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Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

Introduction To Behavioral Sciences BBA 02093018 Section A Topic: Bad Behavior (Lack of Confidence)

Submitted By: M. Muzaffar Nawaz Submitted To:

Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)


Lahore Business School (LBS) University of Lahore (UOL)

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

Bad Behavior:
Your Emotions Should Be Private
Do you lack self-confidence? Or are you already on your way to build it? Are you always self-conscious because you are afraid people will notice that you lack confidence? If your answers were yes then know that your emotions should be private and until you solve your problems no one has the right to know them. Your emotions are yours and no one should be allowed to know how you feel except the ones you choose.

Five Signs that Show a Lack of Self Confidence

The following are some signs that show that you may be lacking self-confidence. Anyone with above average experience will spot these signs and determine that you are lacking selfconfidence. Make sure that you are aware of them.

Giving reasons for your actions: Suppose someone was having lunch with a group of people whom he doesnt know very well and then he accidentally dropped his glass of coke on the floor. What will he do? Well, some people will immediately start to give reasons to explain what just happened by using comments like oh, the glass was just at the edge of the table or oh, I am so tired today, thats why I wasnt concentrating. Confident people dont give reasons for their actions; if you dropped the glass or made a mistake then it doesnt change who you are. It's your right to make mistakes because you are human and you don't have to find excuses for doing them.

Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

diately replying to criticism: I am sure that you have experienced a situation where upon saying a small critical comment to one of your friends he replied back immediately and aggressively. For example, if you told your friend something like your performance wasnt that good today and he replied saying, no nono, its just because I was tired or no I was just thinking of something else while working and thats what why I was distracted. This shows that he lacks self-confidence. Confident people listen to criticism and see whether it's constructive or not. If it was constructive they accept it, if not, it doesn't bother them much. If you saw a body building champion and told him hey, you look pretty weak, what will he do? He will just smile and move away because he knows that he's a champion. Compensation: A friend of mine looked really upset one day and when I told him that he replied saying I never get upset and I never have problems. What happened here? Is my friend a superman who is always happy? Of course not, he is just compensating for his lack of self-confidence. Every one compensates in his own way. One person may become arrogant, another one may reply using the 'never' word just like in the previous example while others turn into perfectionists.

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

Each one of us has his own weak points just like he has his points of strength. You dont have to compensate for your weaknesses because no one is perfect. Some people think that the act of compensation can help them feel better but actually the subconscious mind is intelligent enough to recognize the trick and it will usually respond with depression. In my book, The ultimate guide to getting over depression iexplained how burying your problems or throwing them behind your back results in depression. Sooner or later the subconscious mind will realize that something is wrong and then it will make you depressed

Body language: People who lack self-confidence always take the defensive position(arms folded and may be accompanied by crossing their legs). Confident people rarely take this position unless they are offended or feeling cold so train you to forget about this position. Becoming a perfectionist: A perfectionist thinks that he lives in a perfect world so he tries to do everything perfectly too. The problem is that he may become upset if he got a 99/100 in an exam!!!! This happens because he thinks that unless he is perfect he may not become a worthy person. This results in disappointment all of the time since no one, including him, can ever be truly "perfect". Confident people are not perfectionists; they try to achieve success but not perfectionism. If they got a B, they may aim for an A; but if they got 99% they won't aim for a 100%. The book How to get over someone in few days was released by 2knowmyself, the book is a 100% guarantee that you will get over anyone else you will be refunded. 2knowmyself is not a simple article website nor its a place where you will find shallow fixes, but its a place where you will find effective techniques that are backed by psychology and that are presented in obvious and understandable format. If you think that this is some kind of marketing hype then seewhy is to knowmyself Different

"Self-confidence is not a feeling of superiority, but of independence." Lama Yeshe
Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

"Self-confidence is knowing that we have the capacity to do something good and firmly decide not to give up." His Holiness the Dalai Lama

Lack of self-confidence or low self-esteem is not directly defined in the Buddhist tradition, but it would certainly be classified as a negative emotion or delusion, as it exaggerates one's limitations in capacity, quality and potential for growth. Briefly put, every sentient being has the potential to become a fully perfected Buddha, if one does not understand this, one is deluded in this respect.

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

Lack of self-confidence can be made up of several different aspects like: guilt, anger turned inward, unrealistic expectations of perfection, false sense of humility, fear of change or making mistakes, depressionetc. Depression can actually also is a result of a lack of self-confidence.


Find the courage to really open your heart to someone; self-confidence is deeply related to trusting others. Our deepest secrets are often not as hidden to others as we may think, or simply so common in the experience of others, that there is actually nothing special about them. We often consider ourselves very special, and forget that all the others around us are just as human as we ourselves are. Try reality checks with others, and do not tell yourself that, "he/she is lying when saying that I am a nice person" - this is actually quite a negative attitude to people, as you assume they are lying. Practice compassion and loving-kindness to others, also if they do not immediately react positive. Analyze reality to discover that "life is not perfect, I am not perfect (yet), and neither are other people". Try hard to give up unrealistic expectations of needing to be perfect right now, then forgiving and having compassion for yourself becomes possible. Be realistic: I am just as much a human than others (equanimity), are they really that much better? Study and meditate on the Noble Truth of Suffering, realizing that if you do not take any action, nothing will ever improve. To overcome frustration afterwards, try to act when negative situations can be changed, better to have no success than never having tried. What is there to loose, really? Meditate on your potential; unveiling your Buddha nature Meditate on purification; this may make your potential clear. Meditate on impermanence: everything changes, even my bad "I" will change for the better! Meditate on karma: the only way that things will get better is to do something positive. Meditate on emptiness; the ultimate antidote to all delusions. Try taking some precepts/vows to build your self-esteem,or simply any positive commitment to yourself which you are certain you will manage to keep. Dare to laughat yourself and the world! " Let me not pray to be sheltered from dangers, but to be fearless in facing them. Let me not beg for the stilling of my pain, but for the heart to conquer it. Let me not crave in anxious fear to be saved, but for the patience to win my freedom." Shantideva A few thoughts as examples of what you could reflect upon durin

Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

ABC Model:
Structure of Attitudes
Attitudes structure can be described in terms of three components.
o o o

Affective component: this involves a persons feelings / emotions about the attitude object. For example: I am scared of spiders. Behavioral (or conative) component: the way the attitude we have influences how we act or behave. For example: I will avoid spiders and scream if I see one. Cognitive component: this involves a persons belief / knowledge about an attitude object. For example: I believe spiders are dangerous.

This model is known as the ABC model of attitudes. The three components are usually linked. However, there is evidence that the cognitive and affective components of behavior do not always match with behavior. This is shown in a study by LaPiere (1934). The Function of Attitudes Attitudes can serve functions for the individual. Daniel Katz (1960) outlines four functional areas: Knowledge. Attitudes provide meaning (knowledge) for life. The knowledge function refers to our need for a world which is consistent and relatively stable. This allows us to predict what is likely to happen, and so gives us a sense of control. Attitudes can help us organize and structure our experience. Knowing a persons attitude helps us predict their behavior. For example, knowing that a person is religious we can predict they will go to Church. Self / Ego-expressive. The attitudes we express (1) help communicate who we are and (2) may make us feel good because we have asserted our identity. Self-expression of attitudes can be non-verbal too: think bumper sticker, cap, or T-shirt slogan. Therefore, our attitudes are part of our identify, and help us to be aware through expression of our feelings, beliefs and values. Adaptive. If a person holds and/or expresses socially acceptable attitudes, other people will reward them with approval and social acceptance. For example, when people flatter their bosses or instructors (and believe it) or keep silent if they think an attitude is unpopular. Again, expression can be nonverbal [think politician kissing baby]. Attitudes then, are to do with being a part of a social group and the adaptive functions helps us fit in with a social group. People seek out others who share their attitudes, and develop similar attitudes to those they like. The ego-defensive function refers to holding attitudes that protect our self-esteem or that justify actions that make us feel guilty. For example, one way children might defend themselves against the feelings of humiliation they have experienced in P.E. lessons is to adopt a strongly negative attitude to all sport. People whose pride has suffered following a defeat in sport might similarly adopt a defensive attitude: Im not bothered, Im sick of rugby anyway. This
Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

function has psychiatric overtones. Positive attitudes towards ourselves, for example, have a protective function (i.e. an ego-defensive role) in helping us reserve our self-image. The basic idea behind the functional approach is that attitudes help a person to mediate between their own inner needs (expression, defense) and the outside world (adaptive and knowledge).

Functions of Attitudes Example

Imagine you are very patriotic about being British. This might cause you to have an ethnocentric attitude towards everything not British. Imagine further that you are with a group of like-minded friends. You say: Of course theres no other country as good as Britain to live in. Other places are alright in their own way but they cant compare with your mother county. (There are nods of approval all round. You are fitting in - adaptive). The people in the group are wearing England football shirts (This is the self-expressionfunction). Then imagine you go on to say: The trouble with foreigners is that they dont speak English. I went to France last year and they were ignorant. Even if they could speak our language they wouldnt do so. I call that unfriendly. (Others agree with you and tell you of their similar experiences. You are making sense of things. This is the knowledge function). Then someone who has never travelled takes things a stage further I dont mind foreigners coming here on holidaybut they shouldnt be allowed to live here.taking our jobs and living off social security. Britain for the British is what I say.why is it getting so you cant get a decent job in your own country. (Now the others in the room join in scapegoating foreigners and demonstrating the ego defensive function of attitudes).

Characteristics to behavior modification:

The first use of the term behavior modification appears to have been by Edward Thorndike in 1911. His article Provisional Laws of Acquired Behavior or Learning makes frequent use of the term "modifying behavior".[1] Through early research in the 1940s and the 1950s the term was used by Joseph Wolpe's research group.The experimental tradition in clinical psychology used it to refer to psycho-therapeutic techniques derived from empirical research. It has since come to refer mainly to techniques for increasing adaptive behavior through reinforcement and decreasing maladaptive behavior through extinction or punishment (with emphasis on the former). Two related terms are behavior therapy and applied behavior analysis. Emphasizing the empirical roots of behavior modification, some authors consider it to be broader in scope and to

Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

subsume the other two categories of behavior change methods. Since techniques derived from behavioral psychology tend to be the most effective in altering behavior, most practitioners consider behavior modification along with behavior therapy and applied behavior analysis to be founded in behaviorism. While behavior modification encompasses applied behavior analysis and typically uses interventions based on the same behavioral principles, many behavior modifiers who are not applied behavior analysts tend to use packages of interventions and do not conduct functional assessments before intervening. In recent years, the concept of punishment has had many critics, though these criticisms tend not to apply to negative punishment (time-outs) and usually apply to the addition of some aversive event. The use of positive punishment by board-certified behavior analysts is restricted to extreme circumstances when all other forms of treatment have failed and when the behavior to be modified is a danger to the person or to others (see professional practice of behavior analysis). In clinical settings positive punishment is usually restricted to using a spray bottle filled with water as an aversive event. When misused, more aversive punishment can lead to affective (emotional) disorders, as well as to the receiver of the punishment increasingly trying to avoid the punishment (i.e., "not get caught"). Martin and Pear indicate that there are seven characteristics to behavior modification, they are:

There is a strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behavior that can be measured in some way. The treatment techniques are ways of altering an individual's current environment to help that individual function more fully. The methods and rationales can be described precisely. The techniques are often applied in everyday life. The techniques are based largely on principles of learning specifically operant conditioningand respondent conditioning There is a strong emphasis on scientific demonstration that a particular technique was responsible for a particular behavior change. There is a strong emphasis on accountability for everyone involved in a behavior modification program.








As was indicated previously, many of the techniques in behavior modification are attached to applied behavior analysis (ABA) principles. Discussions of ABA in schools, particularly in special education circles, generally cause educators to think of one thingfunctional behavior assessments. In essence, applied behavior analysis involves assessing the relationship between a behavior in question and the environment, and then enacting a change in the environment in the hopes of spurring a change in the behavior. A functional behavior assessment in special education is an evaluation conducted by professionals in a school which is designed to figure out what a

Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

behavior is the function of. In other words, what is causing a particular behavior to occur. Only then can appropriate interventions be decided on.

Behavior Modification techniques:

Behavior modification is the use of empirically demonstrated behavior change techniques to increase or decrease the frequency of behaviors, such as altering an individual's behaviors and reactions to stimuli through positive and negative reinforcement of adaptive behavior and/or the reduction of behavior through its extinction, punishment and/or satiation. Most behavior modification programs currently used are those based on Applied behavior analysis (ABA), formerly known as the experimental analysis of behavior which was pioneered by B. F. Skinner. Therapy and consultation cannot be effective unless the behaviors to be changed are understood within a specific context. The process of understanding behavior in context is called functional behavioral assessment. One of the most simple yet effective methods of functional behavioral assessment is called the "ABC" approach, where observations are made on Antecedents, Behaviors, and Consequences. In other words, "What comes directly before the behavior?", "What does the behavior look like?", and "What comes directly after the behavior?" Once enough observations are made, the data are analyzed and patterns are identified. If there are consistent antecedents and/or consequences, an intervention should target those to increase or decrease the target behavior. This method forms the core of positive behavior support for schoolchildren in both regular and special education. Behavior modifiers like to employ a variety of evidence-based techniques. These techniques intervene at all levels of context. For example, given specific setting events for a behavior, a behavior modifier may develop a neutralizing routine to eliminate that setting. If a behavior pattern has a specific antecedent, or trigger, then an antecedent control strategy can be developed to train new behavior in the presence of the trigger. If a problem behavior readily occurs because it achieves some function, then an alternative behavior can be instructed and trained to occur in the context of the trigger. If a behavior is particularly complex it may be task-analyzed and broken into its component parts to be taught through chaining. While all these methods are effective, when the behavior problem gets difficult or when all else fails many turn to contingency management systems. Complex and comprehensive contingency management systems have been developed and represent effective ways to eliminate many problem behaviors (see applied behavior analysis and positive behavior support). Collaborative goal setting with the client enhances treatment effects.

Some areas of effectiveness

Functional behavior assessment forms the core of applied behavior analysis and thus forms the core of behavior modification. Many techniques in this therapy are specific techniques aimed at

Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

specific issues. Interventions based on behavior analytic/modification principles have been extremely effective in developing evidence-based treatments. In addition to the above, a growing list of research-based interventions from the behavioral paradigm exist. With children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), one study showed that over a several year period, children in the behavior modification group had half the number of felony arrests as children in the medication group. These findings have yet to be replicated, but are considered encouraging for the use of behavior modification for children with ADHD. There is strong and consistent evidence that behavioral treatments are effective for treating ADHD. A recent meta-analysis found that the use of behavior modification for ADHD resulted in effect sizes in between group studies (.83), pre-post studies (.70), within group studies (2.64), and single subject studies (3.78) indicating behavioral treatments are highly effective. Behavior modification programs form the core of many residential treatment facility programs. They have shown success in reducing recidivism for adolescents with conduct problems and adult offenders. One particular program that is of interest is teaching-family homes (see Teaching Family Model), which is based on a social learning model that emerged from radical behaviorism. These particular homes use a family style approach to residential treatment, which has been carefully replicated over 700 times. Recent efforts have seen a push for the inclusion of more behavior modification programs in residential re-entry programs in the U.S. to aid prisoners in re-adjusting after release. One area that has repeatedly shown effectiveness has been the work of behaviorists working in the area of community reinforcement for addictions. Another area of research that has been strongly supported has been behavioral activation for depression. One way of giving positive reinforcement in behavior modification is in providing compliments, approval, encouragement, and affirmation; a ratio of five compliments for every one complaint is generally seen as being effective in altering behavior in a desired manner and even in producing stable marriages. Of notable interest is that the right behavioral intervention can have profound system effects. For example, Forgatch and DeGarmo (2007) found that with mothers who were recently divorced, a standard round of parent management training (a program based on social learning principles that teaches rewarding good behavior and punishing bad behavior combined with communication skills) could help elevate the divorced mother out of poverty. In addition, parent management training programs, sometimes referred to as behavioral parent training programs, have shown relative cost effectiveness for their efforts for the treatment of conduct disorder. Thus, such intervention can have profound effects on socializing the child in a relatively cost effective fashion and help get the parent out of poverty. This level of effect is often looked for and valued by those who practice behavioral engineering and results of this type have caused the Association for Behavior Analysis International to take a position that those receiving treatment have a right to effective treatment and a right to effective education. Behavior modification is critiqued in person-centered psychotherapeutic approaches such as Rogerian Counseling and Re-evaluation Counseling, which involve "connecting with the human

Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

qualities of the person to promote healing", while behaviorism is "denigrating to the human spirit". B.F. Skinner argues in Beyond Freedom and Dignitythat unrestricted reinforcement is what led to the "feeling of freedom", thus removal of aversive events allows people to "feel freer". Further criticism extends to the presumption that behavior increases only when it is reinforced. This premise is at odds with research conducted by Albert Bandura at Stanford University. His findings indicate that violent behavior is imitated, without being reinforced, in studies conducted with children watching films showing various individuals "beating the daylights out of Bobo". Bandura believes that human personality and learning is the result of the interaction between environment, behavior and psychological process. There is evidence, however, that imitation is a class of behavior that can be learned just like anything else. Children have been shown to imitate behavior that they have never displayed before and are never reinforced for, after being taught to imitate in general. Several people have criticized the level of training required to perform behavior modification procedures, especially those that are restrictive or use aversives, aversion therapy, or punishment protocols. Some desire to limit such restrictive procedures only to licensed psychologists or licensed counselors. Once licensed for this group, post-licensed certification in behavior modification is sought to show scope of competence in the area through groups like the World Association for Behavior Analysis. Still others desire to create an independent practice of behavior analysis through licensure to offer consumers choices between proven techniques and unproven ones (see Professional practice of behavior analysis). Level of training and consumer protection remain of critical importance in applied behavior analysis and behavior modification. While behavior analysis continues to grow as a science by including more environmental factors and behaviorism grows as a philosophy, some continue to criticize it for being reductionist.

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Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences

Case Study
I am here to tell you about the benefits and circumstances which i disclose here to tell the viewer that how can a person can get rid from his/her bad habit. Bad habit is a habit which a person internally wants to get rid from it but due to the his surroundings and many other factors, which i mentioned in above, he think that the task to leave a bad habit is totally impossible. Whenever teacher assign me to make a project, now then I think Im gone. I hate this kind of activity in class because of my lack of confidence. I want to improve this prohibit. When i was working on the project, i used to think that the project is only the show off, it wouldnt help me out from any of the techniques. Then i started working on lack of confidence then it improves. I have applied different techniques and behaviors and it helps me a lot. During my treatment to quit the lack of confidence, i face many of the problems and hurdles but due to the my surroundings, it often difficult for me to be a confident person. As all of my family and friends are tired from it, they participated too to make me confident person.
Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

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Bad Behavior Introduction To Behavioral Sciences ABC Details:

Days Day 1st Antecedents: I can t present in front of class

I felt ashamed

I got less marks and sue to the less marks, it affects on my CGPA. I felt sad. I used to take side from the new gathering. Its my internal feelings and I really feel to minimize it. I felt ashamed because they failed to think about my internal feelings. Same as above, I felt sad. I adapt silence and couldnt talk to any one. I got less marks due to it. They think that I feel proud.

Day 2nd

Whenever I met new person I feel shy

I think Im only fell shy

Day 3rd

I cant mix with my friend

Friends always discourage me due to my bad behavior.

Day 4th

I cant even fight for my right Lack of communication,as I am the management student, confidence is the integral part of ones life. I cant even mix with my cousins.

Even I cant think what now Im going to do I feel like it shouldnt be present into my mind. I am interacting with my cousins till I enter into the world but why it is included into it? I am deprived from relationships and I dont like such kind of behavior. Shopkeepers make me laugh because I cant even express what I actually want to buy from it. My friends used to communicate with management as I am deprived from confidence. I cant even express my feelings to my fellows.

Day 5th

Day 6th

Day 7th

I feel lonely due to this.

I want to stay alone in the room.

Day 8th

Day 9th

I cant even contact management of UOL.

I cant speak in front of them.

Day 10th

My friends used to blame on me that I am not relaxing with them and dont share the feelings.

They think that I am showing them attitude due to it.

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Submitted BY: M. Muzafar Nawaz (LBS)

I cant even interchange with outsiders. Eg shopkeepers etc

They make me time to give products and services.