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The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati 1.

Aims of the participants and the peacemakers: Wilson and the 14 points Woodrow Wilson and the 14 Points y y y y y y y y y y Woodrow Wilson, American President, believed that the war was caused by three major factors: Secret Diplomacy among Nations The tendency of dominant nationalities to oppress ethic minorities, and Autocratic governments ruled by Elites These 3 causes needed to be removed if the world was to have lasting peace His 14 points, announced January 8th, 1918, addressed these key issues Note: look at the date he announced the points. Consider: when did the US enter the war? When did the war end? He hoped that these would be the basis for a new world order In the end, the principles gradually receded to the background. Key decisions were made by the bug powers, and the idealistic statements were shattered

2. Terms of the Paris Peace Treaties 1919-20: Versailles, St. Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sevres/Laussane Treaty of Versailles - June 1919 Background y y y y y y Defeated nations, including Austria and Germany, not allowed to participate; UK, US, and France are the major decision making powers Paris Peace Conference held on January 1st 1919 > 30 nations held seats 10 million died in the war; 180 billion dollar cost (direct) and 150 billion (indirect) 4 empires destroyed > Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire Conference led by Woodrow Wilson; wanted WW1 to be "The war to end all wars" Created 14 points to create new world order; France wanted to see Germany removed as a threat to both UK and France wanted war reparations (their debts to be passes onto Germany)

a) French Objective y National Security y Return of Alsace-Lorraine y German Rhineland to be a buffer zone between Germany and France (demilitarized zone) y Western part of Rhineland to be occupied by allies troops for 15 yrs y Immediate assistance from US and UK in case German aggression against France y Additional military restrictions placed on Germany y Reparation y Demands based on devastation of France; Northern France in ruins - France demanded coal rights in Germany's Saar Valley until 1935 to make up for their own lost mines

The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati 30 million dollar reparation bill (French share to be 52% of that) without a time limit (US put time limit or up to 30 years only) b) British Objectives y Security y Security of sea lanes for access to its empire y German navy reduced (6 warships only and 1 u-boats) y Germany colonies redistributed to allies y Anti-Bolshevism y UK feared spread of communism more than Germany; believed a weak Germany would be vulnerable to communism y Softened stance on huge war reparations and France's territorial claims (didn't want a powerful France either y The Treaty of St. Germain - September 1919 y The Treaty of St. Germain was the Allies' peace settlement with the Austro-Hungarian Empire. y Austria and Hungary became separate states with democratic governments (the Hapsburg monarchy had already collapsed). y Austria had to pay war reparations y The Austrian army was limited to a force of 30,000 volunteers y Austria was prohibited from uniting with Germany y Austria to recognize the independence of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the independence of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. y Austria also suffered huge territorial losses and became land-locked y Losses include: y Trieste, Istria, and part of Tyrol given to Italy. y Bohemia (including the Sudetenland), Moravia and part of Silesia to Czechoslovakia y Bukovina to Rumania y Bosnia, Herzegovina, and Dalmatia to Yugoslavia y Galicia to Poland y Austria was deprived of 3/4 of her former area and 3/4 of her people. The Treaty of Neuilly - November 1919 y It concerned Bulgaria, the 1st of the Central Powers to capitulate and Greece (Bulgaria's main adversary in the Balkans) y Bulgaria was excluded from the conference y Under the terms of the Treaty: y Greece would recover territory in Macedonia y Bulgaria would renounce all claims in Western Thrace y Bulgaria would pay reparations ($445 million) y The Bulgarian Army was reduced (20,000 men) y Minorities in Bulgaria - including the Greek minority - would be protected The Treaty of Sevres - August 1920

The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati y y y y y y y y In Asia, Iraq, Trans Jordan and Palestine bother became British mandates Syria and Lebanon became French mandates Independence granted to Saudi Arabia and Armenia Turkey kept Anatolia but was to grant autonomy to Kurdistan Armenia became a separate republic In Europe, Turkey ceded parts of Eastern Thrace and certain Aegean islands to Greece and the Dodecanese and Rhodes to Italy Turkey kept Constantinople (Istanbul) The treaty was accepted by the government of Sultan Muhammad VI, but was rejected by the rival nationalist government of Kemal Atatrk (which overthrew the Sultan's government and deposed the Sultan in 1922) Atatrk's negotiated a separate treaty with the USSR; he also fought and won the War of Independence against the Greeks; this forced the Allies to negotiate a new treaty in 1923 (Treaty of Lausanne) The Treaty of Lausanne - July 1923 Russia, Italy, Greece, Rumania, Yugoslavia and Turkey all participated Turkey recovered eastern Thrace, several Aegean islands, Constaintinople and Adrianople No limits on Turkey's army or war reparations were enacted Problems with Enforcing of the Treaties

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The United States never joined the League of Nations which weakened the League The Anglo-American guarantee never happened Germany was angry as it thought the Treaty of Versailles was unfair and harsh and so wanted the treaty revoked Italy was angry as it was on the winning side, however it did not receive much territory and so the Italians wanted to revise the treaty in favor of Italy Japan was only interested in issues concerning itself and not the issues concerned with the European aspects of the peace settlement The United States retreated into isolationism The USSR was isolated throughout the1920's (with the exception of the Treaty of Rapallo with Germany) France and Britain disagreed on the strategies concerning Germany

3. The Geopolitical and Economic Impact of the Treaties on Europe; the establishment and impact of the mandate system Result of Versailles Treaty y y y y Germany signed the treaty under protest June 1919 (particularly incenses by guilt clause) 7 new countries created from former empires (Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Finland, Poland, Czechoslovakia) Creation of a League of Nations (US senate rejected League and Treaty) Reparation payments led to high inflation and economic collapse in Germany by 1923

The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati 4. Enforcement of the provisions of the treaties US & British Isolationism and Anglo-American Guarantee Problems with Enforcing of the Treaties y The United States never joined the League of Nations which weakened the League y The Anglo-American guarantee never happened y Germany was angry as it thought the Treaty of Versailles was unfair and harsh and so wanted the treaty revoked y Italy was angry as it was on the winning side, however it did not receive much territory and so the Italians wanted to revise the treaty in favor of Italy y Japan was only interested in issues concerning itself and not the issues concerned with the European aspects of the peace settlement y The United States retreated into isolationism y The USSR was isolated throughout the1920's (with the exception of the Treaty of Rapallo with Germany) y France and Britain disagreed on the strategies concerning Germany US Isolationism y The United States never accept the Treaty of Versailles because they did not agree with Article X and could not accept the agreement of the League of Nations and so it was never part of the League y The United States did not approve of the Anglo-American Guarantee which was a measure of protection for France if Germany was to attack again y Isolationism was not new to the United States, it had been a big part of its history y After the war USA returned to its policy of isolationism and did not want to intervene outside its own areas of interest British Isolationism y The British have been isolationists throughout history; tried to keep out of firm agreements with other countries. y More concerned with preserving their status in Europe. y Their general policy was to try and stop any country that was seeking dominance over Europe. There was fear that France might try to dominate Europe, or become involved in another war with Germany. y The British did not want to have to go to war to defend an unpopular treaty. y Great Britain was geographically tied to Europe so it was almost forced to be more active in European affairs than the US. The Anglo-American Guarantee y y Security was very important to France, was very afraid of another attack from Germany once Germany regained its strength France wanted the Rhineland area of Germany to be an independent state to protect itself. This state could either be neutral or under French influence. Wilson and George did not

The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati agree with this however they knew that France would not give up unless it got a firm guarantee of military support from the United States and Britain. The Anglo-French agreement was signed on the June 28, 1919. Wilson campaigned vigorously in the United States between 1919 and 1920 to win support for the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and for the United States to join the League of Nations. Anglo-American Guarantee was not accepted by the US Senate and so never took place. When the United States did not accept the Guarantee, Britain withdrew from the agreement as well. France no longer had a guaranteed military support from the United States and Britain.

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5. The League of Nations League of Nations (1920-1925) Effects of the absence of major powersSoviet Union: y The Soviet Union did not join the league in late 1919 when it was forming y Western Europe feared its communist government and USSR did not get along with Britain and France in particular y Once the League went into effect in 1920, the effects of the USSR not being a part of the league were numerous y The USSR not being a part of the League meant the League did not include one of the most powerful nations after the war y It felt its interests were not being represented y This absence further lead to disorder and chaos over the next few years as USSR tried to take hold of its previously lost territory y Also the fact that the USSR was not included in the League lead to the belief that the aim of the League of Nations may changed y That rather than focusing on stopping wars or keeping them from happening, the League was just there to show the world who held current power y The USSR, much like Germany, was in no mood to renegotiate and did not care what status quo had been decided at Versailles y Instead it formed an alliance with Germany which allowed the two countries to disregard any League action taken against them, including treaties that banned Germany from rearmament and building up its military y The USSR was admitted in 1934 and expelled in 1939 The United States of America: y Status: Never joined League of Nations. The U.S. never ratified the Treaty of Versailles and thus never joined the League as its Covenant was incorporated in the Treaty. y Woodrow Wilson (American president) proposed idea of the League in his 14 point speech on January 8th, 1918, and was the chairman of a special committee at the Paris Peace Conference assigned to create the League Covenant y However, U.S. senate refused to ratify the League Covenant due to Article 10 which they claimed threatened the sovereignty of the U.S. as it would give the League the authority to involve its member nations in protecting fellow League members if conflict were to arise y U.S. did not want to involve itself in foreign conflicts that did not directly affect it

The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati y Widely believed that League failed because was left without the League s primary visionary (Wilson) to guide the League as well as the absence of U.S. as a member in the League is widely believed to have led to demise of the League Postwar, U.S. became creditor nation therefore would have been a financial asset to League as many of its members economies in ruin making them not willing to economically back sanctions against aggressor nations U.S. not joining emphasized League s progression from the idealistic standards set by U.S. to the corruption by the countries now dominating the League thereby discrediting the League s effectiveness in its primary goal: peacekeeping Example: In 1923, France occupied the Ruhr and Italy bombed Corfu (Greek island) but when confronted by League, threatened to withdraw from League Uncertain whether U.S. would have involved itself militarily in condemning aggressor nations if it had decided to become involved in the League of Nations due to the fact that it reverted to its isolationalist policies after the war Example: during Japan s invasion of Manchuria in 1931, Britain and France (major powers considered capable of intervention) did not intervene militarily because had no significant interest in North China Similarly, U.S. military history before 1920 had shown that unless the U.S. had personal interests in a war, it would not involve itself in the war (i.e. Spanish American War, WWI) Nonetheless, fact that U.S. possessed very few colonies at time (Philippines and Guam) could have made it more inclined to interfere in colonial disputes as its national interests would not have clouded its judgement in bettering world as a whole Fact that Britain and France had dozens of their own colonies in Africa caused them to dismiss Italy s invasion of Ethiopia in 1935 as it did not threaten any of their colonies Demonstrated that as long as dominant power s national interests not endangered, countries could get away unscathed in presence of League Germany: Absence showed that you can rebel against the organizationnot solid, don t have to listen to Britain and Franceencourage others to be more independent

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STATUS y JOINED-Germany was admitted to the League 1926 y LEFT-Germany withdrew from the League in 1933 y 1926-Germany was admitted to the League- made permanent member of the Council y 1933-October 14thGermany withdraws from the Conference for the reduction and Limitation of Armaments - October 21st - Germany gives notice of withdrawal from the League of Nations y 1938-Austria is annexed by Germany y Germany- not allowed to join the LON in 1919 y Due to the fact the G had started the war, the TOV felt that one of G s punishments was that she was not considered to be a member of the international community y Great defeat/blow for Germany y Loss for LON- couldn t use whatever strength G had to support its campaign against aggressor nations y Lost clever tactics, and power that G had

The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati y y y Many other aggressive powers withdrew from the LON, following Germany It can be said that the failure of the LON happened due to the absence of the major powers, and was thus what caused the onset of WWII Who was dominant at that time - this was portrayed due the absence of the major powers

League of Nations (1920-1925) The principal of collective security and early attempts at peacekeeping Definition of Collective Security: 1. Collective Securityis the concept of maintaining peace among all nations or members of a group by where all states cooperate together to provide security for all by the actions of all against any states within the group that might challenge the existing order by means of force or economic sanction. 2. System for international peace. Application of Collective Security League of Nations was the first attempt to create a collective security after World War One. Overall, the League of Nations was supposed to: 1. Stop wars 2. Improve people s lives and jobs 3. Promote disarmament 4. Enforce the Treaty of Versailles Failure of the League of Nations The main reasons for the failure of the League of Nations can be summarised into the following points: 1. Not all countries joined the League. Although the idea for the League of Nations had come from Woodrow Wilson, there was a change of government in the United States before the signing of the treaty and the new Republican government refused to join. As a punishment for having started World War One, Germany was not allowed to join and Russia was also excluded due to a growing fear of Communism. Other countries decided not to join and some joined but later left. 2. The League had no power. The main weapon of the League was to ask member countries to stop trading with an aggressive country. However, this did not work because countries could still trade with non-member countries. When the world was hit by depression in the late 1920s countries were reluctant to lose trading partners to other non-member countries. 3. The League had no army. Soldiers were to be supplied by member countries. However, countries were reluctant to get involved and risk provoking an aggressive country into taking direct action against them and failed to provide troops.

The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati 4. Unable to act quickly. The Council of the League of Nations only met four times a year and decisions had to be agreed by all nations. When countries called for the League to intervene, the League had to set up an emergency meeting, hold discussions and gain the agreement of all members. This process meant that the League could not act quickly to stop an act of aggression.

6. Ruhr Crisis, Locarno, Locarno Springs Ruhr Crisis of 1923 y France was afraid for its security and disagreed with Britain about how to deal with Germany. y Britain wanted Germany to be able to rebuild its economy so that it could benefit from the trade. y France's goal was to weaken the German economy as much as possible through reparations. France also needed these reparations to pay its debts to the USA y When Germany missed a delivery of timber as part of her reparations, France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr region. Britain was strongly against this. y The goal of France was to collect the missed payment from the Germans by taking the goods from the mines and factories and shipping them to France. y The German workers did not co-operate with the French, instead they protested by destroying the goods, the mines and the factories. y The event broke out into a violent conflict and resulted in inflation. y The Weimar Government which already had a serious inflation problem made things worse by printing more money to help support the workers which resulted in disastrous inflation The Background y By the end of 1922, Germany had failed to pay back any reparations for France and Belgium felt they needed to step in y France was afraid for its security after the Anglo-American Guarantee of 1919 was denied y France's goal was to weaken the German economy has much as possible through reparations y France also needed these reparations to pay its debts from war, to the USA The Ruhr Crisis y As soon Germany missed a delivery of timber as part of her reparations, France sent armies of troops to invade the Ruhr valley y The French invasion was initiated by French Prime Minister Raymond Poincare on January 11th, 1923 y Britain was strongly against this y The goal of France was to collect the missed payment from the Germans by taking the goods from the mines and factories and shipping them to France and then use these goods to pay its war debts to the United States y The goal was also to collect all the coal, steel and iron production in the Ruhr valley y The German workers did not co-operate with the French y They protested by destroying the goods, the mines and the factories

The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati y y y They also put on general strikes and passive resistance The event broke out into a violent conflict and resulted in INFLATION The Weimar Government printed more money to help support the workers which resulted in disastrous inflation

The Effect y By the end of 1923 is took more than 4 trillion paper marks to equal a dollar y German money became worthless y Resulted in hyper-inflation of the German economy in 1923 y Through this the Dawes Plan was made y Dawes Plan  made by Charles G. Dawes y Plan: the US get its war payments from France, Belgium, and Britain y The Allies could not pay the US, until they got paid from Germany y The Dawes plan ensured a steady flow of war reparations y Americans invested money in Germany, and then Germany was able to pay off its debts y France and Belgium then removed their forced from Germany because of the reassurance of the Dawes Plan y After Germany s economic status began to improve, they wanted to renegotiated their borders which lead to the Locarno Treaty Locarno treaties y y y y y y y y * Happened after the resolution of the Ruhr crisis * Purpose of this treaty is to establish fixed borders in western Germany * The Locarno treaties are seven agreements that were signed by the allied powers and the countries of central Europe to decide on the border disputes * The treaties are suggested by the German Foreign Minister, Gustav Stresemann, in hope of revising the Treaty of Versailles * The representatives from Belgium, Britain, France, Italy and Germany met in September 1925 at Locarno, Italy to discuss several agreements. * The agreements are signed in London, in December 1925 * Locarno divided borders in Europe into eastern and western borders, the western borders were guaranteed, while the eastern ones were subject to revision * The Germans accept the terms of the Treaty of Versailles concerning its western borders with Belgium and France, and these borders are guaranteed and protected by Britain and Italy, who vow to fight against whoever breaks this agreement, whether they are Belgium or Germany. * Germany would obtain a permanent seat in the League of Nations as a result of this agreement * Tension and discontent between the allies and the Germans is resolving which means that peace with Germany can be achieved * The allied troops on the western bank of the Rhine would be removed * By 1930 Germany becomes a fully independent state, that was not influenced or controlled by any of the allies

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The Interwar Years: Peacemaking, Peacekeeping, IR Fatima Nanavati y y y y * The League of Nations strengthened, but as the eastern borders of Germany had not been fixed, peace in Europe had not been guaranteed * Allied commission supervising the disarmament of Germany is disbanded in 1927 * Showed German acceptance of the Treaty of Versailles, but was actually a way of undermining it through cancelling some terms such as the disarmament. * Gives Germany a chance to rebuild its economy without foreign control and at the same time not become a threat to France and other European powers.

7. Depression and threats to international peace and collective security: Manchuria, Abyssinia The Invasion of Manchuria (pg. 785) y In 1931 Japanese units in southern Manchuria seized Chinese arsenals and spread northward over Manchuria- Japanese charging the Chinese with attacking their economy through boycotts attack and turn Manchuria into a province y The League of Nations takes no action towards Japan- found it at fault- Japan withdrew from the league- no one opposed its invasion of Manchuria Relation to the -- Failure of the League of Nations: y In 1931, Japan was hit badly by the depression. People lost faith in the government and turned to the army to find a solution. The army invaded Manchuria in China, an area rich in minerals and resources. China appealed to the League for help. The Japanese government were told to order the army to leave Manchuria immediately. However, the army took no notice of the government and continued its conquest of Manchuria. The League then called for countries to stop trading with Japan but because of the depression many countries did not want to risk losing trade and did not agree to the request. The League then made a further call for Japan to withdraw from Manchuria but Japan's response was to leave the League of Nations. In October 1935, Italy invaded Abyssinia. The Abyssinians did not have the strength to withstand an attack by Italy and appealed to the League of Nations for help. The League condemned the attack and called on member states to impose trade restrictions with Italy. However, the trade restrictions were not carried out because they would have little effect. Italy would be able to trade with non-member states, particularly America. Furthermore, Britain and France did not want to risk Italy making an attack on them. In order to stop Italy's aggression, the leaders of Britain and France held a meeting and decided that Italy could have two areas of land in Abyssinia provided that there were no further attacks on the African country. Although Mussolini accepted the plan, there was a public outcry in Britain and the plan was dropped.

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