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TABLE OF CONTENTS I. II. III. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Table of Contents ................................................................................................... 1 List of figures ......................................................................................................... 2 List of Tables .......................................................................................................... 2 Apparatus ............................................................................................................... 3 Experimental Procedure.......................................................................................... 4 Data & Analysis.............................................................................................. 5 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 9 References............................................................................................................... 9

II.

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Schematic of the experiment Figure 2 Time vs. Temperature Diagram for Notch 14 Figure 3 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 14 to notch 20 Figure 4 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 20 to notch 17 Figure 5 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 17 to notch 11 Figure 6 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 11 to notch 8 Figure 7 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 8 to notch 5 Figure 8 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 5 to notch 2

III.

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 14 Table 2 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 20 Table 3 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 17 Table 4 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 11 Table 5 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 8 Table 6 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 5 Table 7 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 17

1.

Apparatus

Conduction is defined as the transfer of energy from more energetic particles to less energetic particles as a result of interactions between the particles. In solids, conduction is the combined result of molecular vibrations and free electron mobility. Metals typically have high free electron mobility, which explains why they are good heat conductors. The mechanism of the heat transfer design principles would be subsequently treated according to the modes of heat transfer, conduction, convection, and radiation. In this experiment the principle of conduction heat transfer based on Fouriers law from a metal bar would be associated with the rate of heat transfer, thermal conductivity, and thermal resistance. Experimental setup contains a control box which creates a current towards heat sink due to the obtained voltage difference, heater assembly which is heating the metal bar, 22 cm long metal bar with notches at every 1 cm and a heat sink which give heat to air by convection by using fins on it.

Figure 1 Schematic of the experiment

The heat bar contains three heating elements, two of which are used in series or parallel to suit 220V or 110V line voltages respectively. The bar itself conveys heat by conduction from heater to the heat sink. It is marked off by notches at 1 cm intervals for ease of positioning the various transducers along it. The heat sink conveys heat away from the bar by convection to surrounding air. The heat sink structure is similar to fins; it has a extended surface in order to increase the surface area to lose heat by convection easily. Thus the cool end of the bar is only a little above the room temperature. By using heat sink and heater, we will calculate the conduction heat transfer from metal bar. There are a water container on the metal bar which is connected to it, and a thermometer in the water to determine the temperature of the fin at that position. This thermometer in the small water tank which is in touch with the heated metal bar, the temperature increase in the metal bar can be calculated. Also, by using this temperature differences and material properties of conduction, the transferred heat from the heater to the heat sink can be calculated.

2.

Experimental Procedure

Before the experiment begins, necessary information about the apparatus and the experiment is given by the teaching assistant. It is told that aim of this experiment is to analyze the transfer of heat on a bar in one dimension. To examine heat transfer, temperature of the water in the calibration tank is measured in different places of the bar. First, the calibration tank is placed 14 cm away from the heater and the temperature of the water in calibration tank, which is equal to the temperature of the bar, is measured and noted (230C). Then, the heater is turned on. After the heater starts to operate, the temperature of the water (in calibration tank) is measured and recorded at each passing minute. After a few minutes, the temperature of water is measured once in two minutes. The reason for decreasing the frequency of measuring temperature is that temperature changes more at the beginning. With each passing minute, the change in the temperature of the water lowers. Because of that, the frequency of taking measurement is decreased. After a few more minutes, the frequency of taking measurements is decreased again and the measurements are taken once in five minutes. Then we wait until the system to come to steady state. When, we can't observe any change in temperature of water, it means that the temperature of the bar at that point is equal the temperature of the water in calibration tank and the system to come to steady state. At the end of each time interval, temperatures are noted. After the system to come to steady state, at the first point, calibration tank is relocated. This procedures are applied at every point that the measurements will be taken. First we started at 14cm, then the tank is located to 20 cm and after that the distance is decreased at a fixed rate, 3 cm (17, 11, 8, 5 and 2). While measuring temperature at 2cm, temperature is measured until it reaches to 100 C. After that, no measurement is done, because 1000C is the boiling temperature of the water. All these data is used to compare the temperatures of the points on the bar and to observe how the heat is transferred on a bar in one dimension. These calculations are explained in details in Results & Discussions Part.

3. Data & Analysis

Table 1.Time and Temperature Values for Notch 14 14 cm from heat sink Time Temperature (min) (0C) 0 23,0 1 23,0 2 23,5 3 24,5 4 26,0 5 28,0 6 30,0 7 32,5 8 34,5 9 36,0 10 38,0 12 41,5 14 44,5 16 47,0 18 48,5 20 50,0 25 52,0 30 53,5 35 54,0 40 54,0

T14 vs t
60 50 40 T( 0C) 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 time(min) 30 40

Figure 2 Time vs. Temperature Diagram for Notch 14

When t=0, our data is T14 which represents the temperature when control box has a distance of 14cm from heat sink. Then we took the datas when we have a distance 20cm, the last temperature is the steady state value of T20.

Table 2 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 20 20 cm from heat sink T (min) T (0C) 0 54,0 1 51,0 2 49,0 3 47,5 4 46,0 5 44,5 6 44,0 7 44,0 8 43,0 10 42,5 12 42,0 14 41,5 16 41,0 18 41,0 20 41,0

T14_T20
60 55 T(C) 50 45 40 35 0 5 10 time(min) 15 20

Figure 3 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 14 to notch 20

T14_T20 represents that from temperature when our distance equal to 14cm, to the distance equal to 20cm. All graphs we use this representation.

Table 3 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 17 17 cm from heat sink T (min) T (0C) 0 41,0 1 44,0 2 45,0 3 45,0 4 45,5 5 46,0 7 46,5 9 47,0 11 47,5 13 48,0 15 48,0

T20_T17
50 48 46 44 42 40 0 5 t(min) 10 15 T( 0C)

Figure 4 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 20 to notch 17

Table 4 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 11 11 cm from heat sink T (min) T(0C) 0 48,0 1 53,0 2 56,0 3 57,5 4 59,0 5 60,0 6 61,0 7 61,5 8 62,0 9 62,5 10 63,0 11 63,0 12 63,0 14 63,5 16 64,0 18 64,0

T17_T11
65 60 T( 0C) 55 50 45 0 5 10 t(min) 15 20

Figure 5 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 17 to notch 11

Table 5 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 8 8 cm from heat sink T (min) T(0C) 0 64,0 1 67,5 2 70,0 3 71,5 4 72,0 5 73,0 6 73,5 7 74,0 9 74,0 11 74,0

T11_T8
75 T( 0C) 70 65 60 0 2 4 6 t(min) 8 10 12

Figure 6 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 11 to notch 8

Table 6 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 5 5 cm from heat sink T (min) T (0C) 0 74,0 1 77,5 2 80,0 3 81,0 4 82,5 5 83,5 6 84,5 8 85,5 10 86,5 12 87,0 14 87,0

T8_T5
90 85 T( 0C) 80 75 70 0 5 t(min) 10 15

Figure 7 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 8 to notch 5

Table 7 - Time and Temperature Values for Notch 17 2 cm from heat sink T (min) T (0C) 0 87,0 1 93,0 2 97,0 3 99,0

T5_T2
100 T( 0C) 95 90 85 0 1 2 t(min) 3 4

Figure 8 Time vs. Temperature Diagram from notch 5 to notch 2

4. Questions
1- ) What temperature pattern do you expect to be eventually established in the bar when the heater is switched on? Temperature distribution along the one dimensional metal bar will be linear from the Fouriers conduction law: = 0. By taking double integral of this equation, temperature distribution will become T = ax + b where a & b are constants. From this temperature distribution equation, we can easily see that when the heater is switched on, temperature increase from the heater linearly. The temperature of the first notch will be larger than the latest notch. 2- ) Will this pattern be established immediately upon switching on? This linear relationship between the temperature and the distance from the heater can be used from the switching on the heater to the steady state conditions are reached. When steady state conditions are satisfied, the temperature distribution along the metal bar will be the same. 3- ) Why are both these conditions desirable? The experimental setup should be used in minimum error and minimum different functions for gathering experimental results accurately. For this experiment, the heat transfer is in one dimensional in conduction mode. We neglect the heat losses from convection. Also, material has a uniform property, so the temperature distribution along the metal bar is linear. So the temperature distribution and the required time for reaching steady state values are easily observable. 4- ) How long did it take for the temperature to rise to within 10C of its final steady state? For Notch 2; 3 minutes For Notch 5; 14 minutes For Notch 8; 11 minutes For Notch 11; 18 minutes For Notch 17; 15 minutes For Notch 20; 20 minutes 5- ) How long did it take for the temperature to rise to a value = o + 0.64(f-o) ? By making calculations and readings from the temperature vs. time figures; For Notch 2; nearly 1,5 minutes For Notch 5; nearly 3,5 minutes For Notch 8; nearly 2 minutes For Notch 11; nearly 4 minutes For Notch 17; nearly 3 minutes For Notch 20; nearly 4 minutes
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6-) What is significant about these different times in relation to one another? There is a relation between the required time that are needed for the temperature to become steady. As we are going away from the heater, the required time for reaching steady state temperatures will increase too. Notches 2, 5 and 8 need much less time for reaching steady state temperatures than 11, 17 and 20. 7-) What explanations do you have for these results? As we discussed in question one, the temperature distribution of the metal bar with a heater from one side is linear. The nearest point to the heater will be heated in a short time and it will reach its steady state conditions easily. In other words, the time required for reaching steady state temperature is large for the notches like 20, 17 which are near to the heat sink is large, whereas for notches 2,5 and 8 is small rather than other notches.

5. Conclusions
As a result of this experiment, one-side heated material temperature distrubution is clearly obtained and this data is found in coherant with the theoritical case, which is that simply the further the point from the heated end, the cooler the surface. Another implication is about the time needed systems to reach steady state, which differs from one situation to another as seen in the graphs. Additionally, it is observed that instead of equally spacing, the same temperature difference can not be achived for each spacing.This is probably because different of loss of energy to the environment from different spacings during the experiment. As the steady state settling time imposes, systems are generally considered steady state when they reach their nearly %98 of final value, which is obviously in coherant with the experiment. As for the last graph, data taking is end at nearly 100 celcius because thermometer is put in the water and water starts to boil at that temperatures. To provide better experiment, couple of thermomters can be used to decrease working time and also another liquid which has higher boiling point can be used instead of water to take further data from heated end.

6. References
Lab notes http://www.engr.iupui.edu/me/courses/me314lab/Lab01Spr08.pdf

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