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2010

Study and operation of Rockwell hardness test To understand what hardness is, and how it can be used to indicate some properties of materials Hardness testing, which describes the resistance to deformation, is a fast and simple method to characterize the mechanical properties of materials

Study and operation of Rockwell

K.M.Mostafizur Rahman SUST 6/23/2010

Name of the experiment: Study and operation of Rockwell


hardness test.

Objectives:
1. To understand what hardness is, and how it can be used to indicate some properties of materials. 2. To conduct typical engineering hardness tests and be able to recognize commonly used hardness scales and numbers. 3. To be able to understand the correlation between hardness numbers and the properties of materials. 4. To learn the advantages and limitations of the common hardness test methods. 5. Make Rockwell hardness measurements on different steel specimens.

Introduction: Hardness testing, which describes the resistance to deformation, is a


fast and simple method to characterize the mechanical properties of materials. By using an indenter with a fixed load, the size of the indentation is proportional to the material's hardness. An indentation requires permanent deformation from dislocation slip; therefore any obstacle to slip will serve to increase hardness. Hardness is not a fundamental property of a material but is related to the elastic and plastic properties. The hardness value obtained in a particular test serves only as a comparison between materials or treatments. The results may be used in estimating other mechanical properties. The various hardness tests may be divided into three categories: 1. Elastic hardness. 2. Resistance to cutting or abrasion. 3. Resistance to indentation. Among them weve performed Rockwell hardness test which is in the subcategory of resistance to indentation hardness test.

Rockwell hardness test: This hardness test uses a direct reading instrument
based on the principle of differential depth measurement. Rockwell testing differs from Brinell testing in that the Rockwell hardness number is based on an inverse relationship to the measurement of the additional depth to which an indenter is forced by a heavy (major) load beyond the depth resulting from a previously applied (minor) load. Initially a minor load is applied, and a zero datum position is established. The major load is then applied for a specified period and removed, leaving the minor load applied. The resulting Rockwell number represents the difference in depth from zero datum position as a result of the application of major load. The entire procedure requires only 5 to 10 s.

Description of Rockwell hardness testing machine:


There are two types of Rockwell machine, 1. 2. Normal tester, which is for relatively thick sections and Superficial tester, which is for thin sections.

Figure: Rockwell hardness tester machine The minor load is 10 KG on the normal tester and 3 KG on the superficial tester. A variety of indenters and loads may be used, and each combination determines a particular Rockwell scale. Indenters include hard steel balls determines a particular Rockwell scale. Indenters include hard steel balls 1/16, 1/8, and inch in diameter and a 120 conical diamond point major loads are usually 60, 100, 150 KG on the normal tester and 15, 30, 45 KG on the superficial tester.

Procedure of Rockwell hardness test:


1. Select the correct combination of weights (at the rear of the machine) and penetrators (diamond brale, 1/16- inch ball, etc.) for the hardness scale we wish to use. The numbers given in black represent the scales that use brale and the numbers given in red represent the scales that use ball penetrators. 2. Make certain that the crank (d) is in forward position (nearest to us).

(g) Colored segment of dial face (f) Large pointer (e) Small pointer and dot Penetrator Specimen Anvil, moves up or down when wheel (a) is turned (a) Wheel

(b) Knurled coller (c) Trip leaver, when depressed the major load is applied (d) Crank, to release major load, Figure: Rockwell Hardness Tester Must always be in forward position at start of test

3. Place sample on the anvil. 4. Slowly turn the wheel spokes (a) clockwise. This raises the anvil and sample toward the penetrator tip. After contact is gently made, continue raising sample until small pointer (e) is about in line with small black dot and large pointer (f) is within colored sector (g). The minor load has now been applied to the sample. 5. After step 4, large pointer (f) on the dial is nearly vertical. Now, turn the knurled collar (b) until "SET" line on the dial scale is in line with large pointer (f). 6. Depress trip lever (c). This triggers the mechanism that applies the major load. Crank (d) will automatically move away from you. 7. After the crank (d) has come to rest (against a "stop" and away from you), gently pull the crank toward you as far as it will go. If this is done abruptly, a false reading will be obtained because of jarring. 8. Now record the scale reading of large pointer (f). The black scale is read for the diamond penetrator (Example: Rockwell C), and the red scale is for ball penetrators (Example: Rockwell B). 9. Remove the minor load, which remains on the specimen, by lowering the anvil (Turn the wheel (a) counterclockwise). Move the sample to position for next test and repeat the steps above.

Test location: If indentation is placed too close to the edge of specimen, the workpiece
edge will bulge, and the hardness number will decrease accordingly. To ensure an accurate test, the distance from the center of the indentation to the edge of the specimen must be at least two and one-half diameters. An indentation hardness test cold works the surrounding material. If another indentation is placed within this cold worked area, the reading usually will be higher than the real value. Generally, the softer the material, the more critical the spacing of indentations becomes. However, a distance three diameters from the center of one indentation to another is sufficient for most materials.

Calculation:

Figure: Rockwell Hardness Testing Schematic 1. Depth of indentation under preliminary load (10 kg) 2. Increase in depth of indentation under additional load (150 kg) 3. Permanent increase of depth of indentation under preliminary load after removal of additional load, the increase being expressed in units of 0002 mm 4. Rockwell hardness HRC = 47e During our experiment weve found the following result on the Rockwell hardness testing machine, 1. Rockwell hardness- 23 Major load- 60 KG 2. Rockwell hardness- 37 Major load- 150 KG 3. Rockwell hardness- 47 Major load- 100 KG

Scale: There are 30 different Rockwell scales, defined by the combination of the indenter
and minor and major loads. The suitable scale is determined due to the type of the material to be tested. The majority of applications are covered by the Rockwell C and B scales for testing steel, brass, and other materials. Some of them are listed bellow,

Applications:
There are various applications of Rockwell hardness test some of them are listed bellow, 1. Finished parts such as bearings bearing races, valves, nuts, bolts, gears, pulleys, rolls, pins, pivots, stops, etc. 2. Cutting tools, such as saws knives, chisels, scissors. 3. Forming tools. 4. Small castings and forgings. 5. Sheet metal. 6. Large diameter wire. 7. Electrical contacts. 8. Plastic sheet or parts. 9. Case hardened parts. 10. Cemented carbides.

Discussion: It is a common practice to test most materials before they are accep ted for
processing, and before they are put into service to determine whether or not they meet the specifications required. One of these tests is for hardness. The Rockwell machines are those most commonly used for this purpose. By using this simple but efficient test we can determine what types of material should choose in time of designing any parts or products. So

this test is very important for an engineer. We are very thankful to our teacher, for giving us the opportunity to perform this test on our own hand. But there is a big limitation in this test that is, the dial gauge of the Rockwell hardness testing machine was not in function at all! That means our test values are not correct at all! Weve examined that the Brinell hardness number and the Rockwell hardness number was same for our test piece! I hope our respective teacher will recover this major problem as far as possible.

Conclusion: It is a common practice to test most materials before they are accepted for
processing, and before they are put into service to determine whether or not they meet the specifications required. One of these tests is for hardness. Hardness is the most important property of material to which other properties are related. So we should learn to measure the hardness accurately. Rockwell hardness testing process is most simple and widely used. So we should learn it perfectly.