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Kingdoms of South Asia - Indian Pand as

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The Pndyas / Pandyas

The Pandyas ruled regions in southern India which now lie in the state of Tamil Nadu, existing there alongside other dynasties such as the Cholas, the Cheras, the Pallavas, etc. The early Pandyas were reduced to obscurity by the Kalabhras, until their revival in the sixth century AD. They were again subdued by the Cholas in the ninth century, only to rise once more in the twelfth century. During their long existence as a recognisable people, the Pandyas enjoyed diplomatic ties with the Roman republic and empire (apparently dating as far back as 550 BC, when Rome was still an occupied Etruscan kingdom), the Greeks, the Chinese, the Ptolemy Egyptians, etc. The Pandyan kingdom was also independent during the Mauryan rule of northern India, and had friendly ties with them. Marco Polo made mention of the Pandyan kingdom as one of the richest he had ever seen, as did Megasthenes in his work the Indika, and the Chinese traveller Yu Huan. In the fourteenth century, the kingdom met its end after an invasion by the Islamic Delhi sultanate. The Pandyas subsequently became a part of the Vijayanagar empire. The word Pandya is derived from the Tamil word, Pandi which means the bull', and considered a symbol of masculinity , strength and valour by the early Tamils. The early Pandyas are also said to have taken part in the Kurukshetra war, on the side of the victorious Pandavas. (Information by Abhijit Rajadhyaksha.)

Kulashekharan Pand a

First-known Pand a king.

Kulashekharan is said to be as strong as a bull. He is apparently killed by Lord Krishna, but although his son wants to avenge his father's death, he is dissuaded from doing so by his well wishers. fl c.1300? BC c.1300? BC Mala adwaja Son.

One of the contemporaries of Jarasandha of the Brhadratha dynasty of Magadha is Jayatsena of Magadha. He takes part in the Kurukshetra War in the Mahab hara a as one of the leaders on the side of Kauravas, along with Srutayus of Kalinga, Paundraka Vasudeva of Pundra, Karna of Anga, and Malayadwaja of the Pandyas. Bhagadatta of the Naraka kings is also involved in the war. During the battle, Malayadwaja apparently wounds the mighty Dronacharya, the teacher of both the Pandavas and the Kauravas, and who fights on the side of the Kauravas. Malayadwaja goes further and takes on Drona's son, Ashwathama, in a duel. Malayadwaja's daughter is Meenakshi, after whom the famous temple of Meenakshi Amman is built in Madurai. The city of Madurai is built around this temple. After this, the Pandyas fall back into obscurity for seven centuries.

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Kingdoms of South Asia - Indian Pand as

The Meenakshi Temple is a centrepiece of the cit

of Madurai

Pand a Sangam Pe iod

c.600 BC - c.460 BC Al ho gh he pe iod of he K k he a Wa i emi-legenda in Indian hi o , he o al and i en o ce do eem o be emembe ing eal e en and leade , ho e e ha he ie migh be. The e i no hing mo e on he Pand a n il he eme ge p ope l in o hi o in he i h cen BC. B hi ime he a e a ecogni able people ho e leade a e c edi ed fo con c ing man bea if l emple in hei kingdom ( he Meenak hi Amman emple in Mad ai, and he Nellaiappa emple in Ti nel eli, fo e ample) and ho appa en l le a e p o pe o a e. Thei kingdom i famo fo i in ol emen in he pea l ade, and he a , poe and li e a e all p og e nde hem. The ea l Pand a li fl c.600 BC he e i f om he Sangam li e a Nedunj Cheli an I Ned nj Cheli an i al o kno n a Aa i ap Padai Kadan ha Ned nj Cheli an. The capi al of he ea l Pand an kingdom i a Ko kai, a o nd 600 BC, b i mo ed o K dal (no Mad ai) d ing he eign of Ned nj Cheli an I. Pudappandi an Nedunj Cheli an II Nan Maran Nedunj Cheli an III Al o kno n a Talai aalangana h Se end a Ned nj Cheli an, hi king find men ion in a Meenak hi am eco d hen he gif a ock-c bed o a Jain a ce ic. He i al o de c ibed in he Sangam li e a e a he ic o of Talai alanganam. Maran Valudi Musiri Mutri a Cheli an Ukkirap Peruvaludi c.460? BC The Sangam age end ele en h nd ed ea . hen he Kalabh a ake o e he Pand an egion , elega ing hem o ob c i fo he ne BC, he Pand a a e in a a e of eg la conflic i h he eme ging Mudukudumi Paruvaludhi in the Sangam literature. e and poem .

D ing hi pe iod, e peciall in he hi d cen Chola .

Pand a Fi
AD 580 - 960

Empi e

The Sangam age of Pand an king ended hen he Kalabh a ook o e he Pand an egion . I ook ele en cen ie , b he Pand a e en all bo nced back, e ook hei e i o ie and e abli hed ha i no kno n a he fi empi e. Kad ngon a he king ho achie ed hi , e i ing he Pand a in o he n India a he e a of he e en h cen AD (along ide a imila Palla a e gence nde King Simha i hn ), ma king he beginning of a ne e a in he Tamil- peaking egion. He a med he i le Pand adhi aja. AD 580 - 590 c.590 - 620 c.620 - 640 c.640 - 670 c.670 - 710 Kadungon Maravarman Avaniculamani Ce hian Cendan Ja antavarman Arikesari Maravarman Nindraseer Nedumaran Son. Rules from Madurai. 'Pand adhiraja'. Son.


The Palla a king, Mahend a a man II, i killed in a collec i e a ack b he Chal k a , he Ganga and he Pand a .

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Kingdoms of South Asia - Indian Pand as

K (P P c.710 - 735 Kochadai an Ranadhiran K C R C ) c.735 - 765 Maravarman Rajasimha I M G M R S ' ,J M P ). (T P , C .) H , . Son. ( K C II K T R c.765 - 790 c.790 - 800 c.800 - 830 Parantaka Nedujadai an Rasasingan II Varagunavarman I V . c.830 - 862 Srimara Srivallabha S K S H N c.862 - 880 c.880 - 900 891 II P III. Son. Pallava vassal. Younger brother. P . I 891 , c.900 - 920 .900 - 910 Maravarman Rajsimha II M V T P K A K P V, L C ,R , . c.920 - ? fl c.960 .960? Sundara Pand a I Vira Pand a I T S C A K , (S L ) S L T P M .T P P C II. C II C C .T , , R K N . P M , V M C I, ( A C .P M P . II C C C Son. T K C ,A , I . P , L .H N P ,V , P Son. L K M S I.H S .S P K . P T P K D , V N T . II), C .T W Son. K C (C A ,S ). H ( , ). H C C K . ,V .H ,


Son. Rules in Madurai. Defeated Pallavas on Kaveri's south bank.

Varagunavarman II Sri Parantaka Viranara ana Sadai an A C P

.910 - 920

). R S ,



P .



P C , , C P P .I . First of the true e ile kings. .W , 1210. T P P

AD 1251 - 1345

fl c.980

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Vira Pand a II


fl c.980 Vira Pand a II

Kingdoms of South Asia - Indian Pand as

First of the true e ile kings. Amarabhujanga Tivrakopa Jatavarman Sundara Chola Pand a Maravarman Vikrama Chola Pand a Maravarman Parakrama Chola Pand a ? - 1101 Jatavarman Chola Pand a



H P '

, .


The Nellaiappar Temple in Tirunelveli, one of the ancestral glories that the Pand as wished to regain

1101 - 1124 1132 - 1161 1161 - 1162 1162 - ? ? - 1175 1175 - 1180 1180? - 1190 .1190

Srivallabha Manakulachala Maaravaramban Seervallaban Parakrama Pandi an Kulasekara Pand an III Vira Pand an III Jatavarman Srivallaban Vikkikarma Pand an V P V P H , , P , K U . Son. Chola vassal. - , C . Younger brother. C C P C - V , N K H II. U , T C P . .H ,R C P III, ,V H B . II. B , , P K .H R , .R C , R K H , V B P V M III P S .T T . II, P Led a failed rebellion against Kulothunga Chola III. Chola vassal. Chola vassal. K C III. I K P

1190 - 1216

Jatavarman Kulasekharan I J K C

1216 - 1238

Maravarman Sundara Pand an I M C K S C P .M T III , ' U C

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1238 - 1251 1251 - 1268

Kingdoms of South Asia - Indian Pand as

Maravaram Sundara Pand a II Jatavarman Sundara Pand a III Son. Defeated b Rajendra Chola III. Son. Established the Second Pand an Empire.

Jatavarman avenges the defeat of his father b completel destro ing the Chola empire and establishing the second powerful Pand an empire. He also defeats the Cheras, Ho salas (in 1279), and the Kakati as. During his reign he provides a golden roof for the temples of Chidambaram and Srirangam from the wealth acquired in his conquests. He also gives man grants to temples in Trich , Thanjavur and Kanchipuram. He builds a temple at Aragalur (Magadai Mandalam) for the merit of Kulasekara around 1259. He acknowledges the contributors of other d nasties to Tamil Nadu b building a gate at the Sri Ranganathaswami Temple at Srirangam in which he engraves the names of all four great empires of Tamil Nadu, the Cholas, Pallavas, Pand as and Cheras. He also builds the east tower of the Madurai Meenakshi Temple. 1268 - 1308 1279 1308 Maravaramban Kulasekhara Pand a I Son.

The Pand as drive out Ramanatha of the divided Ho sala kingdom, sei ing his territor . Kulasekhara Pand a has two sons, one of whom, Jatavarman Sundara Pand a, is legitimate, while Jatavarman Vira Pand a is illegitimate. The latter is chosen as the heir apparent, so the former kills his father. This leads to a civil war between the brothers. Jatavarman Sundara Pand a Jatavarman Vira Pand a Son. Illegitimate brother and official heir.

1309 - 1327 1309 - 1345 1327 - 1345

Jatavarman Sundara Pand a appeals to Alladin Khiljis, the Deccan vicero , and General Mallik Kafur for help. Kafur invades and destro s the Pand an kingdom over the course of two decades, ending Hindu Pand a rule and starting a Mahomedan overlordship from Delhi. However, Delhi loses power in the Deccan in the fourteenth centur and a patchwork of kingdoms and principalities emerges, one of the biggest of which is the Vija nagar empire, which lies immediatel north of the Madurai region. In 1334, Madurai itself becomes an Islamic sultanate which is initiall independent.

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