid. mo'llem: these girls agerd: in doxtra dr tehran zendegi mikonn. mo'llem: those doctors agerd: un doktora dr tehran zendegi mikonn. Double Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: Example: mo'llem: una dr danega drs mixunn. mo'llem: mn - engelestan agerd: mn dr engelestan drs mixunm. mo'llem: to - alman agerd: to dr alman drs mixuni. mo'llem: un doxtr - emrika agerd: un doxtr dr emrika drs mixune. mo'llem: oma - franse agerd: oma dr franse drs mixunid. mo'llem: ma - iran agerd: ma dr iran drs mixunim. mo'llem: in pesr - mesr agerd: in pesr dr mesr drs mixune. mo'llem: un mo'llema - hendustan agerd: un mo'llema dr hendustan drs mixunn. Simple Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms. Do not attempt to repeat the sentence after the instructor gives the correct form; compare your answer with the correct form and carry on: mo'llem: un mrd kiye?

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mo'llem: zn agerd: un zn kiye? mo'llem: pesr agerd: un pesr kiye? mo'llem: doxtr agerd: un doxtr kiye? mo'llem: in agerd: in doxtr kiye? mo'llem: agerd agerd: in agerd kiye? mo'llem: doktor agerd: in doktor kiye? mo'llem: madr agerd: in madr kiye? mo'llem: pedr agerd: in pedr kiye? mo'llem: mo'llem agerd: in mo'llem kiye? mo'llem: un agerd: un mo'llem kiye? Simple Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms. Do not attempt to repeat the sentence after the instructor gives the correct form; compare your answer with the correct form and carry on: mo'llem: bank kojast ? mo'llem: hotel agerd: hotel kojast? mo'llem: tehran agerd: tehran kojast? mo'llem: engelestan agerd: engelestan kojast?

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mo'llem: mesr agerd: mesr kojast? mo'llem: hend agerd: hend kojast? mo'llem: alman agerd: alman kojast? mo'llem: injast agerd: alman injast. mo'llem: emrika agerd: emrika injast. mo'llem: franse agerd: franse injast. mo'llem: unjast agerd: franse unjast. mo'llem: torkiyye agerd: torkiyye unjast. mo'llem: rusiyye agerd: rusiyye unjast. mo'llem: kojast agerd: rusiyye kojast? mo'llem: iran agerd: iran kojast? Simple Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form. Do not attempt to repeat the sentence after the instructor gives the correct form; compare your answer with the correct form and carry on: mo'llem: key be hotel miri? mo'llem: tehran agerd: key betehran miri? mo'llem: engelestan agerd: key beengelestan miri? mo'llem: mesr agerd: key bemesr miri?

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mo'llem: hendustan agerd: key behendustan miri? mo'llem: emrika agerd: key beemrika miri? mo'llem: alman agerd: key bealman miri? mo'llem: unja agerd: key beunja miri? mo'llem: franse agerd: key befranse miri? End of Unit Seven

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Unit Eight

Possession In Persian possession is expressed either by adding a set of possessive endings to the noun representing the thing possessed or by relating the possessor and the thing possessed to each other by means of an 'ezaf'. a. The Possessive Endings There are six possessive endings. Below they appear on the noun 'ketb' (book): ketb-m my book ketb-et ketb-e ketb-emun ketb-etun ketb-eun The short form of the endings: '-m', '-t', '-', '-mun', '-tun', '-un' is added to nouns that end in a vowel. The initial vowel of the ending is dropped. Example: sndl-m my chair sndl-t sndl- sndl-mun sndl-tun sndl-un b. The 'ezaf' The 'ezaf' construction is composed of two or more words related to each other with an 'ezaf'. One function of these constructions is to indicate possession. For this, the noun representing the thing possessed is followed by noun or nouns representing the possessor. Example: ketb-e rez Reza's book ketab-e dst-e mn my friend's book For additional information on possession and on the role of the 'ezaf,' see Lesson Four of the main text.

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Vocabulary lotfn tekrar konid: bin Bizhan, first name (male) amrik/emrik America, the U.S.A. mduni do you know kodm which (question word) fek(r) thought fk mkonm I think harvrd Harvard hm also ble yes Special Vocabulary: The Cities of Iran esfhn Isfahan irz Shiraz md Meshed tbrz Tabriz hvz Ahwaz abadn Abadan kermn Kerman hmdn Hamadan rt Rasht xorrm abd Khorram Abad zahedn Zahedan Dialog - xahre bnm koj drs mxune ? - dr emrik. - mduni dr kodm daneg ? - fk mkonm dr daneghe harvrd. - brdre omm unjst ? - ble, bradrm unj ingilis mxune. Translation Where does Shabnam's sister go to school ? In America. Do you know in which university ? At Harvard, I believe (lit., I think). Is your brother there, too ? Yes, my brother is studying English there.

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Repetition Drill See the Dialog, above. Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: mo'llem: xahre bnm koja drs mixune? mo'llem: bradr agerd: bradre bnm koja drs mixune? mo'llem: madr agerd: madre bnm koja drs mixune? mo'llem: pesr agerd: pesre bnm koja drs mixune? mo'llem: doxtr agerd: doxtre bnm koja drs mixune? mo'llem: agerd agerd: agerde bnm koja drs mixune? mo'llem: mo'llem agerd: mo'lleme bnm koja drs mixune? mo'llem: pedr agerd: pedre bnm koja drs mixune? Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: mo'llem: fek mikonm dr danegahe harvard. mo'llem: tehran agerd: fek mikonm dr danegahe tehran mo'llem: iraz agerd: fek mikonm dr danegahe iraz.

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mo'llem: esfhan agerd: fek mikonm dr danegahe esfhan. mo'llem: mhd agerd: fek mikonm dr danegahe mhd. mo'llem: hvaz agerd: fek mikonm dr danegahe hvaz. mo'llem: tbriz agerd: fek mikonm dr danegahe tbriz. mo'llem: kerman agerd: fek mikonm dr danegahe kerman. Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: mo'llem: bradrm unja ingilisi mixune. mo'llem: farsi agerd: bradrm unja farsi mixune. mo'llem: torki agerd: bradrm unja torki mixune. mo'llem: almani agerd: bradrm unja almani mixune. mo'llem: franse agerd: bradrm unja franse mixune. mo'llem: 'rbi agerd: bradrm unja 'rbi mixune. mo'llem: rusi agerd: bradrm unja rusi mixune. mo'llem: hendi agerd: bradrm unja hendi mixune.

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Transformation (1) Transform: ezafe constructions into equivalent possessive phrases: ezafe possessive ketabe mn ketabm ketabe u ketabe ketabe oma ketabetun ketabe to ketabet maine bradret maine mize ma mizemun sndliye oma sndlitun bradre bnm bradre xahre reza xahre eraqe main eraqe dre hotel dre danegahe tehran danegahe drse oma drsetun hotele unja hotele bazare esfhan bazare banke alman banke pesre aqaye qazi pesre Transformation (2) Transform: ezafe constructions into their equivalent possessive phrases: ezafe possessive ketabaye mn ketabam ketabaye u ketaba ketabaye oma ketabatun ketabaye to ketabat mainaye bradret maina mizaye ma mizamun sndliaye oma sndliyatun bradraye bnm bradra xahraye reza xahra eraqaye main eraqa draye hotel dra danegahaye tehran danegaha drsaye oma drsatun hotelaye unja hotela bazaraye esfhan bazara bankaye alman banka pesraye aqaye qazi pesra

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Transformation/Substitution Drill (1) Transform the ezafe construction provided into possessive. Substitute the possessive construction in the pattern sentence: xahre bnm koja drs mixune? --xahre koja drs mixune? mo'llem: bradre bnm agerd: bradre koja drs mixune? mo'llem: madre bnm agerd: madre koja drs mixune? mo'llem: doxtre to agerd: doxtret koja drs mixune? mo'llem: pesraye una agerd: pesraun koja drs mixunn? mo'llem: mo'llemaye ma agerd: mo'llemamun koja drs mixunn? mo'llem: doxtre oma agerd: doxtretun koja drs mixune? Transformation/Substitution Drill (2) Transform the ezafe construction provided into possessive. Substitute the possessive construction in the negative form of the pattern sentence: xahraye bnm unja zendegi mikonn. --xahra unja zendegi nemikonn. mo'llem: Shabnam's brothers agerd: bradra unja zendegi nemikonn. mo'llem: Reza's doctors agerd: doktora unja zendegi nemikonn. mo'llem: our daughters agerd: doxtramun unja zendegi nemikonn.

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mo'llem: your doctors agerd: doktoratun unja zendegi nemikonn. mo'llem: his sons agerd: pesra unja zendegi nemikonn. mo'llem: my students agerd: agerdam unja zendegi nemikonn. End of Unit Eight

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Unit Nine
Present/future Tense (cont.) It was noted earlier that the present/future marker 'm-' is not affixed to the present stem of 'datn' (to have) to form the present/future tense for this verb. Here is the conjugation of 'datn': drm I have dri dre drim drid drn The negative of this tense is also pronounced somewhat differently. The negative marker was pronounced 'n-' before 'm-' It is pronounced 'n-' before forms other than m-: ndarm I don't have ndari ndare ndarim ndarid ndarn Note 1: The verb 'datn' is also employed as an auxiliary to form verbs expressing an ongoing action. In that case, there is need for simultaneous conjugation, i.e., 'datn' and the main action verb are both conjugated for all persons. See Lesson Eight for details. Note: 2 The numeral 'ye(k)' (one) does not take the unitizer 'ta'. The word 'yekt' (Unique) is an attribute of the Almighty. Vocabulary Please repeat: cnta/cndta? how many?; several (if not used as a question word) xun house drid you (pl. or sing. polite) have dre... telefn mkone he is making a telephone call ostd professor; instructor; teacher al Zhale, girl's name km little kmi a little; some

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pul money mdim we give z from mgire he/she receives, gets min Mina, girl's name qal / fr carpet mxre he/she buys, is buying orup Europe Special Vocabulary: Numbers 1-10 Please repeat: yek one do two se three ar four pnj five i six hf(t) seven h(t) eight no(h) nine d(h) ten Note: In Persian, as in English, the numeral precedes the noun but, unlike English, the noun remains in the singular: y ketb one book pnj ketb five books Basic Sentences - oma ndta xun darid? - oma ndta xun darid. - ma beal kmi pl mdim. - al zma kmi pl mgire. - min dare ye qal mxre. - un zirn beorup mrn. Translation How many houses do you have? You have several houses. We give some money to Zhale. Zhale receives some money from us. Mina is buying a carpet. They are going from Iran to Europe.

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Repetition Drill See Basic Sentences, above. Transformation Drill (1) Transform the question sentences provided into affirmative sentences: oma pnjta xune darid? --oma pnjta xune darid. mo'llem: ma se ta hotel darim? agerd: ma se ta hotel darim. mo'llem: hsn beoma telefon mikone? agerd: hsn beoma telefon mikone. mo'llem: ma beuna kmi pul nemidim? agerd: ma beuna kmi pul nemidim. mo'llem: u ziran beorupa mire? agerd: u ziran beorupa mire. mo'llem: pedretun seta main mixre? agerd: pedretun seta main mixre. mo'llem: una bema telefon nemikonn? agerd: una bema telefon nemikonn. mo'llem: mina dare ye qali mixre? agerd: mina dare ye qali mixre. mo'llem: bnm doxtre aqaye qaziye? agerd: bnm doxtre aqaye qaziye. mo'llem: aqaye qazi pedre reza nist? agerd: aqaye qazi pedre reza nist. mo'llem: bradra inja zendegi mikonn? agerd: bradra inja zendegi mikonn.

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Transformation Drill (2) Transform the affirmative sentences provided into negative: oma seta xune darid. --oma seta xune ndarid. mo'llem: u nohta agerd dare. agerd: u nohta agerd ndare. mo'llem: ma tuye un hotel zendegi mikonim. agerd: ma tuye un hotel zendegi nemikonim. mo'llem: una dhta qali darn. agerd: una dhta qali ndarn. mo'llem: un xanom tuye hotele ma kar mikone. agerd: un xanom tuye hotele ma kar nemikone. mo'llem: doxtre doktor tuye danegahe tehran drs mide. agerd: doxtre doktor tuye danegahe tehran drs nemide. mo'llem: pesre dr mesr drs mixune. agerd: pesre dr mesr drs nemixune. mo'llem: una inja farsi yad migirn. agerd: una inja farsi yad nemigirn. mo'llem: xahra unja zendegi mikonn. agerd: xahra unja zendegi nemikonn. Double Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: mina dare ye qali mixre. mo'llem: ale - ketab agerd: ale dare ye ketab mixre. mo'llem: un mrd - televiziyon agerd: un mrd dare ye televiziyon mixre. mo'llem: pedre bin - xune agerd: pedre bin dare ye xune mixre.

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mo'llem: madret - eraq agerd: madret dare ye eraq mixre. mo'llem: bradre - miz agerd: bradre dare ye miz mixre. mo'llem: doxtremun - sndli agerd: doxtremun dare ye sndli mixre. mo'llem: u - dr agerd: u dare ye dr mixre. Double Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: mn z iran be orupa mirm. mo'llem: mesr - engelestan agerd: mn zmesr beengelestan mirm. mo'llem: franse - rusiyye agerd: mn zfranse berusiyye mirm. mo'llem: esfhan - iraz agerd: mn zesfhan beiraz mirm. mo'llem: danega - bank agerd: mn zdanega bebank mirm. mo'llem: xuneye oma - hotel agerd: mn zxuneye oma behotel mirm. mo'llem: emrika - iran agerd: mn zemrika beiran mirm. mo'llem: inja - unja agerd: mn zinja beunja mirm. End of Unit Nine

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Unit Ten
a) The Simple Past Tense The formation of the simple past tense is quite similar to that of the present tense. The Subject markers '-m,' '-i,' '- ,' '-im,' '-id,' '-n,' are suffixed to the past stem--the infinitive without '-n'. When the sentence is in the affirmative the primary stress falls on the last syllable of the past stem. Because it deals with a completed or perfected action, the simple past does not have a distinctive marker like the 'mi-' marker of the present tense. Here is the conjugation of 'rft-n' (to go) in the past tense: rft-m I went rft-i rft rft-im rft-id/in rft-n For the compound verbs, as was the case with the present tense of such verbs, only the verbal auxiliary is conjugated. The primary stress remains on the noun. Here is the conjugation of 'kar krd-n' (to work): kr krd-m I worked kr krd-i kr krd kr krd-im kr krd-id/in kr krd-n Present and past tenses in contrast Please repeat: present past mre rft kr mkone kr krd yd mgire yd gerft drs mde drs dd zendeg mkone zendeg krd drs mxune drs xnd mxune xnd fk mkone fk krd mdune dunst dre dat mde dad

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mgire gerft mxre xrd jvb mde jvb dad g mde gu dad tlffz mkone tlffz krd To form the negative of this tense, prefix 'n-' (always with primary stress) to the verb stem of the simple verbs or to the verbal auxiliary of the compounds: n-rft he/she did not go kr n-krd he/she did not work b. The Definite Direct Object The noun that receives the action of a verb is the direct object of that verb. Such nouns are usually definite. Proper names, personal pronouns, nouns and phrases defined by 'in' and 'un', ezaf constructions, and question words referring to people, 'ki', or to things, 'kodm', are all regarded definite; when used as direct object, these nouns must be marked by the direct object marker '-o' ('-ro' after vowels). Examples: bin-o dd-m I saw Bizhan. ketb-o xnd-m I read the book. n-o xrd-m I bought that. un xun-ro forxt-m I sold that house. kodum loqt-o xnd-i Which word did you read? When '-ro' is added to a noun ending in '-e', the '-e' is pronounced '-': xun house xun-ro house + 'ro' c. The Conjunction '-o' The conjunction '-o' has the same pronunciation as the definite marker 'o'. The former is usually followed by another noun; the latter by either a noun preceded by a preposition or by the verb of the sentence. bin-o rez-ro dd-m I saw Bizhan and Reza. In the above sentence the first '-o' is a conjunction, while the second ('-ro' after the vowel '-a') is the definite direct object marker '-o'. In this material both markers are attached to the preceding noun and are pronounced as part of that noun. Example: bin-o bnm-o did He/she saw Bizhan and Shabnam.

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Here 'bin-o bnm' (Bizhan and Shabnam) is the definite direct object of 'did-n' (to see). The Word 'mal' The word 'mal' means property or belongings. In this sense 'mal' is usually the first part of an ezafe construction: 'mal-e' (property of): ml-e mn mine, my property ml-e his, his property Vocabulary Please repeat bin-o Bizhan, first name (male) t-y-e in xiyabn street dd/m-bin-e (he) saw/sees dirz yesterday mehmn guest bnm-o Shabnam and bahm together sinem cinema dst friend forudg(h) airport forug(h) department store forugh-e ferdows Ferdowsi department store xyli very dr far prvn first name (female) apz cook apzxun kitchen hvapeym airplane ml-e... property of... erkt = kompan company Special Vocabulary for drills Please repeat nzdk (nzk) near olq crowded, noisy xlvt uncrowded, empty of people bozrg big kuk small tmz clean ksf dirty gern expensive rzn cheap

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modrn (jdd) qdm qdim- otobs gar ketabxun ketbforu bstn (bssn) bstnforu gl glforu nq hr (also :r) qalforu belt beltforu b mdres

modern ancient days ancient, old (not for people) bus garage library bookstore ice cream ice-cream shop flower flower shop map city carpet shop ticket ticket office child school

Basic Sentences Please listen - bin-o t-y-e xiyabn dd-m. - dirz bradr-m cnd(ta) mehmn dt. - bnm-o mn bahm besinem n-rft-im. - dst-e om t-y-e forudg n-bud. - forugh-e ferdows xeyli dr bd. - prvn-o xahr-e t-y-e apzxun bd-n. - in hvapeym ml-e kodm erkt-e ? Translation I saw Bizhan on the street. Yesterday my brother had several guests. Shabnam and I did not go to the movies together. Your friend was not in the airport. The Ferdowsi Department Store was very far. Parvin and her sister were in the kitchen. To which company does this airplane belong? Repetition Drill See Basic Sentences, above.

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Substitution Drill (1) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: diruz bradrm nd mehmun dat. mo'llem: your sister agerd: diruz xahret nd mehmun dat. mo'llem: his doctor agerd: diruz doktore nd mehmun dat. mo'llem: my students agerd: diruz agerdam nd mehmun datn. mo'llem: Mr. Qazi agerd: diruz aqaye qazi nd mehmun dat. mo'llem: their daughters agerd: diruz doxtraun nd mehmun datn. mo'llem: the university professor agerd: diruz ostade danega nd mehmun dat. mo'llem: that man agerd: diruz un mrd nd mehmun dat. Substitution Drill (2) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: bnmo mn bahm besinema nrftim. mo'llem: market agerd: bnmo mn bahm bebazar nrftim. mo'llem: airport agerd: bnmo mn bahm beforudga nrftim. mo'llem: hotel agerd: bnmo mn bahm behotel nrftim. mo'llem: ice-cream shop agerd: bnmo mn bahm bebstni forui nrftim.

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mo'llem: garage agerd: bnmo mn bahm begara nrftim. mo'llem: library agerd: bnmo mn bahm beketabxune nrftim. mo'llem: school agerd: bnmo mn bahm bemdrese nrftim. Substitution Drill (3) Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined form: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli dur bud. mo'llem: big agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli bozorg bud. mo'llem: small agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli kuik bud. mo'llem: modern agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli modern bud. mo'llem: old agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli qdimi bud. mo'llem: expensive agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli gerun bud. mo'llem: cheap agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli rzun bud. mo'llem: crowded agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli oluq bud. mo'llem: uncrowded agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli xlvt bud. mo'llem: clean agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli tmiz bud. mo'llem: dirty agerd: forugahe ferdowsi xeyli ksif bud.

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Double Substitution Drill (1) This is a double substitution drill. Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: bino tuye xiyabun didm. mo'llem: bnm - hotel agerd: bnmo tuye hotel didm. mo'llem: mina - forudga agerd: minaro tuye forudga didm. mo'llem: agerda - mdrese. agerd: agerdaro tuye mdrese didm. mo'llem: dustet - foruga agerd: dusteto tuye foruga didm. mo'llem: prvin - apzxune agerd: prvino tuye apzxune didm. mo'llem: otobus - gara agerd: otobuso tuye gara didm. mo'llem: una - sinema agerd: unaro tuye sinema didm. Double Substitution Drill (2) This is a double substitution drill. Learn the pattern sentence then substitute the cues provided by the instructor for the underlined forms: in hvapeyma male kodum erkte? mo'llem: child - school agerd: in be male kodum mdresst? mo'llem: map - city agerd: in nqe male kodum hre? mo'llem: flower - flower shop agerd: in gol male kodum golforuiye? mo'llem: ticket - ticket office agerd: in belit male kodum belit foruiye?

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mo'llem: bus - company agerd: in otobus male kodum erkte? mo'llem: carpet - carpet store agerd: in qali male kodum qaliforuiye? mo'llem: ice cream - ice-cream shop agerd: in bstni male kodum bstni foruiye? Transformation Transform the following from the present tense into past tense: mo'llem: mina beforudga mire agerd: mina beforudga rft mo'llem: mn inja kar mikonm agerd: mn inja kar krdm mo'llem: ma farsi yad migirim agerd: ma farsi yad gereftim mo'llem: xahrm ingilisi drs mide agerd: xahrm ingilisi drs dad mo'llem: u dr tehran zendegi mikone agerd: u dr tehran zendegi krd. mo'llem: mn tuye in danega drs nemixunm. agerd: mn tuye in danega drs nxundm. mo'llem: ma beu belit midim. agerd: ma beu belit dadim. mo'llem: u zma belit migire. agerd: u zma belit gereft. mo'llem: mn ye main mixrm. agerd: mn ye main xridm. mo'llem: to beu jvab midi. agerd: to beu jvab dadi. mo'llem: xahret bemn gu nemide. agerd: xahret bemn gu ndad.

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mo'llem: mo'llem ino xub tlffoz nemikone. agerd: mo'llem ino xub tlffoz nkrd. mo'llem: bazar beinja xeyli nzdike. agerd: bazar beinja xeyli nzdik bud. mo'llem: hale kmi bde. agerd: hale kmi bd bud. mo'llem: mn un televiziyono mixrm. agerd: mn un televiziyono xridm. mo'llem: mo'llem in loqto tekrar mikone. agerd: mo'llem in loqto tekrar krd. End of Unit Ten