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ENHANCING DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION STABILITY DURING CT SATURATION WITH TRANSIENT BIAS

Oleg BAGLEYBTER Sankara SUBRAMANIAN

GRID

Preventing CT saturation
IEEE Guide for the Application of Current Transformers Used for Protective Relaying Purposes. IEEE Std C37.110-2007.

I s R (1 + X R) Vx > 1 REM p.u .


Westinghouse equation Remanent flux up to 80% X/R = 20 (typical transmission)
I s R 21 Vx > = 105 I s R 1 0.8

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Simple Transient Bias

I DIFF .THR. (n) = SLOPE (I BIAS (n) ) + ITR.BIAS (n)


If

I BIAS (n) > 0

ITR.BIAS (n) = D I TR. BIAS (n 1) + S I BIAS (n)


Decaying Incrementing

!!!OPERATING TIME FOR INTERNAL FAULTS!!!


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Transient Bias with External Fault Detector

I DIFF

I TR.BIAS (n) = D I TR.BIAS ( n 1)


Internal fault or CT saturation

R > K2

K2

[I BIAS (n), I DIFF (n)]


I TR.BIAS ( n) = D I TR.BIAS (n 1) + S I BIAS (n)
External fault R < K 2

I S1

K1

[I BIAS (n), I DIFF (n)]


Bias current

[I BIAS (n 1), I DIFF (n 1)]

IS2

I BIAS

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CT model external connections

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CT model internal connection

CT core based on Jiles-Atherton hysteresis theory

ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

CT model Saturation Example

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CDiff relay model


Relay 1 Relay 2

m 1

5 ms clock

2.5 ms clock

IR1
R1_local IR1 R1_remote R2_local IR2 R2_remote In1 Out1 REMOTE1 REMOTE LOCAL m TRIP_SIMPLE TRIP_TRANS

TRIP_SIMPLE OR Logical Operator 2

COMMS1

Relay1

analogue data 2 IR2


In1 Out1 LOCAL REMOTE m TRIP_SIMPLE REMOTE2 TRIP_TRANS

OR Logical Operator1

3 TRIP_TRANS

COMMS2

Relay2

Trigger

m 1

DIFF

1 LOCAL
In1Out1 LOCAL REMOTE I_DIFF I_BIAS DIFF BIAS I_D A I_THR BIAS MD_BIAS I_MDB THR Slope THR I_DIFF TRIP I_THR

TRIP_SIMPLE 2

MDB
Slope + A THR_TRANS

Simple Trip Decision

2 REMOTE

diff-bias

Terminator

I_DIFF TRIP

3 TRIP_TRANS

Slope + Transient Transient Trip Decision

ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

Transient Bias effect

I DIFF .THR.
I DIFF

I TR .BIAS

I DIFF .THR.

I DIFF

ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

RTDS Tests
Linear search of RLIM for specified combinations of If, X/R, fault type, POW In order to test the protection with different CT remanence values every fault is applied six times: three times with a positive DC component and three times with a negative DC component. !!!THREE REPEATS!!!
ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

B, T

H , A/m

RTDS Tests
After completing all the tests the RTDS system generated an array of limiting CT burdens RLIM for external and internal faults with different combinations of the following parameters: 1. Knee-point voltage of the CT Vk : 40-320 V 2. Fault current If : 2-50 secondary 3. X/R ratio of the network: 5-120 4. Fault type: A-N, B-C, A-B-C 5. Point on wave (POW): 0 -150 For the second slope setting K2 = 150% the number of tests totalled 3967 for external faults and 1915 for internal

ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

Comparison with existing requirements (w/o Transient Bias)


VK K * I n * R , K = f ( I f , X R )
Two-dimensional optimization =>

K = (1.42 * I f + 53.7) * (6.06 *10 * X R + 0.515)


Reduced CT Requirements
If , p.u. X/R 5 10 20 30 40 40 5 10 20 30 40 65 K without transient bias 65 65 68 103 107 --K with transient bias Reduction %

33.2 39.1 52.2 67.1 83.7 100.4

49 40 23 35 22
---

ALSTOM 2010. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or disclosure to third parties, without express written authority, is strictly prohibited.

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