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with contributionsby ALAN S. WALKER








Data Library of Congress Cataloguing-in-Pliiciation Kroll,John H., 1938The Greek Coins / byJohn H. Kroll; with contributionsby Alan S. Walker. cm. - (AthenianAgora; v. 26) p. referencesand index. Includesbibliographical ISBN 0-87661-226-5 1. Coins, Greek-Greece-Athens. 2. Coins, Greek. 3. Agora (Athens, Greece) 4. Athens (Greece)-Antiquities. Alan S. II. Title. III. Series I. Walker, DF287.A23A5 vol. 26 93-33146 [CJ459.A8] CIP 737.4938'5-dc20

? AmericanSchool of ClassicalStudiesat Athens 1993







VolumesII and IX, MargaretThompson'sCoinsfrom the FOLLOWING UPON TheAthenian Agora, Period Roman the (1954), and George Miles' TheIslamicCoins(1962), the present through Venetian Athenian Results Excavations series. volumebringsto a conclusionthe publicationof coins in The of Agora, Publicationof the Greek coins was initiallyentrustedto Josephine P. Shear; but after writing three articlesin the 1930's she was unableto makefurtherheadway,and the projectlapsedfor preparatory severaldecades. With the resumptionof large-scaleexcavationsin the Agora in 1970, responsibility for the Greek material was reassignedto me, excavationnumismatistfrom 1970 through 1973. I in turn enlisted the assistanceof my two successorsat the Agora, FredKleiner and Alan Walker. Our first task was to establish a reliable frameworkfor the chronology of Athenian bronze coinage, to which all but 13 percent of the Agora Greek coins belong. My initial papers focused on Athenian bronze coinage of the Roman period and of the 4th and early 3rd centuriesB.C. Kleiner, who elected not to participate in the final publication, devoted a series of articles to the bronze coinage of the 2nd and early st centuriesB.C. Walkerspecializedin the Athenian imperialbronze coins from the Agora, making them the subject of his 1980 Ph.D. dissertation.For this project he went through the entire inventoryof over 3,400 Athenian imperialbronzes to verify or correct the to identifications that had been made at the time of discovery, obtain weights,and to look for "runs" or groups of coins that had been found together but had not been recorded in the list of Agora deposits,which had been compiledprimarilyfor the studyof ceramicmaterial.In 1981 I was able to devote eleven months to reexaminingthe remaining 13,000 Greek coins in the same way. Tedious and time-consumingas this was, it provedhighlyinformativeand has been more thanjustifiedby the accuracyand controlmade possible.Insteadof workingfrom the old inventorycardsthat go back to the year of discovery of each coin (as MargaretThompson was obliged to do in the preparation of Agora our catalogue has been compiled directlyfrom the coins. In the summer of 1990 we II), added the severaldozen Greek coins unearthedsince 1981. Alan Walker'scontributionsto this volume are substantial.He wrote the catalogue of Athenian imperial coins in Chapter III and the core of the numismaticand chronologicalcommentary in the introductory in part of that chapter.He suggestedmany helpfulimprovements draftsof the other and he is responsiblefor identifyingmany of the difficultnon-Atheniancoins that earlier chapters, Agora numismatistshad found intractable;these include nearly all coins cataloguedin ChapterIV bearing excavationinventorynumberssuffixedwith the letter "a". A number of persons and institutionshave generouslyassistedthis project.We wish particularly to thank the former and present Directors of the Agora Excavations,Homer A. Thompson and T. Leslie Shear,Jr., for their encouragementand interest.We have been fortunatein being able to drawon the expertiseof many other colleaguesand friendsat the Agora and elsewhere,among them Virginia R. Grace, G. Roger Edwards, Susan I. Rotroff, John McK. Camp, Rhys F Townsend, Kevin Clinton,Judith Binder, Ursula Knigge, ChristianHabicht, Orestes Zervos, and Theodore Buttrey deserve special acknowledgment.Basil C. Demetriades was always eager to discuss the problemspresented by Athenian bronzes and did us the invaluableservice of making availablehis
1 "The Coins of Athens," Hesperia 1933, pp. 231-278; 1936, 2, pp. 123-150; and "AthenianImperial Coinage," 5, 1936, pp. 285-332. Hesperia



electronic scale for weighing. Members of the permanent Agora staff, secretariesMargo Camp Alice Paterakis and OlympiaTheophanopoulou,and photographer andJan Diamant, conservators Craig Mauzy, cheerfullysaw to the coordination,production, and photography of the hundreds of castsorderedfor illustration. CathyCollins,GretaHam, and TraceyRockettprovidedstillfurther assistancewith the casts and the assemblyof the plates. Richard Anderson, architectof the Agora Excavations,prepared the two site plans, of which one is entirely new, that appear on Plates 35 and 36. We would also like to thank our many numismaticcolleagues who took time from their visits to the Agora to go through our unidentifiedmaterial. Finally,the volume owes a great deal to the staff members of the American School PublicationsOffice. Their devoted and thoughtful editing,checking,and productionhave made this a much better book. For the resourcesthat enabled me to develop and begin writing up my part of the material,I am indebted to fellowshipsgranted by the National Endowment for the Humanities in 1981, by the American Council of Learned Societies and the Institutefor Advanced Study in 1985/1986, and by the University Research Institute of the Universityof Texas at Austin on both occasions. Over the years the UniversityResearchInstitutehelped defray many lesser expenditures,and the hospitalityof the Institutefor Advanced Study made it possible in more recent summersto return and workin its pleasantenvironmentin Princeton. Austin,Texas August 20, 1993

PREFACE ..................................................... VI

LIST OF PLATES................................................................. ............................................... AND BIBLIOGRAPHY ABBREVIATIONS SELECTED OF CONSPECTUS COINS.....x...................................... . INTRODUCTION. ....1... .......... ............ ....... ...... . ...... . ... . ............ . ..... .......

X Xi xvii 1

I. ATENIANSILVERCOS ...............................................................



24 113

(withAlan Walker)
............................................................ IV NON-ATHENIANCOINS

A. Three Modern Imitations .............................. ................. INCLUDING HOARDS DEPOSITS, TABLES


................ ..


B. UnstruckBlanksand the Mints of the Agora ......................................


. 292

I. PeriodI Chronology.................


322 324

II. Structure of the Period II Coinage ...................................... . .. ............................. III. Late Period II and Period III Varieties.....

IV PeriodIV AE 1 Varieties........................................................ V PeriodIV Fractions.............................................. ........... VI. Three EarlyPeriodIVA Deposits ................ ......................... VII. HypotheticalDevelopment of the Athenian Bronze DenominationalSystems and Comparisonwith the Roman System ....................................... VIII. Athenian ImperialDenominations............................................. IX. Totals of Athenian ImperialDies ...............................................

326 328 329 330 331 332 ....... 335

. 351 357

Concordance of CataloguedAgora Coins ................


. o.... ........................

Concordance to Athenian Bronze Coins Illustrated in Svoronos ...................... ...................

1. Athenian Silver,6th and 5th CenturiesB.C. (1-12d) 2. Athenian Silver,5th and 4th CenturiesB.C. (12e-18) 3. Athenian Silver,4th to 2nd CenturyB.c.;Bronze (19-37) 4. Athenian Bronze,4th CenturyB.C. (38d-46c) 5. Athenian Bronze, 4th and 3rd CenturiesB.C. (46d-54f) 6. Athenian Bronze, 3rd CenturyB.C. (55a-67b) 7. Athenian Bronze, 3rd CenturyB.C. (67c-75f) 8. Athenian Bronze, 2nd CenturyB.C. (76a-86d) 9. Athenian Bronze, 2nd and Early 1st CenturiesB.C. (87a-99e) 10. Athenian Bronze, 2nd and Early 1st CenturiesB.C. (99f-114a) 11. Athenian Bronze, 1st CenturyB.C. (115a-126e) 12. Athenian Bronze, 1st CenturyB.c. (127a-138g) 13. Athenian Bronze, 1st CenturyB.C. (139a-148) 14. Athenian Bronze, 1st CenturyB.C. (149a-156d) 15. Athenian Bronze, 1st CenturyB.C. and 2nd CenturyafterChrist(157a-167c) 16. Athenian Bronze, 2nd Centuryafter Christ(169a-197e) 17. Athenian Bronze, 2nd CenturyafterChrist(198-247a) 18. Athenian Bronze, 2nd CenturyafterChrist(248a-278a) 19. Athenian Bronze, 2nd and 3rd Centuriesafter Christ(279a-307a) 20. Athenian Bronze, 3rd CenturyafterChrist(308-36 la) 21. Athenian Bronze, 3rd CenturyafterChrist(362-401b) 22. Athenian Bronze, 3rd CenturyafterChrist.Italy,Sicily,Thrace (401c-449) 23. Thrace, Macedonia (452a-504b) 24. Macedonia, Thessaly,Epeiros(505-57 la) 25. Epeirosto Phokis,Boiotia, Euboia (572-624) 26. Euboia, Salamis,Megarid (625-657) 27. Aigina, Corinth (658a-717) 28. Peloponnesos(718-812b) 29. Crete, Cyclades,Pontosto Aiolis (817-898) 30. Aiolis, Ionia, Karia (900-966) 31. Lydia toJudea, PersianEmpire,Egypt to Numidia (969a-1035) 32. Modern Imitations.Coin Blanks 33. Coin Blanksand Rejects 34. Coins from the Libraryof PantainosNorth Stoa 35. Plan of the AthenianAgora, ca. 100 B.C.,with Sectionsof ExcavationIndicated 36. Plan of the AthenianAgora, 2nd CenturyafterChrist


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Ancient Coins Lost Art: NCP = F W. Imhoof-Blumerand P. Gardner, Illustrating MasterpiecesGreek A Nwnismatic Commentary of new onPausanias, enlargeded. with introduction,commentary,and notes by A. N. Oikonomides,Chicago 1964 Newell = E. T. Newell, TheCoinages London 1927 Poliorcetes, ofDemetrius = Siler Coinage NewStyle M. Thompson, TheNew Style ofAthens (NumimaicStudies New York1961 10), = Ancient Coins Greco-Roman ]Vckle World: W. The]ickleNumimatic Papers, Heckel and R. Sullivan,eds., Waterloo, ofthe Papers Ontario 1984 Nicolet-Pierreand Kroll = H. Nicolet-PierreandJ. H. Kroll, 'Athenian TetradrachmCoinage of the Third Century ser. B.C.,"AmericanJournal ofNumismatics, 2, 2, 1990, pp. 1-35 NNM = Numismatic andMonographs Notes Coin Noe = S. P.Noe, A BibliographyGreek Hoards, ed., New York 1937 2nd of Oeconomides-Caramessini1976 = M. Oeconomides-Caramessini,"The 1973 Peiraeus Hoard of Athenian Bronze Coins,"AAA9, 1976, pp. 220-223
Oikonomidou = M. Karamesini-Oikonomidou, H NotilaOaTxOX7tCa -Ti NIxonoXiCos, Athens 1975

Olynthus = D. M. Robinson, Excavations Olynthus, TheCoins III at at Found Olynthus 1928, Baltimore 1931 in III, VI = D. M. Robinson,Excavations Olynthus, TheCoins at in Found Olynthus 1931, Baltimore 1933 at VI, Olyntus IX = D. M. Robinson and P. A. Clement, Excavations Olynthus, 77heChalcidic andtheExcavation at Mint Coins IX, Olynthus Found 1928-1934, Baltimore 1938 in XIV at and Found 1934 and1938, Baltimore in XIV, Olynthus = D. M. Robinson,Excavations Olynthus, Terracottas, Lamps, Coins 1952 Osborne = M.J. Osborne, "Kallias,Phaidrosand the Revoltof Athens in 287 B.C.," ZPE 35, 1979, pp. 181-194 = in W. ofNany M. Waggoner, E. Metcalf,ed., New York 1991 WaggonerMnemata: Papers Memory Papers = O. Picard, "Monnaies,"in L'Antre II Picard,Antre Corycien (BCH Supplement9), Paris 1984, pp. 281-306 = de etd'histoire et Eubeenne: Atude numismatique Picard, Chalcis O. Picard, Chalcis la Confedration (IVe-Ier sicle), Paris 1979 = B. Pick, "Die 'Promachos'des Pheidiasund die KerameikosLampen,"AM 56, 1931, pp. 59-74 Pick 1931 the Supplement 7), Cambridge,Mass. PnyxI = G. R. Davidson and D. B. Thompson, SmallObjectsfrom PnyxI (Hesperia 1943 Price 1964 = M. J. Price, "The New-Style Coinage of Athens: Some Evidence from the Bronze Issues," JVC,ser. 7, 27-36 4,1964, pp. Price 1967 = M.J. Price, "Coins from Some Deposits in the South Stoa at Corinth,"Hesperia 1967, pp. 348-388 36, Price 1989 = M.J. Price, "The Larissa, 1968 Hoard (IGCH237)," in Kraay-Merkholm Essays,G. Le Rider, K. Jenkins, N. Waggoner,and U. Westermark, eds., Louvain-la-Neuve1989, pp. 233-243 at Price 1991 = M.J. Price, "Circulation Babylonin 323 B.C.," in Papers Waggoner, 63-72 pp. Price 1993 = M.J. Price, "Morefrom Memphis and the Syria 1989 Hoard,"in EssaysCarson-Jenkins, 31-35 pp. = Price, CRWLR M.J. Price, "SouthernGreece,"in CRWLR, 95-103 pp. and Cities: Architecture Ancient onthe Coins Greece, andPalestine, Rome Priceand Trell = M.J. Price and B. L. Trell, Coins Their of London 1977 Berne Berne, 1979, of ofthe CongressNumismatics, September T. Hackensand R. Weiller, Proceedings = Proceedings 9thInternational eds., Louvain-la-Neuve,1982 mv Tou Kp&irouC IIToXIOatlov, Athens 1904-1908 IIroXelatcOv =J. N. Svoronos,Ta NoVloE4axa Raubitschek1946 = A. E. Raubitschek."Octavia'sDeificationat Athens,"TAPA 1946, pp. 146-150 77, RE= A. E von Pauly,Realencyclopadieclassischen der revisedby G. Wissowa,Stuttgart Neue Altertumswissenschaft,Bearbeitung, 1894-1972 Athenaion Politeia,Oxford 1981 Rhodes = P.J. Rhodes, A Commentarythe on Aristotelian RIC = Roman London 1923Coinage, Imperial Robinson and Price 1967 = E. S. G. Robinson and M. J. Price, "AnEmergencyCoinage of Timotheus,"NC, ser. 7, 7, 1967, pp. 1-6 London 1932 Coinage Thessaly, of Rogers = E. Rogers, TheCopper Rotroff 1983 = S. I. Rotroff,"Three Cistern Systemson the Kolonos Agoraios,"Hesperia 1983, pp. 257-297 52, Rotroff 1984 = S. I. Rotroff,"Spool Saltcellarsin the AthenianAgora,"Hesperia 1984, pp. 343-354 53, Paris Roussel = P. Roussel,Dilos,colonie athenienne, 1916 to Provincial RPC I = A. Burnett, M. Amandry,and P P. Ripolls, Roman I, Coinage, FromtheDeathof Caesar theDeath London/Paris 1992 Vitellius, of



M7 = T. V Buttrey,A. Johnston, K. M. MacKenzie, and M. L. Bates, Greek, and Sardis Roman, IslamicCoins fromSardis (Archaeological Explorationof SardisMonograph 7), Cambridge,Mass./London 1981 Its and the Seltman = C. T. Seltman,Athens, History Coinage before PesianInvasion, Cambridge 1924 Shear 1936 =J. P. Shear, "Analytical Table of Coins,"Hesperia 1936, pp. 123-150 5, and Shear,Kallias= T. L. Shear,Jr.,Kallias Sphettos theRevolt Athns in 286 B.C. (Hesperia of of Supplement 17), Princeton 1978 Shelov = D. B. Shelov, Coinage Bosphorus VI-II Centuries (BARInternationalSeries 46), Oxford 1978 B.C. ofthe SNG= Syloge Graecorum Nummorum Starr = C. G. Starr,Athenian 480-449 B.C., Oxford 1970 Coinage Stroud 1974 = R. S. Stroud, "AnAthenian Law on SilverCoinage,"Hesperia 1974, pp. 157-188 43, Sutherland,Olcay, and Merrington = C. H. V Sutherland,N. Olcay, and K. E. Merrington, The Cistophori Augustus of (RoyalNumismatic Society Special Publications5), London 1970 Sv. =J. N. Svoronos, Lesmonnaies d'Athnes, completed by B. Pick, Munich 1923-1926. Reprintedwith translatedtext as Corpus the Coins Athens, Ancient of of Chicago 1975 7, 1904, pp. 107-142 Svoronos 1907 = I. N. Svoronos, <IIepypYacpLx6g Tou NoiLaoparlx6uMouaoeou ano 1 xarxacX6yoC npoaxTrt&cxav EeTxtc3pplou 1906 cXpt 31 Auyo6aoou 1907o, JIAN 10, 1907, pp. 177-262
Svoronos 1900 = I. N. Svoronos, <<IIept ov e:LLTrlpEov T)ov (xpXCal)v>>, II, JAN 3, 1900, pp. 319-343 part Svoronos 1904 = I. N. Svoronos, <NoLatoaTRxx6v pooalxxi>,,JIAN e6priac EXAuotvog: Noltalaxra A90Tv6vXaXx&

Avtly6vou B' tou A6Aoavoq>,JIAN 11, 1908, pp. 230-232 Svoronos 1911 = I. N. Svoronos, leIIeypcpapLx6q Tou NotLaaTLx6u Mouaetou anxo1 xaxcaX6yoq npoaxr?c&Tcov 31 Eetrctpplou 1908 .eXpL Auyou'aTou1909>, JIAN 13, 1911, pp. 37-112 Svoronos 1927 =J. N. Svoronos,"La monnaie d'or attique,"JIAN 21, 1927, pp. 147-169 II Tbnos = R. Etienne and L. Artemis-Gyselen,"L'atelier monetairede T6nos,"in R. Etienne, Tbnos lesCyclades milieu et du duIVCsiecle du av.J-.C. dumilieu IIIe sicle ap.J.-C.(Tnows Athens/Paris 1990, pp. 225-252 I), in Thompson, H. A., 1958 = H. A. Thompson, "Activities the AthenianAgora: 1957," Hesperia 1958, pp. 145-160 27, Thompson 1942 = M. Thompson, "Coinsfor the Eleusinia,"Hesperia 1942, pp. 213-229 11, ANSAN 7, 1957, pp. 1-11 Thompson 1957 = M. Thompson, "AHoard of Athenian Fractions," = Robinson M. Thompson, "The Mints of Lysimachos," Essays in Thompson, Essays Robinson, 163-182 pp. in Touratsoglou 1988 = I. Touratsoglou,Die Miinsttte vonThessaloniki derrimischen Kaiserzeit (AMUGS12), Berlin/New York 1988 = Touratsoglou,CRWLR I. Touratsoglou,"Macedonia,"in CRWLR, 53-78 pp. = Traiti E. Babelon, Traitdesmonnaiesgrecques etromaine, Paris 1907-1932 Von Aulock = SNGSammlungAulock, v. Berlin 1957-1968 Walker 1978 = A. S. Walker,"FourAE Coin Hoards in the Collection of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens,"Hesperia 1978, pp. 40-48 47, Walker1980 = A. S. Walker,"AChronologicalStudy of the GreekImperialCoinage of Athens Based on the Collection of the Agora Excavationsat Athens," 1980 Universityof Pennsylvania, Ph.D. Dissertation,Ann Arbor 1980 Walker 1982 = A. S. Walker,"Some Plated Coins from the Agora,"in Procedings Berne, 131-136 pp. Warren 1983 =J. A. W. Warren,"The AutonomousBronze Coinage of Sicyon (Part 1),"NC 143, 1983, pp. 23-56 Warren 1984 =J. A. W Warren,"- (Part2),"NJC144, 1984, pp. 1-24 Warren 1985 =J. A. W. Warren,"- (Part3),"NC 145, 1985, pp. 45-66 WSM = E. T. Newell, The Coinage the Western SelucidMints I III of Studies New fromSebucus to Antiochus (Numismatic 4), York 1941

Svoronos 1908 = I. N. Svoronos, vE6prlia ex T'c Ko: a At8o6. A6aot XVa,xxv VOaLOTiccV T OLt Botorxol un6

PERIODICALS AA = ArchiiologischerAnziger AAA= ApXaLOXoytxi Av&Xexrae A9Ov6v = Amican Journal AJA ofArchaeology AJAH= American Journal Ancient of History AJP = Ameican Journal Philology of



AM = Mitteungen deutscen des Abteilung Instits, Athenische archiiologischen = American Museum ANSMN Notes Numimatic Socie.t de BCH = Bulletin correspondance hellhnique at School Athens BSA= Annual theBritish of Hoards CH = Coin = AeXtc ApXXLOXOYLX6V AXt'clo ApXacokoylx/ EPApX = EnprAcplk Studies Roman Byzantine and GRBS= Greek, JHS = Journal HelenicStudies of = internatonal numismatique L4ANJournal d'archiologie und Numismatik Geldgschichte JNG = Jahrbuchfiir Studies JRS = Joural ofRoman Chronicle NC = NAumimatic Zeitschift NZ = Numismati,che de RBN= Reue beige NuismatiqueetdeS'illographie REG= Reu desiudesgrecques RN = Raue numismatique for SAN= Journal theSocie_ Ancient Numimartics of Rundschau SNR= Schwieische numismatische = TAPA Transactionsthe Association of American Philological undEpigraphik Papyrologie ZPE = Zeitschitfifir are The followingabbreviations used in this volume: AE = bronze AR = silver AV = gold bill. = billon cmk. = countermark cuir.= cuirassed diad. = diademed dr. = draped EL = electrum ex. = exergue 1.= left laur.= laureate obv. = obverse r. = right rad. = radiate rev.= reverse stg. = standing



Occasional discrepancies between regional totals and the numbers of coins listed beneath by city or ruler and by century ar followed by a +. The + indicates an uncertain number of additional coins that have been catalogued in brackets as being not


6th ITALY-SICILY (15) CisalpineCelts (1) Brundisium(1) Kroton (1) Rhegion (1) Akragas(1) Gela (1) Mamertinoi(2) Syracuse(4) Siculo-Punic(3) CRIMEA and THRACE (134) (5) Pantikapaion Olbia (1) IstrianonLimen (2) Abdera (1) Apollonia Pontica(1) Byzantion(1) Deultum (1) Maroneia(6) Mesembria(3) Pautalia(1) Perinthos(2) Philippopolis(1) AugustaTraiana(1)








1 1 1 1

1 2 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 1

1 3

Coela (1) Sestos (2) Imbros (3) Lemnos:Hephaistia (7+) Myrina (54+) Samothrace(4) Thasos (3) Kings Lysimachos(5) RhoimetalkesI (1) MACEDONIA (304) Akanthos(1) Amphipolis(2) Aphytis (1) Bottiaia (1) Dion (1) Olynthos (1) Ouranopolis(2)2 Pella (1) Philippoi(4)1 Skione (1) Thessalonike(8) Kings Philip II (6) Alexanderm (26) Philip m (2) Anonymous (10) Kassandros(18+) Demetrios Poliorketes (23) Antigonos Gonatas (184+) Philip V (4) ?Perseus(1) Macedonian League (3)3 THESSALY (72) Ainianes (3) Atrax (1) 3 4+ 41+ 3 2AR &2 1AR

3 13 4

3 1 3 6 1AV, 9AR&16 2AR 10 18+ 3 AR&20 184+ 4 1? 1 1 1

2 1


Centuries B.C.


6th Gomphoi (1) Gyrton(4) Halos (1)1 Krannon (2) Lamia (2) Larissa(5)5 LarissaKremaste (1) Magnetes(7) Orthe (1) Phalanna(4) Pharsalos(5) ThessalianLeague (33) Peparethos(2)1 NORTHWEST GREECE (61) Dyrrhacion (6)6 Skodra(1) Nikopolis(11) EpeiroteLeague (3) Korkyra(16) Leukas(2) Medon (1) Thyrreion(1) AitolianLeague (20) CENTRAL GREECE (475) LokrianLeague (46) PhokianLeague (24) Delphi (3) Boiotian League (175) Orchomenos(1)


4th 1 4 2 2






6 1 4 5 26 1 2 3

4 3 4 1 2 1 1 4 22 2 22 3 33+ 128 8+ 12 20 4 4 1

Tanagra(9) Thebes (9) Thespiai (14) EuboianLeague (36) Chalkis(112) Eretria(4) Histiaia(37) Karystos(5) ATHENS (14,360+) Athenian (13,749+) Eleusinian(611) SALAMIS-AIGINA(456) Salamis(99) Megara (333) Pagai (1) Aigina (23) PELOPONNESOS (354) Corinth(137) Phlious(6) Sikyon(75) Aigion (3) Boura(1) Patrai(1) Pellene(6) Tenea (1) Achaian League (9) 3AR 2AR

7 1 8 10 2 11+ 1AR &26 26+ 16AR 7 28 4 6 5 IAR &3989+ 4



14AR 43AR &1991 &1439+ 196 356 59 99 160 152

2AR &2750+



14 IAR 6 2 57 16

3 19 39 11 4 2 4 1 1 44 2 1? 2 8

6 1AR &8 I"AR" 1 2 2 5 5 3 3

Elis(12) Kranion(2)2 Same (1) Zakynthos(2) Messene (7) (1) Kyparissia

CONSPECTUS OF COINS (cont.) Centuries B.C.


6th Mothone (1)1 Thouria (2)1 Lakedaimon(18)1 Kythera(1)1 Argos(13) Epidauros(10) Hermione (6) Kleonai (3) Methana (1) Troizen (2)1 ArkadianLeague (3) Heraia (2) Kleitor (1) Mantineia(3) Megalopolis(1)1 Orchomenos(1) Pheneos (2)1 Tegea (10) CRETE and ISLANDS (67) Aptera (1) Arsinoe (1) Knossos (2) Roman provinceof Crete (1) Andros(1) Delos (17) Keos League (8) Karthaia(4) Koressia(3) oulis (3) Kythnos(2) Melo (2) Paros(1) Siphnos (1)









3 9 5 2

8 1 1

3 2 1 3 1 7

1 1 1


16 8 4 3 3 2

2 1
1 "AR"

Syros (3) Tenos (7)

3 3 4


Phanagoria(1) King RheskouporisVI (2) ASIA MINOR (186) Amisos (3)3 BithynianLeague (1) Nikaia (1) Nikomedia (3)1 King ProusiasI (2) Adramyteion(2)1 Atarneus(1)1 Kyzikos(2) Parion (9) Pergamon(8)6 Perperene(2)2 Pitane (1)1 AlexandriaTroas (5) Assos (1) lion (1) Neandria (2) Skepsis(1) Tenedos (1) Aigai(3) Autokane(1)1 Elaia (1)1 Kyme (6) Methymna (2) Mytilene (4)2 Ephesos (10) Erythrai(4) Klazomenai (3) Magnesia on the Maiandros(4) 1

1 EL

1 9 2

2 1

31 1 1 2 3 3 12 1 1 1 2




6th Metropolis(1) Miletos (5) Phokaia (1) Smyrna (11) Teos (1) Chios (22) Samos (6) Knidos (4) Myasa (1) Mydnos (1) Kos (4) Rhodes (14)








4 1 3 5 1 1 1

1 2


4 2AR &4 1

Hermokapelia(1) Sardis(3) Tripolis(2) Akmoneia(1) Apamcia (1) Laodikia (1) Synnada (2) LycianLeague (3) Patara(1) Attaleia(1) Nrge (1) Side (5) Sillyon(1) PisidianAntioch (1) Selge (1)



4 1 1 1

Seleukiaon the Kalykadnos(1) Soloi-Pompeiopolis(2) Syedra(1) Tarsos(1) King Amyntas (1) SYRIA-PERSIA(18) Kings Seleukos II (1) Antiochos II (1)1 Seleukos IV (1)1 Alexander I Balas (1)1 Antiochos VII (1) Antioch on the Orontes (3) Judea (9) PersianEmpire (1) EGYPT-NUMIDIA (52) Kings Ptolemy II (3+) Ptolemy 1m(5+) Ptolemy IV (1+) Ptolemy VI & VII (3) Ptolemy VI (2) Ptolemy VIII (3) Ptolemy IX (2)2 Ptolemy XI (4) Ptolemy XII (1) Kleopatra VII (1) Alexandria(11)1 Cyrene (1) Ptolemaic Cyrenaica(1) Roman province of Cyrenaica and Crete (2)2 KingJuba I (1) 1AV

1 1 1 1 7 1

3+ 5+ 1+ 3 1AR &1 3 4

7 1 1



Centuries B.C.



A. 2671(1137)








3 1 3 11 67 8

3 469+ 3 2699+

269+ 635+ 625+ 2146+

136+ 170+ 97+ 2923+

104+ 69 104+ 4059+ 15AR


5 85 9 85 22AR

3 65 3 2349 35AR

1 Agra 1I,nos. 1-550, to which are added the 98 Roman coins to A.D. 267 from the 1950 through 1990 excavations.The Roman coins are overwh includea few pieces from mints in Greece, Asia Minor,Spain, and Lyons, and a small proportionof the coins from t althoughthe totalsofthe 1stcentury B.C. from such imperialmints as those at Antioch, Milan, Lyons, and Asia Minor. 2 NN-2014, an extremelywornJanus/Prow as (33 mm., 18.24 g.) that was excavatedbefore 1949 but inexplicablyomitted from Agora II. 3 To Agora add a denarius of L Farsuleius Mensor (E-2432 = GRC,fig. 26) and a plated Venus/Aeneas denarius ofJulius Caesar (K-1646), both e II, bronzes (both found before 1949) of the 90's or 80's B.C.: 00-527, a heavily worn Janus/Prow as (26 mm., 7.44 g); and 00-27, a Herakles/Prow q threefurther"FleetPraefect"bronzesofAntony (asAgora no. 13: Capito, RC I, 1470),for a currentAgora total offive (K-1587, 00-1249, IIO-879, E-62 I,

CATALOGUED HEREIN are the 16,557+ identifiableGreek coins produced by the Agora
excavationsbetween 1931 and 1990. The total includesmore than a thousandextremelyworn coins that, while not identifiableby actual variety,can neverthelessbe attributedto certain large Athenian series;but it excludeswell overfourthousandother damagedor totallyworn pieces that by size and fabric can be identifiedonly as 4th-centuryor Hellenistic "Greek",if these pieces happen to be availablefor reexaminationat all, since many had been weeded out from storage and were discardedin the late 1940's. As can be readily calculatedfrom the catalogue summarypresented on pages xvii-xxvi, all but one-tenth of 1 percent of the identifiablecoins are bronze. Eighty-seven percent are Athenian. Because of the dominance of the Athenianbronze,one of our majorgoals is to presenta reliable surveyof this coinage insofaras the limitationsof excavationspecimensallow.The limitationsmust be stressed,for a conventionalstudy of the coinage would rely far more heavilyon museum-quality specimensfrom outside the excavationsthan on the coins that we are publishinghere. Fortunately, the bronze coinage of Athens has alreadybeen well illustratedin the folio plates of . N. Svoronos' d'Athnes. 1923 Lesmonnaies with Despite its obsolete organizationand chronology,thisworkillustrates first-rateexamplesfrom Europeancollectionsvirtuallyall the Athenian bronze varieties,and in the case of the Athenianimperialbronzeof the 2nd and 3rdcenturiesafterChrist,a veryhigh percentage of the obverse and reversedies. Since this workwas reprintedin 1975 in a new, convenientformat and is now widely available,we have not hesitated to refer to it constantly.So fully do Svoronos' that many readerswill want to keep an open copy of plates complement our text and illustrations Svoronosclose at hand. In comparison with museum or hoard specimens, it is in the area of absolute metrology that the Agora specimens are most deficient.Most are worn to some degree;almost ll were found in a at heavilycorrodedstate;and this wear and corrosion,togetherwith the heavy chemical or electrolytic cleaningused to removethe corrosionfor identification,are responsiblefor an inevitableloss of some originalsurfacemetal and weight. As can be calculatedfromTablesIII and IV (pp. 324-327 below), which compare the averageweightsof Agora and nonexcavationhoard specimensof certainbronze issues, the weight loss of the Agora excavationcoins is generallyin the area of 8 to 14 percent for largerbronze coins with diametersof ca. 18-20 mm., althoughthere are some issuesin which thereis less or no detectable differential.The differentialdeclines as diametersbecome smaller.We have neverthelessrecorded the weights and weight averagesof the better-preserved Agora bronze coins for their value as relative since even approximateweights can be more informativethan indicators, linear measurementsof diameterfor comparingindividualissues and sometimesfor distinguishing denominationalrelationships. The frequentlywide variationin weightbetween coins of a given issue arises from the fact that the blankswere cast or cut with much less individual attention than was expended on the blanksof precious-metalcoinages.1But this phenomenon has been observedalso in Roman bronze coinage, which is knownto have been struckat so many pieces to a given weight of
1 For the coin blanks of the 1st century B.C. and the 3rd century after Christ excavated from mints in the Agora, see Appendix B with Plates 32 and 33. All these blankswere cut from forged bronze rods, the Ist-centuryB.C. blanks by chopping,the later ones by sawing.In neithercase was much care takento cut the rods into strictlyuniformsegments.


metal, so that the averageweight of all bronzecoins from a given issue or batch shouldrepresentthe standardto which that batch or issuewas struck.2In some Athenianbronze coinages,a fixedweight standardwas demonstrablyadheredto from one issue to the next; other Athenian bronze coinages were minted in issuesor batchesthat become progressively lighterovertime to increaseprofitability.3 This volume differsfrom most previouspublicationsof excavationcoins in the attentionpaid A to archaeologicalcontexts and in the more than minimal number of illustrations. good pictorial recordof the Athenian bronzesis obviouslynecessaryif this volume is to serve as a useful reference for that coinage. But in addition, we believe that excavationcoins should not be treateddifferently than other archaeologicalmaterial: they should be recordedvisually as well as described;and if this means the illustation of a large numberof mediocre,worn, or damaged specimens,such is the than pieces selectivelypurchasedfor which reflectsmore faithfully realityof excavationnumismatics, modern collectionsthe true characterof the lower-valuecurrencyin actual circulationin antiquity. In this connection, it is salutaryto emphasizethat the coins chosen for our plates are the very finest specimensthat the Agora excavationshave to offer.We decided to illustrateplastercastsratherthan direct photographsafter experimentsconvinced us that in most cases casts produced more legible and evenlylit images.A good samplingof the finestAgora Greekcoins in directphotographywill be Coins the in Athenian and found in FredKleiner's 1975 Agora PictureBook, Greek Roman Agora. In my study of the Agora Greek coins, I was surprisedto discoverhow few, relativelyspeaking, come from chronologicallysignificantcontexts.A majorityof the coins were recoveredfrom late or "mixed"fills,having apparentlybeen redepositedin earth that had been dug up and reusedin later contexts, buildingoperations.4A numberof other coins have potentiallyinformativestratigraphical but at the presenttime these contextsare too vaguelydated or have been too little studiedto deserve mention in our catalogue.This leavesthe coinsfromthe Agoradeposits:the dumpsor accumulations of earthand debristhat have been excavatedfromwells,cisterns,buildingfills,buildingdestructions, more or less closedcontextualentities.Most of these depositshavebeen carefullystudied, and similar, many repeatedly,and severalhave been as instrumentalin the reconstructionof the chronologyof Atticbronzecoinage as they havebeen for the chronologyofpottery,stampedamphorahandles,and other kinds of artifacts.The Agora depositswith importantgroups of Greek coins are listed at the end of this book (pp. 297-318) and are cited when relevantin our discussionsand catalogue.Among the deposits are a few hoards, or groups of coins that were intentionallyassembled and secreted together,as opposed to the randomlylost, and perhapsoccasionallydiscarded,coins that found their way into most normal filling deposits. When relevant, the relativewear of a coin in a deposit or hoard group may be indicatedon a scale ofw(ear)l-6, from unworn (wl) to extremelyworn (w6).

the the maderoughly samesizein the hopethattheywouldturnout roughly Blanks werepresumably verycarefully. thus on theendof a batchdepending howthemetalwaslasting; towards or sameweightandthesizereduced increased About standard." fromthemintwouldbe thesameas itsweight of themeanweight a batchof coinage Augustan straight much and Roman 2nd Coins, ed., London1960,p. 122, wrote,"Brass copperare struck coinage,HaroldMattingly, foreachpiece,butat so not morecarelessly weight adjusted [than goldor silver]-a marco, apezo--i.e., noton a carefully
many to the pound."

certainlyno attemptwas made to adjustthe weight of individualpieces terminologypresumablyreflectedmint-practice;

so as was issueof coinage described theRomans struck manyto thepoundandthis by RRC, 592: "An Crawford, p.

3 Compare IV 88-96 (Table p. 324 below),115-126 and 149-153 (Table [pp.326-327 below]and varieties III, weight 137-140, 143, and 144 (TableIV [p. 326 below]and p. 90). Forthe progressive 82, 88) with varieties pp. see or varieties series, p. 75, under99, andp. 79, under108. of reduction otherAthenian see 4 Butat leasta fewGreek to coinscontinued be usedaslateasEarly times; under142 fora Ist-century Byzantine

coin in a 6th-centurySlavicInvasionhoard.


The formatof the catalogueentriesshouldbe self-evident.Coins are listedby varieties(numbers in boldface). The variety numbers of silver,gold, electrum, and billon coins are italicized, and the type of metal is specified.All other coins are bronze. (Wheneverpossible,coins too poorly preserved to be assigned to a single variety are assigned to a group of varieties that are cited together in brackets,for example, [14 47] on page 43.) If a variety is representedby only a single coin, the bold variety number will function also as the individual coin reference. In cases where a variety is representedby many specimens,the total numberof coins is followedby the range of diametersin millimetersand by the averageweight in gramsof the best-preserved specimens(the numberof coins weighed given in parentheses);listed below are the specimens chosen for illustrationor for some special contextual or other reason. Each individually catalogued coin is listed with its Agora inventory number; diameter in millimeters;die position, if numismaticallyrelevant; -weightin grams; and furtherbibliographical, or other annotation,if needed. Referencesto Agora depositsare enclosedin parentheses. contextual, Illustratedcoins are markedwith an asterisk.Die alignmentsare indicatedby arrows,or, for worn coins whose die axes can be identified by angle but not top or bottom orientation,just by I, \, etc. Weights followed by + are of heavily damaged coins that have lost a considerableamount of their originalweight. In additionto the abbreviations given on p. xvi, the followingcataloguingconventionsshouldbe noted. In the recordingof legendsand types,bracketsenclose restoredlettersor partsof a designthat are no longer visible on the coin. Obliteratedvariablelegends that cannot be restoredare recorded as [----]. In legends, a dash (-) indicatesa horizontalbreak between letters, a verticalbar (|) indicates the beginning of a new horizontalline of the text. A horizontal line above two or three lettersindicatesthat they are conjoined in a single ligature. Forthe rubricsAE 1, AE 2, etc., employedin ChapterII to distinguishthe severalmodularunits of Athenian bronze coinage to the end of the 1st century B.C.,see page 38 below. Such rubrics, long used for the sizes of late Roman Imperialbronze denominations,were firstapplied to Athenian bronze coins by Fred Kleiner, whose system had to be modified to encompass the much greater range of Athenian materialcataloguedhere (see note 117 below,p. 68). The Agora coins are listed in the excavators'notebooksand are storedin the Stoa of Attalosby inventorynumbers,which are prefixedwith the Greekletter or lettersthat designatethe excavation section. Forreaderswho might wish to identifythe approximatearea in which a coin was found, we havebeen able to includea new plan of the Agorawith sectionboundariesindicated(Plate35). Coins inventoriedunder the rubricsKTA or NSR were not recoveredin the course of excavation: some were pickedup in or near the Agora;othersare donationsof unspecifiedprovenience.Althoughthey do not properlybelong in a publication of excavationfinds, we include a few because they have become part of the Agora numismaticcollection.

and abundant silver coinages of the ancient world from the middle of the 6th to the middle of the 1st century B.C. At four peak periods of coining (the first two decades of the 5th century, the 450's through 415, the second half of the 4th century,and the first decade of the 1st century was prodigious; and to judge from hoards and B.C.) the output of Athenian silver tetradrachms the widespread imitation of these tetradrachmsin all periods, the internationaldemand for this coinage remainedstrongalmostto the very end. This is not of course the place to attemptanything like a comprehensive account of this vast coinage, whose detailed history depends in any case on hoards and the study of specimens in the great public collections that hoards have supplied.1 But the incomplete sampling of Athenian silver from the Agora excavations at least calls for a selective survey,if only to provide a frameworkfor a fuller analysisof Athenian bronze coinage in ChapterII. The Agora's 129 Athenian silverpieces and imitationsthereof representless than 1 percent of the the nearly 14,000 Athenian coins excavated. Predictably, overwhelmingmajorityof the silver findsare of the smaller,more easilylost denominationsof a drachmor its fractions,and this explains why roughlyhalf of the pieces date from the 5th century,when Atheniancurrencywas exclusivelyof silver.Thereafter,the findsprogressively decline centuryby centuryto a mere three silverNew Style pieces of the 2nd centuryB.C.in a trendthat reflectsthe increasingimportanceof the supplementary bronze currency.Once a bronzecoinage was introducedin the 4th century,bronze began to replace and lesseneddependencyon silverin general. the smallersilverdenominationsin petty transactions the end of the 4th centuryat the latest,Athens no longer botheredto strikeany silvercoin lower By than the triobol;and in the laterHellenisticcurrencythe hemiobol and the obol came themselvesto be minted in bronze.2 and drachmsis striking.There are five to The proportionof unofficial,imitativetetradrachms bronze.At least one tetradrachm in silverand twenty-twoof silver-plated seven of these counterfeits in the formercategory(AppendixA, coin a) is modern, and one or two other silverpieces could also be recent,althougheven if they shouldbe so, the proportionof ancientfalseto genuine tetradrachms and drachmsremainsimpressively high for so few total pieces found. tetradrachmsI 6a-m are a specialcase; As explainedbelow (pp. 9-10), the thirteensilver-plated from a single disturbed hoard, they had intentionallybeen buried together. It is clear, coming however,that most of and possiblyall the remainingsubaeratepieces were gotten rid of after they had been detected as false.At leasthalf of them had been testedor defacedwith a chiselcut. Of these 9a, 160, and 16phad been removedfromcirculation,that is, frommortaluse, by being dedicatedto a god and deposited in a sanctuary.The unlucky owners of most of the other plated pieces, even those withoutvisibletest cuts, had presumablyjustthrownthem away as worthless.It is conceivable that some of the ancient owl imitationsof full silver may also have been intentional discards;for
1 The best surveysof Athenian silver are by Kraay,Athens (in more detail but extending only through the 4th and 9-12. For a tabularsummary of estimated levels of Athenian silver-coinproduction century)ACGC,pp. 55-77, pls. Athens 1980. over time, see the diagraminsertedat p. 56 of C. E. Conophagus,LeLaurium antique, 2 83-84 below. Pp. 38, 48-49, 68,

B LESSED with her own naturaldepositsof silverore, Athens minted one of the most influential


if they cannot pass autopsy as bona fide Athenian emissionstoday,they would doubtlesshave been of Athenian suspectin antiquityand, accordingto Buttrey's persuasiveinterpretation the 375/4 B.C. law on silver coinage, could have been refused by anyone demanding payment in certified legal tender.3The high survivalrate of imitationsis surelyan effectof theirworthlessness; as a forceful and reminder of how common bad money must have been in the ancient marketplace,the discovery of so many in the soil of the Agora enables us to appreciatebetter the legislation of 375/4 that and proceduresof the public certifierof currency,the boxL.a-cT)<, spelled out the responsibilities in protectingthe state coinage againstforgeriesof all kinds.4 SIXTH AND 1F I'HCENTURIES B.C. Athenian numismaticsbegins with the anepigraphicWappenmiinzen(Heraldic coins), a uniface coinage with changing obverse types. The Agora has yielded eight pieces: an obol with amphora obverse,a drachmwith horse'shindquarters obverse,threedrachmsand two obols with the common strutted-wheel obverse,and, from near the end of the series,a fine didrachmwith bull'shead obverse The Athenian origin of these and the rest of the Wappenmiinzensilver (which altogether (1-5). involved fourteen obverse types in the didrachm sequence) is no longer doubted, not least, as Hopper has emphasized,because of the importanceof the Agora finds in strengtheningthe record of Attic provenience.5Scholarshipnow connects this coinage with the Peisistratid tyranny,placing it between Peisistratos'return to power in 546 and the adoption of the static Athena head/Owl types, probably in the teens of the 6th century under Hippias.6 Unfortunatelyfor chronological purposes,only the wheel drachm 3a comes from an Archaiccontext, and it was found embedded in a floor of the early 5th century.The remainingAgora Wappenmiinzenand the excavation's late two 6th-centuryowl pieces (an obol [6] from the earliestphase of the owl coinage [SeltmanGroup H] and a tetradrachm[7] from the succeedingphase [GroupL]) were recoveredeither frommuch later or from mixed contexts. Missing from the Agora catalogue are any specimensfrom the huge owl issues of the first two decades of the 5th century7and from the followingearly "wreathed" silver,so called from the olive leaves added to the brow of Athena's helmet, of the 470's and 460's (StarrPeriodsI-V).8 The ten
3 T. V Buttrey,"The Athenian CurrencyLaw of 375/4 B.C.," in EssaysThompson, 33-45; and, especially,idem pp. 71-94. Editioprinceps, 1981, pp. translation,and extended commentary: Stroud 1974, pp. 157-188. Recent discussion and bibliographyby T. R. Martin, "SilverCoins and Public Slaves in the Athenian Law of 375/4 B.C.," in Papers Waggoner, 21-48. pp. 4 The problem, of course, was by no means limited to Athens. Commenting on the frequency of Roman plated coins in excavations,Burnett (CRW,p. 100) estimatesthat "approximately half of all denarii found on a site tend one to be plated." 5 Hopper,p. 25. On the Wappenmiinzen,see furtherKraay,ACGC, 56-60; Kroll 1981b, pp. 1-32. pp. 6 Kraay,ACGC,pp. 58, 61; Kroll 198lb, pp. 20-32; J. H. Kroll and N. Waggoner,"Dating the EarliestCoinage of Athens, Corinth, and Aegina," AJA88, 1984 (pp. 325-340), pp. 326-333. For the earlier chronology espoused by H. A. Cahn, "Datingthe EarlyCoinagesof Athens,"in Kleine Schiften Basel zurMiinzknde undArchiologie, 1975, pp. 81-97 (whobegins both the Wappenmiinzenand the owl silverin the early6th century),see Krolland Waggoner,op.cit.,p. 330, note 34. A laterchronology(starting WappenmiinzenunderKleisthenes,the owls after480) proposedby M. Vickers, the "Early Greek Coinage: A Reassessment,"NC 145, 1985 (pp. 144), pp. 22-33, is rebutted byJ. H. Kagan ("The Decadrachm Hoard: Chronology and Consequences,"in Carradice [pp. 21-28], p. 22) and, especially,M. C. Root ("Evidencefrom Persepolisfor the Dating of Persianand ArchaicGreekCoinage,"NC 148, 1988 [pp. 1-12], pp. 8-12). 7 M. Price and N. Greek Silver The Waggoner,Archaic Coinage, 'syut" Hoard,Dorchester/London 1975, pp. 56-61, GroupsIV-VI (= Seltman GroupsM+G, C+F, and E). Cf. Kraay,ACGC, 10:181-186. pl. 8 Starr,pp. 8-63, pls. I-XXI. Cf. Kraay,ACGC, 11:187-190. pl.


Agora tetradrachmsof 5th-centurydesign are all of the later "standardized" type, with generally hard, mechanical Athena heads; heavy, spread helmet ornaments;large lettering; and owls' tails simplifiedinto a single prong. Chester Starrplaced the inaugurationof this style at ca. 449 through associationwith the Athenian "CoinageDecree", which epigraphistsgenerallydated to this time.9 But new hoard evidence from Lycia shows that the preceding style (StarrPeriod V) began in the 460's, about a decade earlierthan Starrhad assumed,l0so that the shiftto the conventionaized style and the massstrikingthatthe shiftimplieswill have occurredin the 450's, probablyupon the removal of the Athenian League treasuryfrom Delos to Athens in 454.11 The archaeologicalcontext of the tetradrachm8b reinforcessuch upward compressionof Starr'schronology.The enlarged helmet palmetteand reverseletteringput 8b at a slightlyadvancedstage of the standardizedstyle that Starr Warhad begun or in its very earliestyears."12 to attributed the time "eitherbeforethe Peloponnesian But the coin was excavatedfrom a fill containingpottery that comes down only to the middle of the 5th century.Accordingly,8b should probablydate no later than the 440's, and the stylistically earlier 8a, with neat, compact palmette and letters, can be dated, with Starr,pl. XXII, nos. 1-3, to the 450's, within the initialphase of the standardizedcoinage. most of which, as 8c is a fine example of the typical,more developedstandardized tetradrachms, were probablymintedbeforethe income fromAthens'alliesand the Laurionmines Starrremarks,13 went into decline ca.415-413. 8e,on the otherhand, with coarseprofileand largeeye slightlyopened at the inner corner,sharesthese featureswith the emergencygold statersand fractionsof 407/614 and the platedbronze owls struckin the followingyear (seebelow)and so shouldfall towardsthe end of the standardizedcoinage late in the century.15 Since the popularityof such 5th-centuryowls throughoutthe EasternMediterraneanresultedin their becoming the most imitatedof all ancient coinages,16and since copying has again flourished in modern times to supplythe insatiablefancyof collectors,it shouldnot come as too greata surprise of that severalAgora tetradrachms 5th-centurytype are not of bona fide Athenian origin. In the 4th
9 Starr,pp. 64-75. But the date of the decree (R. Meiggs and D. Lewis, A Selection Greek to Historical of Insc?iptions 111-117, no. 45) is stillfarfromsettled;see Kraay,ACGC, 70-71 and theEndoftheFyI/ Cenury B.C., Oxford 1969, pp. pp. the relevantpapers by D. M. Lewis,H. Mattingly,and M.J. Price in Carradice,pp. 43-72. 10 in S. Fried,"The DecadrachmHoard: An Introduction," Carradice,pp. 5-6, for the latestAthenian tetradrachms (PeriodVA) in the great 1984 Lycianfind. Kagan (note 6 above,p. 5) dates the find 465/462 B.C. 11 As R. T. Williams(Phoenix 1972, pp. 411-412) and H. Nicolet (Revue Philologie, 3, 48, 1974, pp. 132-134) de ser. 26, had alreadyanticipatedin their reviewsof Starr. 12 Starr,p. 72, with referenceto his pl. XXII:4' and 5', the latterbeing a virtualduplicateof our lOb. 13 Starr,p. 73. 14 Sv. 21.1-22. Kraay,ACGC,pp. 68-69, pl. 11:202, 203. E. S. G. Robinson, "Some Problems in the Later Fifth ofAthens,"ANSMN9, 1960 (pp. 1-15), pp. 9-13, pls. 1:9-12, II:1-4. W.E. Thompson, "The Functions CenturyCoinage ser. of the EmergencyCoinages of the PeloponnesianWar," Mnenoyne, 4, 19, 1966 (pp. 337-343), pp. 341-343. 15 In a fundamentalpaper, "The Tell El-Mashkuta Hoard of AthenianTetradrachms," ser. 6, 7, 1947 (pp. 115JC, owls: the die E. S. G. Robinson noted anotherdistinctionbetween the earlierand later standardized 121),pp. 117-118, fixed in of the former are loose, while the die positions of the latter are normally (althoughnot invariably) positions a 9 or 8 o'clockalignment.It is unclearwhen the shiftto the fixedpositiontook place, but, as Robinsonobserved,the 8-9 and o'clockalignmentoccurson both officialand imitativeAthenianstrikings was continuedin the 4th- and 3rd-century The 12 o'clock alignment of the New Style silver begins late in the 3rd century in the drachms with symbols owls. (see below). 16 To Kraay, ACGC,pp. 73-77, pl. 12, and the bibliographyon Athenian imitations assembled by Stroud 1974, pp. 169-171, add 0. Morkholm, "ACoin of ArtaxerxesIII," NC, ser. 7, 14, 1974, pp. 1-8; T. V Buttrey,"Pharonic in Imitationsof AthenianTetradrachms," Proceedings pp. 137-140; idem 1981, pp. 76-78; iden,"SeldomWhat They Berne, in of the Athenian Tetradrachm," JicklePapers, 292-294; H. Nicolet-Pierre,"L'oiseaud'Athena, Seem-The Case pp. in sur a classique d'Egypteen Bactriane:Quelquesremarques l'usaged'un type monetairel'aepoque classique," Iconographie Paris1986, pp. 365-376; and M.J. Price,"New Owls for the Pharaoh,"Minerva etidentt rgionals (BCHSupplement14), 1, 1990, pp. 39-40; idem1991, pp. 67-68; idem1993, pp. 31-35.


were struck,especiallyin Egypt, many centuryB.C. vast numbersof imitativeolder owl tetradrachms of them with an ungainly,enlarged eye of Athena.17 8f has an enlarged eye and may indeed be Egyptian,although the inner corner of the eye is more closed than one normallyfinds on the usual Egyptian imitations.That 8f is non-Athenianin any case is certain from its helmet palmette with only three branchesinstead of the canonicalfive. The pinched featuresand compressedethnic give is was 8g away as a more obviousimitation,if indeed the tetradrachm ancient at all; the tetradrachm found with 8a but in a modern context, and it is conceivablethat both could be remnantsof a 19thor early 20th-centurycollection or touristshop that stood above the present excavatedarea. Some
such provenience surely accounts for the tetradrachm in Appendix A, coin a (P1. 32), an indubitable modern forgery. Because of its light weight and the linear, inorganic absence of modeling at the corner of Athena's mouth, 8h is suspect, as are the drachms i Omand, possibly, JOj. There are finally the silver-plated or formerly silver-plated bronze imitations. These are of course

ancient;and the best preserved,the cut tetradrachm9a, which had been deposited in a small, open
shrine around 420 B.C., can only have been a private forgery, as the comparatively flat relief and deviant style of the reverse independently imply. One presumes that the bronze cores of a plated

drachm (11) and of two other plated tetradrachms c)were similar5th-centuryB.C. counterfeits, (9b, although each is so disfiguredthat the possibilitycannot be ruled out that one or more could be remnantsfrom the official bronze issue that was struckin 406/5 in the pressingfinal years of the PeloponnesianWar. Were it not for Aristophanes'referencesto this emergency bronze of 406/5, one would not hesitate to condemn all subaerate Athenian owls as ancient counterfeits. But in a well-known passage in the Frogs(lines 725-726) Aristophaneslaments that in 405 the city was using a very in recently struckbronze currency(ra 7ov7pa XcaXxla) place of its fine old silver and "new"(i.e., 407/6) gold. In the Ekklesiazousai (lines 815-822) he recalls the awkwardconsequences when the bronze was demonetizedin favorof the reestablished silvercoinage. Since no wholly bronze coins of have generallyassumedthat the appropriate5th-centurydate are knownfromAthens, numismatists 406/5 bronze was a silver-platedbronze coinage. This solution, first proposed by Barclay Head in 1911,18was immeasurablystrengthenedsome years later when Svoronos reported on a hoard discoveredin 1902 in the Peiraeus,which contained "thousands"of subaeratetetradrachmsand drachmsin a style (notablywith the opened inner corner of Athena's eye) identical to the style of the 407/6 gold.19 The very magnitude of this particularplated coinage argues against its being a forger'sstock:20the mere hundredor so drachmsthat can be tracedback to the Peiraeushoard show that they were minted from a minimum of five pairs of dies and that these pairs were employed in tandem, since there is no obverse or reverse sharingbetween them.21 Two tetradrachmsfrom the hoard22document a sixth pair of dies. To date, the Peiraeus 1902 hoard is the only known proveniencefor this coinage, and in this respect the absence of any sure examples from the Agora is to be regretted. Still, the identificationof this plated bronze of correctfin desile style with the
17 Sv. 19.1 and most of the large-eyetetradrachms Sv.,pls. 16 and 17 are apparentlyEgyptian;cf. E. S. G. Robinson, of "CoinsfromAl-Mina (1936),"JC, ser.5, 17, 1937 (pp. 182-196), pl. IX:5-8; and idne(note 15 above,p. 6), pl. V:12-14, with Buttrey'sobservations(workscited in note 16 above,p. 6). 18 HN 2,p. 373. 19 Svoronos 1927, pp. 157-158, quoted and discussedin Kroll 1976, pp. 331-333, where it is furtherexplained that the Peiraeus 1902 hoard is the misnamed "Eleusis1902" hoard of IGCH46. 20 As AdalbertoGiovanninisupposedin "'Athenian Currencyin the Late Fifthand EarlyFourthCenturyB.C.," GRBS 1975 (pp. 185-195), p. 189. 16, 21 Kroll (1976, p. 333, note 18)listsfourpairsof dies for the plated drachms(e.g.,Sv. 15.19-26). To these must now be added a fifthpair froma specimenin the unpublishedlot of Peiraeus1902 drachmsat the AmericanNumismaticSociety. 22 Sv. 15.12, 13; for their hoard provenience, see M. Oeconomides-Caramessini,"Note on the Piraeus Hoard of 1902 of Athenian Plated Coins," CH 7, 1985, pp. 40-41 (withmention of additionaldrachmlots).


bronze issue of 406/5 remains compelling,if only because alternativeidentificationshave so little to recommendthem (pp. 25-26 below).

FOURTH CENTURY B.C. In surveysof Atheniancoinage, it is sometimesallegedthat this wartimetoken money with its highly inflationary potentialcontinuedin use for a decade afterthe defeat of Athens in 404/3 and was not recalleduntil Konon enrichedAthenswith Persiansubventionsin 393.23More likely,the bronzewas graduallywithdrawnand replacedwith such old silveras was on hand, if not rightafterthe war then at leastwith the reestablishment ordereddemocraticgovernmentin 403/2.24 When Athensbegan of a to strike silvercoinage again is a separatequestion, and here there may very well be a connection with the arrivalof Persianmoney in 393, for a few of the earliestremodeledtetradrachms, which on Athena's new profile eye is especially large, show up in three Sicilian hoards of the 380's.25 But the level of minting was modest and remained so to the middle of the century.Writing in 355/4, Xenophon complainedthat the Laurionmines were then being workedat far below their potential and that explorationfor new depositshad been only recently,and inadequately, The undertaken.26 relative paucity of extant Athenian tetradrachmsfrom the first half of the 4th century tends to confirm this testimony. Others shared Xenophon's interest in developing the Laurion silver industry,and under the financialadministration Euboulos,355-342, miningactivityincreaseddramatically the number of as of mining leases purchasedfrom the state rose from 17 in 367/6 to a record 62+ in 342/1.27 The effect on the coinage was predictable.In the second half of the 4th century,Athenian silver was again being struckin massive quantities,and again in a monotonously standardized,mechanical style. This has come to be known as the pi style, after the i-shaped configurationof the obverse helmet ornament,28and is typifiedby most of the 4th-centurypieces excavatedfrom the Agora. The majorityof these, namely,the tetradrachms15b-g,the drachm(withirregularly shapedflan) 17, and at least the triobols 19e-h and the diobol 20b (all again with irregularflans), belong to the later, fully mechanicalphase of the coinage (Bingen'sPi III-V), which spanned the last three decades of

1976, pp. 338-341. IGCH 2117 (Leontinoi 1957), 2119 (Contessa 1888), and 2121 (Manfria 1948). The obverse style of this earliest profile-eyeAthenian silver is quite distinctive;e.g., Sv. 19.2, 5, 13, 14. Despite the number in an Egyptian hoard (Sv. 26.7-9, 13-19), coins of this style are Athenian in origin; cf. the correspondingfractional silver from the small lamp hoardfromAgios IoannisRentisin Attica,ApAeXAc18 (1963),B' 1 [1965], p. 50, pl. 56 (IGCH89, where the date should be correctedto ca. 375-350, the time of the lamp). R.J. Hopper,"The Attic SilverMines in the FourthCenturyB.C.,"BSA48, 1953 (pp. 200-254), p. 216; cf. pp. 250251. Furtherevidence of Euboulos'developmentof the Attic silverindustrycomes from a fragmentarynomotheticlaw of 354/3 that deals with both the mines and the Athenian mint (1975 Agora inscriptioninv. no. 7495, publicationin See des JHS 83, 1963 (pp. 47-67), p. 64; P.Gauthier,Uncommtaire preparation). also G. Cawkwell,"Eubulus," historique Poroi deXbenphn,Geneva/Paris 1976, pp. 223-231; J. Ober, Fortress Attica,Leiden 1985, p. 29. On the 4th-century miningleases in general,see M. K. Langdon, "PoletaiRecords,"in G. V Lalonde,M. K. Langdon,and M. B. Walbank, Agora XIX), Princeton 1991, pp. 60-62, 76-137. (The Inscriptions Athenian 28 Bingen 1973, pp. 11-16, is the standardtreatment.Idem1975, pp. 161-170, adds little. The pi style was originally discussedand dubbed the "bracketstyle"by MargaretThompson (1957, p. 6). Cf. M0rkholm,EHC,p. 86.
26 Proi 4.28. 27

24 Kroll

Athens, 7. E.g.,Head,HN2, p. 373;Kraay, p.


the century.29The more refined tetradrachm15a and the subaerate 16a-m are obviously earlier and appear to belong near the beginning of the formation of the pi style, that is, in the 340's, if Athens' earliestregularbronze coinage, the pi-styleDouble-bodiedowls (41-43), began to be struck in the 330's, as proposedbelow. The most interesting4th-centurypieces from the Agora excavationsare the plated imitations. 160 and p, each heavilygashed with a chisel cut on the reverse,were separatelyfound in frontof the Metroon-OldBouleuterionwheretheyhad doubtlessbeen depositedin accordancewith the currency law of 375/4. The law specifiedthat if the dokimastes determinedthat any coin of Atheniantype had a bronzeor lead core or that its silverwas debased,it was to be mutilatedand removedfromcirculation by being cut across,dedicatedto the Mother of the Gods, and turned over to the Council.30 The thirteen nicely preservedsubaeratetetradrachms16a-m clearlyhad a differenthistory.All are uncirculated,were struckfrom the same pair of dies, and were recoveredfrom the same pockets of Classical fill beneath the Temple of Ares close to the center of the Agora square. As Walker has explained, they must be the remnant of a much larger "treasure" identical pieces that had of been intentionally buried in the third quarter of the 4th century, the date of the accompanying context pottery;much later,in the time of Augustus,the deposit was disturbedand largelyremoved during the laying of foundationsfor the Temple of Ares.31 One suspects that the primary burial was a true "forger'shoard": a lot of freshly minted imitations that the forger or his agent had deposited for retrievalor had to abandon to escape detection. It has been argued that the center of the Agora was too exposed for such clandestineactivityand that the coins must ratherhave been buried under officialauspices.32 But althoughfree of buildings,this area was by day throngedwith vendorsat theirbooths;in this busymilieu, it ought not to have been people, includingvery probably too hard to find or dig a pit for a bag or more of "hot"coins without creating undue suspicion.33
to in tetradrachms struck Egyptby Sabakes and According Bingen(1973,p. 18),the pseudo-Athenian satrapal in Mazakes 333-332 B.C. Nicolet-Pierre, monnaies deux derniers avantla conquete "Les des (H. satrapes d'Egypte
ante d'Alexandre,"in EssaysThompson, 221-230, pls. 25 and 26) providea terminus quemfor the second and perhaps pp. the start of the third phase of the pi-style coinage. M. J. Price (1991, p. 71; 1993, p. 33) notes that the genuine and in many Easternimitationsof Athenian tetradrachms the 1973 Babylonhoard of 323 B.C. (CH 1, 1975, no. 38, with CH

of as oftenon 3, 1977,no. 22)andin the 1989Syrian hoard, probably 333B.C., attain styles lateasPiV Careless striking, flans(cf.Sv.,pl. 30),is typical the later, of massive phases. elongated pi 30 Stroud1974,p. 158, lines 10-13: i&v 6nt[6X)aXxov] 18 4 6no6X3up38ov f xl(38Xov, itaxoTxto xo[...6..][

atco tep6v


the of dulyrecognized relevance 160andp withtheirrevealing findspots. 31 Walker withinthe templefoundations. the Temple On 1982,pp. 131-136, pl. 22, with a plan of the findspots
of Ares,Agora XIV, pp. 162-165.

In ; [T]&v MvrTp6b p3oXojv. his commentary(pp. 171-178) Stroud Oe?y xct[ x[altapaX]X&xco T^oxr

Walker1982,pp. 133-134, whereit is further that were as proposed theseplatedtetradrachms struck officially

an emergencymeasureafter Chaironeiain 338 in anticipationof an attackon Athens by Philip and that the Athenians publicly disposed of them in a kind of votive burialin the Agora when the attackfailed to materialize.Cf. M0rkholm,

of coins Fourre EHC,p. 86. Butneitherthe lightweightnorthe die positions the coinsareproofof statemanufacture.

couldbe made only in sanctuaries, whichthe Agorawas not. Earlier mentions theseplatedtetradrachms in of are T. L. Shear, "TheCampaign 1933," of 4, Hesperia 1935(pp.310-339),p. 339, andJ.P.Shear1936,p. 123. 33 In Sokrates' booksweresoldin the Orchestra, the centerof the as III, day, Agorawas called(Agora pp. 162-163; XI1 that in not Agora p. 171),so it ispossible thecoinswereconcealed an areathatwasfrequented vendors by (although
by bankers and money-changers,whose Tp&dxtle were located furtherto the northwestnear the Stoa of the Herms [Stroud 1974, p. 167]).

with bronze cores are usually lighter than prototypesin silver;and in well-made forgeriescorrect die positions are to be expected. A finalweaknessis the suggestionthat the burialhad "thecharacterof a dedication"; dedicatoryburials but



Or was the 4th-centuryfill containing the coins actuallybroughtfrom elsewhereby the Augustan buildersof the Temple of Ares? Although contextuallydated to ca. 350-325, the burial probably occurred rather early in this quartercentury,since the tetradrachmsbelong to an incipient phase of the pi style. The pi-style coinage continued down to Athens' capitulationto Demetrios Poliorketesin 294. The notorious statersthat the tyrant Lacharesstruckfrom Akropolisgold to pay his mercenaries from 296 through Demetrios' siege are typical late pi style;34and the large Thorikos hoard of surelydates also to the time of the siege, when predominantlyfreshlycoined, pi-styletetradrachms Demetrios dispatched troops to lay waste the countrysideof Attica.35This policy of destruction seriouslycrippled the silver industryof Attica and, coupled with Athens' capture, put an end to mintingfor about a decade. THIRD CENTURY B.C. The next phase of Athenian silver, Bingen's syle a quidridigiti,36is represented in three Agora tetradrachms(of which one is subaerate)and two drachms (22a-24b). The diagnostic helmet ornamentconsistsof four openly spacedbranches;Athena heads are generallymore finely featured; and the ethnic is decorativelyrendered with curved alphas and small thetas. Such quadridigite tetradrachmsfirst appear in early 3rd-centuryhoards and seem to have begun soon after Athens' expulsion of Demetrios Poliorketes'garrison from the Mouseion in 287 or 286.37 The impurity of their silver relative to the exceptionallyfine Laurion silver of the earlier,pi-style owls tends to confirm that the quadridigiteowls were in large part struckfrom the silverthat Athens receivedto assist her ongoing struggle against Demetrios, 200 talents in 286/5 from Lysimachos,Ptolemy I, and Antipatros,a nephew of Kassandros,and 50 talents in 282 from Ptolemy II.38 Hoards of the 3rd century imply that this coinage was substantial,although whether productionwas short-lived and intensive or whether it continued into the 270's or even as late as the ill-fatedChremonidean is War,which Athens waged againstAntigonosGonatasfrom 268 to 261 B.C.,39 uncertain. Attributableto this war in any case is the special coinage of Attic pentobols, whose handsome design(Athenain Corinthianhelmet/Owl standingobliquelywith wings half raised)and anomalous denominationradicallydepart from the traditionalowl silver.The pentobols were struckin three issues,a majorissuewith an uprightamphorato the rightof the owl (Sv.24.4-8) and two otherswith aplustre(Sv.24.1) or anothersymbol(dagger?,Sv. 24.2) in place of the amphora.The two pentobols fromthe Agora (28a, b)are heavilyworn, as was the specimenreportedfromthe Thebes 1935 hoard of the second half of the 3rd century. The condition of the Thebes specimen points to emission
34 Sv. 21.1-22. Attributionand date: Svoronos 1927, pp. 159-168; Newell, p. 133, note 4; Nicolet-Pierreand Kroll, p. 2, note 3. 35 Bingen 1973, pp. 18-21; 1975, p. 167. IGCH 134. pp. (pp. 181-197) and Habicht (Untersuchungen,45-62) place the revoltagainstDemetrios one year earlier than does Shear (Kalias,pp. 63-73). 38 Shear,Kallias, 26-27, 80-81, with the silveranalysespublishedby Nicolet-Pierreand Kroll,pp. 32-35, tablesIV pp. and V

36 Bingen1973,pp. 14-15. Nicolet-Pierre Kroll,pp. 3-5, pls. 1-3, nos. 1-28. Morkholm, and EHC,pp. 86-87, 148.
37 Osborne

39 On the war and its dates: H. Heinen,

v. Chr. Geschichte3. ahrhunderts (Historia des zurhellenistichn Untersuchungen

Einzelschriften Wiesbaden1972, pp. 93-203; Habicht, ersuchungen, 95-112; E W.Walbankin CambridgeAncient pp. 20), and 2nd Histo0y, ed., VII, i, E W.Walbank,A. E. Astin,M. W.Fredriksen, R. M. Ogilvie, eds., Cambridge/London/New York/New Rochelle/Melbourne/Sydney 1984, pp. 236-239.



That the pentobolspertainto ajoint Athenian-Ptolemaicenterprise in the firsthalf of the century.40 which were struckon followsfrom their direct metrologicalrelationshipto Ptolemaictetradrachms, a standard of 14.25 g.,41 exactly five-sixthsof tetradrachmsof Attic weight (17 g.), and from the turn and liftedwings are borrowedfrom the eagles on novel pose of their owls, whose three-quarters Ptolemaiccoinage (e.g. 1004, 1005, 1009). The pentobolsare to be understoodas Egyptian-weight drachms and presuppose a historicalcontext involving direct Egyptian participationin Athenian affairsfor a period of at least three years.These can only be the opening years of the Chremonidean War,when PtolemyII sent troopsto Atticato defendagainsta Macedonianblockade.These soldiers broughttheir own Egyptianmoney with them, as finds of Ptolemaic coins from three of their Attic fortsattest;42 the Athenians,too, must have contributedto the war effortand did so, one sees, in but this one Attic denominationthat was directlycompatiblewith Ptolemaicsilver. Tetrobolswith two-owl reverses(29a-c) make up the second exceptional silvercoinage of 3rdcenturyAthens. Like the pentobols, the tetrobolswere probablystruckfor militaryuse; by the early Hellenistic period the tetrobol was proverbiallyregardedas a soldier'sdaily wage.43As shown by the contrastingearly(29a, b = Sv. 23.43-45) and later(29c = Sv. 24.18-24) stylesof the Agora pieces, the Atheniansminted this tetrobolsilveron at leasttwo separateoccasionsin the 3rd century.But it is not possibleto say when or even whetherthese occasionsnecessarily belong in times of war,since the stationedin the borderfortsof Attica had to be paid even duringpeacetime.44 troops A more seriousproblemin Atheniancoinage of the 3rd centuryis posed by the "heterogeneous" variedgroup of tetradrachms that occur in hoards of about 260-220 silver,a sizable and stylistically B.C. along with the pi-style and quadridigit6 tetradrachms which they are generallymodeled.45 on The one Agora specimen (30), with a quadridigite-like Athena but an oddly fashionedowl, is fairly typical, but there are easily more than a half-dozenother differentobverse and reversestyles.The eclectic, frequently derivative or uncouth, and highly diverse die cutting leaves little doubt that at least some of the heterogeneous material consists of unofficial imitations. But does it all? In an analysis of the several heterogeneous subgroups,Helene Nicolet-Pierreand I pointed out the difficultiesof defending any one subgroupas being officiallyAthenian and were inclined to regard the tetradrachms bloc imitationscounterfeited fill a demandforAtheniansilverat a time when en as to Athens was no longer coining.46But extensive die linkingwithin the subgroupsallows at most for only a few centers of production, which, according to the hoards, ought to have been located in Centralor Northern Greece.And since it is impossibleto identifyany non-Atheniansource,there is
40 Nicolet-Pierre and Kroll,p. 30, no. 19. In his publication the hoardrecord of (IGCH 193),TonyHackens (1969, followed pl. 24 in attributing pentobols the period255-229 B.C. the to Sv., pp. 702-707) 41 See E. S. G. Robinson, "TheCoin Standards Ptolemy in M. Rostovtzeff, Social Economic of The and I," History of the Hellenistic III, Oxford1941,pp. 1635-1639.The 14.25-g("Phoenician") World was standard introduced in the late reignof the firstPtolemy. 42 The coins AE and 1 AR of I 9 II (33 Ptolemy andII fromthe forton the Koroni peninsula; AE of Ptolemy froma fortat CapeZoster;and 49 AE, 1 AR, and 2 AV of Ptolemy and II at an encampment Heliopolis) listedin I at are J. R. McCredie, Military (Hesperia Fortfied Camps Attica of Supplement Princeton1966,pp. 9-10, 30, 47. On the 11), of in Hellenistic finds,seeJ.H. Kroll,"Numismatic chronology thebronze (to Appendix" V R. Grace,"Revisions Early AM Chronology"), 89, 1974(pp. 194-203),p. 201.

45 Nicolet-Pierreand

44 Cf.

S.v. LJ, TetpcfpoXov; Griffith,pp. 301-302.

Griffith, 84-86, 240, 290. pp.

Kroll, pp. 11-22, pls. 3-6, coins AI-F23. For an earliersamplingof illustrations,Sv. 23.1-11,

13-16. 46 Nicolet-Pierre andKroll,pp. 19-21.



stilla very good possibilitythat many of the heterogeneoustetradrachms may be bona fide Athenian emissions.Some pieces introducenew features,like scrollson the helmet visor of Athena, owls (ason 30) with unfeatheredheads and smallisheyes,and diagonallyorientedethnics(cf.also 30), that imply that they were stampedwith wide, cylindricalpunch dies insteadof the smaller,squarepunchesthat producedthe incuse squaresofthe older owl coinage.It is not easy to understandwhy copyistswould have indulged in such innovations,much less why these featureswould have been incorporatedin the drachms and tetradrachmswith symbols that Athens introducedafter 229, if the featureshad originatedin imitations.Stylisticheterogeneitycould have been the resultof sporadic minting and uncertaintyon the part of die engraversabout how closelyto copy old models. Some heterogeneous dies could be old quadridigitedies broughtout of retirement.The Agora provenienceof 30 points to Athenian manufacturebut cannot prove it; for the Agora has produced more than its share of imitative5th- and 4th-centuryowls (pp. 6-7, 9 above),and there is no way of ascertainingwhether are 30 is a 3rd-centurycounterpartor whether it and relatedheterogeneoustetradrachms genuine Athenian issuesof roughlythe third quarterof the century.47 Accordingly,it is unclear to what extent Athens may have coined between Antigonos Gonatas' captureofAthens at the end of the ChremonideanWarin 261 and the evacuationof the Macedonian garrisonsfrom Attica in 229, although minting must have been light, on any interpretation.The Athenian-Eleusinian varieties62 and 63 (see pp. 35-36 below) are the only bronze issues that can be attributedto this period. In silver we are left, possibly,with one or two of the later issues of tetrobolsand howevermuch of the occasionalheterogeneouscoinage as may be trulyAthenian. In ChristianHabicht explainsthat the diminishedlevel an exhaustivereviewof the earlierscholarship, of Athenian coin productionbetween 261 and 229 can no longer be attributedto terms imposed on the city by Antigonos Gonatas.48The Antigonid Pan-head tetradrachmswith an Eleusis-ring to symbol,formerlybelievedto have been mintedby Gonatasin Athens, have now been reattributed circulatedin Athens his mint in Pella.49Although silver and bronze coins of Gonatas commonly after261 (seepp. 36, 51-52 below),this was the very time that Macedonian soldierswere occupying the Peiraeusand the other forts of Attica, including until 255 the fortresson the Mouseion; and it would be surprisingindeed if their Macedonianmoney did not pass into more general circulation. to Gonatasis said to have returnedeleutheria Athens in 255; yet this seems to have had no apparent effect on coin production. Nor is there really any reason to suppose that even between 261 and 255 Athens could not have coined if she wanted and was able. "Nowhere in mainland Greece south of Macedonia," argues Thomas R. Martin,50"does one find a single place whose coinage can reasonablybe thoughtto have come to an end in the fourthcenturyas a resultof suppression by a Macedonian king";and on Martin'sshowing,this conclusion applies equally to the 3rd century.

heterogeneousdrachms (Sv. 23.13-16) and hemidrachms(Sv. 21.51, 52) belong. But the owl's head and the diagonal ethnic relate the coin also to Nicolet-Pierreand Kroll, coin C5, and the coins of Group C are also good candidates for being genuinely Athenian, providingthe dates of the KrUedinand Phyattoshoards are lowered into the last third of the 3rd century;paceNicolet-Pierreand Kroll, pp. 20-21, 25, 26. It is doubtful that metallurgicalanalyses of the heterogeneoussilverwill be able to settlethe questionof originsince the Atheniansapparentlydepended on nondomestic silverfrom the time of the quadridigitecoinage down throughthe EarlyPeriodof the New Style coinage. 48 Habicht, Shdin, pp. 40-41. 49 Gonatasand the SilverCoinageof Macedoniacirca280-270 B.C.,"AVSMtf26, 1981 R. W.Mathisen,"Antigonus (pp. 79-124), p. 112, note 12. Cf. Boehringer,p. 100. 50 T. R. Princeton 1985, p. 183. in and Greece, Martin, Sovereignty Coinage Classical

47 Nicolet-Pierreand I (p. 17) assigned 30 to Group F, which happens to be the one group to which the few known



Suspensionof minting, he explains,was normallythe resultof financialhardshipand the abundant international supply of Macedonian money that eliminated much of the need for locally struck Both factors are found at Athens after 261, only here it is the degree of the suspension currency.51 that remainsin doubt. Whateverthe truth of the heterogeneoussilver,Athens initiateda new series of owl coins after the departureof the Macedonian garrisonsin 229. The Agora drachm31 is a fine example of this the of new silver "with symbols"(Sv. 23.20-42). Unfortunately, two most prominentcharacteristics this coinage, the helmet ornament in the form of an aplustreof three or four gracefullycurving tendrilsand the control symbol added to the left of the owl, were mostly struckoff flan. But lesser modificationsof the traditionalOld Style designs are clear enough: a delicate pendent earringhas replaced the large disk earring of the Archaic and ClassicalAthena heads; the visor of Athena's helmet terminates in a volute; and the head of the owl is now unfringedand has a long, narrow beak conjoinedto the outlinesof the brow.Fifteento 17 differentissuesof this silverwith symbolsare on record, 10 to 12 issuesfrom drachmsand 5 from tetradrachms.52 There were probablymore, for few of these slight emissions are documented by more than one or two specimens. Beginning at some point in the 220's (on the evidence of the Corinth 1938 hoard of ca. 215 B.C.[IGCH 187] with four freshdrachmsfrom three issues),these emissionswill have continuedinto the 2nd century.

SECOND AND FIRST CENTURIES B.C. A shorterseries of transitionaltetradrachms"withmonograms"followed and carriedthe evolution from the Old to the New Style severalstepsfurther.Five issues(fromeleven coins, all from the 1968 Larissa-Sitichoro hoard of ca. 165 B.C.) known,one identifiedby a monogram, the other fourby a are letter or monogram and symbol.53But it is the fabric and owls of the coins that bring them to the thinnerand broaderuntilin the two later very thresholdof the New Style: flansbecame progressively emissionsthe spreadNew Stylefabricwas achieved,while in everyparticular, down to the reduction of eyes to small, sunken dots and the exposure of the leading edge of the left wing, the owls of all five emissionshave assumedthe full-bodiedschema of New Style owls.A sixth silverissue introduced the horizontal amphora beneath the owl and the olive-wreathborder on the reverse.54Although stillone step shortof the full New Styledesignwith the head of Athena Parthenoson the obverse,this issue inauguratesthe New Style coinage, which in antiquitywas called after its wreathed reverse roO to stephanephoric coinage (e.g., SpaXal Tx ocpav)vcp6pou,xrepaXtia oaxepravtcp6pa), distinguish it from the Old Style glaukophoric silver.55 According to the most recent discussionsof the relevant hoards,the additionof the wreathbelongsafterthe conclusionof the Third MacedonianWarin 168 or Athens' acquisition of Delos in 167/6, with the final shift to the New Style Athena Parthenos obverse occurring ca. 165 and the first 78 emissions of the coinage following one another in an
51 Ibid., p. 246.

H. Nicolet-Pierre,"De l'ancienau nouveaustyleath6nien:une continuite?," Studia in Paulo S. Naster Oblata, Scheers, Louvain 1982, I(pp. 105-112), p. 110 and pp. 106-107, pl. XV:2-5. Cf. Morkholm,EHC, pp. 148-149. ed., 53 Nicolet-Pierre (note 52 above),pp. 107-108, pls. XV, XVI, nos. 6-11. Price 1989, p. 238, pl. LV,nos. 222-237. 54 New Style, 440-441, pl. 150, no. 1350. H. Nicolet-Pierre,Bulletin la Socitf Franfaise Numismatique 1983, de de pp. 38, pp. 293-295. A second specimen has been purchasedby the BritishMuseum;Price 1989, p. 238. 55 L. de Paris Robert, tudes numismatiquegrecques, 1951, pp. 105-135.




unbrokenannual sequence down to the issue signed by King Mithradatesand his Athenian agent Aristionin 87/6.56 Although the earlier New Style issues were struckin greater volume than the late Old Style emissionswith symbolsand monogramsthat led up to them, large-scalemintingdid not begin until the 140's (issue nos. 21-27, of 144-137 B.C.,were each struckfrom as many as 14 to 21 known obverse dies), and it is to this mature phase of the coinage that the three Agora specimens 32-34 belong.The coinage reachedits apogee in the 90'sB.C.(25 to 47 attestedobversedies in some yearsof that decade).Followingthe King Mithradates/Aristion issueof 87/6 and Sulla'scaptureof Athensin the springof that year,productionstopped,startedup again, and then plummetedafterthe piratical devastationof Delos in 69.57 From that time down to the termination of the coinage in the late 40's the minting of silverwas kept alive by small issuesfrequentlyinvolvingbut a single obversedie. data recorded on the reversesof the coins, Margaret Thanks to the wealth of administrative monumental 1961 corpusof the coinage, and the intense chronologicaldiscussionthat Thompson's her workhas provoked,Athens' New Style silveris the most fully documented of all ancient Greek coinages.Each of its approximately112 issuesis identifiedby an emissionsymbol and is signedwith mint officials.58 the names or monogramsof the two supervising Beginningwith the 12th issue, the the month of mintingis recordedby a letteron the reverseamphora.Between 136/5 and 88/7 B.C., name of a short-termthird magistrate,who might serve for as little as a month, is added below item is a two- or three-letterabbreviation that of the two annual magistrates.A final adminstrative located beneath the amphoraand thought to pertainperhapsto sourcesof bullion.59 Recent discussionhas emphasized the emergence of the New Style coinage as the dominant internationalsilvercoinage of late HellenisticGreece.60In large part this was achieved by default: afterthe defeat of Macedon in the firsthalf of the 2nd centuryand the defeatof the AchaianLeague in 146 B.C., Athens and the ThessalianLeaguewere the only Greekstatesstillmintingin silverto any considerabledegree. But it was also advancedthroughpolicy,as seen from the decree passed by the that required"allthe Hellenes"to accept the Attic Delphic Amphictionyin or aroundthe 120'sB.C. Athens at tetradrachm (presumably the expense of all silverof non-Atticweightstill in circulation).61
En-Nu'man "TheMa'Aret Hoard, 1990;idem, 1989,pp. 238-239; Mattingly Price,CRWLR, 95, 100;idem pp. in in Carson-nkins 69-86),pp.84-95. Cf. P.Grierson M0rkholm, 1980," Essays EHC,p. 170.PriceandMattingly (pp. the CRWLR, 63) p. by (1984,pp. 38-42; anddefended Touratsoglou, by argued Morkholm dispute higherchronology that ca. thatbeginsthe New Stylecoinagebetween 185and 180and assumes the firsttwentyor so issueswerestruck becameannual. f. M0rkholm, whenproduction over EHC, finally spanuntilca. 145B.C., intermittently a 35-40-year and wereproduced designed silvercoinages bronzeand moreconservative since 170. Unfortunately, Athens' quite p. withmonograms silver and of New Stylesilver thepreceding the of independently one another, chronology theearliest B.C. cannotbe decidedby an appealto the bronzeof the early2nd century The "NewStyle"typeof owl,whichfirst in in the bronzecoinagefor the firsttime already the 190's occurs in appears silverin the issueswith monograms, thata contemporary it so happens 81 in the Owl-on-thunderbolt datingof the silver variety (seep. 50 below).And But New Stylechronology wouldfitwiththe M0rkholm withmonograms the 190's to quitenicely. the argument early of citedat thebeginning thearticles marshaled and in is fromthebronze decisive, in lightof theevidence coinage hardly 160's. is to withmonograms morelikely dateas lateas the 170's-early thisnote,the silver 59 New SyIe, 613-622. pp. issuesmintedto financeSulla's 60 Crawford, CMRR, 127; Price, CRWLR, 96-98. The pseudo-Athenian pp. p. the after Mithradates 86 bestdemonstrate how influential New Stylecoinagehad become;see just campaign against NewSkle, 425-439. pp. 61 FdD III,ii, no. 139,lines 1-6.
57 See pp. 80-81 below. 58 Fullprosopography Habicht1991. in 56



of was an influentialmember of the amphictionyand stood to profit,but the establishment a uniform servedwider economic interests,so that the active encouragementof Roman authoritiesin currency Greece has been suspected.62 There has been speculation also that the coinage was minted almost entirely from older coinagesprocuredthroughexchange,especiallyon Delos.63Doubtlessmuch recoinagewas involved, particularlyin Thompson's "Early"and "Late"New Style Periods,the analyzed tetradrachmsof which show relativelyhigh levels of copper impurities.64 the seriousnessof the second Laurion But slaverevolt, ca. 100-98 B.C.,65provesthat the Attic mining industryhad not only been reestablished but must have been operating at a substantiallevel, while analyses of 39 tetradrachmsof the "Middle"Period (135/4-100/99 B.c.) give consistentlythe same minimal copper percentagesthat characterizedLaurion silver of the 6th through 4th centuries B.C.66 Although the revolt had no effect on the volume of coins produced, there is a clear correlationbetween the date of the revolt and a sudden reduction in the fineness of the silver beginning with the Demetrios-Agathippos issue of 99/8 B.C.For severaldecades to that point, the coinage seems to have been manufactured predominantly from domestic silver. After 99, other silver had to be procured. Apart from the impact of the revolt,the veins at Laurionwere givingout, and by the time of Strabo(9.1.23) even the resmeltingof old slag had been discontinued. There will be more to say below (pp. 81-82, 85-87) about the post-Mithradaticphase of the coinage, since this is the one period in which Athens' bronze and silver coinages were routinely administeredtogether. It is, in fact, the fundamentalmodificationof the bronze coinage after the Battle of Philippi in 42/1 B.C.that enables us to place the formal end of the New Style silver in that year. Since 69, minting had been limping along in intermittentemissionsof insubstantialand often token size. In the 40's much of this silver was doubtless requisitionedand recoined to pay Roman armiesof the civil war,but the deliberateterminationof mintingwas more likelythe resultof competitive pressurefrom the Roman denarius, which was beginning to circulate in quantity in Greece and must have become especially common at Athens when the victorious Marc Antony wintered there with his army after Philippi. Of approximatelysimilar weight, the Attic drachm But (4.2 g.) and the Roman denarius (3.86 g.) were almost, if not actually,interchangeable.67 the denariuswas 9 percent lighter and would have been forcingthe drachm out of circulation,Since it had become unrealisticfor the Athenians to maintain their traditionalsilver currency in the face of an ever increasing supply of the lighter Roman coin, the decision was taken to abandon the drachmfor the denariusand (asarguedfurtherin ChapterII, pp. 89-91) to readjustthe local bronze
in London 1988, p. 129: "[Tlhere Price, CRWLR, 97; I. Carradice and M.J. Price, Coinage theRomanWorld, p. is every reason to believe that the Romans adopted [the New Style coinage] as the official coinage of the province of Achaea." 63 Price, CRWLR, 97; Carradice and Price, loc. cit. (note 62 above); for the probable recoining in the 160's of p. silverdeposited on Delos, see Giovannini,pp. 51-62. 64 New Syle, pp. 624-625. 65 See note 108 below,p. 66. 66 New Syle, pp. 624-625. Silver of the 6th-4th centuries: C. M. Kraay, The CompositionGreek Silver Coins, of Analysis Oxford 1962, pp. 16, 34; Nicolet-Pierreand Kroll, pp. 32-34. Activation, byNeutron 67 Inscriptions Roman Imperialdate fromthe GreekEast of commonlyreferto denariias Attic drachmai(cf.L. Robert, "Monnaiesdans les inscriptions grecques,"RN, ser.6, 4, 1962 [pp. 7-24], pp. 12-13) in a Hellenizingusage that is found as early as Polybios(F.W. Walbank,A Historical on I, CommentaryPolybius Oxford 1959, p. 176). Hultsch (s.v denarius,RE V, col. 209) affirmsparity between the denarius and the Attic drachm. But none of this, of course, should be taken as proofof exact equivalencein the thirdquarterof the 1stcenturyB.C., when both coinageswere in circulationtogether.



coinage accordingly.Thus the year of Philippimarksboth the end of Athens' silver coinage and the quasi-Romanizationof the city's currency,which for the next 250 years was to be dominated by the denarius.

ca. 550-520 OBOL Bulbous amphora. *1 S-4035 0.4968 GRC,fig. 8 Incuse square divided diagonally. Seltman, p. 157, pl. IV:x


DRACHMS Horse's hindquartersr. *2 IIA-5 3.76 Similar. Seltman, p. 158, pl. IV:., ; Sv. 1.26-28

GRC, 8 fig.
Seltman, p. 158, pi. IV:, e; Sv. 1.58, 59 GRC,fig. 8; (fromfloor packing of Archaic building southeast of the Tholos; with sherds of late 6th and early 5th centuries B.C.) Similar.

1 Wheel with four struttec spokes. 3 *a Z-2869 3.94 3.83 3.03

*b I-903 *c BE-115


Similar. 4 *a A-265 *b E-545 0.47 0.60


Seltman, p. 158, pl. IV:v;Sv. 1.60, 61


Bull's head facing. *5 1-1344 7.67

Seltman, nos. 69-71, 81; Sv. 1.35-37 Hopper, p. 27, no. 3: "Reverse[die] isolated. It could be from the same obverse as S[eltman no.] 81a, but the corroded surface makes judgement difficult." Similar.

The weightsrecordedhere for , 3a, 4a, and 5 correctthe slighdydifferentfiguresgiven for these coinsin Hopper, p. 25, note 1.

ca. 510's-500 B.C.


Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. *6 NN-934


[AeE] Owl stg. 1., facing; behind, olive spray.

Seltman, p. 192, pi. XXII:v (Group H)69




AeE Owl stg. r., facing; behind, olive spray. 16.97 (3rd-centuryB.C. context: Cistern L 17:7) ca. 450's-404 B.C.

Seltman, nos. 328346 (Group L); Sv. 6.1-1770




*a PP-823 *b f-564 *c H'-3859 *d E-4649 *e *f *g *h ET'-683 A-222 PP-824 B-508

AeE Owl stg. r., facing; Head of Athena r., wearing Sv., pls. 11-17.24, passim Attic helmet ornamented with behind, olive spray and crescent. palmette and olive leaves, / 16.50 (foundwith 8g in modern fill) GRC,fig. 9 (fromfill containing pottery of first half to mid-5th cen4 16.33 / \
tury B.C.)71

16.66 14.30 16.08 16.25 16.45 15.00

GRC,fig. 9 Like the coin's pitted surface,its light weight is apparentlya result of corrosion and cleaning (cf. 33, 34). see imitation, Egyptian(?); pp. 6-7 above imitation;found with 8a possibly imitation, as the low weight and the parallel, inorganic lips of Athena suggest;(fromwell filling of early 3rd century B.C.:F 11:2)

/ \





about half of the silver plating remaining on the bronze core; test cut
on obverse; (sanctuary context of 420's B.C.)72

Since a number of the owls on Group H tetradrachms(Seltman, pl. XIII) stand to the left, Seltman (p. 192) classifiedall obols with left-facingowls in this group. Whether this classificationis correct in every case is impossible to decide from the small scale of the coins (cf. the owl-left obols Sv. 2.54-58, 7.58-60, none of which, at least, can postdate 480). Neverthelessthe attributionof our Agora obol to Group H is supportedby the owl's stockyproportions and squat posture. The obverse is essentiallyeffaced. For discussionsof the Group H chronology,see the workscited at the beginning of note 6 above, p. 5. 70 P. Bicknell("The Dates of the ArchaicOwls of Athens Belongingto Seltman'sGroupsH and L," L'antiquite classique 38, 1969, pp. 175-180) and Kroll (1981b, pp. 25-30) both date Group L after Hippias' expulsionin 510. 71 Section Omega pottery lot 479 (fromcrushedbedrockfill along side wall of Greek house), including a lamp and saltcellarbut no stampedware, which, accordingto Agora XII, p. 22, began "justbefore the middle of the 5th century." The lot contained also a later lid fragment,probablyof the 3rd centuryB.C. 72 From layer 11 of the CrossroadsEnclosure east of the Royal Stoa (DepositJ 5:2), with pottery of ca. 430-420 B.C. This layerwas sealed below the greatvotive depositof layer 10, which, on the evidence of ostraka,dates shortlyafter 417 B.C.(T L. Shear,Jr.,"The Athenian Agora: Excavationsof 1972," Hesperia 1973 [pp. 359-407], pp. 364-367). 42,


18 NN-1789 0-126 \

ATHENIAN SILVERCOINS 13.00 12.31 bronze core only slight traces of silver;badly battered,with two test cuts on reverse

DRACHMS Similar.
10 *a 8-624 *b II-510 *c Br-238 *d I-328 *e E-1703 *f T-1805 *g AA-185 *h n-445 *i IIII-531 *j Br-230 k KK-461 I NN-1445 *m 4-138

Similar,except no crescent behind owl. GRC,fig. 9

Sv. 11.19-17.29, passim

\ \ -+ / \ -


4.11 4.05 3.85 4.25 3.89 3.86

3.89 3.94

GRC,fig. 9

+\ / \

4.05 3.98 3.54 3.57

test cut on obverse and reverse large eye; ancient imitation? worn extremelyworn probable imitation;modern?

DRACHM PLATED COUNTERFEIT AE *11 NN-2120 -+ 2.23 broken and heavily blisteredbut attributableto the 5th century since the reverselacks the crescent of 4th- and 3rd-centurydrachms;no silver remains



A A 3 8 or e E Owl stg., facing; on either side, olive branch with two pairs of leaves. 3-e 3-e 3-e

Sv. 11.27-17.33, passim

12 *a M-129 *b Z-2541 *c A-985 *d II-569 *e $-391 *f IIO-654 *g BE-325

\X 1.94 t 1.90 4-- 1.98 1.81 t 1.90 1.85 1.71

3-e GRC,fig. 9 3-e (deposited,with 13c, in 420's B.C.in filling of altar);T. L. Shear,Jr., "The Athenian Agora: Excavationsof 1980-1982," 53 Hesperia (pp. 1-57), 1984, p. 31, pi. 8:b; some wear e-E e-E e-E

*h *i *j k I m

ET'-625 Z-671 NN-1074 P-1661 K-898 K-939


1.61 1.58 1.74 1.87 1.83 1.62


The discoveryof this subaeratecounterfeitin a sanctuaryimpliesthat it was dedicatedthere as a privateofferingand/or to remove it from circulation,like the counterfeitcoins mentioned in 4th-centuryAkropolisinventoriesand the plated imitationslike 160andp that upon detectionwere cut and depositedin the Metroon;p. 9 above.




[AeE] Two owls stg. 1. and r., facing; [between them, olive spray of two leaves]. 1.18

Sv. 10.31-37





Similar. 13 *a AA-461 *b KTA-115 *c BE-337 *d NN-1297 *e r-642 *f K-1054 ,g AA-23 *h OA-220 i E-189 j E-562 k E-2175 I Z-2617 m H'-2627a n II-592 o NN-2135 p E-1018 q Q E-6253

AOE Owl stg. r., facing; behind, olive spray.

Sv. 11.43-17.41, passim

0.62 V 0.61 /, 0.54 0.55 t- 0.62 0.56 t- 0.57 4, 0.63 0.58 broken 0.57 0.64 broken t- 0.60 0.55 0.57 t 0.51

(same context as 12g);Shear 1984 (under 12g above), p. 31, pl. 8:c GRC,fig. 9

Similar. 14 *a E-724 *b E-1104 *c ME-157 4, 0.28 4 0.23 +- 0.27


Sv. 11.50-17.52, passim

As with some of the worn, hence unillustratedobols 13i-q, the obverses of these hemiobols are too poorly preservedfor certain attributionto the 5th century.One or more could be 4th centuryin date. ca. 390-295 TETRADRACHMS Similar,but with eye of Athena rendered in full profile. 15 *a

AOE Owl stg. r., facing; behind, olive spray and crescent.

Sv. 20.1-33, 35-37




BMCAttica, xxv, identifiesthis variety as a diobol, not unreasonablysince the same two-owl reversewas used p. for the diobols of the 407/6 gold (Sv. 15.7, 8). Nevertheless,the weightsof 0.90-1.06 g. of the seven specimensillustrated in Svoronosimply that the denominationwas the 12 obol trihnmiobolon, was struckat another time in the second which half of the 5th centurywith the reversetype of owl with spreadwings (Sv. 11.35-42: 0.96-1.10 g.).

20 X-220 00-814 *d _-84 *e T-64 *f T-134 S-3019 *g

*b *c

ATHENIAN SILVERCOINS 4- 16.93 / 16.07 16.22 16.83 / 16.66 k/ y 16.53 GRC,fig. 9



\ 13.22 a H-1465 *b H-1466 11.17 4- 11.55 c H-1725 4- 13.72 *d H-1935 Walker 1982, pi. 22:2 *e H-1936 13.96 Walker 1982, pi. 22:3 H-1937 11.60 f * H-1938 13.84 Walker 1982, pi. 22:4 *h H-1962 13.59 Walker 1982, pi. 22:5 *i H-2024 10.64 GRC,fig. 11 4- 10.77 J H-2134 4- 14.10 k H-2164 *l H-2165 Walker 1982, pl. 22:6 12.17 4m H-2166 9.15 heavily corroded and broken 16a-tnare all from the same pair of dies and come fromfill of the thirdquarterof the 4th centuryB.C., beneath the Temple of Ares (above,pp. 9-10). The silverplatingis well preservedon all specimensbut 16m. - 11.74 about half of the silver veneer preservedon the obverse;much less *n B-560 on the reverse;(context of the last quarterof the 4th century B.C.) / 12.55 *o E-2420 GRC,fig. 11; Stroud 1974, pl. 25:f / 13.56 GRC,fig. 11; Stroud 1974, pl. 25:f *p E-1365 16o and p (bronzeonly), having identicaldeep cuts on their reversesand found in front of the Metroon, had been officiallymutilatedand deposited in the Metroon in keeping with the nomothetic law of 375/4: see p. 9 above.

Similar. *17 BB-1203 / 3.73


Sv. 21.27-32, 38-42


PLATED COUNTERFEIT AE DRACHM / 2.90 a third to half of the silver plating remains;incuse-squarepunch 00-1134 mark over the ear of Athena on obv.


A E E or variant. Owl stg., facing; on either side, olive branch with five or more leaves. E-O (N 18:3) E-e Kleiner 1975, pi. 75, no. 165 (H-K 12-14) e-3

Sv. 21.43-50


00-1121 *b X-1 10 *c K-1356 *d H'-2504


1.91 1.55 t 1.35 V 1.78


CATALOGUE *e Z-2785 *f E-242 *g 00-1149 *h A-293 i II1n-532 / /



1.92 1.43 1.75 1.98 1.53


19a and b can be assigned to the first half of the 4th century.The more crudely rendered owls of 19c-h are characteristicof the pi-style triobols of ca. 350-295. Compare the many pi-style triobols in the Peiraeus 1956 hoard (IGCH 127);Thompson 1957, pl. 1-3:3-66. DIOBOLS Similar. A E or variant. Double-bodied owl, facing; in each upper corner, olive spray.

Sv. 21.54-62

20 *a BE-73 *b BB-324 c N'-1321

/ \

0.90 1.21 - 1.16




A E O or variant. Three crescents,horns inwards, arrangedin circle. 0-3 E-O ca. 286-280 B.C.orlater

Sv. 17.44-48


*a H'-3850 b H-1148


t 0.49

TETRADRACHMS Similar,but with quadridigitetype of helmet ornament. / 16.28 22 *a A-419 *b A-322 / 15.96

AOE Owl stg. r., facing; behind, olive spray and crescent. Nicolet-Pierreand Kroll, p. 4, pl. 2, no. 20

Sv. 20.34; 21.26





The silver envelope is intact, except for a small patch on the rim and a small area on the reverse.


*a b

DRACHMS Similar. / 3.76 PP'-413 E-6481 / 2.97

Similar. battered and worn UNCLASSIFIED

Sv. 21.33, 34, 36, 37



a b

S-6430 K-1730


16.84 14.06

effaced by wear broken and effaced by wear





% 8.43

no silver preserved;disfiguredby deep chisel cuts and corrosion.The large size of the owl precludes attributionto any pre-480 owl series.


PLATED Couvmir-uF' OF 5TH-3RD-CENTURY B.C.DRACHM, 11, 18, OR 24 AE AS - 2.76 AE only; blisteredand mostly effaced I-895

268-262 B.C.

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet.

A E 8 or variant. Owl stg. r., three-quarters facing, lifting wings; [at r. amphora or other symbol].

Sv. 24.1-9

28 *a 00-246 *b IIn-872

/ /

2.26 2.60

3rd ceury B.C.undated


29 *a E-1206 *b H'-2337 *c Z-833

Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. \ 2.47

+- 2.38


Sv. 23.43-45; 24.18-24 r., facing. issue of first half of the 3rd century (Sv. 23.43-45) same GRC,fig. 9; later 3rd-centuryissue; possible illegible symbol below owls, cf. Sv. 24.18

e E Two owls, stg. 1. and

ca. 240's-230's B.C.


Similar. *30 K-1388

AOE Owl stg. r., facing; behind, olive spray and crescent. 15.82 Nicolet-Pierreand Kroll, p. 17, pl. 6, F23

cf Sv. 23.11

ca. 220's-190'sB.C.

Similar. *F31 4-358 t 3.91

Similar,except illegible symbol below olive spray.

Sv. 23.25-42

ca. 165-42 B.C. 134/3 B.C.(Morkholm 1984) DRACHM,


Head of Athena Parthenosr., wearing elaborately ornamented Attic helmet; border of dots.



t 3.61

A-OE Owl stg. r. on amphora, facing; in field: TI-MAINIKIAPXE and anchor (at 1.);on amphora, H; all in olive wreath. GRC,fig. 12

New Syle, no. 372d (same dies)

105/4 TETRADRACHM, B.C.(M0rkholm1984) Similar.




Similar,except in field: HPAKAEIAHIEEYKIAEZI and symbol of [T]IMAI[P] Tyche voting (at r.);letter on amphora illegible. worn and battered

New Style, nos. 777, 778a, 779a, b

100/99 B.C.(Morkholm 1984) TETRADRACHM,





Similar,except in field: AQ-EIl eEOEIXAPIIAEE[O]]A and symbol of Tyche holding staff (at r.);on amphora, e; below, EO. GRC,fig. 12

New Style, no. 869a (different dies)


A ROUND THE middle of the 5th centurythe poet and rhetorDionysios,derisivelynicknamed
6 XaXxoug, attempted to persuade his fellow Athenians to adopt a bronze currency.1While nothing came from this novel proposal, some numismatistshave supposed that Athens was using a form of bronze money at least by the 420's. Passagesfrom Eupolis' Cities and (frag.233, 423 B.C.) make referenceto a x6XXup3o5 a trivial unit of as (lines 1199-1201, 421 B.C.) Aristophanes'Peace and since the lexicographers define the kollybos as a small coin, Svoronosproposed value; principally that such coins must have been circulatingin 5th-centuryAthens and can in fact be identifiedin an extensive series of diminutive(6-8 mm. diam.), tokenlikebronze pieces from Athens stamped on both sides with a letter of the alphabet or a symbol.2 Over 600 varietieshave been catalogued,3 and although the letter forms show that most date from the 4th century and later, a few have a three-barsigma or a nu with slantedsides and could go back to the 400's. In modificationsof Svoronos'theory,E. S. G. Robinson and Martin Price suggestedthat these and other privatepersonsto make up for a lack were issuedby bankers,money-changers, "kollyboi" of officialpetty currency.4But even this improvementoverlooksthe difficultythat these minuscule and extremelydiversebronzes,while havingno ancientmonetaryparallels,are typologicallyrelated to the larger Athenian lead and bronze oaaf3ooXa commonly employed for pay vouchers, seating have a similarlyvast arrayof types, and a wide range of other civic purposes.5Such symbola tokens, PercyGardner,Theodore Reinach, including,very commonly,lettersof the alphabet.Consequently, for and MargaretCrosbydid not hesitateto rejecta monetaryinterpretation the pieces in question. Likeall commentatorsbeforeSvoronos,theyaffirmedthatthey are to be recognizedas smallsymbola in bronze.6In thisI mustconcur,leavingthe dozen smallbronzesymbolafromthe Agora excavations to be published elsewhere.7The kollybosof 5th-centurycomic poetry was real enough but, there
1 Athenaios 15.669 D; O. Crusius,RE V col. 926, no. 97, s.v.Dionysios Chalkus. 2 N. Svoronos, <OL Ta ov votiyaota T AOi1vatov>>, JIAN 14, 1912, pp. 123-160. J. x6XXuupot, p6dcaxaolXx& 3 Ibid.,pp. 135-154, with A. Postalakas, <<Kep&tLTa aupoXiLX&>>, EyApX 1884, pp. 1-20, pls. 1 and 2. 179 varieties are illustratedon Sv. pl. 18. 4 E. S. G. Robinson,"SomeProblemsin the Later Fifth Century Coinage of Athens,"ANSMN 9, 1960 (pp. 1-15), 6-8. M. Price, "EarlyGreekBronze Coinage,"in Essays Robinson, 90-104), p. 100. (pp. pp. 5 See pls. 100-102; CrosbyinAgoraX,pp. 76-82, pls. 19-31; Rhodes,pp. 711-712, 731; KroU1977,pp. 141-146, Sv., pl. 40. 6 P. Gardner,A History Ancient 700-300 B.C., Oxford 1918, pp. 296-297; T. Reinach, "Kollybos,"RN, Coinage of ser. 4, 31, 1928 (pp. 145-160), p. 158; Crosby in Agora p. 84, note 32. AlsoJ. H. Kroll, "Kollyboior Symbola?" X, (lecture,Toronto 1984), abstractin AJA89, 1985, p. 338. 7 BB-71 (Boukranion/Dolphin), BB-701 (Owl/Herm with caduceus), (Coin)inventorynos. AA-856 (Boukranion/?), BE-132 (Star/Pileus),E-1083 (retrogradeME ligature/A, as Sv. 18.39), Z-456 (Dove/AT ligature),Z-2035 (BoukranNN-470 (T with 3 dots/Dolphin), E-2853 (Race torch/B), ion?/EY ligature), HH-127 (Horse forepart/Triskeles), S-4553 (?/Plemochoe?). Z-2035 (which could equally be a Roman coin of the 5th century after Christ) is from a dumpedfill of the early4th centuryB.C.(wellDeposit H 12:11)that contained,however,an intrusivecoin of the Frankish period. The fill containing BB-701 produced nine coins, all of the 2nd century B.C.The other Agora pieces, although of 4th-centuryand Hellenisticdate, come from Roman contexts.



being no coins that can be associatedwith it, merely as an abstractvalue. Therein would seem to lie the point of Eupolis'and Aristophanes' comic allusions.One could no more buy or sell something for a kollybos in 5th-centuryAthens than one could buy or sell something for a nonexistent U.S. half-centtoday.8 The earliest reference then to an existing bronze coinage at Athens is Aristophanes'mention at Frogs 725-726 of the 7Tov)p&XcaXxLca in 406/5, although this coinage is almost certainly struck to be identified in the silver-plateddrachms and tetradrachmsof the kind found in the Peiraeus 1902 hoard (pp. 7-8 above). To a considerabledegree this identificationrests on the absence of a more plausiblealternative.Forinstance,the discoveryof a bronze coin of Salamisin a Kerameikos grave reported to be of the early 4th century allows that the bronze coins of this Athenian island might go back as earlyas the end of the 5th century(seeunder 640-642). But even if so precociousa chronology were correct, one still could not connect the Salaminian coinage with the bronze of and the later joke about the demonitization of the bronze 406/5, since the passage in the Frogs 815-822 both make it clear that the Athenians themselveshad voted to currency in Ekklesiazousai strikeit. Earlyin this century,EarleFox made a case for associatingthe highly irregularAthenian pieces of varieties 35 and 36 with the 406/5 bronze.9 The two varieties representtwo denominations: 36, designed with a single pellet on the reverse and the reverse type of a 5th-century silver trihemiobol, represents the unit; 35, with a triobol reverse and two pellets, its double. Apart from a few Wappenmiinzentetradrachms,l0these happen to be the only Athenian coins that ever bore marksof value. They are also the only Athenian issues until the Roman Imperial era having obverse Athena heads that face to the left and (except on the late 4th/early 3rd-centuryvarieties 50 and 52) ethnics spelled with an eta. On both denominationsthe reverseowl stands on a kernel of wheat. Fox argued that all such departuresfrom normal Athenian practice were intended "to distinguishthese two coins from any others ... and everythingseems to point to the conclusion that if money of necessity really was issued, it must be recognized in these most exceptional little pieces." It can be objected that the AOHethnics ought not to date until after 403/2, when the Athenians formally adopted the Ionic alphabet for official use in place of the Attic alphabet; but Ionic spellingis found in a numberofpre-403/2 Athenianinscriptions, and so this argumentagainst Fox'sattributionis perhapsnot decisiveof itself.1 Noting that six out of the seven Atheniancoins recoveredin the excavationsof Olynthosbelong to variety 35, Robinson and Price more recently equated the Owl-on-wheat-kernelpieces with the coins known to have been minted by the Athenian commander Timotheos during his siege of Oikonomika Olynthosin the late 360's.12Accordingto the pseudo-Aristotelian 2.23.1, Timotheos ran
Cf. M. N. Tod, "EpigraphicalNotes on Greek Coinage I: KOAATBOE," JC, ser. 6, 5, 1945 (pp. 108-116), pp. 111-112, comparingthe kollybosof Eupolisand Aristophanesto the proverbialEnglish "mite".The only concrete evidence for the value of a kollyboscoin comes from a late Hellenistic inscriptionfrom Adania in Messenia, IG V i, 1532, in the improvedtext of Tod, BSA28, 1927-1928, pp. 153-157, where the kollybos (representedby the symbol almost certainly its half (Tod, "Epigraphical K) is a fraction of the chalkous, Notes," pp. 113-114). But the term was presumablyappliedto other minusculevaluesat other times and places.Reinach'sequationof the kollyboswith the Attic obol ([note 6 above, p. 24], pp. 156-158) rests on the sequence of small weights in Theophrastus, de Lapidibus 46, and can be passed over now that D. E. Eichholz (TheophrastusLapidibus, de Oxford 1965, p. 119) bracketsthe kollybos weight denominationin this passage as a late and unreliableinterpolation.See p. 37 below. 9 H. B. Earle Fox, "Some Athenian Problems," JC, ser.4, 5, 1905 (pp. 1-9), pp. 2-5. 10 Kroll 1981b,p. 13, pl. 2:17. 11 Pre-403/2 use of Ionic letters: L. Threatte, TheGrammar I, ofAttic Inscrptions Berlin/New York 1980, pp. 27-38. 12 Robinson and Price 1967, pp. 1-6.



out of cash and issuedbronze coins, which he promisedto redeem later in silverin order to provide his troops with ration money. The irregularnature of his coinage and the fact that it was struck far fromAthens admirablyaccount for all anomaliesof varieties35 and 36. But in developingtheir attribution,Robinson and Price were unawareof the nine Owl-on-wheat-kernel provenience-based pieces thatwere found in Athens, eight in the Agora and one fromthe Pnyx excavations,and of three otherspecimensthatwerepurchasedin Thebes.13Mightthese twelvepieces fromAthensand Boiotia outweighthe six excavatedat Olynthos and give new substanceto Fox'sold attributionto 406/5? They cannot. It is much easier to explain the Agora, Pnyx, and Thebes examplesof 35 and 36 as the remnants of a north Aegean military "scrip"that was perhaps never redeemed in full and traveledhome with the troops and rowers left holding it than it is to imagine how specimens of the 406/5 bronze could have reached Olynthos in such numbers as to dominate overwhelmingly the finds of lost Athenian coins at the site, especiallywhen the 406/5 bronze was unlikelyto have retained any monetary value outside Attica. Second, although 36 borrows its reverse type from 5th-centuryAthenian silver (trihemiobolswere not struck after the 400's), other typological and bronze are more at home in the 4th century. This is stylisticdetails of the Owl-on-wheat-kernel obviouslyso for the AeH ethnic, but it appliesequallyto Athena'sprofileeye on obversesand to the heavy foliage of the olive sprayson either side of the owl of 35.14 There is finallythe grain of wheat on which the owls are perched. As Robinson and Price plausiblysuggest, the symbol refersto the purpose of the coinage as militarygrain money (acrt7patov).15In the 4th century,foot soldiersand a rowersnormallyreceivedtwo obols per diem for rations,16 sum very much in line with the valuesof tariffedat 1: and 3 obols in accordancewith theirreverse these coins, whetherthey were respectively typesor whether,as theirmarksof value imply,merelyat 1 and 2 obols.17Inasmuchas Robinsonand bronze to Timotheos has so much to recommend Price's attributionof the Owl-on-wheat-kernel it, only one extant bronze coinage remainsthat can be identifiedwith the xovpa&XaXxIaof 406/5, bronze representedin the Peiraeus1902 hoard. namely,the silver-plated This disguisedbronze coinage from the end of the PeloponnesianWar and the bronze military strikingsof Timotheos (which must have become quite well known at Athens, as the Agora finds attest)were both short-termexpediencies,issued in place of silverat times of financial crisis. Both were relatively high-value fiduciary coinages and could hardly have inspired confidence in the concept of a bronze currency among a populace whose attachmentto a coinage of exceptionally pure, local silverwas a matterof long-standingnationalpride. Fora while in the 4th century,Athens struckfractions in silver as small as the quarterand eighth of an obol (Sv. 17.53-56, 22.23). But the need for a more convenientpetty currencyin bronze must neverthelesshave been recognized,
and one of reportedin EABC,p. 147, note 19, the three pieces from Thebes are in privateAthenian collections, listed in Pnyx p. 16, no. 12, is verifiable.The numberof specimenswith Macedonianproveniences the three examples I, has also grown. One piece in one of the same privatecollectionsis fromAmphipolis,and two othersare said to have been found in Macedonia. 14 The fine British Museum specimen of 35 (Robinsonand Price 1967, fig. 1 = Sv. 22.93) has four pairs of leaves and a terminal berry or leaf on each of its olive branches. Fifth-centurysilver triobols (12) were designed with only two pairs of leaves plus a terminal berry,and the gold triobolsof 407/6 (Sv. 15.4-6) have two or three pairs and the terminal,whereasolive brancheswith four or more pairsof leaves are common on triobolsof the 4th century(19). 15 Robinson and Price 1967, 5, note 2. p. 16 Demosthenes 4.28, and, in general, Griffith,pp. 268-272, 296. 17 Possibly,the discrepancybetween the marks of value and the denominationaltypes is to be understood as the differencebetween values of 1 and 2 obols at time of issue and implied or guaranteedredemption values that were that greaterby a third. Such inflated "face"values would of course have made the coins more palatable to an army was very angry,we are told by pseudo-Aristotle 2.23.1), at being forced to accept them. (Oikonomika
13 As



in particularly the furtherreachesof Attica;for it was there,with the coinage struckby the Athenian cleruchyon Salamis, that the regularproductionand use of small-denominationbronze currency in Attica apparentlybegan (see under 640-642). Before the middle of the 4th century a second Attic bronze coinage appeared,the Eleusiniancoinagewith Triptolemos/Piglettypes and the legend EAEYEI (38). This was minted in Athens and employedthe same modularunit (designatedherein as AE 3) as the Salaminiancoins;the denominationwas in all probabilitythe quarter-obol(pp. 34-36 below). Then, probably in the early to mid-330's, Athens finally issued bronze coins in her own name, at first by merely adding her AeE ethnic to the Eleusinian Triptolemos/Piglet coins (39) but quicklysubstitutingAthena/Owl types once the citizenrywas finallyreconciledto an explicitly Athenianbronzecoinage. Fromthatpoint down towardthe middlepartof the 3rdcentury,emissions, predominatelyof the AE 3 denomination,were minted at variedintervalsin both the Athenian and the Eleusinianseries.l8

PERIOD I (includingthe Eleusiniancoinage) Mid-4th-Mid-3rd CenturiesB.C. Fundamental to the chronology of the first period of regular bronze coinage in Attica (Table I, between the Eleusinianand Athenian series.Both seriesmust pp. 320-321) are the interconnections be treatedtogether and call for some prefatoryremarksabout the anomalousEleusinianmaterial. The 4th- and 3rd-century bronzeinscribedEAEYEI alwaysbeen one of the more problematic has coinages of ancient Greece. Assuming that the legend was an ethnic, Barclay Head conjectured that "Eleusiswas the only Attic deme which was allowed by Athens (perhaps on account of its sacred character)to coin bronze money for the requirementsof the Eleusinian Festivals."19 But other scholars,skepticalthat a politicalsubdivisionof Athenscould have exercisedthe prerogativeof mintingcoins, have arguedeitherthat the coinagewas producedby a brieflyindependentEleusinian state20or that, as an Eleusinianfestivalcoinage, it was actuallyminted under the centralauthorityof Athens.21The first view can be rejectedat once. There were never more than two short intervals duringwhich the deme center of Eleusiswas divorcedfrom Athens, in 403-401, when Eleusiswas establishedas a semiautonomouspolity for dissidentAthenianoligarchs,and in 287-285/4, when it was held by a garrisonof DemetriosPoliorketes;22 the variedbronze coinage with the Eleusinian yet legend was struckover more than a century.
18 Salamis continued strike the secondhalfof the 4th to in
(640-642) is too vague to merit discussionin this chapter.

but of century, the chronology the Salaminian coinage

Svoronos,quoted in Traiti II.iii, p. 140; Picard,Antre, 293. p. 21 So Babelon (rait II.iii, pp. 138-142) and Thompson (1942, pp. 213-219). See also J. H. Kroll, "Athenian Bronze Coinage and the Propagationof the EleusinianMysteries"(ecture, Chicago 1991), abstractin AJA96, 1992, pp. 355-356. 22 In 287 (accordingto Habicht, Untrhucen, pp. 45-60, and Osborne, pp. 181-194, againstShear,Kalias,pp. 63the 73, favoring286 B.C.) Athenianswon their freedomby expellingDemetrios'troopsfrom the Mouseion but had yet to control of the other forts in Attica. For the subsequentrecoveryof Eleusisin 285/4, see Shear,Kallias, 83-86, gain pp. and P. Gauthier,"Lareunificationd'Athenesin 281," REG92, 1979 (pp. 348-399), p. 372.

HN2,p.391. 20 So Le Cavaignac,pp. 331-332 (= idem, trsorsacrld'Aksisjusqu'en 404, pp. 79-80); Ferguson,p. 145, note 4; I. N.



The interpretation this as an Athenianfestivalcoinage, on the other hand, is scarcelybeyond of as it is by both the iconography and the minting history of the coins. The question, supported iconography pertains not to the deme of Eleusis but to the mythology (Triptolemos)and ritual (the paraphernalia initiates'sacrificial piglet and theirdistinctivestaffof bound myrtleboughs)of the In GreaterMysteries.23 a later PeriodI issue with an obversehead of Demeter (61), the reversesof after the coins depict the Eleusinianofferingvessel,theplemochoe, which the last day of the Mysteries, the Plemochoai, is named, and the ring (herein called the "Eleusisring")that was used to clasp togetherthe boughs of the initiates'mysticstaff.24 The second argument for the festival hypothesis comes from the recurrence of issues with Eleusinian types through the whole of the Hellenistic bronze coinage. After the adoption of Athena/Owl bronze coins signed AGE,such special Eleusinianissues were often struckin parallel with them and continuedto bear the traditionalEAEYEI legend. The late 4th-centurycoin mistakenly struckwith an EleusinianTriptolemosobverseand a Two-owl,AeE reverse(p. 32 below)provesthat these Eleusiniancoins were struckin the same centralmint as Athens' AeE bronze.After the middle is of the 3rd century,however,the EAEYEI legend vanishes,and AGE henceforthused on all occasional issues with Eleusiniandesigns. Such issues are especiallyprominent in the last quarter of the 3rd (116 and 117).25 Altogether,these recurringEleusinian century (72-75) and in the later 80's B.C. issues constitute what must have been a recognized if sporadic traditionwithin Athenian bronze coinage as a whole, and they are virtuallyinexplicableunlessthere was some direct associationwith the celebrationof the Mysteries. By the 4th century,control of the festival and the sanctuaryof Demeter and Kore had long passed into the hands of the Athenian state at large,26so that even if no proof existed in the form of the above-mentionedhybrid Triptolemos/Two-owlcoin, it would still follow that the EAEYEI legend coinage must have been struckby the polis of Athens.This means, of course, that the EAEYEI but cannot be expanded as an "ethnic"of the demesmen of Eleusis, that is, 'EXeuaL(vtlov), must be understoodas referringin one way or another to the festival.MargaretThompson realizedthis in her paper espousing the festival interpretationof the coinage, but she thought that the legend But named the Eleusinia,the agonisticfestivalheld at Eleusis.27 this festivaldid not begin to rankin importancewith the Greater Mysteries;and since the iconographyof the coins refers exclusively to the Mysteries,the legend must surely refer to the Mysteriesas well. EAEYEI apparentlyserved
Graz 1987. On the piglet For Triptolemos,see G. Schwarz, Ikonographie Trpolemos: und enerAgrar- Mystriengothit, R. sacrifice to Demeter, see K. Clinton, "Sacrificeat the Eleusinian Mysteries,"in Eariy Grk Cut Practice, Hagg, N. Marinatos, and G. C. Nordquist, eds., Acta InstitutiAtheniensisRegni Sueciae, Stockholm 1988, pp. 69-79; and but the Burkert, 256-264. In modern scholarship, mysticstaffofmyrtle is usuallycalled a bakdos, this is probablynot pp. lumiereet le faisceau:Images du ritueleleusinien," 103. C. BErard the correctterm; see Clinton, Sacred ("La p. Officials, Mor 48, 1985, pp. 17-19, note 1) argues that the ancient name wasb5pdy,a. et du Recherches docments CntreThomas I owe these last and other referenceson Eleusinianmatters to ProfessorClinton, who kindly read an earlier draft of this chapterand suggesteda number of improvements. For the correct identification,see 24 The plemochoe is the vessel that numismatistshave often termed a kernos. 544-549. The "Eleusisring"is the clasp thatJ. D. Beazley ("Bakchos-rings," F Brommer,"Plemochoe,"AA 1989, pp. while cautioning that the initiates'staff on which ser. VNC, 6, 1, 1941, pp. 1-7) provisionallytermed a "bakchos-ring", bakchos. it was used may not have been called a varieties127-129, 146, 150, 154, 155, 25 See also the 2nd-centuryvarieties86 and 106 and the other post-86 B.C. last emissionsmay have been special festivalissues;see p. 84 below. althoughit is uncertainhow many of these 26 Clinton, Saed Ofifals, p. 8. 27 4AP 100, 1979, pp. 1-12; Thompson 1942. On the festival: K. Clinton, "The Eleusiniaand the Eleusinians," GRBS16, 1975, pp. 269-279. R. M. Simms, "The Eleusiniain the Sixth to FourthCenturiesB.C.,"



as an accompanyinglabel to underscorethe force of the images on the coins, to indicatethe purpose of the coinage, and, initially,to disassociatethe bronze from Athenian money proper. It may be scil. "Eleusinian(money),"on the model of other plausiblyexpanded 'EXeucua(vlcx6v, v6atLaVa), coin legends in the neuter singular,or simply 'EXeuol(voq),"of Eleusis."28 adjectival The associationof certain Greekcoinageswith majorfestivalsis well documentedin the Roman Imperial era, when coins were frequentlystruckwith types and legends advertisinglocal games.29 But the associationcan be tracedback as earlyas the 5th- and 4th-centuryB.C. silvercoinage of Elis, which most commentatorshave connected in one way or another with the quadrennialOlympic festival.30 Althoughsuch Greekfestivalcoinageswill have servedas souvenirsand helped to advertise the festivals,one assumes that most were struckto provide money for the festival trade, which in the case of EleusinianMysteriesmust have been considerable.Unlike most Panhellenicfestivals,the Mysterieswere celebratedannually,and probablyno other event in the Athenian calendarattracted a greaternumber of visitorsto Attica. Philostratos' remark(Life ofApollonios 4.17) that the Mysteries were "the most crowded(ToXuav9p7x6ToXaa) of Greekfestivals"appliesto Imperialtimes. But even in the 4th century B.C.the great internationalpopularityof the festival must have been growing: between ca. 368 and 347 a revised code of regulationsgoverning the publicizing and conduct of the Mysterieswas promulgatedto encourageincreasedforeignparticipation.31 Each year every new initiate and his or her sponsorlived at Eleusisduring the last four days of the festival,purchasingtheirlodging,food, drink,and amenitiesfromlocal vendors,innkeepers,and, one imagines,a whole agora of Athenianand itinerantmerchantsmakingthe festivalrounds.32 Such festivalbusinessrequiredmoney,in particular small-change the kindsuitablefor dailyprovisions. And the tiny fractionsof Athenian silver,the bronzepieces of Salamis,and any other miscellaneous given ecth petty currenciesavailablein Attica in the second quarterof the century,it is not hard to image the Athenians turned to supplyingthis trade with a convenient bronze coinage of their own why manufacture. The coins are only one of the commercialimportance of the EleusinianMysteries. insication The 2nd-centuryB.C. decree IG II2 101333informs that Eleusiswas one of the three sites in Attica where the Athenians maintained an official set of standardweights and measures. The two other sets were housed inside the Tholos in the Agora and at the Peiraeusand were, as at Eleusis,in the keeping of a public slave. Notably, the slave in charge of the standardsat Eleusis was responsible to officials of the Mysteries: the hierophant and "the men appointed each year for the festival"

"Eleusinian" were commonly used with referenceto the sanctuaryand cult of Demeter and Kore, as distinctfrom the surroundingdeme; cf. the officialtitle of the overseersof the sanctuary, who were simplycalled the Cta-tccrat 'EXCuatvL 'EXeuawv6sv(IGI3 391, line 15;II2 1544, line 1; 1672, line 3, etc.). Forthe adjective (IGIS 386, line 2) or the EktaxaT&la omitted from LSJ,see, e.g., Strabo8.6.22; IG II2 1666, lines B.69, 75, 81, and 1672, lines 53, 54, 309. 'EXeuaLvLax6q, 29 SeeJ. P. Callu, Lapolitique monitaire empereurs des de romains 238 d 311 (BibliothMque 6coles fran9aisesd'AthMnes des et de Rome 214), Paris 1969, pp. 26-27; A.Johnston in Sardis M7, pp. 12-14; Harl, pp. 19, 28, 63-70. 30 Summaryin Kraay,ACGC, 103-105. Fora probablebronzefestivalcoinage of HellenisticThespiai, see 606 and pp. 607. 31 K. Clinton, "ALaw in the City Eleusinionconcerningthe Mysteries," 49, Hesperia 1980, pp. 258-288, esp. 273-275, 281. 32 On Greekfestivalsas "fairs" and the economic significance the festivalmarket,see L. Ziehen, RE XVIII, col. 582, of s.v.Panegyris;M. Wtrrle, Stadt FestimKaiserzeitihen und Klinaien, Munich 1988, pp. 209-215. 33 Translationin M. M. Austin, TheHellenistic tothe WorldfiomAlexander Roma Conquest, Cambridge 1981, pp. 191-193, no. 111.

of Fortheseand otherforms coinlegends,see Kraay,ACGC, 5-7. In antiquity, today, as "Eleusis" and pp.



(icl xTv =cav5yuptv,lines 48-49). It was clearlyappreciatedthat efficientand well-regulated buying and sellingat the festivalmarketcontributedto the successof the festival. The chronology of the Eleusinianand Athenian varietiesis best discussedby subgroups,here and in Table I (pp. 320-321 below)indicatedby roman numerals. on 38: Trptokmos/Piglet mystic staffEAEYZI (i.a) Variet The initial Eleusinianseries is distinguishedby large, heavy flans (15-18 mm., 3-4 g.) and the use of reversesymbols or letters to differentiate fifteen emissions.34 its These fifteen emissionslead of AeE issues(39 and 40), themselvesthe immediateforerunners the first down to the Piglet-on-staff, Athenian Double-bodied owl bronze (41) probablyof the early or mid-330's. Hence, if the fifteen Eleusinianemissionswere minted on a more or less annualbasis,the serieswill have begun sometime decree and reform program for attractingmore in the 350's. A connection with the 368-347 B.C. foreignvisitorsto the festivalis likely. The characterof the changing symbols and letters sets these issues apart from all other 4thcentury Athenian coinage. Being predominately "private"rather than public in character,the symbols (such as ivy branch, grapevine,boukranion,fly, shell, dolphin, and astragal)are evidently the marksof the individualsor boards of officialswho oversawproduction of the separate issues. The officials may have been among those chosen for the administrationof the festival, like the or 7tot&Txrit 'EXeuaov60ev; if the moneyersbore a liturgicalexpense, clansmen of the Eumolpidai and Kerykeswith their close ties to the Mysteriesmight have participated.35 on 39 staf, (i.b) Varieies and40: Tiptolemos/Piglet mystic AeE varieties (with reduced diametersand The changed ethnic of these concluding Piglet-on-staff on the main emission(39: A8Eabovepiglet)by a weightof 13-15 mm. and ca.2.5 g.)is accompanied issues,the symbolsof the EAEYZI change in the characterof the reversesymbol.Unlike the "private" of Eleusiniandevices. the "religious-public" repertory symbol here, the plemochoe, is drawn from to for the festivalcoinage apparentlyhad been transferred a differentadministrative Responsibility authority.If we could be sure that this minor reform in the organizationof the coinage belonged we financialreformsconcerningAthenianfestivalsin the mid-330's,36 would gain a with Lykourgos' valuablefixed point for the earlyPeriodI chronology.But an earlierdate for the reformis possible.37 These first regular A9E strikingsin bronze led quickly to the next step in the development of the coinage, viz., the replacementof Eleusiniantypes with traditionalAthenian owl types, as the Athenians seem to have overcome in stages their hesitancy to place their name and types on a base-metalcoinage. headandivyleaf(Sv.103.2, (2)ivybranch 103.1), boukranion 103.4, In theexergue: pig's 5), (Sv. (3) (Sv. 3), (1) shell (Sv. (7) (Sv. (6) (Sv. ring 7), (4)scallop (Sv.103.6, (5)Eleusis inwreath 103.18), fly(orbee?) 103.9), astragal 103.10), cluster Numismatic head(American (Trait, (10) Society), vinewithleafandgrape (9) (Sv. (8)dolphin 103.14), ram's

pl. 109:17),(11) letter A (Cavaignac,nos. 49 and 54). In right field: (12) plemochoe (?) (Traii, pl. 193:15)and (13-15) the series.The M and N emissionshave 14-16 mm. diametersand fall at or near the end.

The and M letters (Sv. e p. (1942, 218,note18) by 103.11). listcompiled Thompson pl. 103.15), (BMC.Atca,20:4) N(Sv. of themat thebeginning of The 1 omits theastragal. uniformly 17-18mm.flans emissions and2 locate large only 35Assuggested, iteras, Kevin Clinton. per by 36 F. Mitchel, Athens: ofose Taf W. ClasiStdes II:Lctures inMemoy UnisityofCincinati 338-322," "Lykourgan 1973 Sempe Norman (pp.163-214), 197-198. II, pp. that of the date varieties 37 The 4th-century of thepresent (1942,pp. 220-221) the precludes theory Thompson 3rd of was in ethnic caused theMacedonian (p. occupation Eleusis theearly century 27above). by changed



41-43: Athena Attichelmet/Double-bodied in owl (ii) Varieties With 979 recorded Agora specimens, this first fully fledged "Athenian" bronze coinage is one of the most prolific from any period. Apart from the rare bronze tritartemoria(37), it is the only Athenian bronze until the late 3rd centurymodeled on contemporarysilvercoinage: obverseheads reproducethe pi-styleAthena heads of the later 4th-centurysilver,reverses,the type of 4th-century diobols (in the fringedstyle characteristic the owls on later 4th-centurysilver).38 of Productionbegan in a relativelyslight emission (41) with the double-bodied owl standing on a horizontalEleusinianstaffthat is carriedover from the Piglet-on-staff emissions.After the second Double-bodiedowl variety(42), which lacksa symboland has reduceddiametersof normally 12-14 mm., the coinage entered a final voluminousphase in the varietymarkedby an Eleusisring under the feet of the owl (43). In this last phase, diametersshrinkeven further;hurriedstrikingis evident from many pieces stamped from poorly centered dies (cf. 43g); an towardsthe eseries,the end of when diameters frequentlyreach a minimal 10-11 mm., the die cutters ceased to adhere to the pi-style model and produced Athena heads either in a softer, naturalisticrendering (43e-g, with Sv. 22.42) or with perfunctorycrudeness(43h and i). The small owls of these latest pieces generally have stubby,compactbodies, and in two instancesthe ethnic is freelyspelledwith an eta (431and m). Since this was a huge coinage, with weights and diameters that underwent a considerable for The earliestprobable reduction,the Double-bodiedowlswereclearlystruck a protracted period.39 date for the inaugurationof the pi-style silver,around or soon after 350 (pp. 8-9 above), provides the terminus quem; inception of the succeeding Two-owl bronze, 44 47, after 322 or 317 the post the terminus ante,unless, as the naturalisticAthena heads and different size modules of provides the two coinages suggest, there was some overlapbetween the minting of the latest Double-bodied owls and the earliestTwo-owl coins (44), which also have the Eleusisring as a type adjunct. Since in either case a substantialpart of the Double-bodied owl bronze can be attributedto the 320's, the problem is whether it could have begun as late as the mid-330's under the administrationof Lykourgos,or whether a somewhatlonger period of mintingis called for.At present, a startingdate after 338 seems preferable,but furtherevidenceis needed. AlthoughDouble-bodiedowls firstoccur in archaeologicaldepositsroughlydated to the last half or last thirdof the 4th century,40 tells us this even less about the date than do the above considerations, which locate the bulkof the coinage in the 330's and 320's. The stylisticrange of the massivevarietyof Double-bodied owl over Eleusisring makes it clear that this could not possiblybe an emissionofa single year and that the Eleusisring was thereforea static adjunct part of the reversetype. So, too, must be the mystic staff under the owl on the first variety (41). The displayof these Eleusiniandevices suggests,of course, that this firstAthena/Owl bronze coinage was minted, like the Triptolemos/Piglet coinage it replaced, in conjunctionwith the celebrationof the EleusinianMysteries.AdjunctEleusiniansymbolscontinue to appear on the next two Athena/Owl issues, Two owls over Eleusisring (44) and Two owls over plemochoe (45),
These stylisticreplicationsshould not be taken as evidence that the Double-bodied owl bronze was produced in the same mint as the silver.Despite considerablevariationin die alignments,the majorityof the Double-bodied owl bronzes have alignments in the 12 or 6 o'clock positions, while very few have the 8 or 9 o'clock alignments typical of all Athenian silver coins from the late 5th through most of the 3rd century B.C. Like most of the later bronze and silver coinages of Athens, the Double-bodied owl bronze and the silvercoinage contemporarywith it must have been struckindependentlyof one another. 39 Caley,pp. 45-47, noted the exceptionalvariabilityin the bronze alloy of the five Double-bodied owls he analyzed and contended that the seriesmust have been protracted. 40 See pp. 29&-301 below,nos. 2, 3, and 5 and the Agora Deposit S 19:3.



and then disappear(46: Two owls, no symbol)about the time thatthe EleusinianTriptolemos/Piglet coinage is revived(48 and 49). The implicationseems to be that before this revival,all the PeriodI bronze coinage may have been issued as Eleusinianfestivalmoney. 44-49: Athena Attichelmet/ owlsin olive in Two and in wheat wreath, Triptolemos/Piglet wreath, (iii) Varieties


The four varieties of the wreathed Two-owl coinage (44: Eleusis-ring symbol, AGE;45: plemochoe symbol,Ae; 46: no symbol,Ae; and the rare47: no symbol,AGH) representa renovation of the bronze coinage after the crudely minted late Double-bodied owl strikings.Size and weight harkback to the latest Piglet-on-staffbronze(39 and 40) in the 13-15 mm., ca. 2.5 g. range, which remainsstandardfor the rest of PeriodI. The typeswere redesignedand more notablyand lastingly were emancipatedfrom stylisticdependencyon contemporarysilver.As in the latestDouble-bodied owls, obverse Athena heads, often in richly ornamented helmets (cf. 44a and Sv. 24.49), are now renderedwithout a trace of mechanical,pi-style rigidity.The Two-owl reversetype is not entirely new, since two standingowls had been the device of 5th-centurysilverdiobols or quarter-drachms (12A)and gold diobols(Sv.15.7, 8). But the olivewreathencirclingthe reverseis new,and it remained a fixtureof the bronze coinage well into the 3rd century. The third and largestTwo-owlvariety(46) is the last Athenian issue that was struckbefore the destruction the Kerameikos of BuildingZ-3 betweenca.320-317 and the startof the Owl-leftissue50 in 307 (seebelow).46 appearsquite clearlythen to belong to the 317-307 oligarchythat Kassandros installedunder Demetrios of Phaleron.It is likelythat one or both of the two relatedissues,44 and 45, were minted duringthis same regimeor underthe 322-317 oligarchythatAntipatrosestablished under Phokion. A specialproblemis raisedby the two coins listedundervariety47, which are essentiallyvariants of variety 46 but bolder in design (apartfrom their large Athena heads, note the full-bodiedolive leaves on the better-preserved46a). As the AeH spelling of their ethnic is characteristicof the following Owl-left variety,the two coins appear to belong to a limited emission struckjust before the change to the Owl-left types. Eleusiniancoinagewas revivedin the courseof the Two-owlseriesabout As noted, the traditional the time that the Two-owl coins ceased to be markedwith Eleusiniansymbols. The synchronism 48 between the two new Eleusinianvarietieswith legends in EAEY, and 49, and the Two-owl AO varieties45 and 46 is impliedthrough(a)the curtailedlegendsin both groups;(b)coordinateweights and diameters (Table I, pp. 320-321 below); (c) the surroundingwheat wreath of the Eleusinian reverses,which parallelsthe reverseolive wreath on the owl coins; and (d) the find of twelve Two above (48), corrodedtogether in a lump owls over plemochoe (45) and four Wreathedpiglets, EAEY at the bottom of the Dipylon well in the Kerameikos(Purse A, p. 299 below). For proof we have only to turn to the hybrid coin illustratedby Svoronos (Sv. 103.40, now in the British Museum) obverse(Triptolemos with a Wreathed-piglet (45) chariot)and a Two-owls-over-plemochoe mounting reverse, a piece we owe to "a workmanat the Athens mint, [who] confusing his dies, struck the flan of the intended Eleusiniancoin with the punch of a contemporaryAthenian issue."41 and in 50 helmet/Owl He/A, in olivewreath, heavy Triptoleleft, (iv) Varieties and 51: Athena Corinthian in wheat EAEYEI wreath, mos/Piglet The averageweight of the Owl-leftpieces is some 50 percentgreaterthan that of the preceding and followingAthenianvarieties.Thisjump in weight, however,is not accompaniedby a significant
a doesnot appear typeof Triptolemosmounting chariot Thompson 1942, p. 214 (cf.p. 224).The variantobverse varieties.On the precedingPiglet-on-mystic-staff until the Wreathed-piglet obverses,Triptolemosis alwaysseated.



increasein diameter.Since the new designformatof Corinthianhelmet and a singleowl was retained throughvarieties52-54, which returnedto the ca. 2.5 g. weight of the old Two-owlbronze,it appears that the heavinessof the Owl-leftbronze was intended to enhance acceptabilityand does not signal a change in denomination or value. The Wreathed-pigletcoinage issued contemporaneously(51) points to the same conclusion.42 Despite theiraugmentedweight of 3-4 g. (whichessentiallyrestored them to the standardof the originalEleusinianemissionof variety38), these heavyWreathedpiglets employ the same types and fundamentalmodule as all earlierand later Wreathed-pigletvarieties and undoubtedlyrepresentedthe same value as they. The heaviness of the Owl-left coinage is matched by the exceptional quality of its alloy,43die engraving(cf. Sv. 22.85 and 86), and striking, makingit altogetherone of the most carefullyprepared bronze coinages ever minted at Athens. The coinage, furthermore,was of some magnitude. The 24 best-preservedspecimens of the 251 found in the Agora were stamped from a minimum of 18 obverse dies, and through them one can trace a progressionfrom the large, ornate Athena heads that mustbelong at the beginningof the series(50a-c) to the smaller,plainerones at the end (50h-k). In Athenian coinage the backwardsorientation of the reverse type (owl facing left coupled with retrogradeethnic) is unique. Yet it is repeated on every die of this exceptionally large and well-manufacturedseries (whose obverse Athena heads do face correctly to the right) and must have been a deliberate and officiallysanctioned essentialof the design. Unable to suggest a more plausible explanation, I earlier interpretedthe reversedowl and ethnic as the political expression of a revisionistoligarchic government symbolizing"a reversedAthens, a traditionallydemocratic Athens that had been literally'turnedaround"' (EABC, 146).I accordinglyassociatedthe coinage p. with the two oligarchiesin power between 322 and 307 B.C. But two more recent items of evidence indicate that this dating was too early.The first comes from the excavationin 1978 of Kerameikos at BuildingZ-3, destroyedafter ca. 320-317 B.C.; the time of its destruction,Owl left was not yet in data from the Kerameikos,the coinage was circulation,although, accordingto other stratigraphical known to have commenced by 304 (see pp. 298-299 below). The other evidence is the recognition that the succeedingOwl-right,A-eH,issue (52) is closelytied to issue 53 in the 280's and cannot date to the restoreddemocracyof 307-ca. 300, as previouslysuggested(EABC,p. 147). The downdating of 52 has the effect of bringing down the date of Owl left as far as it will go, but the inception of Owl left cannot come down later than 304, so this varietymust thereforenow be attributedto the democraticgovernmentrestoredto power by Demetrios Poliorketesin 307.44 On this chronology the reversed owl and ethnic will have to remain unexplained, unless they were precautions to ensure that these larger,heavier coins would not be used or mistakenfor cores of plated drachms. But the augmented weight, the modernized spelling of the ethnic, and the novel treatmentof the conventionalAthenian types (the Corinthian-helmet obversecopies the canonicalAthena heads on
42 Three archaeologicalcontexts confirm that the heavy Athenian and Eleusinianvarietieswere struckin tandem. See the KerameikosBuilding Z destructiondeposit (p. 298 below, no. 2), from which both varietieswere absent, and the second Dipylon well purse (p. 299 below, no. 4) and the Agora Deposit F 11:2, both of whose latest pieces are Owl-left and heavy Wreathedpiglets. 43 Caley (p. 32) observedthat the 12.49 and 12.76 percentagesof tin in the alloy of two analyzedOwl-leftcoins (Caley, table V, nos. 1 and 2) are "higherthan ... in any other series." 44 As proposed in Kroll 1982, pp. 241-242; cf Rotroff 1984, pp. 344-345. FourOwl-leftpieces were excavatedfrom the constructionfillof the SquarePeristyle the Agora(cf.EABC, 146-147, listingthe in pp. only one fromuncontaminated fill), but since this building is now known to date from the early years of the 3rd century,the context no longer has any directbearing on the chronologyof the coins; see Deposit O-R 7-10.



the gold staters of Alexander and hence carries pro-Macedonianconnotations)give Owl left the characterof a "reform" coinage, in keepingwith the radicalcharacterof the 307 democracy. in helmet/Owl in and in 52-55: Athena Corinthian (v) Varieties right, wreath, lightT?ptolemos/Pigletwheat EAEYEI wreath, Normalcy in weight and design returnedin the three relatedvarieties,52: Owl right, A-eH, in olive wreath;53: Owl right,A-e, in wheatwreath;and 54: Owl right,A-G,in olive wreath.Of these, the second and most plentifulcan be associatedwith a historicaloccasion. Since the conventional olive-wreathborder on the reverse is replaced by a wheat wreath borrowed from the Eleuisinian coins, it is likelythat the resultingcompositeAthenian owl encircledby Eleusinian Wreathed-piglet crownwas createdto symbolizethe unificationof EleusiswithAthens.The type is most appropriately when the Athenians,who in 287 or 286 expelled the Macedonian placed at or soon after 284 B.C., from the Mouseion, succeeded in liberatingEleusis from Macedonian occupation. The garrison reunificationwith Eleusiswas celebratedin special games that year at Eleusisin honor of Demeter and Kore.45 A unique specimen of 53 in Berlin (Sv. 22.80; note the two wheat ears above the head of the owl) has an A-0 ethnic carried over from variety 52 and implies, as do strong general similarities in obverseand reversestyle,46that the two varietieswere contiguous.52, a small emission,probably began thereforesoon after the expulsion of the garrisonon the Mouseion; with the liberationof Eleusis, it was modified into variety 53.47 On the other hand, the last variety of the Owl right in wreath (54) must fall in the 270's, if the next type change, back to a reverseof two owls, is rightly located around 270 B.C. in By size,weight, and representation the AgorahoardDepositA 18:8of the 260's,the Eleusinian in a variety (55) that was contemporarywith 53 or 54, or both. All Wreathedpiglets concluded nineteen Wreathed piglets in the A 18:8 hoard (see 55c and p. 302 below) are of this late, light variety and had been subjected to the same moderate amount of wear (w3-4) as the Owl-right, A-e, pieces. owls wreath 56: helmet/Two in olive in (vi) Vaiety Athena Corinthian Two findsplace this uncommonvarietynear the beginningof the ChremonideanWar(268-261 B.C.).A specimen in uncirculatedcondition (E. Vanderpool,J. R. McCredie, and A. Steinberg, "Koroni:A PtolemaicCamp on the East Coast of Attica,"Hesperia 1962 [pp. 26-61], pl. 17:56 31, = EABC,pl. 16:1)was excavatedfrom the Koroni fort brieflyoccupied by Ptolemaic troops early The other find is the AgoraA 18:8hoard,which was closed probablyaroundthe end of in the war.48 the war and which has as one of its least-wornpieces an example of the presentvariety(56d). e in helmet/Owl 57-60: Athena Corinthian right, E withsymbol (vii) Varieties concludes with three pieces of this series: [57-60]a, The criticalA 18:8 hoard (p. 302 below) whose symbolcannot be read, and 57b and c, both from the issuewith the symbolof a smallwreath. On this slight hoard evidence, the wreath-symbolissue may, despite its light weight, belong earlier
45 IG II2 pp. 657, lines 43-44, with Shear,Kallias, 84-86. 6 Obverses continue the relativelyplain type of Athena heads of the later, smaller Owl-left dies (e.g, 50h-k), but the owls of all three Owl-right varieties are more erect and more conventionallyproportionedthan the distinctively owls of the Owl-leftemission. large-headed,"birdlike" 47 The bronzethusmore or lessparallels DemetriosPoliorketes' the silvercoinage,whichceasedalso to be struckduring of Athens from 294 to 287 or 286. See p. 10 above. militaryoccupation 48 See p. 11 above.



in the series than the issues with wheat-ear symbol (58), cornucopia symbol (59), and Eleusis-ring symbol (60). Since these issues stand apart from the preceding coinage with respect to their unwreathed reverses,three-letter, triangularethnic, and use of emissionsymbols,I once thought (EABC, 144, pp. that the series began after a considerablehiatus in minting;I dated the series (and hence the 149) burial of the A 18:8 hoard) after 255 B.C.,when Antigonos Gonatas, having captured Athens in 261, relaxed his control through a formal grant of eleuteia.49But more substantiveconsiderations now arguefor a datingbefore261. Forone, the variantthree-letterethnic of 56g can be regardedas a transitionalstep towardsthe changed reversesof the Owl-right-with-symbol coinage and suggests that the latter probably followed variety 56 without interruption. There is secondly the strong probabilitythat the A 18:8 hoard was closed aroundthe end of the ChremonideanWar.The hoard contained no regal strikingslater than those of Demetrios Poliorketes(502b, 505) and Lysimachos (462), while included with its 104 coins were four lead tokensrespectivelydepicting a bow, a shield, a cuirass,and possiblya helmet.50The absenceof any bronzeofAntigonos Gonatas,which began to circulatein quantity at Athens after the 260's, is notable. And the lead armor tokens, apparently issuedto civiliansfor the drawingof weapons and armorfrompublic stores,imply that the owner of the hoard was involved with the military defense of Athens.5 If, like many hoards, A 18:8 owed its concealment to a pending catastrophe,one is hard put to suggest a more suitable emergency than Athens' capitulationto Antigonos Gonatas in 261. Third and more concretely,a specimen of the wreath-symbolissue (57g) was excavatedfrom the top of the lower fill of the south chamber of the "Cave"cistern on the Kolonos Agoraios (Deposit H 6:9), a fill that on evidence of pottery was dumped in the 260's upon completion of the adjacent Hellenistic "Arsenal".52 Although the high position of the coin in the fill leaves open the possibilitythat the coin could be intrusive,a pre-261 B.C.chronology for the series of Owl right with symbol is neverthelessto be preferredin the absence of real evidence to the contrary. 62 (viii) Varieties and 63: Two pigletsleft/Upright mysticstaf A-E, in olivewreath,and Pigletright, EAE-YEI AOE?/ Upright staff mystic Absentfromthe A 18:8hoard,thesevarietieswith changedEleusiniantypescomprisea post-261 B.C. coinage that was issuedwithjoint Athenian and Eleusinianlegends. Startingwith the PeriodII varieties72-75 of the last quarterof the 3rd century,all coins with Eleusiniantypes were routinely is signed AGE,so that it is clear that the presentUpright-mystic-staffbronze to be dated either very in PeriodII or before 229, when PeriodII begins. early The chief variety,62, has besides the A-Einitialsof Athens and Eleusis53 composite reverseof a Athenian olive branch encirclingthe Eleusinianstaff. Two variant pieces underscorethe unusual character of this coinage, the one in Paris (Traiti, 193:28) having a normal upright staff, A-E, pl. reverse,but an obverseof a singlepiglet rightover EAEY[, probablystruck(in error?)from a left-over
X, Agora nos. L 27b (two tokens),L 168, and L 227; with Krol 1977, p. 144. The defensive nature of the armor pictured on the tokens is underscoredby the token that pictures a bow, the 51 basicweapon for defendingfromcity walls.The alphablazon on the shieldtokenleavesno doubt that the equipmentwas Athenian and publiclyissued;KroU 1977, pp. 142-143. 52 Rotroff between the latestpotteryin the fill with that from 1983, pp. 258-276, 283-294, arguingfromthe similarity the ChremonideanWarfort at Koroni;R. L. Pounder,"AHellenisticArsenalin Athens,"Hesperia 1983, pp. 233-256, 52, esp. 244 and 255. 53 As Babelon (Trait,II.iii, p. 138) correctlyinterpretedthe letters.
49 Eusebius,ed. A. Schone, Berlin 1866-1875, II, p. 120.



Wreathed-pigletreverse die.54 The other is the variant of Two piglets left/Upright staff in the NumismaticCollectionof Athens (Sv. 103.41 = Trait,pl. 193:26),which bearsthe ethnic AeE above the two piglets on the obversebut no visibleletterson the reverse. At 1.49 and 1.75 g. and 12 mm., the two extantsingle-pigletcoins of variety63 are smallerthan the two-pigletpieces of 62 (2-2.5 g., 13-14 mm.) and fallunderthe AE 4 modularrubric,as opposed of to the AE 3 classification the doubledpiglets. Hence the single-pigletpieces should representthe denominationalunit to the two-piglets'double.55Although this might connect both varieties single more closely with PeriodII than with the pre-261 bronze,which, except for the Double-bodiedowl obverseof the unique bronze,was limited to the AE 3 double-unit(see below), the Wreathed-piglet coin in Pariswith Uprightmysticstaffsuggestschronologicalproximityto the pre-261 bronzeall the same and encourages dating of this entire group of Athenian-Eleusinianpieces with the upright staff to before rather than after the start of Period II. Thus, between 261 and 229 B.C., monetary in productionin Athenswas apparentlylimitedto these few strikings bronzethatperpetuatedthe old and very tenacioustraditionof Eleusinianfestivalmoney and to howevermuch of the heterogeneous silver(pp. 11-13 above)as happened to be of genuine Athenian mintage. Bronze Antigonid At this time most of the new currencyin Athenswas Macedonian.The occasionaldedicationsof in tetrachma Antgoneia the sanctuaryof Asklepiosfrom 256/5 to 249/8 B.C. and again in 215 B.C.56 hint at the influx of Macedonian silverfrom the garrisonsthat Antigonos Gonatasmaintainedafter 261 in and around Athens, but the king'sbronze was at least as influential.From the 160 pieces of Gonataswith Pan erectingtrophyrecoveredin the Agora (507) and the sizableissue of Athenian coins (69) struckover this regalbronze,it is clearthat this bronzecirculatedin the city in tremendous Much of it had probablybeen consignedto Antigonos'garrisonsbeforepassinginto general quantity. circulation,but its sheer bulkis reminiscentof the greatquantityof Antigonidbronze that had found with local types there (see under 509 and 595). its way to Boiotia and was subsequentlyoverstruck Citing the 1,000 talentsof bronze coin promisedto the Rhodiansby PtolemyIII in 224 B.C.(Polybios 5.89.1) and the 200 talents of coined bronze given by Ptolemy V to the Achaian League in 185 (Polybios22.9.3, 24.6.3), Svoronosproposedthat the Macedonian bronze in Boiotia arrivedin the form of a royal benefaction.57It is possible that a benefaction lay behind the mass circulationof Antigonid bronze in Athens as well. Such a gift, for example, could very well have accompanied Gonatas'grant of freedom to the Atheniansin 255. But ultimatelythe circumstanceof the arrivalof the coins is less importantthan their impact. Weighing 5-6 g. and measuring 19-21 mm. in diameter, they gave the Athenians a new and largerbronze denomination,whose usefulnessmust have been recognizedimmediatelyThese coins bronzes and reduced any lessened the Athenians'dependence on their own smaller-denomination of pre-261 bronze in circulation. More lastingly,once the new need for replenishingthe supply denominationbegan to be struckwith Atheniantypes in the 220's, it servedas the dominantunit of Athens' bronze currency until 86 B.C.It is one of the ironies of Athenian monetary conservatism
bronzeof the 4th and earlier3rd centurieswere identical Evidentlythe anviland punch dies used for the Eleulsinian in shape and size and easilyconfused.See also the coin publishedby Fox 1890, pl. 3, no. 16 (nowin the BritishMuseum), with the reversetype of Wreathedpig, EAEYabove (cf. 48), on both faces. 55 relationship. Thompson (1942, p. 222) righty assumeda "unit"/"half-unit" 56 Habicht, Studen, 35-36, note 105, p. 41. pp. 57 Svoronos 1908, pp. 230-232. 54



that it took the coinage of an occupyingforeignpower to introduceand popularizethis influential AE 2 denomination. Denominational Values In a preliminarydiscussion based on the Agora A 18:8 hoard, I assumed that all Athenian PeriodI bronze was struckin a single denominationalunit and that this unit was the one-eighth obol chalkous,inasmuchas inscribedAthenianaccountsof 329/8 and 328/7 recordsumsof money down to the last chalkousand imply that an Athenian one-chalkouscoin was in circulationat that time.58 The fuller coverage of the Period I bronze in the present study,however,reveals that the coinage breaksdown into two modulargroupings,which in keepingwith the more extensivemodularsystem of the later Athenian bronze can be labeled AE 3 (coins normally of 13-15 mm. in diameter and 2-4 g. in weight) and AE 4 (ca. 10-13 mm. and 1-2 g.). In Period I the smallermodule is representedonly in the extremelyrare Piglet/Upright mystic staff 63 (12 mm., 1.50-1.75 g.) and the Double-bodied owls, which may begin at a borderline 13-15 mm. and 2.14 g level (41) but quicklydecline to become the diminutivepieces of the copious final variety 43 (1014 mm. and 1.85 g.). As the smallestbronze coins circulatingat the time of the inscriptions,such Double-bodiedowls makevery plausiblecandidatesfor the one-chalkousfractions of the inscriptions,even though the reversetype of the Double-bodied owl suggeststhat the coins ought to represent a double unit. But perhaps they do; for if the chalkouswas divided into two Or kollyboi,the coins may have been known as dikollyboi.59 perhapsthe Double-bodied owls were as dichalkia,but their excessivereductionmade it impossiblefor them to retain originallydesigned their original value. Whatever the circumstances,one has only to glance at Plate 4 to appreciate the conspicuoussmallnessof most of the Double-bodiedowls and how readilythey musthave passed as fractionsof the PeriodI coins minted before and afterthem. Except for Piglet/Upright mysticstaff63, all these other PeriodI coins are indeed heavierand, despite some decline and fluctuationin standard,appear to representa single monetary unit. The earlier Piglet-on-staffissues (38) introducethis AE 3 unit with relativelylarge flans of 15-18 mm. and 3-4 g. But late in the course of the Eleusiniancoinage, flans were reduced and by the end, in the Piglet-on-staff, AEEvariety39, had fallento 13-15 mm. and an averageweight of about 2.5 g. This remained the standardthrough the wreathedTwo-owl/early Wreathed-pigcoinage (11 49), and, allowing for some gradual slippage in weight, for the rest of Period I generally.Exceptions, it is true, are to be found in Owl left (50) and the accompanyingheavy Wreathedpiglets (51), whose weights were elevated to 3.5-4 g. and whose diameters sometimes reach 16 or 17 mm. But here we evidentlyhave to do with a short-livedreformor full restorationof standardratherthan a change of value. For the change in diameter is marginal,the heavy Eleusinianpieces bear the same types as the lighter Wreathed piglets that preceded and followed them, and the format of Corinthian helmet/Owl in wreath introducedin the Owl-leftcoinage was retainedin subsequentemissions,the
are EABC,p. 143, note 7. The inscriptions IG II2 1672 and 1673. The chalkousnotationalso occursin the undatable 4th-centuryabacusIG II2 2777. The earliestmention of the chalkous,Demosthenes21.91 (349/8 B.C.), informsonly that Demosthenes' audience was familiarwith the term and the slightvalue of the chalkous.It hardlyrequiresus to believe that the Attic bronze coins of the time, namely the AE 3 Eleusinianand Salaminianpieces of varieties38 and 640, were chalkiaratherthan dichalkia. 59 For the equation of 2 is kollyboi = 1 chalkous,see note 8 above, p. 25. The value-term Btx6XXupos attested,but the context (Aristophanes, Aiolosikon, frag. 3 [Koch]) belongs too early in the 4th century to be relevant to any coins of PeriodI.



sizes and weights of which had nevertheless returned to the normal ca. 13-15 mm., ca. 2.30-2.50 g.

range (52-54).
The doubled device of some of these AE 3 varieties strongly connotes that this was a double unit. One phase of AE 3 strikings (14 47) employed a two-owl reverse, later revived in variety 56. And in the late Athenian-Eleusinian variety 62 we meet with an obverse of two piglets, an odd and inexplicable type unless we are to understand that the piglet was doubled for denominational

emphasis,to distinguishthese coins especiallyfrom the smaller,lighterone-piglet coins (63) minted with them. Nor was the two-owlreversediscontinuedwith the PeriodI coinage. When the AE 3 unit at resumedca.229 B.C. the startof PeriodII, a reverseof two standingowlswas again adopted(65), as it was for the huge Period III AE 3 coinage that was struckover much of the second half of the 2nd century (99). Hence the AE 3 unit may be plausiblyequated with the dichalkon, or, as the denomination was alternativelyknown with reference to its value as the quarter of the obol, the tetartemorion. fit It is reassuringto see how logicallythese two PeriodI identifications the expanded denominationalstructureof Athens'laterHellenisticbronze.Fromthe later 3rd throughthe mid-1stcentury B.C. (Periods II-IVA), the coinage involvedfive modularunits (cf. Table VI, p. 329 below): AE 1: 8-10 g. ca. 20-22 mm. 5-7 g. ca. 16-20 mm. AE 2: AE 3: ca. 13-15 mm. 2-4 g. ca. 10-13 mm. AE 4: 1-2 g. under 1 g. AE 5: ca. 7-10 mm. Of these, the AE 4 unit was minted in the greatestquantitythroughout,preciselyas one would expect if it were the basic chalkous.It was followedin popularityby its AE 3 double (as suggested by its commonly doubled reverseowls)and by the new AE 2, which fromits position one step up the or denominationalladder can be readily equated with the tetrachalkon, hemiobol.60 The minimal AE 5 unit played a far more limited role, as it did not appear until the last third of the 2nd century and did not outlast the end of PeriodIII in 86 B.C. 68 below). The scale of values identifiesthis (p. as the half-chalkousor kollybos,the smallestGreek monetary unit for which there happens to be Coins of exceptionallylarge and heavy AE 1 size made a brief any epigraphicaldocumentation.61 see pp. 48-49 below)but were soon devaluedand not struckagain appearanceafter229 (64, 66, 68; until after 86 B.C.,when they replaced the AE 2 hemiobols as Athens' standardlarge bronze unit in the revampedcoinage of PeriodIV The identificationof these denominationscan thus be inferred from internal, mutually supporting Athenian evidence. But the resultingmodular-valuesystem of an eighth-obol chalkousof 1-2 g. (10-13 mm.), its 2-4 g. (13-15 mm.) double, and its 5-7 g. (16-20 mm.) quadruplehas been independentlydeduced or proposed also for a number of non-Athenianbronze coinages,62
PaceKroll 1981a, p. 273, where the AE 2 unit was erroneouslyequatedwith the obol. 61 Note 8 above, p. 25. 62 and G. Milne, Kobphon Its Coinge,JM 96, New York 1941, pp. 55-73. Warren 1983, pp. 33, 36, 51; idem J. idem1985, pp. 46-47. W. Weiser,"EinSchatzfundpampylisch-pisidischerBronzemiinzen,"S?R 61, 1982, 1984, p. 22; Zeit," ZPE 66, 1986, pp. 212-213. Picard, pp. 31-34; idm, "Ein Fund von rhodischemKleingeld aus hellenistischer de 281-301. 0. Picard, "L'administration l'ateliermonatairea Thasos au W sicle," RN, ser. 6, 29, 1987 Antre, pp. 33, (pp. 7-14), p. 8, pl. I.J. D. Mac Isaac, "PhliasianBronze Coinage," AJrSMN 1988 (pp. 45-54), p. 52. Grandjean, 28-55. Price (1967, p. 367) classifiesthe bronzecoins from the South Stoa wells at Corinth into three modularsizes, pp. c. A-C (= our AE 2-4); in Price'sunpublished 1967 CambridgeUniversitydissertation,Greek Brone Coinuge 450-150 and and Value, now in BMCAlexander, 39-40, the three modules are identifiedwith Circulation, pp. B.C., Its Introduction,



which suggests that the system was a conventional one that was recognized and widely adopted throughoutmuch of 4th-centuryand HellenisticGreece.

363-359 Head of Athena 1., wearing Attic helmet. 35 7 coins *a e-737 *b NN-1006
*c EE-4
B.C. (Region Olntos) of

A H Owl facing, stg. on kernel of wheat; on either side, pellet and olive branch.

Sv. 22.93-96

10-12 Av.1.27(7) 10 t 1.22 12 - 1.44

11 0.90

d e f g

NN-1625 O-218 AA-294a IIe-649

11 11 10 11

\ -

1.31 1.44 1.07 1.12

See Robinson and Price 1967, pp. 1-6. A Similar.

e H Owl facing, wings spread,

stg. on kernel of wheat; above at 1., [a pellet].

Sv. 22.97, 98



4th century B.C.,undated



Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 11 \ 1.38

A E within three crescents, horns inwards,arranged in circle.

Sv. 22.50, 51

Rare and imitative of Athenian silver, this is the most perplexing of all early Athenian bronze varieties. Reversesbear the distinctivetype of silverthree-quarter obols (tritartemoria, 21); and although the reversedies were specially engravedfor these larger-diameter versionsin bronze, the two specimens illustratedin Svoronos (Sv. 22.50 and 51, Athens and Berlin, both with 12 mm. diameters)were stamped from tiny obverse dies that appearto have been takenoverfromthe productionof silverfractionsof the obol. The largerobversedies of other examples, such as the one (9 mm.) illustratedin the Credit Bank catalogue63and one of the two unpublished pieces in the British Museum (both 10 mm.), were probably engraved exclusivelyfor the bronze. The variety was struckfrom at least three or four obversedies. It is conceivable that these pieces were actuallybronze tritartemoria, issued in state payments in lieu of silver a momentary fiscal crisis. Or perhaps they were distributedas voucher tokens, to be later exchanged during the hemiobol, the tetartemorion/dichalkon, the chalkous,as they are by the other scholarscited in this note. See also and A. E. Jackson, "The Bronze Coinage of Gortyn,"NC, ser. 7, 11, 1971 (pp. 37-51), pp. 50-51, with similarbut more provisionalidentifications.At Klazomenai, a chalkous (of AE 4 size: 1.3 g., 11 mm.) is so identified by the letter X on the reverse:E Imhoof-Blumer, "GriechischeMiinzen,"JVC, 3, 15, 1895 (pp. 269-289), p. 283, pl. 10:21. ser. 63 A. Bank Numismatic Athens 1978, no. 358. Collection, Walker,TheCredit


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. One of the BritishMuseum obversesstylisticallyapproximatesthe Athena heads on for silver tritartemoria.64 some of the later Double-bodiedowl bronzes(431,m), which suggestsa date as late as the 320's. But one stylistic comparison is a slender reed and leaves open the possibilitythat the variety may date from some other time in the century.The barelylegibleAgora examplewas foundwith a Double-bodiedowl bronze(r-138: variety41) in a fill below a Roman floor.

PERIOD I B.C. or ca. 350's-early mid-330's Sv. 103.1-15 EAEYEIabove. Piglet stg. r. Triptolemos,holding wheat on mystic staff;symbol or letter ears in r. hand, seated 1. in below or in field r. winged chariot drawn by two snakes. 15-18 Av. 3.20 (43) 77 coins 38 Pig'shead and ivy leaf, below (Sv. 103.2, 3) 18 - 2.85 a IIA-144 17 - broken b II-877 18 - blistered c AA-50 (L 19:2) Ivy branchwith leaves,below (Sv. 103.1) 17 . 3.01 *d E-1463 16 - 3.50 e A-1 17 - 3.29 f A-9 NN-2004 18 - 3.43 g Boukranion,below (Sv. 103.4, 5) )n 18 - 3.12 *h E-3100 Thompsc 1942, pl. I:l 16 - broken *i IIe-146 15 -- 3.42 j 00-461 Kleiner 1 18 X 3.49 k EA-250 1975,p. 317, no. 251 (P-R 6-12) below (Sv. 103.6, 7) Scallop shell, 16 - 2.78 1 II-28 Ram's head r., below (AmericanNumismaticSociety) 17 -+ 3.77 m H'-3181 Dolphin, below (Sv. 103.14) 17 \ 3.87 *n E-6448 Astragal,below (Sv. 103.10) 16 - 2.97 o H'-3273 - - broken p AA-973 A, below (Cavaignac,nos. 49 and 54) 16 v 3.14 *q H'-2901 e, in field r. (Sv. 103.15) 14 , 2.43 *r Q-515 15 , 2.91 s BA-207 Among the fifty-eightremainingspecimenswith illegiblesymbol or letter,four have Triptolemosseated r. (as Sv. 103.16) and one has piglet 1.(as Sv. 103.14). 64 Cf. the bronze symbolon with a three-obol mark (ou46oXovo Politeia XaXxouv ve'ca tOU y?: Aristotle,Ahenaion 68.2). No such tokens are extant, but for a series of lead dikastictokens that are stamped with the triobol device and that may have been substitutedfor bronze triobol tokens after the Anaion Potia was written, see Rhodes, p. 731, ConsfitutionAtns, London 1893 and 1912, frontispiece,and with the lead tokens illustratedinJ. E. Sandys,Aristotle's of Fox 1890, pl. III:15.

ca. early-mid330's


Similar. 39 *a *b *c *d *e 24 coins BB-226 I-969 Z-275 II-10 A-208 13-15 14 +15 4 15 +14 t 13 \ Av. 2.51 (16) 2.58 2.62 2.19 3.30 2.74

AeE above. Piglet stg. r. on mystic staff;below, plemochoe.

Sv. 103.33-37

[Similar.] *40 T-1402 15 broken

AO[E] below. Piglet stg. r. on mystic staff.


An unpublishedbut better-preserved example from the Dipylon Road excavationsin the Kerameikosgives the full ethnic and shows that the reverseis unwreathed.

[38-40] 35 coins of uncertainEleusinianor Athenian Piglet-on-mystic-staff variety.

ca. early mid-330's-322/317 B.C. or Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 41 16 coins *a B'-830 *b A-267 *c PP-821 13-15 13 / 15 13 +Av. 2.14 1.93 2.75 2.81

e 3 or variant. Double-bodied
owl stg. on mystic staff;in each upper corner, olive spray.

Sv. 22.43


The arrangementof the ethnic is legible only on 41c.

Similar. 42 *a *b *c *d *e *f 73 coins S-3088 BF'-875 II-507 ET-233 A-214 4-183 11-15 Av. 1.75 (37) 14 t 1.35 13 t 1.41 15 t 1.85 12 \ 1.12 13 t 1.73 12 \ 1.62

Similar,except no symbol below the owl.

Sv. 22.44-46


e-3 e-3
reverse type struckon both sides (cf. Sv. 22.52)

Similar. 43 *a *b *c *d 169 coins A-207 NN-328 ET-97 K-401 10-14 12 / 11 t 13 -+ 10 \ Av. 1.85 (65) 1.77 1.71 2.20 2.21

Similar,except Eleusis ring below the owl. E-e E-e

Sv. 22.35-42


*e *f *g

ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. S-6016 K-1428 00-1032 14 11 12 10 12 10 12 10 10 1.90 - 0.81 4 1.17 1.26 \ 1.62 -+ 0.89 / 1.92 t 1.21 / 1.44

e-E GRC,fig. 13 - same obverse die as 43h O-E trimmed flan e-H e-H Kleiner 1975, p. 304, pl. 75, no. 8 (H-K 12-14)

EA-223 AA-295 0-6 Z-394 *m ME-35

*h *i *j *k *1


Similar,except presence of mystic staff or Eleusis ring below owl uncertain. l-owlvariety. 721 coins of uncertainDouble-bodied [41-43] *a fl-262 12 - 1.85 11 t 1.96 *b A-270 *c NN-2122 13 t 1.56 *d HH-27 11 - 2.26 14 trimmed flan *e AA-991 1.63 *f IIne-124 same 13 - 1.09 N 1.85 same 12 *g S-3732 h e-274 Kleiner 1975, p. 304, pl. 75, no. I (H-K 12-14) 12 2.02 [41-43]a-c are illustratedfor their good pi-style obverses, e-g since their flans had been clipped down, d presumablybefore striking; is nearlytypeless.Most of these coins belong to variety43. Similar.

ca. 322/317-307 B.C. Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 44 *a *b *c *d *e *f g 49 coins o-150 8-787 H'-2245 K-772 T-920 A-417 rr-37 13-15 14 13 4 13 \ 14 t 14 413 14 \ Av.2.70 (13) 2.86 2.71 3.19 2.00 2.45 2.73 3.31 A?E below. Two owls stg. 1. and r., facing; between them, Eleusis ring; all in olive wreath. Sv. 24.42-50

Kleiner 1975, p. 304, pl. 75, no. 13 (H-K 12-14) GRC,fig. 13


AO between. Two owls stg. 1. and r., facing; plemochoe below; all in olive wreath.

Sv. 24.34-39

45 *a *b *c *d *e *f

34 coins e-206 OE-43 EA-373 8-396 ET'-586 ET-209

13-15 14 \ 13 t 14 14 13 14 t

Av. 2.50 (16) 1.60 3.15 3.44 3.71 2.71 2.83

GRC,fig. 13

PERIOD I: CATALOGUE Similar. 46 274 coins *a 0-269 *b A-31

43 Sv. 24.51-57

AO between. Two owls stg. 1. and r., facing; all in olive wreath.

13-15 Av. 2.34 (62) 14 4 2.48

13 \ 14 \ 1.99 2.89

Kleiner1975,p. 304, pl. 75, no. 22 (H-K 12-14)

*c r-1208 *d NN-2071 14 t 2.29 14 -+ 2.30 *e HII-358 14 4 2.75 *f K-1301 *g ET'-511 *h T-1604

*i III-89 *j T-1015 *k E-473 _-p 14 / 13 f broken 1.96

Kleiner1975,p. 309, pl. 75, no. 158 (H-K 12-14) A

0 Kleiner 1975, p. 321, pl. 75, no. 298 (misclassified) (M-N 15:1)

AO OA 5 -S specimens from the A 18:8 hoard illustratedin EABC, pl. 17:2, 6-9 The small Athena heads and chunkierfabric of 46h-k set them apart from the normal examples of variety 46. One or more might be Attic-helmetvariantsof the 3rd-centuryvariety 56 (Corinthianhelmet/Two owls, A over e), although, as we see from the otherwise normal 46g, the vertical arrangementof the ethnic is not necessarilyindicativeof later issue. 3.25 2.28 Similar. AOH below. Two owls stg. 1. and r., facing; all in olive wreath. unpublished

13 14 13

t ? t



2 coins *a E-5061
*b IIII-1000

14 t 3.06


(A 17:3)

Two owls in olive wreath;details illegible. 368 coins of uncertainAttic helmet/Two-owls variety. [44-47] Similar. Triptolemos1., holding wheat ears in r. hand, seated in or mounting winged chariot drawn by two snakes. 48 13-15 Av. 2.55 (16) 28 coins Triptolemosseated *a fQ-183 14 -+ 2.36 EAEYabove. Piglet stg. r. on slim mystic staff;all in wheat wreath. Sv. 103.22, 25

*b K-1770
*c BB-892 *d MM-83 *e E-2406



14 - 2.53 14 - 2.52 13 - 2.80

Triptolemos mounting *f AP-84 13 \ ME-186 14 \ *g

2.87 3.28

Of the unillustrated specimenswith legibleobverses,eighthaveTriptolemosseated,nine Triptolemosmounting.


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. Similar. Similar,except EAEYbelow. Sv. 103.26, 28

49 17 coins 13-15 Triptolemosmounting *a PP-81 15 t *b ME-176 15 t *c K-290 15 \

Av. 2.40(15) 2.35 2.32 2.22

Of the unillustrated specimenswith legibleobverses,two haveTriptolemosseated,eight Triptolemosmounting.

307-ca. 300 B.c.

50 *a *b *c *d *e *f *g *h *i *j *k 1,m

251 coins K-1616 B'-1024 II-690 K-1702 r-149 ME-238 A-410 NN-2040 IIH-825 Z-2995 H'-2247

Head of Athena r., wear ing Corinthianhelmet with three ke crests and, on visor, snal ornament. 14-16 Av. 3.52 (86) 14 . 4.02

A He- Owl stg. ., facing; all in olive wreath.

Sv. 22.85-88

15 4 3.83
14 15 15 14 15 15 14 14 15 4, 3.46 4- 3.05 4. 4.01 +- 4.71 3.79 / - 3.36 t 4.31 4 4.12 / 3.43 (B 13:1)

Kleiner 1975, p. 305, pl. 75, no. 49 (H-K 12-14) Kleiner 1975, no. 43 (H-K 12-14); GRC,fig. 13

2 EE specimens from the A 18:8 hoard illustratedin EABC, pl. 17:10, 11 Triptolemosseated 1. in chariot, as on 38 and 39. EAEYEIbelow. Piglet stg. r. on slim mystic staff;all in wheat wreath. Sv. 103.17-21


39 coins *a Q-249 *b 8-94

*c II-85
*d *e *f *g EA-171 B-374 ME-249 BB-286

15-17 15 t 17 t 15 f 15 / 15 \ 15 / 15 /

Av. 3.73 (33) 4.24 4.22 4.04 3.65 3.26 5.68 4.03

Heatyvarie Thompson 1942, pl. 1:3; GRC,fig. 17

(F 11:2) Kleiner 1975, p. 308, pl. 76, no. 134

287-284 B.C. A-e H Owl stg. r., facing all in olive Sv. 22.81-83 Head of Athena r., wearing wreath. Corinthian helmet. 13-15 Av.2.40 (18) 15 t 2.23 15 -+ 2.51 14 . 2.80 Kleiner 1975, p. 305, pi. 75, no. 54 (H-K 12-14)


37 coins *a KTA-57 *b KK-134 *c ME-366

PERIOD I: CATALOGUE *d rr-97 *e AA-507 f-h 14 t 13 \ 2.24 1.94 3 ES specimens in the A 18:8 hoard illustratedin EABC, pl. 17:13-15


284-270's B.c.

Similar. 53 *a *b *c *d *e 201 coins I-193 N-850 ME-20 A-244 0-403 12-15 14 4 14 \ 13 t 12 t Av. 2.37 (87) 2.78 1.84 2.75 2.42 2.73 2.75 2.12

A-9 Owl stg. r., facing; all in wheat wreath.

Sv. 22.64-70

Kleiner 1975, p. 305, pl. 75, no. 57 (H-K 12-14)



12 4 12 4
12 t

EABC,p. 150, pl. 17:16 (1 of 15 specimens from the A 18:8 hoard); see also EABC,pl. 17:21, 22, 25, 27, 30 *h A-400 15 -+ 2.66 e-A (as Sv. 22.64); GRC,fig. 13 Aberrantdie cutting accountsfor the retrogradeethnics of 53h and the unillustrated rr-420 and ME-327.

Similar. 54 38 coins Owl r. (36 coins) *a NN-2099 *b E--44d *c AA-55 *d NN-1845 *e D-349 Owl 1.(2 coins) *f NN-1719 g 00-332 12-14 Av.2.34 (17) 13 4 13 t 2.22 2.10

A-e (or e-A) Owl stg. r. (or 1.),facing; all in olive wreath.

Sv. 22.71, 72, 84

13 , 2.43 13 t 2.55 13 ,\ 14 4 14 $ 3.21 2.88 1.97

A-e A-9 EABC,p. 151, pl. 17:33 (1 of 6 specimens from the A 18:8 hoard);see also EABC,pl. 17:31, 32 A-e e-A; Kleiner 1976, p. 17, no. 86 (misclassified) (A-B 19-20:1) e-A A-e A-e

55 59 coins Triptolemosseated *a E-6467 14 *b 00-510 13 *c --E-45b 12

EAEYEIbelow. Piglet in wheat Triptolemos1., seated in or wreath, as on 51. mounting chariot, as on 48 and 49. 11-14 Av.2.26 (46) Lightvariey

Sv. 103.23, 27

t t

2.37 2.62 2.42

EABC,p. 151, pl. 17:47 (1 of 19 specimens from the A 18:8 hoard); see also EABC,pl. 17:46, 48, 51

Triptolemosmounting *d ME-169 14 t *e E-1917 13 \

2.06 2.47

46 *f *g Z-2986 S-2930


Of the unillustrated specimenswith legible obverses,22 have Triptolemosseated, 32 Triptolemosmounting.

UNCIASIFIED Piglet stg r. in wheat wreath; legend illegible. [48, 49, 51, 55] 356 coins of uncertainWreathed-piglet type. Similar.

ca. 270 B.C. A Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet. 56 *a *b *c *d *e *f 10 coins 8-785 AA-11 NN-1072 --26 NN-788 AA-271 13-15 13 t 13 t 14 t 13 t 14 t 14 t Av.2.35(8) 2.07 2.81 3.27 2.51 3.27 1.81

e between. Two owls stg. 1.

and r., facing; all in olive wreath.

Sv. 24.58, 59

*g ME-270

13 k/ 2.31

EABC,p. 151, pl. 17:37 (A 18:8) e only between owls. The alpha was probablypositioned above and between their heads. 8 only between owls, as 56e A e E Kleiner 1975, p. 305, no. 83 (misclassified) (H-K 12-14)

ca. 270-261 B.C. A Similar. 57 *a *b *c *d *e g 24 coins NN-781 E-27 5-28a IIA-8 r-325 A-998 13-15 Av.2.13(14)

e E Owl stg. r., facing;

in field r., wreath.

Sv. 22.76, 77

13 t 14 t
14 13 t 14 t 13 -

2.17 ' 2.56

GRC,fig. 13; Kleiner, MN 20, pi. 1:7 EABC,p. 151, pl. 17:38 (A 18:8) EABC,p. 151, pl. 17:39 (A 18:8)

14 t

2.37 2.41 1.56 Rotroff 1983, p. 291, pl. 57, no. 68 (H 6:9)

*f r-981

Similar. 58 *a *b *c *d *e 25 coins fl-375 III-322 r-654 NN-1979 H-2186 13-15 13 \ 13 \ 14 t 15 -+ 13 t Av.2.27 (16) 2.44 2.85 1.97 3.14 2.79

Similar,except in field r., ear of wheat.

Sv. 22.78, 79

PERIOD I: CATALOGUE Similar. 59 *a *b *c *d *e 19 coins BA-56 00-815 A-686 II-629 OE-42 12-14 Av. 2.35 (11) 13 t 2.46 13 -+ 2.55 14 -+ 2.22 13 +- 3.02 13 t 2.04 Similar. *60 IIO-698 16 \ Similar. 2.90 Similar,except symbol at r. illegible. Similar,except in field r., cornucopia. Sv. 22.73, 74


GRC,fig 13; Kleiner,MN 20, pl 1:6

Similar,except in field r., Eleusis ring.

Sv. 22.75

variety. [57-60] 146 coins of uncertainowl-r.-with-symbol 14 a _E-28b EABC,p. 151, pl. 17:40 (A 18:8) 14 - worn and cut to triangularshape *b AA-50 UNCLASSIFIED Similar. Owl r.; details illegible.

[52-54, 57-60] 580+ coins of uncertain3rd-centuryCorinthianhelmet/Owl-r. variety. The total excludesan estimatedseveralhundredcoins that in the 1930'swere identifiedand enteredin the field notebooks as "3rdcenturyB.C. Owl r."but which were subsequentlydiscardedas being insufficiently legible. 3rdcentury undated B.C., Head of Demeter r., wearing wheat wreath. 61 T-206 15 t [EAEYEI]above. Plemochoe resting on Eleusis ring; all in wheat wreath. too worn for illustration Sv. 103.29-32

3.22 Evidently an isolated emission of limited mintage. Published specimens have diameters of 13-15 mm.; Cavaignacgives two weights: 3.12 g. and 3.34 g. By diameterand weight, the issue might seem to fall between the heavy and light Wreathed-piglet,EAEYEIvarieties51 and 55, to which it is related through its five-letter ethnic and wreathed reverse.Alternatively, since the em on could (like51) have been struckwith "reformed" diameterand weight, a position afterthe light Wreathedpigletsis also possibleand would better suit the changed Elellsiniantypes. 261-229 B.C. Two superimposedpiglets stg. 1. A-E on either side of upright mystic staff;all in olive wreath. Sv. 103.42-46


21 coins *a fl-101 *b EA-10 II-240 NN-2035

13-14 Av.2.21(12) 14 4. 2.19 14 V/ 2.15 14 t 13 t 2.37 2.50

TI hompson 1942, pl. I:4; Kleiner 1975, p. 316, pl. 75, no. 233 (C t-R 10-11:1)



f A-1452

13 - 2.47


Kleiner1975,p. 306, no. 95 (H-K 12-14)

(G 6:2) EAE (downwardsat r.)-YEI (upwardsat 1.)on either side of thick, upright mystic staff. Thompson 1942, p. 222, pl. 1:5

AeE? (above).Piglet stg. r. on ground line. *63 X-115 12 \ 1.49 (N 18:3)

When publishingthis very worn coin, MargaretThompson read A8E on the obverseand EAEon the reverse. While the suggestionsof obverseletterscould resultfromrandompittingsin the surface,the suggestions,especially of the theta, are undeniable (see Thompson'spl. 1:5).The obverse AeE is paralleledon Sv. 103.41, a variant of 62 in the Numismatic Collection of Athens. A second specimen of the present variety (at the American Numismatic Society,Inv. 1944.100.26047, 12 mm., 1.75 g.), being even more worn, confirmsonly the reading of the downwardsEAEon the reverse.Both specimens are overstrikes, seen from the broken relief of their as staffs. uprightmystic

PERIOD II 229-ca. 183 B.C.

When the Macedonian monarchy was suddenly weakened by the death of King Demetrios II in 229 B.C.,the Athenians entered into negotiations with the Macedonian commander of the Peiraeus

for the evacuation of his garrisonsfrom the forts of Attica. Raising the agreed-uponprice of 150 talents, the city purchasedits freedom later in the year65and slowly began to recover a measure of her past brillianceas one of the more influentialand prosperousstatesof old Greece. As in many other areas of Athenian public life, the liberationof 229 had a profound impact on the coinage. with The traditionalowl silverwas soon refurbishedin a new series of drachmsand tetradrachms emission symbols and gradually shed its old-fashionedappearance to evolve in the 2nd century into the ornate, wide-flan New Style coinage. Yet the modernizationof the bronze coinage was, if anything, swifter,more dramatic, and more expressiveof the forward-looking spirit of the new a medium for a more varied nationalisticiconography and age, as the bronze began to serve as was for the firsttime issued in severalcomplementarydenominations. The establishedAE 3 unit of PeriodI, althoughcontinuedin three modest Period II emissions (65,67, and 77; see Table II, pp. 322-323 below),wasjoined and eclipsedby more substantialand frequent strikingsin the largerAE 2 and smallerAE 4 modules, the former taken over from the bronzesofAntigonos Gonatas(507). As explained(p. 38 above),the three basic Pan-erecting-trophy denominationsare to be recognizedas the chalkous(AE4), the dichalkon/tetartemorion (AE3), and the hemiobol (AE 2). A fourthmodularunitwas employedonly in the earlierphase of PeriodII. This is the much larger (20-22 mm.) and heavier (8-10 g.) AE 1, which would logically representthe bronze obol were it not that the unit was introducedin variety64 with the traditionaltypesof the Atheniansilvertriobol: Athena head in Attic helmet/Upright facing owl between two pendent olive branches. Ordinarily one might be skepticalwhether these triobol types were intended to retain their denominational meaning when transferredto a bronze coin, but in the present instance the case for transferred denominationalsignificanceis unusuallystrong.

Plutarch,Aratu 34; Pausanias2.8.6.



In all Athenian coinage no reversetype was more closely associatedwith a common monetary value than the erect, frontal owl framed by olive sprays and a triangularlyarranged ethnic. The type was created for Athens' first triobols in the second half of the 5th century (12). Through the reversewas one of the more pi-style silverof the later 4th century,the triobolwith its characteristic And althoughwe do not know if any triobols heavilyminted denominationsbelow the tetradrachm. were struck with the quadridigitedrachms and tetradrachmsin the early 3rd century, Svoronos illustratestwo silvertriobolswith the unmistakableobverse style of certain heterogeneousdrachms The heterogeneoustriobolswere probablystruckby and tetradrachmsfrom later in the century.66 but whether they were or not, they bring the associationof reversetype and value into the Athens; 240's or 230's, after which triobols vanish from the pre-New Style silver,their types having been to transferred the heavy new AE 1 bronze.There is consequentlyeverygood reason to inferthat the AE 1 bronzes with triobol types were intended to replace triobols in silver.67In this connection it must be significantthat the types were employed on bronze coins only when the AE 1 module was introduced. Once the value of the AE 1 pieces had become familiar,denominational types were discontinuedin favor of more contemporarydesigns depicting a head of Zeus or Artemis on obverses and the statue of Athena Polias on reverses(66, 68). Significance,too, must be attached to the circumstancethat all these AE 1 coins were eventuallycounterstampedwith the device of a plemochoe on both sides, doubtlessto devaluethem to the level of the Demeter/Plemochoe AE 2 pieces (72-74) in a tacit recognition that the highly overvaluedbronze triobols had outlived their usefulnessas a substitutefor silver.The strikingof triobols in silver returned in the 2nd century with the advent of the stephanephoriccoinage. Close stylisticsimilaritiesbetween the silverdrachmswith symbols(p. 13 above), the firstAE 1 triobol variety 64, and the contemporaryAE 3 Two-owl variety 65 (note especiallywhat seems to be an aplustrehelmet ornament on 65a) affirm that th two bronze varieties date within the last the three decades of the 3rd century. But because the AE 1 triobols were almost certainly issued to replacesilvertriobolsalreadyin circulation,theirinceptionmay reasonablybe attributedto 229 and relatedto the 150 talentsof silverthat the Atheniansthen raisedto purchaseteir freedomfrom the Macedonian garrisonsin the Peiraeusand the other fortsof Attica. Aratosand the Achaian League gave Athens 20 talents toward this end,68 and it is usually assumed that another substantialgift was solicitedfrom Ptolemy Euergetes.Athens obtainedloans of perhapsas much as 20 talentsfrom the cities of Boiotia and relied heavily on contributionsfrom her wealthier citizens and friends.69 It now appearsthat another sourcewas tapped by withdrawinga quantityof silverfrom circulation, all triobolscertainlybut possiblysome silverin largerdenominationsas well, through an exchange with the bronze triobols, more or less as Athens had done with the plated bronze drachms and tetradrachms 406/5 B.C. of (pp. 7-8 above). Period II thus begins with the AE 1 triobolsin 229. The end of the period is archaeologically fixed by the great constructionfill of the Middle Stoa in the Agora (Deposit H-K 12-14). The 189
66 Sv. 21.51, 52 (see note 47 above,p. 12). Sv.24.28 = BMCAttica, V:15, is another 3rd-century B.C.silvertriobolbut pl. with an Athena head that has its closest parallelsin the tetrobols 29a, b. The tremendous scale of triobol strikingin the later4th centurycan be appreciatedfromthe 64 triobolsin the 89-piece Peiraeus1956 hoard, IGCH 127 (Thompson 1957). 67 The inscribed bronze TPI2BOAO struckby Samothrace (Hunter p. 388, no. 1, pi. 26:7: 10.4 I, g., 24 mm.) is of AE 1 size but belongs probablyto the 1st centuryB.C., judge from the broken-baralpha of the ethnic. to 68 Plutarch,Aratus 34. 69 Habicht, Studien, 79-81, for full documentationand discussion. pp.



identifiablecoins excavatedfrom the fill give a nearly complete run of Athenian bronze from the middle of the 4th centurydown to the closing of the fill ca. 183 B.C.70and include specimensfrom all but threeof the PeriodI coinages.71Observingin his publicationof the coins in the Middle Stoa fill thatlaterbronzevarietiesdo not show up in Agora depositsuntilafterthe middle of the 2nd century, Kleinerdeduced that the mintingof bronzewas suspendedbetween ca. 183 and ca. 140 B.C.72There at can be no doubt that mintingwas interrupted the end of PeriodII, presumablybecause continued productionwas judged unnecessary;but since the Period III strikingsprobablybegan in the 160's (pp. 67-68 below), the lacuna will have lasted for only about two decades. The PeriodII bronze is unusuallyrich in featuresthat tie particularemissionsto episodes in the The politicalhistoryofAthens duringthe late 3rdand early2ndcenturiesB.C. chronologypresentedin considerations: fromthe followinginterlocking Table H (pp. 322-323 below)has been reconstructed an abruptmodificationin 1. As in the owls of the late 3rd-early2nd-centuryB.C. silver,therewas the formofthe owlson the Period I bronze.Except in the AE 4 variety81, Owl on thunderbolt,all the with symbols(p. 13 Period II owls have heads designedlike those on the drachmsand tetradrachms to the brow,eyes are heads have little or no feathering,beaksare long and frequently joined above): The exceptionalowl headsof the Owl-on-thunderbolt pieces, with small,dot-shaped relatively large. eyes sunkendeeply below an enlarged,bulbousforehead,are, on the other hand, identicalto the owl heads of the New Style silver and the final, spread-flanOld Style tetradrachmswith monograms AE (p. 13 above). The Owl-on-thunderbolt 4 should thus belong relativelylate in Period II, surely to the early 2nd centuryratherthan to the late 3rd, as shouldthe AE 2 StandingZeus issues(78-80) with which the pieces depictingan owl on Zeus'sthunderboltwere presumablyminted. 2. That the AE 2 Standing Zeus coinage belongs after the turn of the century follows from a previouslyunremarkeddetail of its earliest obverse dies. Throughout most of the coinage, the Athena on the obversewears a Corinthianhelmet. The firstissue, however,began with an Athena in an Attic helmet ornamented with a wing (see 78a, b and Sv. 80.1-3), which at once brings to mind the winged helmet worn by the goddess Roma on the early denarius coinage of Rome.73 CertainArchaicelectrumof Kyzikosand Prieneand laterbronze or silverissuesofKamarina, Velia, and Metapontion also depict Athena in a winged helmet.74 But the very rarity and remoteness

The date is derivedfrom the abundantwine-jarhandlesin the deposit;see Grace 1985, pp. 1-54, with Grace and s "Les M. Savvatianou-Petropoulakou, timbresamphoriquesgrecs,"Dfl XXVII, pp. 289-291, 317-319. Over 1,200(84 of the Middle Stoa stampedhandlesbelong to the well-datedRhodian and Knidian series,whose chronologies percent) in the early2nd centuryare anchoredto 188 B.C. throughthe hypothesisthat the introductionof secondarystampson the on Rhodian handles and the simultaneousappearanceof namedphewuaroi the Knidian follow upon Rhodes' takeover of the Carian coast in that year. In light of the ancillarychronologicalevidence assembledby Grace, the hypothesis seems inescapable.The latest stamped handles in the Middle Stoa fill come down to about five years after the start of the Rhodian secondarystampsand the Knidianphowchoi and so date the closingof the depositto around 183 (Grace op. 1985, pp. 8-9, 14-15; Grace and Savvatianou-Petropoulakou, cit.,p. 291, stating "183 or 182 B.C."). 71 Kleiner 1975, pp. 304-307: depositsI and I. The threePeriodII coinagesthat are missingfromthe depositare the AE 1 triobolvariety64, the AE 2 Zeus/Amphora variety76, and the rareAE 3 Owl left with amphora 77. 72 Kleiner 1975, pp. 329-330; 1976, p. 36. 73 Crawford,RRC,nos. 44/5, 45/1, 46/1, etc. 74 LLMC II, s.v.Athena Ailee, p. 964 and pl. 711, nos. 64 (Kyzikos) and K.Jenkins, U. and 65 (?Priene). Westermark TheCinageof Kamina, London 1980, pp. 220-224, pls. 35, 36, nos. 198-205 (AE, 420-405 B.c); SNC, Itay 1560, 1561, 1575-1577, 1583, 1584 (Veliasilver,4th-3rd centuriesB.c.);and 1241 (Metapontionsilver,"HannibalicPeriod, c. 212-07 B.C.").The last coin probablyowes its winged helmetto the denarius.The winged helmet on the denariusand its relation to the winged helmet of Perseuson the coinage of King Philip V of Macedon is discussedby Boehringer,



of such comparanda make it highly probable that the helmet wing on the Athenian bronze is a must have been reachingAthens,if borrowingfrom the denarii,which, firststruckin 212 or 21 1 B.C., Not only did Athens only in sample numbers,during the Second Macedonian War (200-197 B.C.). herself with Rome, Pergamon, and Rhodes in the spring of 200 at the beginning of the war, ally but for its duration a detachment of Roman soldiers was stationed in Athens to defend against Macedonian attack, while the Peiraeusserved as the base of operationsfor the Roman fleet.75In these circumstances,the borrowingof the helmet wing will date afterthe springof 200 and should, indeed, be understood as a complimentaryreference to Rome, the new champion of Athenian independence. 3. A winged helmet (on which the wing is more pointed and closer to the Roman prototype) is worn also by Athena of the AE 3 variety77, Owl left with amphora, and places this rare variety, too, after the spring of 200. The variety must fall between that date and the start of the Owl-onthunderboltAE 4 (and the Standing Zeus AE 2 of 78-80); for, as seen from the better-preserved examples of the Owl-left emission in Svoronos (Sv. 22.89-92), the owls have heads of Old Style design with large eyes. This Owl-leftAE 3 is linkedto the AE 2 variety76, Zeus/Amphora, through the olive-wreathborder on the reversesof both issues, a feature that occurs nowhere else in the PeriodII bronze. Since the reversetype of a large Panathenaicamphoraon the AE 2 coins suggests that they were probably struckin conjunctionwith a celebrationof the Greater Panathenaia,the accompanying Owl-left AE 3 with its winged helmet and adjunct Panathenaicamphora may be dated to 198 B.C., when the festivalwas held for the firsttime afterthe alliancewith Rome. 4. Followingafter a short interval,the Athena in winged helmet/Standing Zeus AE 2 (and the start of the Owl-on-thunderboltAE 4) can plausiblybe associatedwith Flamininus'victory over Philip V in 197 at the conclusionof the Second MacedonianWar and his policy,announced a year later at the Isthmian Games, of guaranteeingfreedom for all Greeks.The policy,it is true, brought no special benefits to the Athenians, who were already free, but enthusiasmfor Flamininusmust have run high, if only for his defeat of the hated Philip. The acclamationshe received elsewhere as Savior and Liberatorreplicatedthe cult titles of Zeus Soter-Eleutheriosat Athens and Plataia and point to an association of Flamininuswith this cult, as Walbanknoticed.76 Given the Roma helmet on its firstobversesand the very limited time in the early 2nd centuryavailablefor this issue, it is reasonableto suppose that the Standing Zeus on the reverse of the coins actually depicts the Athenian statue of Zeus Soter-Eleutherios, discussedbelow. as This in turn leaves the final type change of the AE 2 unit to the FulminatingZeus reversein that is, about midwaybetween 196 and ca. 183. variety82 to fall around 190 B.C., 5. Athens' long and important series of AE 2 issues began with the overstrikingof the Panerecting-trophyAE 2 of Antigonos Gonatas (507) by variety 69, whose reverse of Owl threequartersright, wings raised, with amphora, was copied from the pentobol silver struckduring the ChremonideanWar (28, see pp. 10-11 above). Intended to remove the Macedonian bronze from circulation,the overstriking was, as Habichtpointed out, unlikelyto havebeen enactedbeforeAthens
that on is pp. 116-124.ButM0rkholm (EHC, 136)cautions speculation thismatter futileuntiltherelevant of p. coinage

Philipis more securelydated. Even so, it is unthinkablethat the Athenianswould haveborrowedthe winged helmet from the coinage of Philip. 75 For documentation, mostly in Livy, and a vivid narrativeof the Roman presence at Athens during the Second Macedonian War,see Ferguson,pp. 270-279, esp. 278-279. 76 F. W. Walbank,A Historical on CommentaryPolybius Oxford 1967, pp. 613-614, concludingthat "Flamininusthus II, appropriatedthe identificationwith Zeus favoredby PhilipV"



brokefree of Macedoniancontrolin 229 B.C.77The overstriking apparentlybelongsin fact a number of yearsafter229. Workingbackfromthe AE 2 issuesof the early2nd century,the AE 2 issues73-75 with the EleusinianDemeter/Plemochoe typestaketheirplace roughlyin the last one or two decades of the 3rd century,leaving the two Owl three-quarters right issues 69 and 70 and the overstriking over Gonatasto date in the 210's or later220's. Becauseof the historicalassociationsof the reverseof the Owl three-quartersright with amphora with the ChremonideanWar pentobols, which were
struck to pass as Ptolemaic drachms and may have actually been called 8paXiat IToXeci-xal, it LCL follows that the type was revived for the overstriking more for its pro-Egyptian than for its anti-

Macedonian implications.Accordingly,the overstriking should date to or just after 224/3 B.C., the close politicaland culturalties to the Egyptiancourt and year in which the Atheniansreestablished honored Ptolemy Euergetesas the eponymoushero of a new Athenian tribe.78 6. Each of the laterAE 2 coinagesof PeriodII was accompaniedby its own small-denomination variety:the FulminatingZeusAE 2 by the Cicada/AmphoraAE 4 (see under85), the StandingZeus AE AE 2 by the Owl-on-thunderbolt 4 (p. 50 above),the Zeus/Amphora AE 2 by the Owl-left-withamphora AE 3 (p. 51 above), and the Demeter/Plemochoe AE 2 by the Plemochoe/Eleusis-ring AE 4. It followsthat the earliestAE 2 coinage, Owl three-quarters right,was probablyaccompanied by the earliestAE 4 variety,Owl on rudder(71). An issue of the drachmswith symbols (Sv. 23.41, 42; see p. 13 above) also has its owl perched on a rudder,which doubled on the drachms as an emissionsymbol. But we should probablyinterpretthe rudderof both coinages as the metaphorical and the rudderof government(xupepv7i<a), owl as the helmsman(xup1?pevsT), the whole device as an eloquent, if modest, emblem of Athenian autonomy. 7. Mention has already been made of the relatively short-lived AE 1 triobols that were inaugurated in 229 B.C.with triobol types (64). The series passed through two type changes (66: Zeus head/Athena Polias, and 68: Artemis head/Athena Polias)before all the AE 1 pieces were counterstamped on both sides with a plemochoe device to devalue them to equivalence with the Demeter/Plemochoe AE 2 hemiobols. Dating with the latter,the Plemochoe/Plemochoe
counterstamping occurred between ca. 220 and ca. 200, so that the bronze triobols must have

circulatedfor at least a decade before devaluation.This is understandableenough in view of what

must have been a serious shortage of silver in Athens after 229 and the continuing obligation of

the city to repay the sizable debts it contractedin that year.Not that this highly overvaluedbronze would have necessarilyretainedits face value for a decade or more; over time its value in relation to silvermay very well have declined. Even if the coins were ultimatelypassingas bronze obols, their continuationwould probablyhave beenjustified.The Athena PoliasAE 1 with the Artemisobverse was produced for a long enough time for its reversesto pass from a phase of fine die engraving and a dotted border to a stylistically cursoryphase without the border (cf. Sv. 25. 10).79The variety, on for all one can tell, may have been issued after the AE 2 overstriking Gonatas. On the other
(EABC, 144,note9) thattheoverstriking Studien, 42, 148,note 137,correcting earlier p. Habicht, my suggestion pp. Macedon towards strict deathin 239. Stressing Athens' havebeenprecipitated Antigonos' policyof neutrality by might to of between229 and PhilipV's invasion Atticain the fallof 201, Habicht(Studien, 146-150)proposed connect pp. in that with the overstriking the damnatio memoriae the Athenians passedagainstKingPhilipand all his ancestors 201 II the wouldcompress firstsevenAE 2 issuesof Period so late a datefor the overstriking or a yearor two later.But shortspaceof onlyfouror fiveyearsandcannotbe accepted. withinan impossibly 78 The honors for andtheevidence the 224/3 datearereviewed Habicht, Studien, 105-112,and,in connection pp. by Alexandrine bowlsimitating with the suddenvogue in Athensfor moldmade XXII, Agora by prototypes, Rotroff, pp. 11-13. 79 H. Kroll,"TheAncient to and in inAthenan Architecture, Sculpture, TopographyPresented Polias," Studies ImageofAthena J. Princeton 1982(pp.65-76),p. 71, note27, withpl. 11. A. Homer Thompson 20), Supplement (Hesperia



hand, the Zeus/Athena Polias variety 66 (fine style, dotted reverse border)was accompanied by the AE 3 variety 67 (also with a dotted border on the reverse)and presumablyantedatesthe Owl three-quarters right AE 2 and Owl-on-rudderAE 4. Iconographical Symbolism Conspicuousin this review of types is the fresh and sometimespoliticallychargediconography that sets the Period II bronze apart from the monotony of all preceding Athenian coinage. Even otherwise conventional owl or Athena-head types were given an original, topical twist, as when the ChremonideanWar owl with lifted wings and amphorawas revivedfor the overstriking the of Macedonian bronze of Antigonos Gonatas (69), the owl of the firstAE 4 reversewas made to grasp the rudder of state (71), or Athena's helmet was embellishedwith a wing alluding to the goddess Roma, as it was during andjust afterthe Second MacedonianWar (77, 78). A more explicit expressionof Athenian independence and nationalismis found on the AE 1 obversespicturingthe statue of the chief tutelarydeity of the city,Athena Polias or, as the goddess was also known, Athena Archegetis(Founder).80 The coins of varieties 66 and 68 afford the only extant visual documentationin any medium for this statue, but the identificationwith the ancient olive-wood xoanon that was housed in the Erechtheionand dressedeach Panathenaiain a newly woven peplos seems certain from the inscribed inventoriesof the gold ornaments of the image, which included a phiale in one of the goddess' hands and a gold owl supportedat shoulderlevel, preciselyas the coins show.81The image on the coins, too, wears a Corinthianhelmet, presumably the removable "sacredhelmet" on the Akropolismentioned by Aristophanes.82 One suspectsthat the venerable Polias image was conceived on the coins as a kind of response to the archaistic statue of Athena brandishinga thunderboltthat Antigonos Gonatas placed on the reversesof his drachms and tetradrachms.This Athena is identifiedas the statue of Athena Alkis, or Alkidamos, that stood in the Macedonian capital of Pella.83The reverse of a fighting archaisticAthena had earlierappearedon satrapaltetradrachms PtolemyI and on statersof Demetrios Poliorketes of and so had a long association with Macedonian royalty.84 was very probably this association that It inspiredthe Atheniansto place the image of their own nationalAthena cult on the reversesof their coins soon after the Macedonian occupationof Attica ended in 229. Two Athenian emblems, the Panathenaicamphora and the cicada, make their earliestappearances as coin types in the Period II bronze. The cicada first occurs on the Cicada/Amphora AE 4
Ibid.,p. 69. Ibid., 65-72. Implicitlyrejectingthe epigraphicaltestimonia,Ira S. Mark("The Ancient Image and Naiskosof pp. Athena Polias: The Ritual Setting on a Late Fifth-CenturyAcropolis Relief" [lecture, San Antonio 1986], abstract in AJA 91, 1987, pp. 287-288) alternativelyidentified the Polias with the xoanon depicted on the relief, 0. Walter, der im in Vienna 1923, no. 76. But even if we could be sure that the Beschreibung Reliefs Kinen AkropolimuseumAthen, xoanon on the relief held a phiale and an owl, the owl would be positioned at the goddess' waist, not her shoulder as the inscriptionsrequire. Nor does the xoanon wear the golden gorgoneion that was part of the Polias ensemble since before 480 B.c.(Plutarch, Themistokles with the inscribedinventories),although a gorgoneion is to be found 10, on the breast of the Athena who sits below the xoanon on the relief. The very presence of this Athena implies that the xoanon was an image of another deity altogether,as Waltersays. 82 J. H. Kroll, "'The Sacred Helmet' of Lysistrata 748-55 and the Image of Athena Polias"(lecture,Cincinnati 1983), abstractin AJA88, 1984, p. 250. 83 Brett 1950, pp. 55-72, pl. XII:14, 15. Lacroix,pp. 119-121, pl. VIII:8-10; Boehringer,p. 99, pls. 25, 26:18-26; LIMCII, s.v.Athena Promachos,p. 973, pls. 722, 723, no. 164. On the circulationof Gonatas'silverat Athens after261, see pp. 12, 36 above. 84 Brett 1950, pl. XI. Lacroix, pp. 116-121, pl. VII:5, 6; LIMC II, s.v. Athena Promachos, p. 973, pls. 722, 723, nos. 158, 159, 162.




and (85) around 190 B.C. goes on to become one of the more populardesignsof the bronzecoinagein the later 2nd and earlier 1st centuriesB.C.(cf. 100, 108, 113, 131). From Thucydides (1.6.3) and line Aristophanes (Knights, 1331)we know that the Atheniansof old used to fastentheirhair withgold broochesin the form of a cicada, and the scholiaon the Kightsexplainwhy: born, like the Athenians, from the earth, cicadas symbolizedAthenian autochthony.85 The Hellenisticrevivalof this ancient and the elevation of the cicada to a quasi-officialstatuswithin the repertoryof Athenian symbol state emblems are a prime expressionof what has been called in the context of other antiquarian revivalsof 2nd-centuryB.C. Athens "the outbreakof sentimentalnationalismwhich accompanied the Roman conquest of Greece."86The use of the Panathenaicamphora as a reverse type in the Zeus/Amphora AE 2 (76) seems to have been suggestedby the Eleusinianvessel on the reverses of the precedingDemeter/Plemochoe emissions(72-74). In contrast to these new Athenian types, the Demeter/Plemochoe AE 2 and Plemochoe/ AE Eleusis-ring-in-wheat-wreath 4 (72-75) draw on the establisheddesigns and symbols of the earlier Eleusinian coinage. But in Period II the bronze with Eleusinian types, no longer bearing the EAEYEI legend, is fully incorporatedinto the mainstreamof the regularbronze coinage and (as shown by the AE 2 overstriking) interruptsthe sequence of issues with Athenian devices, instead of being struckin tandem, as earlier.The abruptshift from Athenian to Eleusiniantypes in the last to quarterof the 3rd centuryis awkward explain,unlessit arosefroman expansionin the importance and size of the Eleusinianfestivalsabout a decade or so after 229.87 The major innovationof the PeriodII iconographyis the recognitionextended to deities other than Athena and Demeter. By priority and frequencyZeus is the principal newcomer. Portrayed soon after 229 on the obverse of the first oftthe two AE varietieswith the Athena Poias reverse (66), the Zeus probably represents, as the historical context suggests, Zeus Soter-Eleutherios.88 The Artemis whose head is substitutedfor the head of Zeus on the next, and last, AE 1 variety (68) may accordinglybe recognized as Artemis Soteira or, if the reference is to the liberation of Mounychia from the Macedonian garrison, Artemis Mounychia.89After this single appearance, Artemis disappearsfrom the coinage until after Athens gained control of Delos in 167/6. When she is met again in variety 104 (PeriodIII), the referenceis doubtlessto her Delian cult. Zeus, on the other hand, becomes ever more entrenchedas PeriodII progresses.Reintroduced AE 2 Zeus head/Amphora variety76, thegod was t ansferredto the reversesof issues78-80, on theAgodZ there depicted in the form of an Early Classicalstatue of a nude standing Zeus holding a lowered
D. M.Jones and N. G. Wilson in choli in Aristophanem, Equies,W.J. W Koster,ed., Groningen/Amsterdam I, ii, 268. 1969, p. 86 J..K. Davies,AdianinPAftiedFarilis, 600-300 B.C., Oxford 1971, p. 11. 87 Compare the program for increasing internationalparticipationat the Mysteries in the second quarter of the 4th century (pp. 29, 30 above), when the Eleusiniancoinage originated.An Athenian decree of the late 3rd century (B. Helly, Gonnoi Amsterdam 1973, pp. 120-127, no. 109) deals with the internationalannouncementsof the three I, major Athenian festivals (the Eleusinia, the Panathenaia, and the Mysteries)showing that Athens was at this time with which the Mysterieswere being passinglegislationto restoreher festivalsto theirformerbrilliance.The seriousness in 201 of two young Akarnanians who viewed the rites without conducted at this time is underscoredby the execution of Attica shortlythereafter(Livy31.14.6; Polybios 16.35.5). being initiated,executionsthat led to PhilipV's invasion A third "Eleusinian" issue, so rare that no specimen has turned up in the Agora, should probablyalso belong to Period II rather than III, the only chronologicalalternative.This is the AE 4 (11 mm.) Sv. 103.47-49: Triptolemos seated left in winged chariot A8E in a triangulararrangementarounda plemochoe, wheat ear at right. 88 See below.Forthe Athenian cult of Zeus Soter-Eleutherios, AgoraII, nos. 24-36, pp. 25-28. see 89 The shrine of ArtemisSoteirawas locatedjust outside the Dipylon;see IG 1121343, 4631, 4695, and B. D. Meritt, discussionin "Researches "GreekInscriptions," 10, Hesperia 1941 (pp. 31-64), pp. 62-63, no. 28, with W. S. Ferguson's in Athenian and Delian Documents I," RKo7, 1907 (pp. 213-240), pp. 213-214, and J. H. Oliver's in "Greekand Latin Inscriptions," 10, Hesperia 1941 (pp. 237-261), p. 243, no. 42. ForArtemisMounychia,see K. Werniche,RE II, von cols. 1393-1394; W.Judeich, Topographe Atn, 2nd ed., Munich 1931, p. 452.



thunderboltat his right side, his left arm extending straightout from the shoulder in a gesture of This statuewas then replacedon the remainingAE 2 reverses(82-84) by another,which authority.90 representsthe god in the more conventionalLate Archaic-EarlyClassicalschema of a stridingZeus brandishingthe thunderboltin his upraisedright hand; an eagle is added at his feet. Both statue types recur in the later bronze coinage. The final PeriodII AE 2 format of Athena wearing Corinthian helmet/Fulminating Zeus was revived in the second half of the 2nd century B.C. for the last eight AE 2 issues of Period Im (90-97); and the striding,FulminatingZeus reverse (althoughhere with the eagle on the wrist of the god's extended left arm) was again revivedat the startof the AE seriesthatbegan afterthe BattleofPhilippi in 42/1 B.C.(137). Historically, however, the Standing Zeus was the more importantstatue. Chosen firstfor representationon the PeriodII reverses, it reappears as a reverse type shortly after the Battle of Actium (148) and, a full three hundred years later, on a single reverse die of the huge Period VI Athenian imperial coinage of the 260's after Christ.91 A third statue of Zeus on Athenian coins is not strictlyrelevantto our understandingof these two statues but has neverthelessled scholarsto identify one or the other of them as Zeus Polieus. This third statue is known from one reversedie in the PeriodVB imperialcoinage of Hadrianicor Antonine date (175) and from one reversedie in the PeriodVI imperialcoinage a little more than a centurylater (357). It is of a Zeus standingbeforea low,gabled altarornamentedwith a boukranion, his left hand extended down over the altar in the ritualact of sprinkling,92 right hand (likethat his of the StandingZeus on the PeriodII and IV reverses) hangingat his side, holding a thunderboltat a tilt.3 Portrayedon the Hadrianic-Antoninereverse at a relativelylarge scale and with 45-degree what must be a considerablefidelityto the style of the original,the SacrificingZeus is a handsome figure and since the middle of the 19th century has been customarilyassociatedwith one of the two statuesthat Pausanias(1.24.2)saw in the sanctuaryof Zeus Polieuson the Akropolis:"theone by
90 That the statueis EarlyClassicalis clear fom is to the Eay ClassicalApollo fom the west pediment of easimilarity the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, who also liftsone arm straightout in a commandinggesturewhile carryinghis attribute and weapon down at his side in his other hand; see Boardman, Greek figs. Scupture, 19, 21:3. Although both arms are broken below the shoulders, the copy of an Early Classical Zeus assigned to the Nymphaeum of Herodes Atticus at Olympia (Bol,pp. 187-190, pls. 59-61, no. 48; R. Bol and P.Herz, "ZumKultbilddes Zeus Panhellenios.Moglichkeiten der Identifikationund Rezeption," in Greek Renaissance 89-95, pl. 28], p. 89) seems to have been posed more or [pp. less like the West Pediment Apollo. Closer to the Athenian Standing Zeus with perpendicularleft arm is the statue of a nude Zeus at Olympia depicted on Elian coins from the time of Hadrian (Liegle, pp. 110-111, p. 4:6), but the left leg of this statue is more bent, and there is an eagle perchedon the god's left wrist. 91 The die is known from two unpublishedcoins, one at the AmericanNumismaticSociety,the other in the Evelpides Collection, Athens. 92 Publicationsdescribe,and sometimesillustrate with a restoreddrawing,the Zeus as holding a phiale;cf. BMCAtia, p. 104, no. 755, and the drawingsand citationscollected in Cook, us, pp. 572-573, figs.399, 400. But as Cook'sown excellentdrawing(Zeus, 402) of the BritishMuseum specimen(BMCIAtica, xviii:5;Sv.92.6) shows,the god'shand is fig. pl. empty and is turned palm down with the thumb below the fingers. All examples of this imperial Period VB reverse are from the same die, and an unpublished,relativelyunworn specimen at the AmericanNumismaticSociety confirms the detailsof the down-turnedhand and the presenceof a boukranionon the altar.When this reversetype was copied on a die of the PeriodVI coinage (357 = Sv.92.7 = Cook, Zeus, 573, fig.403), an eagle was added on Zeus'sleft wrist.Like p. a numberof PeriodVI variationsof PeriodV dies, the eagle mustbe attributed the whim of the PeriodVI copyist,who to apparentlymisunderstoodthe gestureof the god's left hand. 93 Because the pose of the Standing Zeus with perpendiculararm is similar to that of the SacrificingZeus in all general respects except for the elevation and action of the left arm, it was once suggested that the two reverse types representthe original and a modified version of the same cult statue, whose left arm was readjustedor replaced in a putative renovationor copy of the image between ca. 30 B.C.and the 2nd century after Christ. SeeJ. H. Kroll, "The Standing Zeus on Athenian Coins and the Cult of Zeus Eleutheriosin the Athenian Agora" (lecture,Boston 1989), abstractin AJA94, 1990, p. 336. But this suggestion,unlikelyenough in its own right,is disprovenby the reappearanceof the StandingZeus with straightarm and without altaron the PeriodVI reverse(note 92 above).



Leocharesand the one called Polieus." the formeris the only Athenianstatueof the god for which As we have the name of a sculptor,commentatorsequated it with the SacrificingZeus of the imperial coinage, while leaving the FulminatingZeus (or the StandingZeus with perpendiculararm) to be identifiedwith the presumablyolder cult image of Zeus Polieus.94Since the Polieus cult is known almostexclusivelyfor its curiousand primitiverite of bull sacrifice,the Bouphonia,a sourceof much it learnedinterestin antiquityas today,95 has been suggestedthat the altarin frontof the Zeus on the coins may be the very altar at which this ritual took place96 and that the same altar is imperial depicted by itself on another imperial Period V reverse(203).97 Like the altar on the Sacrificing Zeus coins, the last altar is depicted with an ornamentalboukranion,although its top is flat, not gabled, and it supportsa second boukranionand two flankingsacrificialvessels. Since there is an olive tree at either side, the altarwas located on the Akropolis. If the altar before the SacrificingZeus and this Akropolisaltar are the same, the Sacrificing Zeus would have to be one of the statuesconnectedwith Zeus Polieus.So the reasoninggoes. But it all may be fantasy.Georg Lippold rightlydisputed the simplisticconnection with the 4th-century B.C. sculptorLeochareson the groundsthat the SacrificingZeus on the coins is not consonantwith of the characteristics Leochares'art.98The Severe or Early Classicalpose of the SacrificingZeus, with shouldersback, both feet flat on the ground,99implies that the image antedated Leochares by more than a century.The altar between olive trees should be the great altar of Athena on the Akropolis,not an altar of Zeus. Apart from the Athena symbolismof the olive trees, Greek altars of skullsof sacrificedvictims,regardless the divinity were commonlyornamentedwith the sculptured Althoughthe SacrificingZeus must have been located next to an altar,the depiction worshipped.l00 of the altar need not imply a specificcultic traditionlike the Bouphonia.Thus, while an equationof SacrificingZeus with a statue in the shrine of Zeus Polieus is not impossible,neither is there any compellingreason to recommendit. There is thereforeeven lessreasonto extend the Polieusequationto the Standingor Fulminating To Zeus statueson the coins of the 1stand 2nd centuriesB.C. judge from the silence of literaryand the cult of Zeus Polieusseems neverto havebeen incorporatedinto the political epigraphicalsources, ideology of the Athenianstate;and, for this reasonalone, the god would be strangelyout of place on the Hellenistic coinage. A much strongercase can be made for identifyingone of the Zeuses on the the Hellenistic coins with the image of the Athenian political cult of Zeus par excellence, cult of a pedestalin front As Zeus Soter-Eleutherios. has long been appreciated,this image, which stood on of the Stoa of Zeus in the Agora, must have been an Early Classical statue.101In Roman times
di in "Giove are Polieo Atene," discussions byO.Jahn, NuoveMorie dell'nsiato CorrispondenaArchaeologica major 19 and 54; Cook,Zeus, cit. GCiechische loc. Kultmythologie, Leipzig1871-1889,pp. 2, 1865,pp. 1-24, pl. 1;J. Overbeck, 94 The

95 Testimonia Pausanias to deAbstinant 29-31)andbibliography 1940on the Polieus 1.24.4andPorphry, 2.10, (esp. the Bouphonia: of cult in Cook,Zeus, 574-605. Recentdiscussions Burkert, 136-142;E. Simon,Festivals of pp. pp. The Parthenon G. of Periean Madison1983,pp. 8-12. Topography the sanctuary: P Stevens, Setig ofthe (Hesperia Attica, Corner theParthenon,"Hesperia of "TheNortheast 15, 1946(pp. 1-26), 1940,pp.79-86;idem, 3), Supplement Princeton pp. 12-15. 96 Overbeck, cit.(note94 above); loc. BMCAttca, 104. p. 97 Sv.,pl. 87, caption nos.42, 43: "autel Zeus." de to BMCAttica,111,no. 816,justcallsit an altar. p. 98 RE XII, col. 1996, s.v.Leochares. Greek Warrior Boardman, S ture, 38, 67. the 99 Compare Choiseul-Gouffier figs. (A): Apolloandthe RiaceBronze 100E M. Fraser and dozensof square round Oxford1977,pls.42, 43, 64-91) illustrates Monumnts, (Rhodian Fineary one For see withboukrania. a largerectangular to Dionysos, Cook,Zeus, 579, fig.404. altars p. sculptured 101ThussinceH. A. Thompson's Side on 6, (Hespea 1937[pp.1-226],p. 54, "Buildings theWest oftheAgora" epochal restored the before Stoaof Zeushasbeenhypotheticaly on fig.34 = Camp,p. 106,fig.79),thestatue theround pedestal

and and 92 summarizeJahnOverbeck. Fullbibliography (NCP, (note above, 55).Imhoof-Blumer Gardner pp.137-138) p. inLacroix, 75,note2. p.



the cult of Zeus Eleutheriostook on a new political-religious significanceas a medium for expressing era Athens' devotion to Rome: in the earlyJulio-Claudian an annex for an imperialcult was added at the rear of the Stoa of Zeus, and there is evidence that the emperorsDomitian, Trajan,Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius were all formally identified or very closely associatedwith Zeus Eleutherios, a record apparentlyunmatchedby any other Athenian deity. 02 The argumentfor identifyingthe StandingZeus with the cult image of Zeus Eleutherioscomes fromthe date of the AE 2 issue78, on whichthe statuetypewas introduced.The issuewas strucksoon after 198 B.C. six issuesbefore ca. 183 B.C. but (pp. 50-51 above).The limitspoint to the 190'sand a close associationwith the defeatof Philipin 197 and Flamininus' liberationdeclarationof 196, associationsreinforcedby the winged helmet of Roma worn by Athena on the earliestobversesof the issue. In 196the ThessaliansmemorializedtheirliberationfromMacedon by establishing Larissaa cultof at Zeus Eleutheriosand a quadrennialfestival,the Eleutheria.103 the Macedonian cities of Abdera, At Ainos, Maroneia, Petres,and Thessalonike,cults of Zeus Eleutherioswere founded conjointlywith cultsof Roma afterthe finaldefeatof Perseusin 168.104 The evidenceis circumstantial consistent: but at Athens no Zeus was more appropriate the historicalcontext of issue 78 than Zeus Eleutherios. to the StandingZeus is Soter-Eleutherios, how are we to understandthe FulminatingZeus If, then, that replaces the Standing Zeus in variety82? The change to the conventionalfulminatingimage need not have had any significancebeyond a decision to representZeus in a guise that was more universal,easily recognizable,and suitablefor a standardizedcoin type. Accordingly,the Standing Zeus would indeed reproducethe actual cult statuein the Agora, while the fulminatingimage (with added eagle, which is unlikelyto have been part of a Late Archaic-EarlyClassicalstatuebut which makesfor a more satisfactory coin design)givesa genericZeuswho nevertheless symbolizedthe same ideals. Or could it be that the StandingZeus was later thought to be too closely associated political with Flamininusand Rome? Livy (35.31 and 50) reportsthe growthof stronganti-Romansentiment at Athens in 192, about the time that the change from the Standing to the FulminatingZeus took place. In either case, Zeus figureson the bronze of HellenisticAthens in one dominantaspect, as the Eventhe small-denomination reversesthatpicture tutelarydeity of nationalfreedomand sovereignty. an owl perched on a thunderbolt(varieties67 and 81 of Period II and 99 and 100 of Period III) are to be recognized as little metaphorsfor an Athens restingon the liberatingmight of Zeus. In this vein it is probably correct to interpretthe routine pairing of Athena and Zeus on the opposite sides of the main AE 2 bronze of PeriodsII and III as the pairingof two functionallycomplementarydeities, one the religiousembodimentof the polis, the other essentiallya personification
as an EarlyClassical Zeus of the striding, XIV,p. 101. Whetherthe cult of Zeus Soterfulminating type;cf. Agora Eleutherios foundedto commemorate was deliverance fromthe Persians, severalancientcommentators as believed as III, pp. 26-27, nos. 26-28), or whether, impliedby the Archaicstructure below the Stoa of Zeus (H. A. (Agora XIV, Thompson, cit.,figs.72, 126;Agora p. 96),it goesbackin someformto pre-Persian op. times,a cultimagedating after480 B.C. is calledfor;anyearlier statue wouldhavebeencarried or destroyed 480. off in 102 H A. Thompson,"The Annexto the Stoa of Zeus in the Athenian 35, Agora,"Hesperia 1966, pp. 171-187; of XIV Agora pp. 102-103. Identifications Domitian:IG II2 1996;Trajan:A. E. Raubitschek, "Hadrian the Son as of ZeusEleutherios," 49, 1945,pp. 128-133;andAntoninus Pius:IGII23396.Hadrian's association thecultis with AJA indicated the statueof himthatwasdedicated to the statueof ZeusEleutherios the Agora(Pausanias next in by 1.3.2). Athens'valuedstatusas a freecity underthe Empire came to play so largea rolein explains whyZeusEleutherios cult. imperial 103See O. Kern,IG IX.ii, p. xx, and the epigraphical citations listedby E Stahlin,RE XII, i, cols.856-857, 864, in Fehrle Ausfiihrliches der s.v.Larisa; und Lexicon GriechischenR6mischen VI, Mythologie W.H. Roscher, Leipzig/Berlin, ed., 1924-1937,col. 621, s.v.Zeus(Beinamen); and L. Robert,"Bulletin REG J. epigraphique," 77, 1964,pp. 176-182, no. 227.
104 R. Mellor, 6EA PQMA, The Worship the Goddess Romain the Greek World of (Hypomnemata Gottingen 1975, 42), pp. 107-108.



of freedom. Although the pairing went back to the Zeus/Athena Polias emission 66, shortly after after the Athens' deliverancefrom Macedon in 229, enthusiasmfor Rome's guarantee of eleuthria the Second MacedonianWarregularized pairingof Athena and Zeus on the coinage, untilthe disasZeusthen revoltagainstRome in 88-86 B.C. trousoutcome ofAthens' involvementin the Mithradatic disappearedfrom the coinage for more than a generation.In 42/1 B.C.Athens revivedthe Fulminating Zeusreversefor a singleAE 1 emission(137), althoughpartialy,it seems, to signalthe devaluation of the AE 1 to the equivalentof the AE 2 of PeriodsII and III (pp. 85-86, 90 below).BeforeActium, Athens strucktwo issues (144 and 145) with PtolemaicZeus-head obversesin honor of Kleopatra. But the themes of salvation and eleueria returned in the reappearanceof the Standing Zeus on of minted soon afterActium, to commemorateOctavian's"liberation" Athens. an issue (148, q.v.) Neither the standing nor the fulminatingstatue appears among the many famous Athenian statuesdepicted on the city'sHadrianic-Antonine coinage,which representedinsteadthe Sacrificing Zeus (175, p. 55 above) and the enthroned statue of Zeus Olympios that Hadrian commissioned for the Olympeion(263). In Athens'finalcoinage of the mid-3rdcenturyafterChrist,the Sacrificing Zeus and enthronedZeus reversesare repeated(357 and 356, with note 66 below,p. 124).They are joined by a third Zeus type, the Standing Zeus with perpendicularlyextended left arm (note 92 above, p. 55), which returnsto the firststatue of the god depicted on Athenian coins, probablythe statuestillprominentlydisplayedin frontof the Stoa of Zeus.

229-ca. 224/3 B.C. AE1 Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 21-23 Av.9.16(7) E Owl stg., facing; on either side, olive branch.

Sv. 24.25-27, 104.5-7


10 coins

All counterstampedwith plemochoe in relief on obverse and plemochoe in incuse circle on reverse, as Sv. 104.5-7.

*a K-1647 *b e-375
*c *d *e f g h II-489 T-1844 A-356 A-1466 AA-80 EA-296

22 -1 9.26 22 t 10.07 9.26 21 t 8.84 21 t

21 23 23 22 9.82 8.76 9.10 5.13+ broken (G 6:2) (M 21:1) Kleiner 1975, p. 316, no. 230 (P-R 6-12) AE 3 Similar. E Two owls stg. upright, facing.

Sv. 24.29-31


12-14 Av.2.32 (4) 7 coins *a NN-1586 14 $ 2.87 13 - 2.22 *b Z-2856 14 t 2.19 *c E-5380

GRC, 13 fig.
Kleiner 1976, p. 13, no. 50 (H 12:1)

PERIOD II: CATALOGUE *d N-298 *e B'-1018 f e-314 g T-1867 14 12 13 f broken broken broken Kleiner 1975, p. 305, no. 84 (H-K 12-14)


4 1.99

The varietyis associatedwith 64 throughthe distinctivestyle of their reverseowls. AE1 A e-E Statue of Athena Polias stg. r., holding an owl in 1. hand and phiale in r.; border of dots.

Head of Zeus r., laur.

Sv. 25.1-4

66 *a *b *c *d e f

counterstampedwith a plemochoe on both sides Kleiner 1975, p. 306, no. 88 (H-K 12-14) counterstamped,as 66d it specimensmay have been Owing to theirpoor preservation, is uncertainhow many of the other unillustrated restruckwith the Plemochoe/Plemochoe counterstamps. AE3 A Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 12-15 Av. 2.39 (20)

15 coins T-1651 I10-516 NN-1788 BB-15 ME-216 ME-337

19-22 Av. 9.43 (14) 20 / 10.00 9.16 20 \ 21 10.28 20 \ 10.68 22 9.72 9.71 21-

Kleiner 1975, p. 324, pl. 75, no. 344 (M-N 15:1)

e E or A-O Owl stg. r., facing,

on thunderbolt.

67 A

20 coins

0 E, plain reverse. 13 r-391 15 t K-269 t 13 fl-433 T-1774 15 4,


Sv. 23.46 2.36 3.13 2.65 2.98 obv. die A obv. die A obv. die B obv. die B; Kleiner 1975, p. 321, pl. 75, no. 296 (misclassified) (M-N 15:1)

13 t 2.28 e-534 f T-1863 14 - 2.41 13 t 2.14 g T-1196 h ME-315 12 t 2.14 A ? E, border of dots on reverse. *i 1III-191 12 / 2.32 13 t 1.96 *j Z-2750 *k EA-115 14 t 2.17 *1 II11-835 13 t 2.25 A-O, border of dots on reverse. *m Z-1398 13 t 1.63 *n HH-222 12 t 1.74 13 t 2.17 *o S-4433 13 f 2.54 *p IIi-242 q NN-1243 14 t 2.75 r Z-2812 14 t 1.63

Kleiner 1975, p. 321, no. 309 (M-N 15:1) Kleiner 1975, p. 306, no. 96 (H-K 12-14)

obv. die B; Kleiner,MIV20, p. 1, pl. I:1 obv. die B; Kleiner 1976, p. 14, no. 64 (H 12:1) A [0] E

obv. die B; Kleiner,MN 20, p. 1, pl. 1:2 obv. die C; Kleiner,MN 20, p. 1, pl. 1:3 obv. die C obv. die D obv. die D; Kleiner 1976, p. 17, no. 105 (A-B 19-20:1) obv. die D; Kleiner 1976, p. 14, no. 65 (H 12:1)

60 s t

ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-IST CENTURIES B.C. EE-37 12 t 2.42 ET-198 15 t 2.47 Despite the changing reverseformat, this was not a protractedcoinage. Specimens were minted from only a few obverse dies and are rare; a piece in Berlin (Sv. 23.46) is the only published one not from the Agora excavations.In first calling attention to this coinage, Kleiner (MN 20, pp. 1-5) recognized that it belonged to the later 3rd centuryand that the dotted borderof its laterreversesrelatedit to the AE 1 varieties66 and 68. In to fact, Zeus'sthunderboltbelow the owl restrictsthe relationship the earlierof these AE 1 coinages.Inexplicably, an exceptionallyhigh proportion of the Agora pieces are well enough preservedfor illustration.The Mddle Stoa constructiondeposit gives the earliestrecordedcontext (for67h).

AE1 A Sv. 25.5-10, O-E Statue of Athena Polias r., Head of Artemis r., with quiver as on 66. at shoulder;border of dots. 104.3, 4 68 20 coins 20-22 Av.8.59 (13) *a f-562 20 4 10.40 *b T-177 7.10 20\ 9.05 *c Z-2403 21 overstruck,probablyon Zeus/Athena Polias (66) Kleiner 1975, p. 306, pl. 75, no. 89 (H-K 12-14) 7.37 *d e-637 / 22 7.68 *e T-1509 20 8.46 f II-615 22counterstampedwith a plemochoe on both sides, as Sv. 104.3, 4 overstruckon Zeus/Athena Polias (66) 9.61 22 g B-556 21 - 10.31 h AA-63 (L 19:2, lower cistern fill) There is an especially good but unpublishedexample of an overstrikeover variety 66 in the Numismatic Collection of Athens (Inv. 1905/6 NB' 3). Some of the Artemis/Athena Polias coins, including Sv. 25.10, can be identified as probable overstrikes their thin, wide fabric. But the majority of the Agora specimens by are too badly preservedto permit any judgment whether they are overstrikesor whether they underwent the as Plemochoe/Plemochoe counterstamping, 68f. 68h has the earliestcontext, shortlyafter 200 B.C. [Head of Zeus or Artemis r.] of uncertainAthena Poliasvariety. [66 or 68] 2 coins Plemochoe in relief. 21 r-1222 Similar.

Plemochoe in incuse circle.

Sv. 104.1, 2

10.58 [64,66,or68] has The plemochoe counterstamping completelyobliteratedthe originaltypes.

ca. 224/3-198 B.C.

AE2 A Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 69 *a b *c *d *e 113 coins MM-430 e-296 Z-2711 H'-3648 A-416 18-22 Av.5.28 (56)

e E Owl stg. three-quarters

r., facing, wings lifted; at r., amphora.

Sv. 24.10-17

20 4 5.54 4.77 21
21 t 5.99 20 4 5.43 19 \ 5.80

overstruckon Antigonos Gonatas (507) similar;BA of undertypevisible on reverse overstrike overstrike overstrike



*f HO-312
*g *h i j k MM-378 A-347 T-1157 K-1294 ME-261

22 t 6.30
20 19 18 19 21 5.03 \ 5.80 . 3.45 t 6.23 t 4.90

GRC, 13 fig.

Kleiner 1975, p. 310, pl. 75, no. 171 (H-K 12-14) overstruckon Antigonos Gonatas; Kleiner 1975, p. 306, pl. 75, no. 86 (H-K 12-14) Most and possibly all specimens of this coinage are overstruckon Athena-head/Pan-erecting-trophy 2 AE of Antigonos Gonatas (507). Even when identifiabletraces of the undertype are lacking, the coins frequently have the telltalethinnessand slightlyconcavefabricof overstrikes. and k and 70c are three of six pieces of Owl 69j r. three-quarters from the Middle Stoa constructionfill of ca. 183 B.C., the earliestdependablydated deposit for this coinage.

Similar. 70

Similar,but at r., plemochoe.


Sv. 24.33

4 coins

17-20 Av.5.39(4)

*b B-511 *c ME-58 d NN-1259

19 17 20 -

5.39 5.34 4.87

double-struck Kleiner 1975, p. 306, no. 87 (H-K 12-14)


Similar,but uncertainvessel at r.

[69, 70] 17 coins of uncertainowl-three-quarters-r. variety. AE 4 A Head of Athena r., wearing e-E Owl stg. r., facing, Sv. 23.50-52 Corinthian helmet. on rudder. 71 88 coins 10-13 Av. 1.94 (32) *a NN-1658 12 4 1.94 Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 56 *b T-51 12 t 1.62 Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 55; GRC,fig. 13 *c E-1610 13 i 2.12 *d T-89 12 t 1.44 Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 54 *e 00-1152 12 / 2.16 *f K-1322 10 . 1.53 10 J. 1.42 *g 0-86 h K-1610 11 / 1.43 Kleiner 1975, p. 312, pl. 75, no. 199 (H-K 12-14) i T-1375 11 A 1.73 Kleiner 1975, p. 321, pl. 75, no. 311 (M-N 15:1) 11 / fragment Kleiner 1975, p. 316, no. 234 (corrected)(P-R 6-12) j SA-270 7 lh is one of two specimensfrom the Middle Stoa fill. Forthe position of the varietyin the PeriodII sequence, see p. 52 above (paceKleiner 1975, p. 325; 1976, p. 6). AE2

Head of Demeter r., wearing wheat wreath;border of dots. 72 PP'-174 22 8.27 E Plemochoe with wheat ear passed through each handle; at r., Eleusis ring. overstruckon ? Sv. 104.8, 9


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-IST CENTURIES B.C. Similar. Similar,but at r., aplustre. Sv. 104.14-19

73 *a *b *c *d e

12 coins EA-103 II-667


Kleiner 1975, p. 321, pl. 75, no. 302 (M-N 15:1) All or most overstruckon Owl three-quarters (69 or 70). The helmet of the undertype is especiallyclear r. on 73a and b. Similar. Similar,but at r., owl. overstruckon Owl three-quarters (69, 70) r. overstruckon ? (M 21:1) Similar,but symbol at r. illegible. Sv. 104.10-13

Z-1506 T-1668

18-23 20 \ 20 / 22 4 23 $ 21 \

Av.5.36(8) 5.34 5.79 3.80 4.07 4.55

Kleiner 1975, p. 316, pl. 75, no. 231 (P-R 6-12)


2 coins *a NN-1746 *b AA-81

20 4 4.97 20 f broken Similar.

[72-74] 32 coins of uncertainDemeter/Plemochoe variety. Eight of these coins come from 2nd-centuryB.C. deposits: Kleiner 1975, p. 306, nos. 90, 91 (H-K 12-14), p. 321, nos. 303-305, and p. 324, no. 345 (M-N 15:1);and Kleiner 1976, p. 13, nos. 54, 55 (H 12:1). The true sequence of the three issues(Eleusis-ring symbol,aplustresymbol, and owl symbol)is not recoverable. AE 4

Plemochoe with wheat ear A E Eleusisring; all in Sv. 104.21-23 wheat wreath. passed through each handle. 10-13 Av. 1.70 (31) 13 t 1.66 12 t 2.00 12 t 1.65 12 t 1.89 Kleiner 1975, p. 306, pl. 75, no. 93 (H-K 12-14) 12 / 2.04 12 t 1.84 Kleiner 1975, p. 310, pi. 75, no. 174 (H-K 12-14) 12 - 1.35
198 B.c.

75 *a *b *c *d *e *f g

72 coins AA-328 ET'-451 T-1069 H-2099 A414 I-855 K-1298


76 *a *b Sv. 25.15-21 E Amphora; at lower 1., owl; Head of Zeus r., bound with all in olive wreath. fillet. 19-22 Av.5.49 (7) 16 coins overstruckon Demeter/Plemochoe (72-74) 20 t 7.58 8-384 6.85 overstruckon Antigonos Gonatas (507) r-354 20 overstruckon ? r-670 21 t 3.53 on overstruck Demeter/Plemochoe (72-74) SA-486 20 -5.65 overstruckon Demeter/Plemochoe (72-74) A-9 20 . broken r. -+ broken overstruckon Owl three-quarters (69, 70) III-594 - broken overstruckon Demeter/Plemochoe (72-74); Kleiner 1976, p. 14, Z-2769 no. 63 (H 12:1) are similaroverstrikes. All other unillustrated specimens

*d *e f g

PERIOD II: CATALOGUE AE3 A Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet with wing. 77 2 coins *a 00-1089 *b T-1227 13-14 Av. 2.75 (2) 14 t 2.39 13 t 3.06


E E Owl stg. 1., facing; at 1.,

amphora;all in olive wreath.

Sv. 22.89-92

Kleiner 1975, p. 321, pl. 75, no. 300 (M-N 15:1)

For the dating of this rare issue and the foregoingAE 2 varietyit accompanies,see p. 51 above.

ca. 196-190 B.C. AE2 A-e E Zeus, nude, stg. r., holding thunderboltin lowered r. hand, extending 1. arm; at r., owl.

Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet with wing or Corinthian helmet.

Sv. 81.1-6; Kleiner 1976, pl. 1:1

78 7 coins 17-20 Av.5.56(4) Attic helmet with wing (3) *a T-1508 20 f 4.92 overstruckon ? b 2-359 20 / 5.31 (N 20:6) Corinthianhelmet; obverseborder of dots (4) *c Z-2781 19 / 6.26 overstruckon ?

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 79 *a *b *c *d *e *f g h 58 coins r-1284 8-240 HH-217 T-636 B'-861 E-861 T-186 X-101 16-20 19 19 4 18 t 19 , 20 t 20 17 t 20 t Av.5.00 (27) 4.79 4.95 5.23 5.08 5.29 4.40 4.35

Similar,but at r., prow.

Sv. 81.9-16; Kleiner 1976, pl. 1:2, 3

overstruckon ? Kleiner 1975, p. 306, pl. 75, no. 99 (H-K 12-14) overstruckon ? halved (K 18:2) overstruckon ? (N 18:3)

Similar. 80 3 coins *a IIIn-876 17-18 Av.4.66(2) 18 4. 5.37

Similar,but at r., wheat ear.

Sv. 81.7, 8


Similar,but symbol at r. illegible.

[78-80] 30 coins of uncertainStandingZeus variety. a K-1327 17 - 5.10 Kleiner 1975, p. 310, pl. 75, no. 176 (H-K 12-14)


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-IST CENTURIES B.C. AE4 Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. A-e E Owl stg r., facing, on thunderbolt. Sv. 23.47-49; Kleiner 1976, pl. 3:52, 53 (Type7)

81 *a *b *c *d *e

134 coins NN-922 BB-475 K-1549 00-528 AA-39

*f rr-8 *g Ie-327

flan clipped before striking Kleiner 1975, p. 312, pl. 75, no. 198 (H-I 14:1) AE On the absolutechronologyof the StandingZeus AE 2 and the Owl-on-thunderbolt 4 struckwith it, see 50-51,57 above. Three StandingZeus pieces (78b, 79g, and 79h) are the latestcoins in cisternfillsofjust after pp. 200 B.C.Two of these fills (N 20:6 and K 18:2)are so dated by their lateststampedRhodian amphorahandles. K-1466

10-14 Av. 1.63 (55) 1.40 12 t 1.39 14 4 1.90 11 4 1.42 10 t 2.01 2.03 11 14 4 1.98 12 t 1.45

13 t

Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 52 Kleiner 1976, no. 51

Kleiner 1976, no. 53

ca. 190-183 B.C.

AE 2 Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet; border of dots. 82 *a *b *c *d *e f g 41 coins E-803 8-237 NN-1372 NN-50 KK-67 ME-230 EA-212 Av.6.19 (37) 6.83 7.00 5.97 7.58 19 t 8.81 17 o 5.79 19 t 6.33 17-20 19 t 18 t 18 t 19 t 19 t 19 t 4.97 4.78 Ae E Zeus, nude, stridingr., hurling thunderboltin raised r. hand, extending 1. arm; at r., star and eagle. Sv. 81.17, 18; Kleiner 1976, pl. 1:4-5 (Type 2a)

h EA-214 iT-1195

Kleiner 1975, p. 306, pl. 76, no. 103 (H-K 12-14) Kleiner 1975, p. 317, pl. 76, no. 254 (SquarePeristylefloor hoard; see under O-R 7-10) Kleiner 1975, p. 317, pl. 76, no. 256 (same hoard) Kleiner 1975, p. 319, pl. 76, no. 261 (M-N 15:1)

Similar. A-E Zeus hurling thunderboltr., at 1., wheat ear; at r., eagle. Sv. 81.28, 29; Kleiner 1976, pl. 1:6-8 (7ype2b)


68 coins *a T-1664 *b IIn-888 *c E-118 *d P-1203 *e i-73 *f EA-189 g ME-316

17-21 Av.6.10(37) 18 t 5.73 20 t 6.60 20 t 5.87 20 t 5.86 20 t 7.92 19 t 6.77 19 t 6.56

overstruckon ?

Kleiner 1975, p. 306, pl. 76, no. 105 (H-K 12-14)

PERIODII:CATALOGUE h EA-209 i EA-211 19 / 19 f 6.69 5.52

Kleiner 1975, p. 317, pl. 76, no. 257 (Square Peristylefloor hoard; see under O-R 7-10) Kleiner 1975, p. 317, pl. 76, no. 259 (same hoard)



Sv. -; Kleiner 1976, pl. 1:9-11 (eype2c)

E Zeus hurling thunderbolt at r., cornucopia and eagle. r.;

84 *b *c *d *e

42 coins

16-20 Av.5.96 (23)

*a flA-13
KTA-105 1-312 EA-65 AA-276

18 t 4.57
18 19 18 18 19 t / t t 6.33

6.81 6.53

t 5.58

g h i

Kleiner 1975, p. 307, pl. 76, no. 106 (H-K 12-14) Kleiner 1975, p. 307, pi. 76, no. 109 (H-K 12-14) 18 t 5.91 Kleiner 1975, p. 316, pl. 76, no. 241 (P-R 6-12) 18 /" 7.68 Kleiner 1975, p. 324, pl. 76, no. 347 (M-N 15:1) The present dating of ca. 190-183 B.C.of the FulminatingZeus issues 82-84 (p. 51 above)replacesKleiner's broader ca. 200/196-180 B.C.(Kleiner 1975, pp. 327-328; 1976, pp. 36, 38). The three are the latest AE 2 varietiesin the Middle Stoa constructionfill (H-K 12-14) of ca. 183 B.C. (Kleiner 1975, pp. 312-313, table I). ME-14 EA-15 T-1645


19 t 5.76

AE 4 Cicada. A-9 E Amphora with transverse palm branch. Sv. 107.55-58; Kleiner 1976, pl. 3:59-61 (Type9)

85 *a *c

672 coins NN-1284

10-13 Av. 1.59 (107) star below A at 1. 12 4. 2.14

*b S-598

13 ,

1.93 Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 60

*d e-792bis 14 4 1.98 *e NN-1952 13 1 1.77

*f h T-1760 NN-1401 12 t 11

Z-2644bis 13

Kleiner1976,no. 61

*g ME-131 i e-714 j EA-269

12 t



Kleiner 1975, p. 322, pl. 76, no. 323 (M-N 15:1)

11 t 2.01 11 A broken

Kleiner1975,p. 307, pl. 76, no. 110 (H-K 12-14) Kleiner1975,p. 316, pl. 76, no. 247 (P-R 6-12)

Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 59

The star symbol of the heavy (i.e., early) 85a duplicates the emission symbol of the initial Fulminating Zeus AE 2 variety 82 and confirms that the Cicada/Amphora AE 4, the most prolific of all Athenian AE 4 bronze, was struck in tandem with the Fulminating Zeus issues 82-84, as Kleiner (1975, p. 328; 1976, pp. 34, 38) had independently deduced from the Middle Stoa construction fill. What Kleiner did not recognize is that after a long interruptionthe Cicada/Amphora AE 4 was revived towards the end of the 2nd century in Period III. The later Cicada/Amphora coins employ a different A-E form of the ethnic and are generally struckon smaller,lighter flans, with diametersof 9-11 mm. and weights that frequentlyfall below 1.0 g.105Fifty-eightsuch pieces, either with the later ethnic or with 9 mm. diameters and thereforeof legible, the ethnics on specimens in Agora deposits down to ca. 130 B.C. are regularlyAE (DepositsH-K 12-14, P-R6-12, M-N 15:1 [Kleiner 1975, pp. 304-324], H 12:1,and A-B 19-20:1 [Kleiner 1976, pp. 12-19]). But at
105 When


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1 ST CENTURIES B.C. unmistakablePcriod III date, are cataloguedbelow under variety 108. All other Cicada/Amphora specimens, including more than 300 on which no ethnic is preserved,are counted here, even though perhaps over half of those with illegibleethnicsmay have actuallybeen struckin PeriodIII. All, or nearlyall, the 107 coins selected here for weighing,however,do belong to the early2nd-centuryphase of the coinage.

ca. 160's-87/6 B.C.

Period III effectivelycoincides with the prosperousera framed by Athens' acquisitionof Delos in 167/6 and her disastrousparticipationin the rebellion of MithradratesVI against Rome eighty years later.The bronze coinage is very much a continuationof that of Period II but is best treated separately,as the chronology relies on entirely differentcategories of evidence, and most of the varietiescan no longer be associatedwith particularissuesof the main, AE 2 smaller-denomination unit (see Table III below,pp. 324-325). Two of the later AE 2 issues are absolutely datable: the Fulminating Zeus emission with the symbol of the two pilei of the Dioskouroi (94) must be contemporaneouswith the two-pilei stephanephoricsilver issue of 99/8 B.C.,while the concluding Fulminating Zeus issue with the symbolof the Pontic starbetween crescents(97) belongs,with the New Style star-between-crescents silverand gold, to 87/6. In that fatefulyear,Athens, irrevocablycommitted to Mithradates'cause, was besieged and taken by Sulla. fix Over a dozen hoards of the late 2nd and early Ist centuriesB.C. the relativechronology of most of the AE 2 issuesand some of the smallervarieties.The hoardsare staggeredin four groups: 1. The Tambouria (Peiraeus) 1938 hoard106was buried soon after its last AE 2 issue of FulminatingZeus with eagle and pileus (90), probably early in the last third or last quarter of the 2nd century. the were both interredshortlyafter99/8 B.C., 2. The Attica 1949 and the Athens 1955 hoards107 date of their latest FulminatingZeus variety,94 (two pilei). There is a very good chance that the burial of one or both of these hoards was connected with the second revolt of the Laurion slaves, in apparentlystill unsuppressed 98/7.108
least a quarterof the sixty-fourCicada/Amphorasin Deposit B 20:9 of the firstdecade of the 1stcenturyhave the later form of the ethnic, althoughthis is not noted in Kleiner 1976, p. 21, nos. 17-80. That the light Cicada/Amphorasbegan with fourpieces that give an averageweight to circulateafterca. 130 is seen too fromthe Tambouriahoardof ca. 130 B.C., which produced nineteen pieces with an average of only 1.15 g. Attica 1951 hoard, of 1.87 g., and from the 87 B.C. (Kleiner1976, A46-E20 [ethnicsnot analyzed],p. 27). All eight of the Cicada/Amphorapieces in the smallDelos hoard 11, IGCH 324 published by E. Fosterand T. Hackens, "Decco Metal Detector Survey on Delos," Archaeometry 1969, 170,pl. II, have the Period III arrangementof the ethnic and, except for one coin at 1.40 g., weigh between 0.70 p. and 0.85 g. The six remainingbronzes (av. 0.55 g.) in this small deposit are of the late Period III AE 5 variety 110: Apollo/Owl on Amphora. 106 IGCH 249. Kleiner 1976, pp. 22-27, 32: Hoard A. 107 IGCH 269 and 276. Kleiner 1976, pp. 22-27, 32: Hoards B and C. 108 Associationwith the slaveuprisingwas suggestedfor the firsthoardby Price(1964, p. 35) and recognizedas possible by Kleiner(1976, p. 38, note 63), who pointed out, however,that the provenienceof the hoard is unknown.In fact we do not have a sure location for the discoveryof either hoard. The revolt customarilyhas been placed in 104-102 B.C., in Studies Classical Phiology 83, 1979 [pp. 213-235], pp. 232-234) but Stephen Tracy ('Athens in 100 B.C.," Harvard for 100-98. In the processionto Delphi for the festivalof the Pythaisin 98/7, the Atheniancavalrywas plausiblyargues representedby a token five horsemen (as comparedwith the 122 cavalrymenin the precedingPythaisof 106/5). Tracy



3. The earlierphase of Sulla'soperationsin Attica is responsiblefor eight hoards that end with the antepenultimateand penultimateFulminatingZeus emissions,those with the symbolsof mystic staffand thyrsos(95 and 96).109Two of the hoards,PortoRaphti 1967110and Keratea 1954, come from EasternAttica and were presumablysecretedwhen Sulla'sforcesarrivedduringthe summerof 87. One assumes that all or most of the other hoards come likewise from the Attic countryside. None have a preciseprovenience,except perhapsfor Plakaca. 1942, but it may have been purchased ratherthan found in the Plakadistrictof Athens. Fulmi4. The final three hoards, all concluding with the Mithradaticstar-between-crescents nating Zeus issue (97), belong to the Sullan sack in the spring of 86. Two of thesel11 were found in the Peiraeus,which Sulla capturedand put to the torch after the fall of Athens in early March. Possible indications of burning on the coins of the third hoard112suggest that it too is from the Peiraeusratherthan from Athens, which was sparedfrom fire.113 Several Agora deposits, dated primarily by their stamped Rhodian and Knidian amphora handles, supplementthe hoards.The most useful are M-N 15:1, consistingof three fills connected with the construction of the South Stoa II around 140 B.C.,and the later drain deposits H 12:1 and A-B 19-20:1. The coins from nearly all these hoard and deposit contexts are tabulatedand article of 1976, "The Agora Excavationsand Athenian analyzed in Kleiner'sfundamentalHesperia Bronze Coinage, 200-86 B.C." Even after a number of his observationsare emended, the overall chronologyof the coinage in this period remainsessentiallyas Kleiner established. The AE 2 seriesbegins with two issuesof exceptionaldesign: Demeter/Piglet (86), presumably an Eleusinianfestivalissue, and the unusuallylight and handsomeApollo/Owl with lyre (87), which was accompaniedby the equallyfine Apollo/Amphora AE 4 (101) and, probably, Apollo/Lyre AE 3 in the Agora).Kleiner assignedboth AE 2 varietiesto the 140'son the (Sv. 106.8-11, unrepresented groundsthat neither was representedin the materialconnected with the constructionof the Stoa of But Attalos,ca. 150 B.c.114 thisnegativeevidenceis not decisive.No exampleof the Demeter or Apollo AE 2 appearedin the South Stoa II constructiondepositsof ca. 140 B.C. either,althoughboth issues were surelyin circulationby that time and in fact couldverywell go backto the 160's.The acquisition for of Delos providesa terminus quemof 166 B.C. the Apollonian striking;and it is doubtfulthat post
explainsthat the main body of the cavalrywas probablyneeded at home to protect the countrysideagainstmarauding Athenaios 4.272 E-F) recounts that the slaves. The slave revolt was serious and of some duration;Poseidonios(apud slavesseized the fortressat Sounion and ravagedAttica "fora long time." 109 Keratea 1954 (IGCH277; Kleiner 1976, pp. 22-28, 32: Hoard D) and the following,all of which are reviewedand summarizedin Kleiner 1976, pp. 30-32: Attica 1906 (IGCH280), Attica 1927 (IGCH281), Pnyx (not the originalplace of burial) 1937 (IGCH274), Attica 1937 (IGCH282), Plaka ca. 1942 (IGCH275), Porto Raphti 1967 (IGCH279), and and Athens 1969 (M. Caramessini-Oeconomides E S. Kleiner,"ANew Hoard of AthenianBronze Coins,"AAA7, 1974, 149-156 = CH 1, 1975, no. 95). The Attica ca. 1951 hoard (IGCH 283), published in Kleiner 1976, pp. 23-27 pp. as Hoard E, consistsonly of smallerdenominationsand may be pre-Sullan,althoughnot any earlierthan the last quarter of the 2nd century. Another useful tabulationand discussionof several of these hoards will be found in Price 1964, pp. 27-30. 110The penultimate FulminatingZeus variety with thyrsos symbol is not present in the Porto Raphti find, but the 15-coin total is so small that there is no reason to doubt that the hoard belongs with the others of 87 B.C. 111 Peiraeus1926 (IGCH316: Kleiner 1973; Kleiner 1976, pp. 31-32) and Peiraeus 1973 (Oeconomides-Caramessini 1976, pp. 220-223 = CH 3, 1977, no. 73). The coins of the latter were excavatedfrom the floor of a large Hellenistic buildingin a layer of burning and debris. 112Walker1978, pp. 44-45, the Cigar Box Hoard (=CH3, 1977, no. 75): "The coins ... seem to have been burntand are quite similarto the coins in the 1973 hoard from the Piraeus." 113Appian, Mithradates Plutarch,Sulla13. 41; 114 Kleiner 1976, pp. 36-38. See Deposit P-R 6-12 (p. 316 below).



Demeter/Piglet could be appreciablyearlier,as the seven specimens in the great Peiraeus 1926 hoard appearedless worn (w4-6) than the ten specimensof Apollo/Owl with lyre (allw6).115 Around the middle of the centurythere is a returnto AE 2 issuessigned with emission symbols and to the PeriodII pairingof Athena and Zeus, at firstin two issues(88 and 89) with the traditional rolesof the two gods reversed:obversesbear the head of Zeus, reversesan archaistic representational statue of Athena hurlingthe thunderbolt.The Athena is the same Macedonian Athena Alkidamos thatAntigonosGonatasand PhilipV had placedon the reversesof theirsilvercoins.16 Her depiction on these Athenian reversesought to be some kind of referenceto the defeat and dissolutionof the kingdomof Macedon in 168 at the conclusionof the Third MacedonianWaror perhapsthe defeatof Andriskosand creationof the Roman provinceof Macedonia in 148-146. After ca. 140 the familiar Athena in Corinthianhelmet/FulminatingZeus formatwas revivedand persistedthroughthe long series of eight AE 2 emissions (90-97) that culminatedin the Mithradaticstar-between-crescents strikingof 87/6. Below the AE 2 unit, which we take to be the hemiobol (see p. 38 above), were minted the AE 3 dichalkon/quarter-obol,now struckin the prolificvariety 99, Two owls on thunderbolt,on a scale unequalledsince PeriodI; the basic AE 4 chalkous(101-109); and, makingits firstand only appearanceat Athens in PeriodIII, the small AE 5 module of coins that weigh well under a gram or (110-1 14). This last fractionshouldrepresentthe half-chalkous sixteenthof an obol (p. 38 above). Denominationally, only variety100, Cicada/Owl on thunderbolt,presentsa problem.Accordingto these coins, which were minted with AE 3 diametersbut with generally heavier weights Kleiner, than other Period III AE 3 pieces (cf. Table III, pp. 324-325 below), representa unit in between the Two-owls-on-thunderbolt 3 (99) and the largeAE 2 module.117 so, the Cicada/Owl pieces AE If would probably have to be identifiedas trichalkia.It is arguable,however,that the coins are late AE 3 dichalkiaof restoredweight. The notable iconographicalvariety of the Period III AE 4 and 5 coinage is due in the first instance to the addition of Delian Apollo (and Artemis)to the chief national cults of Athens. From the middle of the 2nd to the middle of the lest century B.C., Apollo dominates the obverses of the smallerdenominations,and his attributes lyre,tripod,and quiverexpandthe repertoryof available of reversetypes. Varietyresults,too, from the frequencyof type changes in these denominationsand the convention, begun in Period II, of honoring a pair of deities on a single coin. Thus on various Period III fractions, a head of Apollo is paired with a reverse owl (110), Panathenaic amphora (101, 105), and Eleusinianplemochoe (103), as well as with his own attributes(111: lyre; 112: tripod). Zeus is paired with a plemochoe (102), and so forth. The only types that depart from these now routine gods and symbolsare the heads, evidently,ofKore in variety 106 and of Nike in variety 107. Svoronos attributed a majority of the Period III and IV AE 3-5 varieties to the Athenian cleruchs on Delos, since many of these smallerbronzes were recoveredin the French excavations on the islandin the early 1900's(seeTable III, pp. 324-325 below)and as often as not had typesthat
Kleiner 1973, p. 171. See note 83 above, p. 53. Forthe PhilipV coins, Brett 1950, pl. 12:17;Boehringer, 104, pl. 7:6-9. p. 117 Kleiner 1973, pp. 180-181; 1976, pp. 9-10, 34-35. Kleiner'smodular nomenclaturecompared to that used in the presentwork is Kleiner AE 1 = here AE 2 Kleiner AE 2 = here AE 3 Cicada/Owl on thunderbolt(100) Kleiner AE 3 = here other AE 3 and all AE 4 varieties Kleiner AE 4 = here AE 5.
116 115



he consideredmore "Delian"than Attic.118 But the Athenian proveniencesthat emerged from the excavationshave discreditedsuch attribution,119 least for all but a few exceptional issues. at Agora One of the exceptions is the Artemis/Plemochoe AE 4 (104), which, although probably minted at Athens, seems to have been consignedfor circulationon Delos.120Forgenuine Athenian cleruchy emissions, however,we must turn to the AE 2 and AE 3 coinage struckon Delos by the Roman legate Gaius ValeriusTriariusin 69 B.C.(see under 830) and to the bronzes struckby or for the Athenian cleruchson Salamis(640-642) and the northernAegean islandsof Lemnos, Imbros,and Skyros(159-161, 454-456). The concluding star-between-crescents FulminatingZeus AE 2 of the First MithradaticWar (97) is historicallythe most intriguingemission of PeriodIII. The bulk of the issue must have been minted earlyin the archonyear 87/6, beforethe Roman siege began in earnest and Sulla effectively cut Athens and the Peiraeusoff from one another.121 The coins circulatedin the Peiraeusas well as in Athens, and there is no reasonto thinkthat a subsidiary mint was set up in the Peiraeusonce the two cities were isolated. As is clear from the 201 Agora specimens and the correspondinglylarge numbers from the hoards of 86 B.C.,122 issue was minted in profusion. Its hurried production the is evidentfrom the many examplesthatwere carelesslystruckor seeminglystruckfromworn dies.123 Or were the latterreallystampedwith insufficient forceto drivethe metal into the deepestrecessesof the dies? Such weak strikingis probablyresponsiblein part for the numerousstar-between-crescents that look "worn",even though they were removedfrom circulation pieces from the hoardsof 86 B.C.
118 Sv., pls. 106, 107; and, earlier,<<NotlaaTc rv ev AiXcp AeO7vaclov ta xX7)po6xov>,JIAN 3, 1900, pp. 50-54; cf. idem of 1907, p. 194;and idem 1911, pp. 58, 76, 78,83; whence Roussel,pp. 47-48. The attribution coins to the Athenians on Delos was originallyproposedby U. Koehler,"Die Minze der KleruchenaufDelos," AM 6, 1881, pp. 238-243. 119 Dulos XXVII, p. 390, note 1. Kleiner 1976, pp. 6-7. M. Thompson, "Some Athenian 'Cleruchy'Money,"Hesperia 10, 1941, pp. 199-236, corrected Svoronos' more fanciful attributionsof Athenian bronze to cleruchs on Skiathos, Peparethos,etc. (Sv.,pl. 25). 120 There are fiveAE 5 varietiesattestedfromDelos (Delos XXVII, table,p. 409) but not fromthe Agora: (1)Sv. 106.3841-Apollo/Quiver (25 from Delos); (2) Sv. 106.45, 46-Plemochoe/Quiver (4 from Delos); (3) Sv. 106.82, 83Artemis/Plemochoe (3 from Delos); (4) Sv. 107.24, 25-Apollo/Wheat ear (1 from Delos); and (5) DelosXXVII, F58, 59-Athena/Lyre (2 from Delos). The first (to judge from the quantity on Delos) and third (to judge from the similarityto 104) may be further exceptional issues consigned to Delos, but the find evidence from the two excavationsis too insubstantialfor a final decision. Comparedwith the Delos excavations(see Table III), the Agora has producedrelativelyfew identifiableAE 5 pieces overall, perhaps because of less favorablesoil conditions or the continuous occupation of the site rather than because of any actual pattern of AE 5 circulation.It is interesting,however,that finds of the largerAE 2 and 3 coins on Delos are minimal, suggestingthat these larger-modulebronzes did not comprise an importantpart of the currency of Athenian Delos. For all the silver hoards that were buried on Delos at the time of the Mithradaticuprisingin 88 B.C. Hackens, "Tr6sorhellenistiquetrouve a Delos en 1964," BCH 89, 1965 [pp. 503-534], pp. 515-516), there (T. is not a single hoard of contemporaryAE 2 and 3 bronze to match the severalfrom 87/6 B.C. Attica. Three Athenian varieties in Svoronos' Delos plates are unrepresentedboth among the Agora and the Delos excavationfinds: Sv. 106.8-11 (Apollo/LyreAE 3), 106.31, 32 (Athena/LyreAE 3), and 107.46-49 (= BMCAttica, 89, p. no. 632, Kore or Apollo/Owl-with-palm-branch-on-thunderbolt 1, of PeriodIV fabric). AE 121 See 30-38 and Plutarch, Sulla 13 for this and other details of the siege. The star-betweenAppian, Mithradates crescentssilver(NewStle, nos. 1143-1146) was struckin months 1 (June-July),2, and 6 (November-December)of 87/6, i.e., both near the beginning of the siege and when it was fairlywell advanced. 122 235 pieces (or one-third of the FulminatingZeus coins) in the Peiraeus 1926 hoard; 152 pieces (or 95 percent of FulminatingZeus coins) in the Peiraeus 1973 hoard. See note 111 above, p. 67. 123 Kleiner 1973, p. 180, note 26. See also the double-struck 97e below,and Kleiner 1976, pl. 2:33, from the Peiraeus 1926 hoard.



less than a year after minting.124 Their softer,leaded alloy may also account for some actual wear from brief circulation.125 Unlike earlier FulminatingZeus bronzes, whose alloy contained about 1 percent or less of lead, the star-between-crescents coins were minted from a heavilyleaded bronze a lead content of 12-13 percent and thus are about 1-1.5 grams or 15-20 percent heavier with than coins of the earlier issues (see Table III, pp. 324-325 below). There seems to have been no shortageof availablebronze;otherwise,the amount of this metal would have been reduced in each batch of alloy as the extra lead was added. But, by weight, the actual bronze content was kept as before,apparentlyso that no one could accuse the coins of being debased. It has been suggestedthat the purpose of the added lead and weight was to raise the value of the coins in response to the inflationarypressuresof the Roman blockade.126 But this is unlikely if the coins were mostly struck before the siege had become critical. Moreover, such a putative revaluationwithout an accompanyingchange of type or diameter to reflect it would have unfairly discriminatedagainst the earlier,lighter FulminatingZeus bronzes alreadyin circulation.A more plausibleexplanationis that the leading was intended to make the bronze softer so that the coins could be stamped out more quickly,that is, with fewer blows of the hammer, and to prolong the lives of the dies.127In addition, the extra weight would have encouraged acceptance of the coins, which was a matter of some urgency in view of their politicallycharged Pontic symbol and their importancein financingthe resistanceagainstSulla.128 The relativelygood condition of most of the star-between-crescents specimens found in the is another idiosyncracy.As a group these are the least-wornHellenistic Athenian bronzes Agora on from the excavations(the severalexamplesselectedfor illustration Plate 9 are in this regardfairly few could have circulatedafter 86. It appears that in making terms with Sulla, the typical).Very Athenians placed the names of Mithradatesand his Athenian agent, the tyrant Aristion, under a To silver damnatio memoriae.129judge fromthe paucityof extantspecimens,the star-between-crescents signedby King Mithradatesand Aristionwas probablyrecalled.30 One assumesthat the associated bronze coins had to be turned in as well, probablyto be exchanged for newly minted bronze of differentdesign (p. 82 below). But whether or not the Mithradatic bronze could have been exchanged during a limited period, it was evidently demonitizedby means of a statuteforbiddingsellersof goods and services from accepting it. 97h and possibly 153e (undertype),for example, were cut with an X to void them as legal tender, and the numerous, unworn specimens from the Agora had surely been thrown away as so much trash. Some of the coins were eventuallypicked up and reintroduced into circulation but not until later in the century or in the Imperial period, when the intense emotional climate of the First Mithradatic War had long subsided. On the other hand, it is clear that FulminatingZeus coins from the pre-Mithradaticissues continued to circulatewithout interruption. A number, like 94f and possibly 95a, were countermarkedwith a cicada stamp, clearly after Sulla's capture of Athens, inasmuch as such countermarkedcoins do not appear in
On the worn appearanceof many specimensin the Peiraeus1926 hoard, Kleiner 1973, p. 180. So Oeconomides-Caramessini1976, p. 223; Walker1978, p. 44. Kleiner 1973, pp. 181-182. 127 For the technicaladvantagesof strikingfrom a leaded alloy,see Caley,pp. 138-139. 128 Price (1964, p. 35) emphasizesthe value of these bronze coins as a propagandamedium. 129 Habicht 1976, pp. 127-135, accepted in principle by Ernst Badian ("Rome, Athens, and Mithradates,"AJAH 1, 1976 [pp. 105-128], p. 125, note 41). 130 Mattingly 1979, p. 164; M0rkholm 1984, p. 33.
125 126 124



the Sullan hoards.131Some AE 2 pieces dating before 86 B.C.were overstruckin the second half of the 1st century B.C.(see 143f, with 137e and 138h), while others still circulatingin the late 1st century B.C. or in the 1st century after Christ were occasionally chopped in half to make up for a scarcity of half-unit coins (see 79f, 89d, 94g, [82-84, 90-94]a, b and pp. 92-93 below). CATALOGUE
Die alignmentsin PeriodIII (andIV) are fixed at 12 o'clockand are not recorded.Occasionaldeviationsare aligned just off the verticalat 11 or 1 o'clock. ca. 160's-150's B.C. AE2 Head of Demeter r., wearing wheat wreath. 86 *a *b *c *d e 18 coins EA-173 4-132 K-39 K-981 Z-2738 17-19 19 18 19 18 17 Av.6.15 (5) 5.27 5.48 6.41 6.15 blistered AGE above. Piglet stg. r. Sv. 103.50-56; Kleiner 1976, pl. 2:40-42 (Type4)

Kleiner 1976, p. 5, pl. 2, no. 40 Kleiner 1976, p. 14, no. 84 (H 21:1) A-E

Head of Apollo r., laur. 87 *a *b *c *d 24 coins AA-845bis N-583 S2-157 BB-1280

Owl stg. r.; at r., lyre.

17-19 18 18 19 18

Av.4.54 (11) 4.53 4.41 5.07 4.83

Sv. 106.1-7; Kleiner 1976, pl. 2:43-45 (Type 5)

Kleiner 1976, p. 5, pl. 2, no. 43

ca. 140's B.C.132 Head of Zeus r., bound with taenia; border of dots. A-E O ArchaisticAthena striding r., hurling thunderboltin raised r. hand, holding shield on extended 1. arm; at 1., helmet; at r., horse's head. Sv. 22.53, 54; Kleiner 1976, 2.38, 39 (7ype3)

88 *a

10 coins T-661

17-21 Av.6.53(6) 7.75 21

131 On the cicada countermark,attested on FulminatingZeus coins of the two-pilei, mystic-staff,and thyrsosissues see the fifteen coins collected and discussed in Kleiner 1973, pp. 182-183, and Kleiner 1976, p. 10. The (94-96), countermarkis not found on star-between-crescents pieces. 132 Kleiner 1976, p. 38, table IV

72 *b E-278 *c T-1194 19 19


Kleiner 1975, p. 319, pl. 76, no. 266 (M-N 15:1)

Similar. Similar,except E and at 1., wheat ear; at r., snake. Sv. 22.55; Kleiner 1976, pl. 2:34-37 (ype 3)


23 coins *a e-174 *b A-94 *c II-289 d IIII-650

17-20 17 20 17 19

Av.5.36 (5) 4.66 6.96 3.71 halved


Similar,except details illegible.

[88, 89] 68 coins of uncertainZeus/FulminatingAthena variety. Kleiner 1975, p. 312, no. 200 (H-I 14:1) a K-1458 obv. cmk.: star in incuse circle b S-3535 The above arrangementof the two Zeus/FulminatingAthena issues is based on weights. The discoveryof 88c in the South Stoa II constructionfill places it beforeca. 140 B.C. [88, 89]a comes also from a deposit dated ca.
140 B.C.

countermarkof [88, 89]b appearson Sv. 22.55 and seven out of twelve FulminatingAthena The star-in-circle pieces in the Attica 1906 hoard (Price 1964, pp. 28-29; Kleiner 1976, pp. 10, 20). Occurring on no other Athenian variety,the countermarkwas added before the change back to the FulminatingZeus types in variety 90, but its purpose is unclear.
ca. 130' B.C.133

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet; border of dots. 90 4 coins *a B'-1009 *b NN-1304 17-18 Av.5.13 (4) 6.10 18 5.03 18

O A-E Zeus, nude, stridingr., hurling thunderbolt;at 1., pileus; at r., eagle.

Sv. 81.30, 31; Kleiner 1976, 2d) pl. 1:12, 13 (Type

ca. 130-100 B.C.134


A-E Similar,except e and at 1., plemochoe; at r., cornucopia and eagle.

Sv. 81.19, 22-24; Kleiner 1976, pl. 1:14-17 (7ype2e)

91 *a *b *c *d e

25 coins ET-143 II-149 fl-257 BB-285 EE-40

16-19 18 18 17 18 17

Av.5.12 (22) 5.70 5.09 5.80 5.39 5.84

Kleiner 1976, p. 4, pl. 1, no. 16

133 Kleiner 1976, pp. 33, 134 Ibid.


PERIOD III: CATALOGUE Similar. Similar,except at 1., amphora; at r., cornucopia and eagle. 3.72 Sv. 81.20, 21; Kleiner 1976, p. 4 2f) (7Tpe





Closely related to 91, variety 92 was the firstFulminatingZeus issue struckafter the burialof the Tambouria in 1938 hoard (Kleiner 1976, pp. 22, 25, 32-33). The issuewas slight,as meagerrepresentation the Sullanhoards confirms(Kleiner 1976, p. 25).

Similar,except uncertainvessel at 1. 11 coins of uncertainFulminatingZeus with cornucopia-and-vessel [91, 92] variety. Similar.

Similar. Similar,except A-E and at 1., amphora;at r., eagle. Sv. 81.25-27; Kleiner 1976, 2g) pl. 1:18-20 (Type


18 coins *a MA-59 *b HH-60 *c II-30

17-19 18 18 17

Av. 5.20 (13) 5.13 5.37 5.68

Kleiner 1976, p. 4, pl. 1, no. 18

99/8 B.C.


Similar,except A-OE and at 1. and r., two pilei of the Dioskouroi.

Sv. 81.32-39; Kleiner 1976, pl. 1:21-23 (Type 2h)


69 coins *a r-242 *b II3-314

*c r-522
*d K-1264 *e T'-699 *f T-167 g ET-163

16-19 16 17 16 19 17 17 20

Av.5.55 (26) 4.92 6.08 5.48 5.40 5.32 5.20

obv. cmk.: cicada in incuse rectangle halved

The date of the issue (the next fixed point in the AE 2 chronologyafterthe Agora depositsdated ca. 140 B.C.for varieties88 and 89) is that of the Demetrios-Agathippos New Style silver,which also employsthe two caps of the Dioskouroifor its issue symbol.1'35 Since the place of the two-pileibronzesin the Sullan hoards suggeststhat the issuefell within a decade or so of 100 B.C., exceptionalassociationof the bronzewith the silverfollowsnaturally the (Price 1964, p. 35; Kleiner 1976, pp. 37-38). In Period III the only other instance of a shared symbol is in the star-between-crescents gold, silver,and bronzeof 87/6. But the design of the two-pileibronze is itselfexceptional: to accommodate both caps on the reverse,the designerdispensedwith the eagle that had regularlystood before Zeus and adopted a linear arrangementof the ethnic, the canonical A-OE of the New Style silver. It is hard to see why the traditionalFulminatingZeus reversewould have been so altered,unlessthe intent was to assimilate the bronze to the silver.Another feature common to the issues in both metals is their remarkablevolume. As Kleinernotes from the forty-sevenobversedies of the silverand the numberof bronzepieces in hoardsof the early 1stcenturyB.C.(Kleiner 1976, p. 33, note 45; p. 37, note 60), the two-pileiemissionswere manufactured greater in than any other New Style silveror (exceptingthe starbetweencrescents)FulminatingZeus bronze series. quantity
135 New Style, nos. 879-928, as dated in Boehringer,p. 202; Mattingly 1979, p. 162; and M0rkholm 1984, p. 32.


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-IST CENTURIES B.C. mid-90's-arly80'sB.C. Similar. Similar,except mystic staff. A-e E and at 1., Sv. 81.49-52; Kleiner 1976, 2t) pl. 2:24-26 (Type


10 coins *a 1-846 *b NN-322 *c MM-485

16-18 Av.5.80(8) 17 6.76 17 3.95 17 6.04 Similar.

obv. cmk.: cicada(?)

Similar,except at 1., thyrsos.

Sv. 81.40-44; Kleiner 1976, 2j) pl. 2:27-29 (Type


9 coins *a fle-33 *b P-7

16-20 Av.6.18(6) 6.71 20 7.36 19

Forthe hoardsthat fix the position of varieties95 and 96, see p. 67 above.
87/6 B.C.


A-E Similar,except e and at r., star between crescents.

Sv. 81.45-48; Kleiner 1976, 2k) pl. 2:30-33 (Type


*a *b *c *d *e *f *g *h i j

201 coins 17-21 Av. 7.27 (62) Kleiner 1976, p. 4, pl. 2, no. 30 18 IT-151 6.24 7.16 19 M-107 GRC,fig. 14 18 8.55 X-42 7.33 18 E-2450 double-struck 9.31 18 H-17 7.95 18 K-1317 7.49 17 AA-191 X chisel markedon obv. 17 8.46 T-420 Kleiner 1976, p. 4, pl. 2, no. 32 19 8.22 NN-20 broken (U 13:2a)Plate 34:3 PP'-1006 20 nos. 1143-1146) and gold (Sv.71.1-4) silver(NewSyek, Although this is the bronze counterpartof the 87/6 B.C. issuessignedby King Mithradatesand Aristion,its date is independentlyconfirmedby the contextualevidence of the Sullan bronze hoards and by the circumstancesthat the earliestAgora deposits in which specimensappear contained debris from the Sullan destructionof 86 (Price 1964, pp. 32-34). Since the star-between-crescents bronzes became worthlessafter Sulla'sconquest and were discarded,it is not surprisingthat a remarkabletotal of thirteen was found in the cistern Deposit N 20:4 of the mid- to late 80's. For a possible specimen that may ca. have been demonitizedlike 97h but with an XI on both sides, see 153e (overstruck 20 B.C.). UNCLASSIFIED

[82-4, 90-97 420 coins of uncertainFulminatingZeus variety.Of these, 3 were halved,most likelyin the 1stcentury afterChrist(pp. 92-93 below).
*a NN-957 17 halved

*b K-1622 c PP'-1004 d PP'-1005

18 17 17

halved (as also A-20) (U 13:2a)Plate 34:1 (U 13:2a)Plate 34:2

PERIOD Ill: CATALOGUE AE3 ca. 130' B.C.136 Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet; border of dots. 98 28 coins *a Br-465 *b ft-357 *c r-1611a 12-15 Av. 2.61 (12) 13 2.58 14 3.22 12 2.65 A 8-E Amphora with transverse palm branch.


Sv. 107.75-79; Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:84-86 (Type15)

flan cut down before striking same

Coins of this variety are occasionally present in hoards of the early 1st century B.C. (Kleiner 1976, p. 32, table III) but in much smallernumbersand in a more worn condition than pieces from the clearlylatervarieties 99 and 100.

ca. 130-90 Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet; border of dots. 99 *a *b *c *d *e *f *g *h *i *j *k *1 *m *n *o *p 635 coins K-1262a E-4073 E-474 OA-259 r-140 H-998 00-1069 II-491 8-991 IIE-424 NN-1220 BB-494 ZZ-34 r-1630 II-420 II-616 12-18 17 17 16 15 15 14 14 14 14 13 13 12 12 12 12 12


AGE below. Two owls stg. r. and 1., facing, on thunderbolt; all within olive wreath.

Sv. 24.60-68; Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:87-92 (Type16)

Av. 2.84 (147) 5.35 4.96 3.46 3.75 3.65 2.58 trimmed flan 2.74 2.58 4.08 2.62 Kleiner 1976, p. 8, pl. 4, no. 89; GRC,fig. 14 2.64 2.33 2.72 1.94 1.85 overstruckon Owl-on-thunderboltAE 4 (81) broken or halved

In the long course of production, coins of this variety underwent a substantialdiminution that is reflected not only in the wide range of flan weights and sizes but also by the progressivereduction of the diameter of the dies. Ultimately,the mint was overstriking variety on AE 4 chalkoi of the early 2nd century (see 99o). the To make them commensuratewith the later coins, flans of the earlier,larger 99f and Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:87, were cut down, apparentlyin these cases after striking,since the trimmingrespectsthe reversetype. Kleiner'sdating of ca. 130-90 B.C.followsfrom the abundanceand condition (w2-6) of specimensin hoardsof the early 1stcenturyB.C.and the presenceof three examplesin the Agora drainDeposit A-B 19-20:1 of the third quarterof the 2nd century(Kleiner 1976, p. 18, nos. 115-117; pp. 27, 32, 35-38; Kleiner 1973, pp. 176-177). As proposedbelow, however,the coinage may have ended by the 90's B.C.with the change to variety 100.
136 Kleiner

1976, pp. 37-38.



ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. A Cicada. O-E Owl stg. r., facing, on thunderbolt.

Sv. 107.50-54; Kleiner 1976, pl. 3:46-50 (Type6)


*a *b *c *d *e *f

73 coins 12-16 Av.2.85(18) 2.00 Z-2198bis 14 T-517 2.35 12 3.66 AP-31 12 E-548 2.65 12 8-114 2.75 12 13 2.39 II1-624 The 182 hoard specimensweighedby Kleiner(1973, p. 181, tableI) gave an averageof 3.48 g and suggestedto him that these Cicada/Owl-on-thunderboltcoins representa larger denominationalunit than the Two-owlson-thunderbolt99, even though both varietieshave diametersof the same size (Kleiner 1973, p. 180; Kleiner 1976, p. 10). The averageof 2.85 g. taken from the 18 best Agora specimens, however,agrees with the average weight of the Two-owl coinage (2.69 g. fromhoard pieces, 2.84 g from Agora pieces; see Table III[pp. 324-325 below]).It is noteworthy, too, that in the Athens 1955 and the Keratea 1954 hoards the Cicada/Owl pieces were somewhat less worn than the accompanyingTwo-owl strikings(Kleiner 1976, p. 27). We deduce that the two varietiesmay very well representan earlierand laterversion of the same AE 3 unit. If so, the later Cicada/Owl with full restoredAE 3 weight. Two pieces occur in coins will have been struck,around or shortlyafter 100 B.C., the drainDeposit B 20:9 (early1stcenturybut no coins laterthan 87 B.C.;Kleiner 1976, pp. 19-21, nos. 107, 108). AE4
166-150's B.C.

Head of Apollo r., laur.

A-e AE Amphora with transverse palm branch.

Sv. 106.12-16; Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:97-100


19 coins 12-14 Av. 1.64 (15) 1.44 *a Z-610bis 13 13 2.02 *b S-5469 Kleiner 1976, p. 34, note 50, pl. 4, no. 99 12 2.10 *c A--169 14 1.72 *d r-208 Kleiner 1975, p. 322, pl. 75, no. 324 (M-N 15:1) 12 2.07 *e T-1377 The later variety 105 has similartypes but a differentarrangementof the ethnic and omits the palm branch behind the amphora;the coins tend to be smallerand are much cruderin style.The fine obversesof the present varietyrelateit to the AE 2 Apollo/Owl with lyre (87) and perhapsto the rareAE 3 Apollo/Lyre (Sv. 106.8-10), which has yet to show up in the Agora or Delos excavations. 10e (previouslymisclassifiedwith variety 105) comes from the ca. 140 B.C.destructiondeposit of South Stoa I.
ca. 140' B.C.138

Head of Zeus r.; border of dots. 102 *a *b *c *d 8 coins 0-177 K-1284 00-468 K-520 10-13 Av.1.63(8) 11 1.27 13 2.16 2.23 12 1.55 13

A-@ E Plemochoe.

Sv. 107.9-11; Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:80-83 (Type14)

Kleiner 1976, p. 7, pl. 4, no. 80; GRC,fig. 14

'38 Kleiner 1976, pp. 34, 38.



1.98 IIII-274 12 10 K-360 1.51 11 1.31 Z-2743 Kleiner 1976, p. 14, no. 91 (H 12:1) The context of 102g gives a terminus quem ca. 140 B.C. ante of This, the only AE 3-5 variety in the pre-86 B.C. with an obverse head of Zeus, was likely minted with the Zeus/Fulminating Athena AE 2 (88, 89) of coinage the 140's.

Head of Apollo r., laur.; border of dots. 103 21 coins *a NN-1656 *b NN-1120 10-13 Av. 1.58 (10) 1.89 12 11 1.54

A-E Plemochoe; all within wheat wreath. Sv. 106.48-51; Kleiner 1976, pl. 3:77-79 (Type13)

Kleiner 1976, p. 7, pi. 3, no. 77 = p. 18, no. 114 (A-B 19-20:1); GRC,fig. 14

11 *c 1.67 A-422 *d K-1759 10 1.66 e Z-2723 12 broken Kleiner 1976, p. 14, no. 90 (H 12:1) *f NN-1556 12 A-OE 1.62 12 1.69 *g 00-1222 cavity punched in obv. Dating is from the contexts of 103e (ca. 140 B.C.)and 103b (also of the third quarterof the 2nd century).The archaizingApollo head with falling twistsof hair is distinctive,as is the crowded,wreathedreverse. 103g, found with three imperial (Period VB) fractions,circulatedas late as the 2nd or 3rd centuries after Christ, when the punched cavitywas added; see p. 94 below.
ca. 140-90 B.C.

Head of Artemis r., quiver at shoulder;border of dots. 104

A-e E Plemochoe; all within wreath.

2 coins *a IIn-290a 12 1.50 *b IIII-939 10 1.25 In contrastto these two Agora pieces, the varietyhas been found in quantityon Delos; see Table III, pp. 324325 below. Sv. 106.78-81 and the four specimens illustratedby Kleiner (1976, pl. 4) are all from the Delos excavations,which recoveredsixty of these Artemis/Plemochoe coins from the House of the Comedians alone (DelosXXVII, p. 321, pl. 65, F178-F237). There can be little doubt that the variety was minted for use on the island. Weightsshow that the variety is later than the Apollo/Plemochoe, of which only one specimen has been recordedfrom Delos (NumismaticCollectionof Athens 1906/7 x4' 225). Head of Apollo or Artemis, r.

Sv. 106.76-81; Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:101-104

Plemochoe in wreath; ethnic illegible. [103, 104] 52 coins of uncertainApollo/Plemochoe or Artemis/Plemochoevariety. A-e E Amphora.

Head of Apollo r.


31 coins *a T-240 *b IIe-287

10-12 Av. 1.72 (20) 12 1.56 12 1.76

Sv. 107.36-41; Kleiner 1976, pl. 3:62-66 (Type10)

trimmed flan Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 62

78 *c *d *e *f g NN-683 1-1458 E-729 A-159bis NSR-76 12 11 11 12 12

ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. 2.13 1.60 1.32 1.85 1.86

Kleiner 1976, no. 63 Kleiner 1976, no. 64

[101 or 105] 12 coins of uncertainApollo/Amphora variety. Head of Kore(?) r. AOE above. Piglet stg. r. Sv. 103.57-64; Kleiner 1976, pl. 3:67-72 (Type11)

106 *a *b *c *d *e *f *g

81 coins N-166 II-815 r-1605 K-1198 Z-2205 r-1O K-1255

9-12 12 11 11 11 11 10 9

Av. 1.45 (42) 1.35 1.38 1.60 1.45 1.66 1.38 1.20

Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 69 Kleiner 1976, no. 68; GRC,fig. 14

Although the relativelycrude obverseheads of this and the foregoing105 are virtuallyidentical(Kleiner 1976, the p. 7), it is not certainwhether the heads are all of a laureateApollo or whether,as more reasonably, heads of 106 with the piglet reverserepresentKore wearing a crown of wheat. Influencedby the piglet, Kleiner (1976) mistookthe heads of both varietiesas heads of"Demeter?" and connected 106 with the Demeter/Piglet AE 2 of the second quarterof the 2nd century(86). But both AE 4 varietiesmustbelong furtheralong in the centurywhen the size and weight of the chalkous had declined, and the head on the present variety looks too youthful for Demeter. ForKore on a later issue, see 117. With the shrinkageof the AE 4 flans there was a correspondingreduction in the sizes of the dies; compare the Apollo heads of variety 101 with the smallerheads of 105 and the still smaller Kore(?)/Pigletcoins. Any firm contextualevidencethat could fix the positionof these and the otherlight AE 4 varieties107-109 in the half centurybefore 87 B.c. is lacking.139 ASv. 106.33-35 A-E Quiver and bow. Head of Nike r., wing at shoulder. Av. 1.34 (21) 9-12 107 33 coins 11 *a N-899 1.20 same obv. die as 107a 11 1.90 *b T-242 same obv. die as 107a 11 *c NN-474 2.37 1.45 *d II-702 12 0.95 11 *e K-1211 1.63 *f NN-1732 10 of The identification the head as a head of Nike (underBMC,nos. 610, 611) is probablycorrect.The alternative is Eros,suggestedperhapsby the unboundhair of the die of 107a-c, the pudgy face on the die of Sv. 106.34, 35, and the reversequiverand bow.The reverseattributes, however,ought to belong to Apollo and Artemis;and Eros is not at home in the traditionalstate iconographyof Athens,whereasNike was closely associatedwith Athena. Kore(?)/Pigcoin (Kleiner 1976, pl. 3:72)belongsto the seven-pieceNumismaticCollectionofAthens lot IK. 127 published by Kleiner (1976, p. 28) as part of a possible hoard, even though one of the coins (F7) dates after 86 B.C. (variety127) and would have to have been an intrusion.If the remainingsix coins do happen to come from a hoard, however,they suggest that Kore(?)/Pigdates closer to 102 (Zeus/Plemochoe) and 103 (Apollo/Plemochoe) than, say, very late in the 2nd century.
139 A

Cicada. 108 *a *b *c *d *e *f 59 coins A-321 BA-78 BB-706 NN-200 K-1028 AA-266 9-11 10 9 9 9 9 9 Av. 1.13 (20) 0.70 1.00 1.23 0.75 0.97 0.66

PERIOD m: CATALOGUE AE e- Amphora with transverse palm branch.

79 Sv. 107.60-69

Kleiner 1976, p. 6, pl. 3, no. 58

This is a revival of the Period II Cicada/Amphora AE 4 (85) but with reduced size and weight, an altered form of the ethnic, and a generally clumsier style. The total of 672 Cicada/Amphora pieces listed under 85 doubtlessinclude many pieces that belong to this late 2nd-centuryissue;see pp. 65-66 above.

Cicada. 109 3 coins *a B-602bis *b E-134 *c NN-2053 10 11 11 1.17 0.80 broken

A-e E Quiver and bow.

Sv. 107.70-73

The varietyis, in effect, a conflationof 107 and 108.

AE5 ca. 130-90 B.C. Head of Apollo r., laur. A-e E Owl stg. r. on horizontal amphora. Sv. 106.52-64; Kleiner 1976, pl. 3:73-76 (Type12)

110 *a *b *c *d

53 coins II-972 NN-1299 OA-275 B'-729bis

7-10 10 10 7 8

Av. 0.88 (11) 1.23 0.76 0.46 0.47

Kleiner's dating of ca. 150-140 B.C. (Kleiner 1976, pp. 36, 38) was based on the misattributionof Z-2852, an 11 mm. illegiblecoin fromDeposit H 12:1,to thisvariety(Kleiner1976, p. 15, no. 92). It is clearfromthe small Delos hoard IGCH 324 (note 105 above, p. 66) that the varietybelongs to the middle or later phase of PeriodIII. On the other hand, no specimens of the following 111-114 have been recoveredfrom a chronologicallyuseful context.

Head of Apollo r.; border of dots. 111 6 coins *a X-33 *b I-2114 *c 00-263 *d r-326 7-10 10 8 7 9 Av.0.43 (6) 0.49 0.58 0.59 0.26 (N 19:1) broken?

A O-E Lyre.

Sv. 106.23-26


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. Similar. -E Tripod. Sv. 106.21, 22

112 *a *b *c d

5 coins II-453 E-1053 ET'-590 T-1189

6-10 7 7 6 9

Av.0.59 (5) 0.41 0.63 0.11 1.24

Similar. 113 4 coins 8-9 *a E-1299 8 *b KK-419bis 8 Av. 0.56 (3) 0.39 0.58

-E Cicada.

Sv. 107.42-45

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 114 *a b 2 coins Z-1716bis Z-1528 8 8 0.27 0.41 A-E


E Tripod. Sv. 106.44


86-10's B.C.

In the wake of Sulla's capture of Athens in the spring of 86, the characterof the bronze coinage was abruptlytransformed.Abandoning the FulminatingZeus AE 2 of the defeated government, Athensbegan to mint a largerand heavierAE 1 coin thatwas destinedto serveas the city'sprincipal bronze unit until the advent of Athens' Greekimperialcoinage in the 2nd century after Christ. The new AE 1 coinage was struck in five series (Table IV, pp. 326-327 below). In the first New Style silver:the AE 1 issuesbear (PeriodIVA)the bronze is closelytied to the post-Mithradatic Head of Athena Parthenos/Owl standingon the same types as the silverdrachmsand tetradrachms, amphorain surroundingolive wreath, and frequentlyemploy the same emission symbols.Like the New Style silver,this bronze was probablycalled "stephanephoric" money; and when the minting of the silver was discontinued in the late 40's these stephanephoric, or heavy Owl-on-amphora
bronzes, were discontinued with it. From that point down to the end of the Athens' Hellenistic

coinage in the Augustan era, Athens struckin bronze alone. In the second series (Period IVB), which is connectedwith MarcAntony'scontrolof Greece afterthe Battleof Philippi,the eponymous olive wreath disappearsfrom the reversesof the coins, a variety of changing reverse types replace the static Owl-on-amphoradevice, and the size and weight of the AE 1 unit were allowed to fall. The three remaining series (Period IVC-E) are early Augustan. Reverses are again wreathed but changing types persist except in the last two last issues, 157 and 158, the light Owl-on-amphora revivethe old AE 1 reversewith which the post-Mithradatic issuesof PeriodIVE, which nostalgically bronze began. bronze will be found in my publicationof two sizable The basic study of this post-Mithradatic Augustanhoards, the 483-piece Chaidarihoard of ca. 1929 and the 230-piece 1932 Agia Varvara



hoard,140each of which contained a nearly complete run of the AE 1 issues from the mid-80's B.C. throughthe final Augustanstrikings. Three smallerbronze hoards141 and a few Agora deposits provide supplementaryfind information; but by and large, the Period IV absolute chronology depends on the associationof exceptional coin types with events in the historicalrecord and, for a few of the initial PeriodIVA heavy Owl-on-amphoraissues,on synchronisms with the contemposilver. rary Period IVA:86-42 B.C. The chronologyof the post-Mithradatic tetradrachmand drachmcoinage, to which the firstor heavy Owl-on-amphoraAE 1 emissionsare tied, is stillvery much under discussion.The sequence of the first eleven or twelve silver issues is relativelysecure,142and on the absolute chronology endorsedby M0rkholm, the firsteight of these issueswould have been struckin a more or less annual sequencebeginningin 86/5 immediatelyafterSulla'sconquestand continuinginto the early 70's.143 The seventh or eighth emission, Sotades-Themistokles,is, however, the last issue in two hoards discoveredon Delos, and after the next emission, Eumelos-Theoxenides,there is an immediate, drastic falling off in the volume of coins minted.144For the remaining twenty-fiveknown issues, outputwas normallylimitedto just one or two obversetetradrachmor drachmdies a year.Since the piraticaldevastationof Delos in 69 providesa sound historicalexplanationboth for the burialof the two Delos hoards and for the sudden and permanent loss of Athens' ability to maintain minting
140Kroll 1972: IGCH 341 and 342. Contraryto the notes in IGCH, it is clear that the Chaidari and Agia Varvara hoards are separate finds (Kroll 1972, pp. 86-88), although both do come from the same region of Attica (near the Sacred Way between Athens and Daphni) and were almost certainly buried at the same time. The date has to be estimated from the moderate to slight wear of the latest coins (of Periods IVD and E) and should lie within the last decade B.C. less probably,the first decade of our era. A connection with the obscure revolt of Athens in ca. A.D.13 or, (for which, see Bowersock,Augustus, 105-108) cannot be ruled out, but the wear of the coins implies an earlier pp. emergency.A raid of brigands?Crawford(CMRR, 251) makesprominentmention of both hoardsbut followingIGCH p. below); AkropolisNorth Slope 1936 (IGCH340), 40 coins, buried ca. 30 B.c.;and Attica 1927 (IGCH343), 44 coins, buried,like the Chaidariand Agia Varvarafinds,aroundthe end of the 1stcenturyB.C. Attica 1927 may be a parcelfrom the Chaidarifind. 142 Now see afterSotades-Themistokles (like and Mattingly 1979, pp. 161-165, table B, placing Eumelos-Theoxenides Morkholm 1984, pp. 32-33) following Boehringer,pp. 24-27, 202-203, in insertingthe strange Kointos-Charmostra issue as the first issue after Mithradates-Aristion. is Only the inclusion of Kointos-Charmostra open to serious doubt; despite its Sullan date, MargaretThompson's argumentsfor excluding it from the Athenian sequence should not be minimized (NewSyle, pp. 464-467, nos. 1427 and 1428). 143 Merkholm 1984, pp. 33, 42, citing Habicht 1976, pp. 137-142, who connects the symbol of Harmodios and of Mentor-Moschion, the third (or, subtractingKointos-Charmostra,second) issue after MithradatesAristogeiton Aristion, with the honors lavished on Sulla upon his return to Athens in 84. But in the absence of supportinghoard ofa evidence,the associationcan onlybe conjectural.The overstriking Demeas-Kallikratides tetradrachm (approximately the twelfthissue after Mithradates-Aristion) the Roman quaestorAesillasno longer presentsany difficultiesfor New by Style chronology in any period. In a paper presented in London at the 10th InternationalNumismatic Congress in 1986, Robert Bauslaughwas able to confirm the suspicionsof ChristophBoehringer("Hellenistischer Miinzschatzaus Trapezunt 1970," SNR 1975 [pp. 37-64], p. 62) and M0rkholm(1984, pp. 35-38) that minting of Aesillastetradrachms continued into the 60's. Until Bauslaugh'sforthcoming corpus of Aesillas is in print, see his "Two Unpublished Overstrikes:New Style Athens and Aesillasthe Quaestor," ANSMN32, 1987, pp. 11-21. 144 The hoards are Delos EO and A (IGCH 297 and 347): New Syle, pp. 513-515, 533-537, pls. 197-201. For contractionin output, see NewSyle, pp. 653-654; Mattingly 1979, p. 165, table B.
misdates them to 42 B.C. 141 Kroll 1972, pp. 87-88, table I: Delos 1910 (IGCH322), 16 coins, buried possiblyin 69 B.C. (TableVI, p. 329 below)



at anything approachingprecedinglevels,145 very strongcase exists for pulling down the date of a all eight or nine of the earlierpost-Mithradatic issues into the 70's B.. This leaves a gap of about five years between the Mithradates-Aristion issue of 87/6 and the recommencementof the silver coinage around80 B.C. Mattinglyhad alreadypostulateda gap of two yearsby allowingthe silverto with Sulla's resettlementof Athenian affairsin 84/3,146 but two years should probablybe begin regardedas a minimum. in Howeverlong the interval,an interruption the strikingof the silveris only to be expectedafter the exhaustingsiege, pillaging,and confiscationsof 86 and the temporaryloss of Delos for the two thn yearsthereafte. It is within this inteval tat the earliestOwl-on-amphorabronze (115: no symbol) its surelybelongs. Introducedat a time of crisisand economic reconstruction, silvertypes and heavy AE 1 module suggest that, like the AE 1 hemidrachmsof 229 (64), it was originallyintended as a partialreplacementfor silver.Once the strikingof silverwas resumed,additionalOwl-on-amphora AE 1 emissions,now bearingemission symbols,were minted from time to time along with it. Nine issueshave symbols.Two date with the pre-69 silver: 1 18 (poppy and wheat-earssymbol) and 119 (mysticstaff) share symbolsrespectivelywith the Lysandros-Oinophilos the Sotadesand Themistoklessilverof the 70's.Two or three issues(124: caduceus;125: thyrsos;and probably121: The rest (120: plemochoe; 122: two tripod)parallelemissionsin the later silverof the 60's-40's B.C. wheat ears; 123: flower;and 126: two pilei) stand alone and probablybelong to years from which no silverdrachmsor tetradrachms extant,if any were struckat all. Fromthe wear of the Chaidari are and Agia Varvarahoard specimens,it is clear that 126 was the last issue in the seriesand that 124 and 125 are late. But we lack any furtherphysicalcriteriathat can be broughtto bear on the internal chronology:too few of the coins are well enough preservedfor stylisticcomparison,and throughout the seriesthe AE I weightswere uniformlymaintainedat an averageof about 10-1 1 g. (seeTable IV [pp. 326-327 below], column of hoard specimens). In addition to these regularemissions,the AE 1 unit was struckin two exceptional issueswith Eleusiniantypes, 116: VeiledDemeter head/Triptolemosin chariot,and 117: Kore head/Iakchos. in Both were struckearinly Period A and imply an exceptionallavishnessin the celebrationof the EleusinianMysteriesat this time. Plutarch,Sulla26, has usuallybeen understoodto indicate that with this Sullawas initiatedat the Mysteriesupon his returnto Athensin 84 B.C. Althoughdifficulties interpretationhave been recentlypointed out,147the traditionalview of a Sullan initiationhas the advantageof providingan explanationfor at least one of these issues. The Period IVA fractionalunits able V, p. 328 below) continue the AE 2, AE 3, and AE 4 modules of the pre-Mithradatic coinage but are readilydistingished by their thick, chunkyfabric; leaded alloy (givingthem a blackcolor when cleaned);and, except in some earliervarieties,ethnics are inscribedin one line: A-eE. These characteristics typical of the AE 1 coinage as well, but they have a special relevancefor the four fractionalvarieties129-132 and the PeriodIVB fraction 145, to all of which had been previouslymisattributed the pre-Mithradatic coinage, althoughnone occur
As David M. Lewis ("The Chronology of the Athenian New Style Coinage," NJC, ser. 7, 2, 1962 (pp. 275-300], out for the burial of the Delos hoards and Crawford(CMRR, 196) urges for the collapse in the p. pp. 282-283) points For volume of mintingw the abandonmentof Delos as a center of commerce following the sack of 69, see Hoff 1989, 69 p. 7. A thirdhoard that may date firom is the smallDelos 1910 hoardof bronze coins (note 141 above,p. 81) analyzed in Table VI, p. 329 below. 1' Mattingly 1969, p. 328; idem,"Some Third Magistratesin the Athenian New Style Coinage,"JHS 91, 1971 (PP.85-93), p. 82.

147 Clinton 1989a, p. 1503.



in hoardsof the late 2nd and early 1stcenturiesB.C.that give a good representation the PeriodIII of AE 2-4 varieties.148 The three contexts tabulatedin Table VI (p. 329 below) are essential for isolating the earlier Period IVA fractional issues of the mid-80's to mid-70's: Demeter-head/Triptolemos-in-chariot AE 2 (127 and 128), Apolo-head/Cicada AE 3 (131), Apollo- (orAthena-)head/Wheat-earsAE 4 n (132-136). The poppy symbol on some Demeter/Triptolemos AE 2 pieces (128) links them to the AE 1 variety 118 and the Lysandros-Oinophilos drachmsand tetradrachms, which employ the device of the poppy between wheat rs as their emission symbol in the early 70's, and suggests eat that the earlier,heavierDemeter/TriptolemosAE 2 withoutsymbol(127) probablybelongs near the start of the IVA bronze in the mid-80's. The AE 4 varieties 133 and 134 with a reverse type of a poppy and wheat ears are possiblyalso to be dated with the Lysandros-Oinophilos silverand large bronze.But the device, althoughnew in the post-Mithradatic like the two wheat ears of coinage,was, the other AE 4 varieties (132, 135, and 136), a conventionalEleusinianone (see 150) and need not as a coin type be a magistrate's badge writ large,especiallysince virtuallyall the old, speculative associationsof exceptionalPeriodIV reversetypeswith symbolson the New Style silverhave proved to be mistaken.149 The retention of the AE 2, AE 3, and AE 4 modules suggestssome level of continuitybetween the pre-Mithradaticand the Period IVA bronze. The chalkous,quarter-obol,and half-obol values that we have assignedto the pre-Mithradatic 4, AE 3, and AE 2 modules are likely to apply to AE these same modules in Period IVA, with the result that the new Period IVA AE 1 denomination would be valued as an obol. One might thus expect that the large AE 1 coins of post-MithradaticAthens were known as obols. Martin Price, however, has made the useful conjecture t that ey may actually have been known as drachms,150 there are two reasonsfor thinkingthat this conjectureis correct.The first, and of course,is the denominationalconnotationsof the stephanephoricsilverdrachm(andtetradrachm) types: their transferto the AE 1 unit would be most meaningfulif this bronze unit was itselfintended to representa drachm.The second argumentderivesfromthe Hadrianicor earlyAntoninepropertytax inscriptionIG II2 2776,151which recordssums in the denariusand four local, obviouslybronze, subdivisonsof the denarius(the drachm, the hemdrachm, obol, and hemiobol) and shows that by the second quarter of the 2nd century after Christ the four denominationshad been retariffedto one-sixth of their originalvalues in silverto become I, 2 , and 1 of the denariusrespectively.
(Apollo/Cicada), 130 (Athena/Artemis),and 145 (Zeus/Eagle)were thus misdatedby Kleiner 1976, pp. 34-35, 38 (table I); varieties 129 (Dolphin on trident/Plemochoe) and 132 (Apollo/Two wheat ears in wreath) by Kroll (1972, p. 87, note to table I). 149 For such now discreditedassociationsin Svoronos' plates, see Sv., pls. 56 (Apollo Delios reverse of 143 with the Delios symbol of the pre-86 silver of Sokrates-Dionysodo), (gorgoneionobverse of 139 with the symbol of 66 Apollo the pre-86 silver of Niketes-Dionysios),72 (sphinxreverseof 153 with the symbol of the pre-69 silver of Diophantosobverseof 129 with the symbolof the pre-86 silverof Xenokles-Harmoxenos), and 78 Aischines),77 (dolphin-on-trident reverse of 147 with the symbol of the pre-42 silver of Philokrates-Kalliphon). (Nike Thus, even though it is at least chronologicallypossible,the connection suggestedon Sv., pl. 73 between the reverseof the AE 2 130 (Artemisrunning tetradrachms(NewStyle,no. 1227) (Artemis [or right, with torch) and the symbol of the post-69 Leukios-Antikrates Kore?] running left and Demeter holding a torch right)is not likely to be any more substantialthan any of these other former type-symbolassociations,quite apartfrom the questionof whether the devices reallymatch. 150 Price, CRWLR, 97. p. 151 See S. G. Miller, "ARoman Monument in the Athenian Agora," Hesperia 41, 1972, pp. 50-95, with addendum, pp. 475476. The inscriptionis dated between ca. A.D. 130 and 140 or slightly later (ibid.,pp. 66, 86-87), although a date as early as A.D. 110-116 has also been proposed(cf ibid.,pp. 475-476). See pp. 118-119 below. 148Varieties131



thatthe Roman-era bronzehemidrachm drachm, and calleda "light" drachm, exeToOU 8p(aX5i),
in IG II2 1368, another inscriptionof the 2nd century after Christ, represented the traditional silver values of the hemiobol and obol and that at some point the bronze coins that would have ordinarilyrepresentedthe hemiobol and obol were renamed hemidrachmand drachm. When did this renaming occur? Presumablyafter the Period III coinage, which ended in the Sullan siege, but before the start of Athens' imperial bronze coinage in the 2nd century of our era, inasmuch as the latter coinage was structuredaround the reduced AE 1 denomination inherited from the Period IV bronze. There being no other occasion within this span to which the renaming can be plausiblyattributed,one concludes that the renamingprobablytook place with the creation of the stephanephoricAE 1 coinage after the captureand plunderingof Athens in 86. Silver would have been in short supply, and it is not hard to imagine why the Athenians would have resortedto the issue of highly overvaluedbronze drachms as an emergency measure. Conceivably,these initial AE 1 drachmswere originallytariffedat face value to be the equivalents of silver drachms; but such excessive overvaluationcould not have been sustained for long. One suspectsthat the value of the AE 1 drachmsdeclined until they were finally stabilizedat the level of an obol by the time the Athenians recommenced the strikingof a silver coinage. In this way they would have become obols in all but name. It followsthat the AE 2 unit would have been termed a hemidrachm.This is independentlysuggestedby the Eleusiniantypes with which it was normally struck,throughthe Augustanphase of PeriodIV;for in the New Style silverthe hemidrachm,whose reverse owl stands within a wheat wreath on a mystic staff, was the one denomination designed Whetheror not the reverseof the AE 3 Apollo head/Cicada variety with an Eleusinianemphasis.152 AE (131) was taken over from the pre-Mithradatic 3 Cicada/Owl-on-thunderbolt(100), arguablya it follows that in Period IV the AE 3 unit was probablyknown as a quarter-drachm. quarter-obol, The AE 4 eighth, the smallestfraction of Period IV, could have still been called the chalkous, as it had been for centuries. In additionto these IVAissues,bronzesofpre-86 mintageprobablycontinuedin use to providea substantialpart of the fractionalcurrencyafter 86. Although their value remained unaltered,we assume that they, too, would have had to have been renamed, the familiarold AE 2 Fulminating Zeus hemiobols,for example,becoming officiallyrecognizedas bronze hemidrachms. No surveyof the PeriodIVA bronze would be complete without mention of the bronze coinage minted at Delos in the name of Athens by Gaius ValeriusTriarius,the Roman legate who restored the island city after the piraticalattack in 69 B.C. (see 830 and Sv. 106.66-76). Triariusstruckin two modules, AE 2 and AE 3, and the similarityof these in size and weight to the common AE 2 bronze underscoresonce again that whateverchanges may and AE 3 issues of Athens' pre-86 B.C. have occurredin denominationalnomenclature,the old module-valuesystem of the pre-86 bronze coinage appearsto have survivedthe FirstMithradaticWar intact. Period IVB:42/1-32 B.C. The six AE 1 issues of the next, or unwreathed,phase of the post-Mithradaticcoinage have a historicalinterestthat few otherAthenianbronzeseriescan rival.Their relativechronology,as seen in Table IV (pp. 326-327 below), is fixed primarilyby the descendingweights and the increasing amount of lead in the alloys of the issues. The Dionysos types of the fourth and sixth issues (140:
AE 1 pieces cannot be identifiedas bronze hemidrachms,as Kroll 198la, p. 273 once proposed.
152 The distinctivenessof the New Style hemidrachmreversesproves that the Period IVA heavy Owl-on-amphora

Since the denariuswas by weight the effectiveequivalentof an Attic silver drachm, it is apparent



YoungDionysos/Athena advancing,and 144: Zeus/Bearded Dionysos head) place these two issues afterthe summerof 39, when Marc Antony,arrivingfrom Italy with his new wife Octavia, declared that he was to be addressedas "The New Dionysos"and took up residence in Athens throughthe winters of 39/8 and 38/7. Together with the associatedfractionalvarieties 141 (YoungDionysos head/Kantharos)and 142 (BeardedDionysos/Bust of Athena),these are the firstand, until the time of Hadrian,the only Atheniancoins with typesdepictingDionysos.In view of the extravagant lengths to which the Athenianswent in honoringAntonyas Dionysos,153includinga ritualmarriagebetween Antony-Dionysosand Athena and the celebrationof a new festival, the PanathenaicAntoneia of the 'Avr6vtor ?e6q N?os AL6vuaoo,154 initialDionysos issuescan be attributedto 39/8 or 38/7 B.C.with a high degree of probability. Accordingly,the first unwreathedAE 1 issue (137: Athena will have been struckno later than 42/1 or 41/0. Parthenos/FulminatingZeus) On the other hand, this firstunwreathedissue assuredlyfallsafterthe end-dateof the New Style of silver,since the new featuresof the bronze (the substitution changingreversetypes for the familiar from Owl-on-amphoradevice, rapidlyfallingweights, and, above all, the omission of the stephanos the reverses)signalthat the era of Athens' stephanephoriccurrencyhad passed. Prosopographically, we know that silvertetradrachmsand drachmswere being struckas late as the mid-40's,155 that so the pivotal change from the wreathedsilverand bronze to the exclusiveproductionof unwreathed bronze is to be placed sometimebetween ca.45 and 41 B.C.In historicalterms, the change occurred either when Greece was under the control of Brutus,from late 44 to the Battle of Philippi(October 42), or shortly after the battle, when Antony led a large army into Greece and made Athens his winter headquarters.l56 A case for Brutuscan be developedfromthe assumptionthat the FulminatingZeus reverseofthe firstunwreathedissue was chosen to symbolizethe freedomespousedby the Republicancause after the murderofJulius Caesar.Revivedfromthe PeriodII and III AE 2 coinage, the type acknowledged Zeus as protector and symbol of eleuteria (pp. 57-58 above) and would have been an appropriate choice after Brutusarrivedin Athens in August of 44 and was effusivelyhonored as Liberatorwith bronze statuesof himselfand Cassiuserectednext to the Tyrannicides the Agora.157 in During a stay of several months he began to organize the Republicanresistanceagainst the Caesareans158 and soon received the allegiance of the other cities of Greece, which expected that he would free them from Roman rule.159 The theme of Freedomdominatedthe gold and silvercoinage stiuck by Brutus and Cassius in 43 and 42, and among their types was the tripod of Apollo, patron of libertas.160 The Pythian tripod also happens to be the reversetype of the second unwreathedAthenian AE 1
153 On Antony-Dionysosat Athens,see Dio 47.39.2; Seneca, Suasoriae Athenaios4.148 1.6-7; Sokratesof Rhodes, apud Raubitschek1946, pp. 146-150; Cerfauxand Tondriau,pp. 300-301. B-C; Zonaras, 10.23; 154 IG II2 1034, lines 22-23. The alternate restorationof the name of the festivalas the Antonian Panathenaia(by Raubitschek1946, p. 148) has not met with approval:Cerfauxand Tondriau,p. 301 and C. Pelekidis,Histoire l'cphlbie de Paris 1962, p. 255. attique, 155 The evidence comes from the three issues signed by Diokles of Kephisia and the subsequentissue of Diokles of Melite (JNew nos. 1249, 1250, 1259-1262, 1269-1271), all ofwhich postdate51/0, when the KephisianDioklesheld Syle, the priestshipof Asklepiosand Hygeia. See Mattingly 1969, p. 328; Kroll 1972, pp. 93-94; M0rkholm 1984, pp. 35, 42. 156 Plutarch,Antony 23.2. 157 Plutarch,Brutus Dio 24; international 47.19.4; A. E. Raubitschek,"The BrutusStatuein Athens,"Ati delterzo congresso di epgrafia e Rome 1959, pp. 15-21. greca latine, 158 A. E. Raubitschek,"Brutusin Athens,"Phoenix 11, 1957, pp. 1-11. 159 Dio 47.21.1. 160 Crawford,RRC,nos. 498-500, with p. 741.



issue (138), and so it can be argued that the first two Period IVB issues date from the two archon yearsprecedingPhilippi,44/3 and 43/2. Nevertheless,the case for Antony is much stronger,in the first instance because it allows the full IVB series to belong uninterruptedly a single regime. There is, moreover,no difficultyin to 23.3) mentions that associatingthe second, unwreathedtripod issue with Antony. Plutarch(Antony beforeAntony left Athens for Asia Minor in the springof 41 "he made measurementsof the Temple of Pythian Apollo with the intention of completing it; for he had promised this to the Senate Althoughthis was the temple at Delphi (it had been burnedby maraudingThracians (atyxXTdiov)." be an allusion to Antony's the Pythnantripodo the second IVB e ion could ian of 85/4),d project.If Antony upon arrivalin Athens in 42 confirmedthe city'sstatusas a "freeand allied city (as he must have, to judge from his unexpectedlyconciliatorytreatnent of Athens),the Fulminating Zeus reverseof the first unwreathedissue would have been just as timely n emblem of eleutria in if that year as before Philippi,162 indeed the type was exclusivelytopical. But we will see (pp. 90-91) that the type may have been chosen also forits denominational significance:to denote devaluationof the AE 1 unit to equivalencewith the pre-Mithradatic FulminatingZeus AE 2. The situationafterPhilippipresents,finally,the more plausiblehistoricaland monetarycontext for the Athenian decision to abandonthe mintingofsilver.The explicitchange in the appearanceof the bronze coinage demonstratesthat howeverslightand erraticthe minting of the stephanephoric silvermay have been since the 60's, its terminationwas a deliberatelegislativeact. The silverdid not plentiful just die out from a lack of resources.Competitionfrom the lighterand now overwhelmingly Roman denariusleft the Athenianslittle choice but to forsakethought of furtherproduction.From hoards,Michael Crawfordremarksthat "it is the period afterthe death ofJulius Caesar which sees the spreadfor the firsttime over most all of the whole of the Greek east of issues of the mainstream coinage of Rome."163The spread was greatly augmented by the denarius issues of Brutus and Cassiusin 43-42 B.C.,14 up to that time the most extensive denariuscoinage minted in the East, and after Philippiby the almost continuousstreamof denarii issued by Antony in Asia Minor and probablyat some bases in Greece.165 The terminationof the New Style silverwas thus a responseto the tidalwave of Roman military silver that flooded Greece during the Second Roman Civil War. The response clearly cannot be to attributed Brutus'residencein Athensin 44, beforehe had begun to assemblean army or to strike th a coinage, nor wiin te next year and a half when the early civil war denariiwere only beginning to circulate.After Philippi, however,this silverwas circulatingmore widely; and Antony stationed his army for severalmonths at Athens, seeming to have alreadydecided upon making Athens his and military, long-termheadquarters consequentlyone of the chiefcentersof Roman administrative, of Antony and his forces in the winter of 42/1 must and naval power in the East.166 The presence
C. B. R. Pelling, Pbitarch, ofAntony, Ljfe Cambridge 1988, p. 176, correctingR. Flaceliereand E. Chambry,Pltarque Paris 1977, p. 216, who arguedin favorof the temple of PythianApollo at Athens. Vies XIII: Dbtrios-Antoine (Bude), 162 Compare the head of Eleutheriaon coins of Pella and Thessalonikecommemoratingthe free status awardedto these cities by Antony and Octavian after Philippi(RPCI, 1545 and 1551, with pp. 296, 297). 163 Crawford,CMRR, 252. So, too, Price, CRWLR, 99: "Itis only with M. Antoniusthat [the denarius]appearsto p. p. have enjoyedwidespreaduse." 164 Crawford,RRC,nos. 498-508. 165 Ibid.,nos. 516, 517, 520-522, 527-529, etc. Minting of Antonian denarii in Greece, see RPC I, p. 245. For the bronze coinage struckfor Antony in Greece, see note 180 below,p. 89. 166 Antony'sother center was Ephesos, but he seems to have favoredAthens. In the fall of 40, Antony returnedto Athens to meet with his wife Fulviaand other adherentsbeforecontinuingon to Brundisium(Appian,Bela Civiia5.76). Returninga year later with Octavia, he remained for two winterswhile preparingwar against the Parthians.After a



have injected denariiinto the Athenian economy as never before and caused the Atheniansto bring the era of their stephanephoriccoinage to a formal close.167 The terms of the resulting legislation are beyond recovery.However much they might have statusto the denarius,the latterby this time was probablybecoming the accordeda preferred,dejure basic silver coin in Athens regardless,as the heavier silver of true Attic weight was being driven into savings or the melting pot. The legislationwould surely have addressedthe characterof the new unwreathedbronze, which now, necessarilyvalued in relation to the denarius,was retariffed downwards.The evidence and nature of this devaluationwill be discussedpresently,but it can be noted here that the progressively fallingweightsof the PeriodIVB AE 1 emissionsare responsiblefor the reducedweights of the fractionalvarietiesof the period (Tabley p. 328): the reducedAE 2 141 (Dionysos/Kantharos),the reducedAE 4 142 (BeardedDionysos/Athena bust),the last emissionof the Hellenisticcoinage struckin this familiarsmallmodule, and the reducedAE 2 145 (Zeus/Eagle on thunderbolt). The Ptolemaic types of this last variety date it and with it the related Zeus/Bearded Dionysos AE 1 variety 144 to the time of Antony'sliaison with Kleopatra and thus almost certainlyto their stay of severalmonths in Athens in the summerof 32. IVC-E:31-1 O's TheAugustan Issues Periods B.C. of Athens'Hellenisticcoinage concludesin the earlyAugustanera in threedistinctseriesof reduced AE 1 emissions. Except for the last, they continue the Period IVB convention of changing reverse types,but reversesare now again enclosedin a wreath.Unlike PeriodIVB issues 137, 138, and 143, whose Athena heads scrupulouslyreplicatedthe obverseheads of the discontinuedstephanephoric silver and bronze, the Augustan emissions were normally designed with Athena heads that were either very free or very crude adaptationsof the New Style prototype. The first re-wreathed AE 1 series (Period IVC) consists of three small issues of aberrant appearance and considerablyrestored weight of 8-9 g. Reverses all suggest a connection with Octavian: the Demeter or Kore reverse of 146 with his initiation at Eleusis within weeks after Actium (earlySeptemberof 31), the Nike reverseof 147 with Actium itself, and the StandingZeus The three issues may be dated (Eleutherios)reverse of 148 with Octavian'srole as "Liberator". to late 31 B.C. and the years soon following.168 accordingly Afteran interval,mintingresumedon an unprecedentedscalein the secondAugustancoinage of four homogeneousissues(PeriodIVD). Obversesare typifiedby a helmet with flattenedcrownand a single,bushytail of the centralcrestfallingbehind (asopposedto the two linear tailsthat trailbehind
few years, when Octavia came with troops from Italy for continuing the war, she brought them to Athens (Plutarch, Antony 53.1-3). In the summer of 32, when assemblinghis forces to defeat Octavian, Antony again took up residence at Athens, this time in the company of Kleopatra(Antony 57.1-2). 167 Antony may or may not have had a hand in the decision,but if he did it need not have been coercive.Writingabout liked to be addressedas Antony's first residence in Athens in 42/1, Plutarch(Antony 23.2) tells how he "particularly and Philathenaios gave to the city very many gifts,"which, according to Appian (BellaCivlia 5.7) included the islands of Aigina, Ikos, Skiathos, and Peparethos.Antony naturallyreplaced the democraticgovernment that had supported Brutusand Cassiuswith an oligarchy(seeJ. Kirchner'scommentaryto IG II2 1043, and P. Graindor, Atnes sousAuguste, Cairo 1927, p. 95); but the logical time for this change in governmentwas 42/1, not Antony'sreturn from Italy three years later. 168 Correctingthe chronologyin Kroll 1972, from p. 99, where I assumedan unbrokenchain of annualAE 1 strikings the startof the unwreathedAE 1 in 41 B.C. and, not recognizingthe propersequence of the IVE coinage, placed both the PeriodIVC and the PeriodIVE seriesbeforeActium.



on regularNew Style obverses)and reversesby a new,triangular dispositionof the ethnic. Alphasare formed with brokenbars, althoughbowed bars are sometimesfound in the first emission normally in (149, Athena advancing,owl)and straightcrossbars the laterones (151: Athena advancing,snake; 152: Owl on prow,wheat ear; and 153: Sphinx).As an Athenian coin type, the concludingsphinx device is inexplicableunless understoodas the sphinx of Augustus'signet.169 Augustancistophoroi, also which Sutherlandassignsto 27-26 B.C.,170and aureilater minted at Pergamonin 19-18 B.C.171 employedthe sphinx as a reversetype. Since Augustusreplacedthe sphinx with a signet portraying Alexander the Great (Pliny,Natural 37.10), the final appearance of the sphinx on Roman History for a terminus or adquem the sphinx issue at Athens and an approximate ante coins of 19-18 B.C. gives dating in the mid-20'sto early teens for the four issuesof PeriodIVD overall.The second reference the to Augustusin this seriesis the prow,presumably prowofActium, that supportsthe owl of Athens on variety 152. maintainedaverageweightof around7.5 g., and The fourIVD issueswere struckwith a carefully in tremendousnumbers.The total of 1,409 Agora specimensmakes these, if not the most massive issuesin Athenianbronzecoinage,then certainlythe most prolificin a largemodule. With them were struckhalf-unitemissions(150, 154-156), mostly with Eleusiniantypes, and, at the beginning of Period IVD, three bronze cleruchy emissionsfor the Athenian islands of Lemnos (159A), Skyros (160), and Imbros (161). Intended for overseasuse by these cleruchies,the coins were minted in Athens and verifythat in the post-Actiansettlementof Greece, Athens was confirmedin possession of her traditionalNorthern Aegean cleruchyislands. The concluding reduced AE 1 series (Period IVE) revives the old stephanephoric types of Parthenoshead/Owl on amphora for two issues (157: snake symbol, and 158: cicada symbol) but at low average weights of 6.4 and 6.2 g. and generally in a bizarre, third-ratestyle that on many obverse and reverse dies borders on the grotesque. Although less so than in the preceding series, strikingwas again heavy, producingfrom both emissions a total of 475 Agora pieces. The breakbetween the second and thirdAugustanseriescould not have lasted more than a few years,as there is no detectabledifferencein wear of coins from both seriesin the Chaidariand Agia Varvara the hoards.Thus if the second series ends around 19 B.C., two light Owl-on-amphoraissuesbelong somewherein the later teens. Thereafter,Athens struckno new coinage for more than a century. A notable aspect of these Augustanissues is their thoroughly"autonomous"character.In an exhaustivesurveyof civic coinages minted under Augustus,Andrew Burnett has deduced that the customof placing the emperor's portraiton obversesbegan to spreadrapidlythroughoutthe Empire very earlyin the principateand that it was most likelypromotedas a matterof Roman governmental policy.172Yet Athens coined without the portrait;and while thi was certainlyexceptional, so, too, did a few other cities under Augustus: Chios, Rhodes, Tyre, and (allowingfor one special portrait issue,776) Sparta.Since all these citieswere,likeAthens, "freecities"underthe Empire,theirability to continue to mint with local, civic obversesis probablyto be understood as a privilege of their favoredpoliticalstatus.l73 Athena had always belonged on the obverse of Athenian money, but without changing the traditionalcharacterof the coinage, honors to Augustuscould be displayedon reverses,and were:
Baden-Baden 1962. 37.4. H. U. Instinsky, Siegel Kaisers Augustus, des Die 50; Suetonius,Augustus Pliny,Natural History Sutherland,Olcay,and Merrington,pp. 85-99, 104, pls. 17-19; RPC I, 2204, 2207, 2210. to the Mint of Pergamon,"RN, ser. 6, 15, 1973 171 C. H. V Sutherland,'AugustanAurei and Denarii Attributable (pp. 129-151), pp. 131-132, pl. 14, nos. 1-11.


172 RPC I, pp. 39-42.

173 Ibid.



the Nike of 147 and the prow beneath the owl of 152 both allude to Actium, the statue of Zeus on 148 refersto Octavian's"liberation" Athens,and the sphinxof 153 is Augustus'own signature. of Fallingat the end of the Period IVD coinage, the sphinx issue might have been struckas a gesture of reconciliation after 22/1, when on a journey to the East Augustus became angered with the Athenians, slighted them by wintering on Aigina, and deprived them of the territoriesof Aigina and Eretria and the business of selling Athenian citizenship.l74But cordial relations were soon reached, and in the fall of 19 Augustusvisited Athens on his way back to Rome and participated in the Eleusinian Mysteries for a second time.175Probablythe sphinx issue is to be dated to or in anticipationof this last visit. It is interestingin any event that after this one explicitlyAugustan issue, a reaction set in, and for the followinglight Owl-on-amphoraissues the Athenians adopted traditionalist types that looked backwardto the coinage and politicalorder of a vanished era. Denominational Change As the civil wars of the thirdquarterof the 1stcenturyB.C.bound the cities of Greece ever more tightly to Rome,176the traditionalmonetary systems of many Greek states began to succumb to Roman influence. An underlyingfactor,mainly attributableto the presence of successiveRoman armies in Greece, was the emergence of the denarius as the standardsilver coin of Hellas. With the triumph of the denarius there appeared in severalplaces bronze coinages that were modeled on the uniquely Roman monetary system of 16 asses (bronze units usually of roughly AE 1 size) to the denarius.Among the earliestsuch Roman coinages of Greece are the duoviralasses,semises, quadrantes,and sextantesbegun by Corinth upon its foundation as a Roman colony in 44 or 43 B.C. (670-704) and the related asses and semises struckby the Latin colony of Dyme in 40 B.C.177 In the early 30's, Roman officialsof the joint province of Crete and Cyrene introduceda bronze And in the 30's, coinage of sestertii, asses, semises, and quadrantesfor use in their territory.178 Roman denominations, including the sestertius,make their first appearance in the recognizably coinage of Sparta,179 perhapsunder the influenceof Antony'sso-calledFleet Prefectbronze, much of which was issued from two of Antony'sbases in Greece, possibly Corinth and the Peiraeus,in
38-37 and 36/5 B.C.180

At Athens the decision to suspendthe minting of stephanephoricsilveris a contemporaryand related phenomenon. The decision dates to or right after the winter of 42/1 B.C. and must have formalizedthe replacementof the drachmby the denariusin the economic life of the city.But there are several indicationsthat the shift in the basic silverunit at Athens was accompanied by a more
174 Dio 54.7, and Plutarch,Moralia207 E-F, with G. W. Bowersock, "Augustus Aegina," Classical on n.s. Quarterly,

14, 1964, pp. 120-121; idem, Augustus, 106. M. C. Hoff, "CivilDisobedienceand Unrest in AugustanAthens,"Hesperia p. 58, 1989 (pp. 267-276), pp. 267-269; idem1989, pp. 4-5. 175R. Bernhardt, "Athen,Augustus und die eleusinischeMysterien,"AM 90, 1975, pp. 233-237; Clinton 1989a, pp. 1507-1509. See also the discussionsby Bowersockand Hoffcited in the precedingnote. 176 E.J. Owens, "IncreasingRoman Domination of Greece in the Years48-27 B.C.," Latomus 1976, pp. 718-729. 35, 177 M. Amandry, "Le monnayage de Dyme (Colonia Dumaeorum) en Achaie. Corpus," RN 23, 1981, pp. 45-67, especially56-57, pls. 13-16; RPC I, 1283, 1284. 178 RPCI, pp. 217-221, 226-227. 179 with RPC of RPC I, AmericanJournal ser. ofNumismatics, 2, 5, 1993, forthcoming. 180 M. Amandry,"Lemonnayageen bronzede Bibulus,Atratinuset Capito. Une tentativede romanisationen Orient," parts I-III, SVR 65, 1986, pp. 73-85, pls. 10-17; 66, 1987, pp. 101-112, pls. 15-25; 69, 1990, pp. 65-96. Dating and Amandry's mint attributionsto Corinth (Atratinus)and the Peiraeus (Capito) are discussed in part III, pp. 78-83. Summaryin RPC I, pp. 284-286. Forthe five Capito specimensfrom the Agora excavations,see note 3 above, p. xxvi.

Grunauer, XVIII-XXII,pp. 50-51, Groups

pp. 75, 80;

I, pp. 246, 247, 248; andJ. H. Kroll,review



fundamentalreform in the structureof the bronze currency.The indications and what seems at are presentto be their most plausibleinterpretation as follows(see Table VII, p. 330 below): 1. According to the discussionon pages 83-84, the AE 1 unit, the chief bronze denomination of Period IV, was institutedin 86 B.C.as a bronze drachm, although after a sharp fall in value it was tariffedat only one-sixth of a drachm of silver for nearly all of Period IVA and thus served as the equivalentof the traditionalobol. It was accompaniedby an AE 2 half-piece,an AE 3 quarter, and an AE 4 eighth. 2. Among indications of change after Period IVA, the most tantalizingare two reverse types that could have been revived for their denominationalsinificance: the FulminatingZeus reverse of the first unwreathedAE 1 issue (137) of 42/1 B.C. and the Two-owls-on-thunderbolt reverseof the half-unitof the AugustanPeriodTVD reducedAE 1. Both reverseshark variety 156, apparently back to the two most commonplace coinages of Period III, the FulminatingZeus AE 2 hemiobol AE and the Two-owls-on-thunderbolt 3 quarter-obol(99). Together they suggest that with the discontinuanceof the stephanephoricsilver and bronze in 42/1, the AE 1 module, formerly a bronze drachm (= old obol), was halved in value and was intended to circulateas the equivalentof the pre-86 B.C. FulminatingZeus pieces. The PeriodIVAhalf-unit,or hemidrachm(= old hemiobol), was accordinglyreduced to a quarter. 3. A substantialAE 1 devaluationin 42/1 B.C. is also implied by the gradual reductionin the size and weight of the AE I unit over the course of PeriodIVB (see Table IV, pp. 326-327 below). Beginning(in variety 137) with an averageweight of about 9 g. and diametersof about 19-20 mm. (about 1-2 g. and 1 mm. less than the preceding Owl-on-amphorabronzes),the unwreathedIVB flanswere allowed to shrinkuntil in the ightestissue (143, with an averageweight ofjust under 6 g. the and diametersmeasuringnormally 17-20 mm.) they approximated weight and size of the pre-86 AE 2 FulminatingZeus coins and were in some cases actually overstruckon them (cf. 143f with 137e and 138h). In subsequentseries, the reduced AE 1 unit was partialy restoredat ca. 8-9 g. (Period IVC), then stabilizedaround 7.5 g. (Period IVD), before plummeting to 6.0-6.5 g. in the concludingAugustanissues (PeriodIVE). 4. Two furthersuggestionsof the cheapened value of the bronze coiage after 41 are (a) the more intensive strikingof the (reduced)AE 1 unit throughoutPeriodsIVB, D, and E and (b) the neglect of the minimalAE 4 unit, which was last struckin a single emission (142) of PeriodIVB. 5. Considerationof the Greek imperialcoinage of HadrianicAthens (PeriodV) suggestsquite independentlythat the value of the AE 1 module was indeed halved at some point in its history. PeriodIV coinage, which had remainedin use, the In essence a continuationof the Ist-centuryB.C. Hadrianicbronzewas mintedin fourmodularunits: a new,largeunit (169-185), which we may here
call 'AE O";the familiar reduced AE 1 unit (186-197), clearly inherited from the Period IV coinage;

and two smallerunits (198-212, 162-168 + 213-247). On the naturalassumptionthat these four modular units correspond to the four denominationsemployed in IG II2 2776, the 2nd-century oblgatio praediorum inscriptionreferredto above (p. 83 above),the large AE 0 unit will be the bronze drachm(worth6 denarius),the old reducedAE 1 unit the bronzehemidrachm(4 denarius),and the two smallerimperialmodules the obol and hemiobol (1 and 1 denarius).The intriguingequation the is of course the second, for it greatlystrengthens deductionin item 2 above that in 42/1 the AE 1 and bronzedrachm(= old obol)was probablyretariffed renamedto become the bronzehemidrachm (= old hemiobol). the 6. If this informationhas been interpretedcorrectly, effectof the devaluationwas to bringthe highly overvaluedbronze AE 1 drachm more into line with the Roman monetary practice at the time when the Athenians formallyforsooktheir stephanephoricsilverfor the denarius.Nominally



worth one-sixth of a drachm (or denarius)of silver,the AE 1 unit was reduced to a more modest coin of which there were 12 to the denarius.It is possiblethat over the four decades of PeriodIVA the value of the originalAE 1 drachmcould have continuedto decline to, say,7,8, or more per silver drachm, so that the devaluationof 42/1 B.C. may not have been quite so drasticas a full 50-percent reduction of name value.181But whatever the actual circumstances,the shift to a bronze system of 12 AE 1 units per denarius seems unmistakablyto have been intended to bring the Athenian bronze system into a closer approximationof the Roman silver:bronze ratio. In this connection it should be pointed out that, with the exception of the very lightest issues, the reduced Athenian AE 1 unit of PeriodsIVB-D had a size and weight range that is remarkablysimilarto that of the Yet contemporaryduoviralassesof Corinth.182 while the Atheniansallowedtheir bronze coinage to be adjusted in the direction of Roman usage, they stopped short of adopting the Roman system In in toto. PeriodIVB the AE 1 drachmswere renamedhemidrachmai, assaria, were tariffednot not and 16 to the denarius but, in keeping with the Greek obol-drachmdivisions, at a more favorable 12 AE 1 units to the denarius. The AE 1 devaluationhere envisaged would thus have been a kind of compromisebetween the Roman and the Greeksystems.183 Period IVAftermath Likethe other chronologicalperiods,"PeriodIV" definesthe temporallimitsof the manufacture of the coins; but if one were to apply it to the time span of their primary circulationand use, the period would have to be extended to cover entirely the Julio-Claudianand Flavian eras. For the vast numbers of the Period IV AE 1 and reduced AE 1 pieces that were minted between 86 and the teens B.C. remained the essentialbronze currencyof Athens until the 2nd century after Christ, when Athens supplementedthem with her earlierimperialissues (PeriodV). The prolonged circulation of the Period IV coins, worn frequently to near illegibility, is documented in a number of Agora deposits of the 1st and early 2nd centuries after Christ184 but nowhere so abundantlynor with such chronologicalprecisionas in the floor packing of a room in the northern outer stoa of the Libraryof Pantainosat the southeastcorner of the Agora square
bronze are tallied separatelyand involved an exchange differentialof 25 percent between money in the two metals, with the resultthat it took 7 1 obols in bronze to equal a drachm of silver.The phenomenon must have been common, although the exchange factor presumablyfluctuatedover time and from place to place. For all one can tell, the AE 1 drachm of Athens may already in 86 B.C. have been tariffiedat more than 6 per silver drachm. Could it then, when halved to a hemidrachm,have been tariffedat 16 to the denariusand have servedas the exact equivalentof a Roman as? Were it not for the Hadrianicbronze values mentioned under item 5 above, it would be worth exploringthis possibility. But the Hadrianicevidence supportsa ratio of 12 AE 1 pieces to the denarius,not 16, and it is doubtfulthat any putative of retariffing Athens' bronze would have allowedits value to rise from 16 to the extremelyfavorable12. 182The Corinthianasses commenced in 44 or 43 B.C. with an averageweight of 9.2 g. and diametersof 22 mm.; these declined until stabilized under Augustus at an average of around 7 g. and 20 mm. (Amandry,pp. 82-83, table 12). RPC I, p. 246, notes the similarityof Athens' reduced AE 1 module not only to the light asses of Corinth but to the presumedlight asses of a number of other Greekcities duringtheJulio-Claudianperiod. 183 Since the hemiobol was the Greekdenominationthat most closelyapproximatedthe silvervalue of an as/assarion, it is likely that the inscribed HMIOBEAIN bronzes of Aigion (see 731 and under 731-733) were also created to pass as equivalents or near equivalents of assaria. They are roughly the same size as the duoviral asses of Corinth and reducedAE 1 pieces of Athens. Forgood discussionsof the variedbronzedenominationalsystemsof Roman Greece, see Howgego, pp. 52-60 and RPC I, pp. 31-35. 184 Deposits D 1:1;D 4:1, layerII; F 1 :1;K 9-10:1; O 17:1;P 6:2 and Q6:2. These are summarizedas deposits 1-6 in Kroll 1973, pp. 324-326.

181In the accounts a of 2nd-century Thebanhipparch, VII 2426 (especially B.c. IG lines 17-18),sumsin silverand



(DepositU 13:2a).Dating with the stoa and librarybetween A.D.98 and 102 and yielding 51 coins, the earth packing gives a reliable sampling of the petty currency of early TrajanicAthens.185A on coins from the packingis illustrated Plate 34: apartfrom the worn denarius selectionof the latest of Titus (A.D. P1.34:34), all are extremelyworn pieces of PeriodIV or earliermintage. 79, The 1st century of our era thus stands as a low point in the numismatichistory of classical Athens. Yet the prolonged use of old, wretchedlyworn bronze coins is only one of several signs of the economic malaise that beset the city between the reigns of Augustus and Hadrian. From the stagnation of the Athenian terracotta-lampindustry to the minimal level of public building activity,which was restrictedto the repairand remodelingof existingmonuments,there can be no Insofaras the striking of mistakingwhat Shear has termed "thestarkrealityof Atheniandecline."186 coin in the cities of Greece had come to depend on the initiativeand largess of members of the the local elite, who undertookthe responsiblityof minting as a public benefaction,187 absence of any new bronze coinage inJulio-Claudianand FlavianAthens may be regardedas a symptom of decline in individualwealth and enterprise.Other factors,of course, could have contributed.Since the issuing of civic coinages under the Empire was apparentlysubject to imperial permission,l88 it is conceivable, for instance, that Athens might have encounteredresistancehad she insisted on resumingan autonomouscoinage or wantedto strikewhile retainingher existingbronzesystemwith ratio.The relevanceof such externalcontrol,however,is its exceptionallyfavorablebronze:denarius dubiousin the case of Athensin view of her privilegedstatusas a legally "freeand alliedcity."As very mentioned above (p. 88), free cities seem to have been exemptedfrom the constraintsthat ordinary subjectcities experiencedin the productionof coinage, as in many other mattersof self-government. Moreover,the long suspensionof civic mintingat this time is widely paralleledat many other places 189 in Greece and elsewhere. At Athens, as doubtlessat other cities, economic stagnationand public apathywere probablycause enough. Another monetary phenomenon of the 1st century after Christ was a markedincrease in the practice of cutting coins in two to compensatefor a shortageof half-unitfractions.The practiceof halvingwas certainlynot new: the half ofa large,late 5th-centurybronzecoin of Akragas(421)is the earliestattestationat Athens; two worn, halved Athenian imperial coins of the 2nd century after Christ(248fand [248-283]a) show that it continuedas late as the 3rd centuryof our era. But most of the evidencefor halvingcomes fromAE 1 pieces in circulationduringthe long suspensionof minting between Augustusand Hadrian. In the Period IV catalogueit will be seen that almost every AE 1
44, descriptionof the floor packingof the room (room 7) in the 1973-1974 excavationreport,Hesperia 1975, 343-345, note 23, two lots of coins are distinguished:35 coins from the earth fill and 16 more that "werefound pp. in the same area of the room but imbeddedin the top of the next lowerlayer."Since both lots appearto belong to a single deposition, they are listed together under U 13:2a in the list of deposits at the end of this volume (pp. 317-318). For FromCity-Stateto Provincial and Town,"Hespeia50, 1981 the architecture date of the library:T. L. Shear,Jr.,"Athens: 187-191. (pp. 356-377), pp. 370-371; Camp, pp. 186 Shear (note 185 above), p. 368, concluding a valuable surveyof Athenian public works in the 1st century after VII, Christ.JudithPerlzweig(Agora pp. 13-14) discussesthe slumpin EarlyImperialAthenianlamp productionas one of of numerousmanifestations general economic depression. 187 Howgego, pp. 85-87, 90-91; Harl, pp. 25-32; RPCI, pp. 3-4, 16. 188 RPC I, pp. 2-3, 19, 21, supersedingall earlierdiscussionson this fundamentalquestion. 189The only mints in Greece that produced anything more than the most minor coinages during the first century afterChristwere Corinth,Patrai,the ThessalianKoinon at Larissa,and Thessalonike.Among other mints,Spartahad a considerableAugustancoinage, a smallerone under Claudius,and then nothing until the 2nd century;Nikopolisstruck under Augustusand in a very smallNeronic emissionand then breaksuntil Hadrian. Cf. RPC I, p. 21.
185 In the



issue is representedby one or more halvedpieces. But the aggregateis modest, consistingof only 64 PeriodIV AE 1 coins, and so it (just under 2 percent)out of a total of 3,590 classifiedand unclassified is clearthat the halvingwas done unofficially. A few halvedAE 2 coins of PeriodsII and II1191 190 were also cut in Imperialtimeswhen theymusthavebeen circulating equivalentsof reducedAE 1 pieces; as any earlierthan this, the abundanceof fractionalissueswould have made halving unneccessary. Distributedover the PeriodIV coinage in proportionto the relativesize of each issue, the AE 1 halving apparentlybegan about the time that the Period IV minting was completed (a specimen of 158 [PeriodIVE] from Deposit E 15:3 had been halved alreadyby late Augustantimes) and, as we learn from six halved non-Atheniancoins fromthe Agora with the portraitof Nero, was certainly being practicedaroundA.D. 68. The halvingof these Neronian pieces, five duoviralassesof Corinth (691c, 694c-f), and an as of Sikyon (729),192 all but one from the last years of Nero's life, ought to be some kind of response to the damnatio The response was mmia of the dead emperor.193 uniquelyAthenian. None of the Neronian duoviralassesfound at Corinth,or anywhereelse outside the Athenian Agora, are halved. But these (and the relatedNeronian as of Sikyon)were, apparently because they were so similiarin size and weight to reduced AE 1 coins of Athens that they would have ordinarilypassedat Athensas equivalentsof the Atheniancoins and could be halvedin keeping with Athenian practice.The purpose of the halving,therefore,was no, it seems, solely to obliterate the memory Nero, whose image was only rarelydefacedon coins at this time anyway.194At various of in places in the empire,coins with Nero's effigywere countermarked 68/9 to ensurethat they would retain their value despite his condemnation.195 Some owners of Neronian coins at Athens, fearing that the coins would no longer be acceptedand havingno recourseto officialcountermarking, could have chosen to render them less conspicuousand harderto recognizeby cutting. The fundamentalcontinuitybetween the PeriodIV reducedAE 1 coinage and the new imperial issues that Athens finallydid strikein the 2nd century after Christhas been mentioned above. The firstimperialcoinage (PeriodVA)was restrictedto a fractionaldenomination,which filled the need earliersuppliedby halving and was clearlyintended to circulatewith the worn AE 1 currency.The
90 Forthe of see worncointhatwascutacross a chisel preparation with in technique halving, [149,151]a,anextremely

for being bent and snapped in two. The infrequencyof halvingat Athens contrastswith the huge quantitiesof cut coins producedwhen halvingwas performedin the Westfollowingcertaindrasticreductionsof the Roman bronze standard; see R. R. Holloway, "Numismaic Notes from Morgantina II: Half Coins of Hieron II in the Monetary System of Roman Sicily,"ANSAMN 1960, pp. 53-73; T. V Buttrey,"Halved Coins, the Augustan Reform, and Horace, Odes 9, 1.3," AJA 76, 1972, pp. 31-48; idem,in Sardis M7, p. 128; Morgantina pp. 147-148, 152, 153. To the bibliography I, on halving referencedin the foregoing, add M. Thompson, "A Ptolemaic Bronze Hoard from Corinth,"Hesperia 20, 1951 (pp. 355-367), p. 355 and pl. 101, no. 32 (halfofa large Egyptianbronze of the 2nd century B.C.). 191 79f, 89d, 94g, and the unclassified[82-84, 90-97]a, b. 192 Apartfromthese and the other halvedAgorabronzesmentionedabove,the excavationshaveyielded the six illegible halved coins listed under 1038 and at least two (thereare probablyothers)halved Roman coins not noted in Agora II: 00-1490, half of an almost totallyworn Augustansestertius,and E-6484, half of a sestertiusof M. Aurelius. 193 Out of the 48 duoviralassesof Corinthfrom the Agora (670-700), 22 are Neronian, but only these 5 were halved. So althoughdatableto orjust after68/9, even the cuttingof coins with Nero's imago Athenswas of limited application. at '94 On 694c Nero's image and name are intact, but this coin was not cut and though the middle. On damnatio the erasureof coins, see Harl (pp. 150-151, note 36), who pointsout that some allegedinstancesof intentionaldefacementof Neronian coins are the result of wear; Howgego (pp. 5-6, 210), who notes that at Thessalonikethe erasureof Nero's face and name is limited to a singleextant coin; and RPCI (p. 21), which liststwo effacedNeronian coins of Patrai(1263, 1278). 195 D. W. MacDowall, "Countermarks Early ImperialCorinth,"NC, ser. 7, 2, 1962 of (pp. 113-123), pp. 121-122; 6, with nos. 537, 543, 555-557, 619. Howgego, p.



adventof the full-blownimperialcoinage (PeriodVB) introducedthe large imperialunit, the 'AE 0" drachm,but retainedthe old reducedAE 1 module as the second unit on the denominationalscale. Fora while this freshcoinage could at most have only supplementedthe vast quantityof worn AE 1 withdrawn money stillin circulation.Whether,then, the bulkof the worn coinagewas systematically and melted down for restriking whetherall of it was allowedto remainin circulationindefinitelyis or unclear.But a fair quantitywas still in use as late as the middle of the 3rd century,to judge from one extremelyworn PeriodIV piece hoardedat the time of the Herulianinvasionin A.D. 267196and fromfifteenothersthat were punched on one side with a shallowcavityto give them the appearance of worn 2nd-centuryAthenian imperials.l97

Die positions,as in PeriodIII, are verticallyaligned,with occasionaldeviationsat 1 or 11 o'clock.


86-lat 80's B.C.

Head of Athena Parthenosr., wearing ornamented Attic helmet; border of dots. 115 *a *b *c *d *e *f *g 60 coins AA-299 0-94 S-1090 0-102 K-1630 A-223 00-1486 19-23 Av. 10.46 (31) 10.79 20 (D 4:1) 13.11 21 9.94 20 22 12.50 19 10.40 9.09 22 halved 20

A-eE Owl stg. r., facing, on horizontalamphora;all in olive wreath.

Sv. 79.2-7; Kroll 1972, pl. 34:3-7

The position of this varietywithout symbol at the beginning of the heavy Owl-on-amphoraseries is implied of by the contextsof TableVI (p. 329 below),the overstriking a specimenin the 70's (119e),and the circumstance silver was that the issue has no parallel in the silvercoinage and so should belong before any post-Mithradatic struck(Krol 1972, pp. 87, 93).
196 Deposit B 17:1. Many of the 46 totally worn AE 1-sizedpieces from the great Eleusis hoard of A.D. 267 (Svoro-

nos 1904, p. 139, no. 267; Kroll 1973, p. 333) probably dated from PeriodIt but they are no longer availablefor examination. 197 See 103g, 127f, 137h, 144e, 149, 153h, two coins noted under the unclassifiedheavy Owl-on-amphoraAE 1 (p. 98 below) and five under the unclassifiedPeriodIVA-E AE 1 (p. 110, below). On the punched flans of the PeriodV imperials,see pp. 113-114 below.



(?)84 B.C.
Head of Demeter r., wearing wheat wreath and veil; 1 border of dots.




A-eE Triptolemos1., holding wheat ears in r. hand, scepter in 1., mounting winged chariot drawn by two snakes;all in olive wreath. nearly illegible condition
A Ae-E or O-E Iakchos stg. r., holding a torch tied with fillet;99 at r., plemochoe; all in wheat wreath.

Sv. 104.24-28

Head of Kore198 wealring r., wheat wreath;border oif dots. 117 *a b 2 coins

Sv. 25.11, 12

A e-E (E 14:3; see Table VI, p. 329 below) [?]-E heavily blistered Both rarevarietiesbelong earlyin PeriodIVA. 116 revivesthe venerable4th- and early 3rd-centuryEleusinian type of Triptolemos 1. in chariot and goes with the early AE 2 variety 127, which has the same types. The discovery of 117a in Deposit E 14:3 implies that the Kore/Iakchos issue must be more or less contemporary. Being the first emissions with exclusivelyEleusinianiconography since the middle of the 2nd century (see 86 and 106), they seem to mark a revival of the old tradition of an Eleusinianfestival coinage. Associationwith the probableinitiationof Sulla in Septemberof 84 is likelyfor at least one of the emissions.As one sees from 117a and Sv. 25.11, 12, 117 was struckfrom a minimumof three pairs of dies. r-1084 AA-254 21 23 9.07 9.53
early70's B.C.

Head of Athena Parthenosr.; border of dots.

A-EE Owl stg. r., facing, on horizontal amphora;at r., poppy head between two wheat ears; all in olive wreath.

Sv. 79.15-17; Kroll 1972, pi. 34:10-14

118 *a *b *c *ld *< e

(E 14:3) A-e E The poppy-and-wheat-ears silver,the fourthor fifthissueafter symbolis sharedwith the Lysandros-Oinophilos Mithradates-Aristion Stk, (JVew nos. 1179-1186; Boehringer, 302; Mattingly 1979, p. 165;cf. M0rkholm1984, p. p. 32).

18 coins fA-10 f-32 III-175 r-1043 N-340

19-23 Av. 9.72(13) 23 13.11 21 8.20 20 10.32 11.95 20 9.35 20

GRC,fig. 15

Except for Sv. 104.24 (variety116 but from a variantobversedie), Demeter is on the PeriodIV bronze with a coveredhead. consistentlyrepresented 199 On the of iconography(boots,shortgarment,and torch)of Iakchos,the youthfulpersonification the greatprocession to Eleusis, see LLMC pp. 612-614, pl. 419; Mylonas, pp. 207, 211, 212, 238, 252-254, with pls. 81, 84, 85, 88; V K. Clinton, "EleusinianIconographyand Cult: Iakchosand Eubouleus"(lecture,Baltimore 1989), abstractin AJA93, 1989, pp. 279-280. Foran Eleusiniantorchtied with a fillet,see A. D. Trendall,"Medeaat Eleusison a VoluteKraterby the Darius Painter,"Record theArtMuseum, Princeton University 1984, figs. 2, 9:b. On coins Iakchos is found also of 43, as the symbol of the 2nd-century Phanokles-Apollonios silver (NewSyle, nos. 697, 709, and 685, where the figure is misidentifiedas Artemis)and on the Athenian imperialvariety 188.

198 As indicatedby the absence of a veil.



late 70's B.C.

Similar. 119

Similar,except at r., mystic staff.

Sv. 79.18-21; Kroll 1972, pl. 34:15-19

*a *b *c *d *e f

33coins 18-23 Av. 10.11 (16) 9.61 20 00-1127 I-799 20 11.28 NN-1165 20 11.80 B'-1011 18 10.10 7.05 E-2033 22 overstruckon variety 115 20 AA-520 halved and extremelyworn The mystic-staff (Mw Style, tetradrachms nos. 1222symbol connects the varietyto the Sotades-Themistokles the seventh or eighth issue in the post-Mithradatessilver sequence as revised by Mattingly (1979, 1226X), pp. 164-165).
ca. 80's-42 B.C.

Similar. *120

Similar,except at r., plemochoe.

Sv. 79.35; Kroll 1972, pl. 34:8, 9

KK-59 20 11.32 A plemochoe symbol occurs also on the silver of Mnaseas-Nestor,which Thompson (NewStle, pp. 369but 370, nos. 1147-1157) placed immediatelyafter Mithradates-Aristion which is now dated before the First MithradaticWar in 91/0 B.C. (Boehringer, 24-25, 202; followedby Merkholm 1984, p. 32, and, especially, pp. Mattingly1979, pp. 161-162). The bronzethereforecannotbe associatedwith the silver.Withonly two specimens in the 483-piece Chaidarihoard, this was one of the smallerAE 1 emissions. Similar. Similar,except at r., tripod. Sv. 72.17; 79.32, 33; Kroll 1972, pl. 35:6-10



8 coins 18-22 Av.8.64 (5) 20 8.60 ET-32 There is no post-Mithradaticsilver issue with a simple tripod symbol, but the tripod here may be an abbreviationof the complex symbol on the Epigenes-Xenon tetradrachms:Apollo Lykeios leaning against a the nos. 1237-1240). Approximately fifthteenthor sixteenthissueafter column surmountedby a tripod(NewStyle, should belong in the mid- to late 60's. Mattingly (1979, pp. 166-167) Mithradates-Aristion, Epigenes-Xenon arguesfor 64/3. Similar. Similar,except at r., two wheat ears. Sv. 79.22-24; Kroll 1972, pl. 35:1-5


*a *b *c *d e

31 coins 20-22 10.28(12) 19 10.41 M-353 11.97 NN-565 20 9.21 BB-980 21 12.28 K-1687 22 halved 20 BB-63 Two wheat ears is also the symbol of the highly problematic Kointos-Charmostrasilver, which, despite Thompson'srejectionfrom the Athenian sequence,some rcholarshave dated to 86/5 as the firstAthenian silver issue after Mithradates-Aristion note 142 above, p. 81). However this may be, it is doubtful whether the (see silver and bronze could have anythingto do with each other.On the silverthe two ears of wheat are detached, vertical, and parallel;on the bronze they arejoined and usually rise in the form of V or Y (Kroll 1972, p. 91). Moreover,a date for the bronze as earlyas the 80's is ruledout by the facts that the issue was one of the largestin



the heavy Owl-on-amphora series and yet is missing from the early contexts of our Table VI (p. 329 below). Eitherthe issue has no parallelin the post-Sullansilveror its two wheat ears could be an abbreviationfor the Isis or symbol of Demeas-Kallikrates,the Demeter symbol of Menedemos-Timokrates, the Triptolemossymbol of since each of these divinities is depicted on the silver holding two ears of wheat (New Kallimachos-Epikrates, nos. 1232, 1233, 1241-1244, 1253, and 1254). Style, Similar. 19 11.50 Similar,except at r., flower.

Sv. 70.20; 79.30, 31



Sv., pl. 70, associatesthis with the thirdor fourth silverissue afterMithradates-Aristion, Architimos-Demetri, whose symbol is Isis holding a lotus (JVew nos. 1173-1178). But the association is not really convincing, Styek, since the leafy floweror plant on the bronze (seeespeciallySv. 70.20) does not resembleIsis'lotus. It is more likely that the bronze lacks a counterpartin silver.The issue is rare; not one specimen is in the great Chaidari and Agia Varvarahoards. Similar. 124 *a *b *c *d 23 coins II-172 M-282 A-73 NN-1205 18-23 Av. 9.61 (12) 20 11.89 20 8.86 10.11 21 18 10.51

Similar,except at r., winged caduceus.

Sv. 79.25-28; Kroll 1972, pl. 35:11-15

A winged caduceus is the symbol of the late Dionysios-Demostratos silverissue, known from a single drachm (NewStle, no. 1246). Similar. *125 r-498 20 9.72

Similar,except at r., thyrsos tied with fillet.

Sv. 70.25; Kroll 1972, pl. 35:16, 17

The symbol is shared with the Architimos-Pammenes tetradrachms(NewSyle, nos. 1255-1258), one of the later New Style emissionspresent in the Hierapytnahoard (IGCH352) and so probablydatable to the 50's (see Mattingly 1969, p. 328).


Similar,except at r., two pilei of the Dioskouroi.

126 *a *b *c *d *e

halved (as also E-4569) this is the last issue in the heavy Owl-on-amphorabronze, as shown by the wear of specimens Apparently, in the Chaidariand Agia Varvarahoards.The issue is without a parallelin the extant post-Mithradatic silver. UNCIASSIFIED

25 coins B'-996 KK-14 f-138 AE-10 IIe-139

19-22 Av. 9.40 (14) 20 8.14 20 9.56 19 8.71 19 10.01 19

Sv. 79.8-14; Kroll 1972, pl. 36:1-5

Similar. Similar,except details illegible. 205 coins of uncertainheavy Owl-on-amphoravariety. [115, 118-126]


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. Nearly all these are extremelyworn from circulationcontinuing as late as the 2nd and 3rd centuries after Christ. Six (Z-27, Z-1182, 1-320, IIe-177, E4144, and T-990) are halved. And the obverses of two (e-426 and K-1518) were punched with a shallowcavity,for which see p. 94 above. AE2

) 84 B.c. A-e
Head of Demeter r., wearing veil; border of dots. E Triptolemos1., holding wheat ears in r. hand and scepter in 1., seated in winged chariot drawn by two snakes. Sv. 104.29, 30

127 *a *b *c *d e *f g

7 coins BA-107 LA-41 T-727 r-1045 r-1056 IIII-132 E-3018

16-18 18 17 18 17 16 16 16

Av.5.76(7) 7.92 5.11 6.59 6.45 3.58 5.11 5.58

(E 14:3) (E 14:3) heavily worn; cavity punched in center of obverse

70's early B.C. Similar. Similar,except poppy head behind or in front of Triptolemos. Sv. 104.31-35

7 coins 15-17 Av.4.35(7) 128 Poppyhead behind Triptolemos 4.64 16 *a II-602 4.81 *b NN-1323 15 17 4.42 *c IIn-289 16 3.37 d ET'-727 head before Triptolemos Poppy 3.65 15 *e B'-928 16 5.51 *f KK-282 4.08 16 *g ET'-531 [127, 128] 30 coins of uncertainAE 2 Demeter/Triptolemostype. 16 blistered (N 20:4) a f-164 Of these two, clearly AE 2 emissions,the first (withoutsymbol) occurs in the Delos 1910 hoard (Table VI, p. 329 below) and appearsto go with the Demeter/TriptolemosAE 1 variety 116. The second (poppy symbol) emissionwas presumablyminted with the heavy Owl-on-amphoravariety 118.
70's-40's B.C.

Dolphin on trident;border of dots. 129 *a 14-17 Av.4.09 (15) 26 coins 4.21 E-3486bis 17

A-OE Plemochoe with wheat ear in each handle; all in wheat wreath.

Sv. 107.1-8

PERIOD IV: CATALOGUE *b *c *d *e H'-3600 B-262 rr-94 P-1395


17 5.05 17 4.22 (F 11:1) 16 3.15 15 3.95 The trident and dolphin representPoseidon, whose head probablywould have been placed on the obverse were it not too easily confusedwith the head of Zeus. This is the only pre-imperialAthenian coin type that refers to Poseidon. The plemochoe on the reversefits the routine Period IV practice of designing the AE 2 half-unit with Eleusiniantypes. Poseidonmight have been chosen for the obversebecause of his connectionswith Eleusis; he was the ancestorof the Eumolpidaiand had a templejust outsidethe sanctuaryof Demeter and Kore.200 on If, the other hand, the exceptionalrecognitionof Poseidonis comparedwith the equallyunprecedentedappearance of Dionysos on varieties 140-142 and 144, which were struckto flatterMarc Antony during his residence in Athens in the 30's, it is possiblethat the presentissuebelongs to 62 B.C.,when Pompeythe GreatvisitedAthens on his triumphantreturn to Rome.201His visit could have coincided with the celebrationof the Mysteriesin late September. Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet; border of dots. A-eE Artemis, quiver at shoulder,running r., carrying flaming torch. Sv. 81.53-56; Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:110


6 coins *a K-1190 *b B'-948

15-17 Av.3.85(6) 16 5.80 16 3.63

See pp. 82-83 above. AE3

mid-80's-70's B.C.

Head of Apollo r., laur.;border of dots. 131 68 coins a IIe-447 *b KK-9bis *c IIII-173 *d K-587 200

-E or A-eE Cicada.

Sv. 107.28-35; Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:93-96

14-16 Av. 3.89 (35) 14 16 15 16 3.33 4.08 4.15 3.46 Kleiner 1976, p. 35, pl. 4:93 flan cut down before striking

Ae -E

Mylonas, pp. 167-168. Pompey was posthumouslyapotheosized as Neptune by his son Sextus, who called himself the son of Neptune and in 44-43 B.C. struck the remarkabledenarii with the portrait of Pompey-Neptuneaccompanied by the symbols of dolphin and trident (Crawford,RRC,nos. 483:1, 2, with p. 739, note 5). Granted that this was so much propaganda cultivatedby Sextus to enhance his position as praefectus et classis orae the maritimae, equation of Pompey with Poseidon is less likely to have originated with Sextus in the 40's than in the Greek East, where such ruler-god identifications had long been a fixture of political life. Historically,the equation rested on Pompey'snaval success over the pirates some twenty years earlier,and it would be surprisingif so obvious an associationcould have gone unnoticed during Pompey's tour of Greece in 62, especially by the poets who competed at Mytilene in glorifying Pompey's exploits (Plutarch,Pompey 42.2). For the divine honors offered to Pompey by the Greek cities, including Athens in 67 B.C.,see 27.5-6 and Cerfauxand Tondiau,pp. 284-285. A majorpart of the 50 talentsPompeycontributedfor Plutarch,Pompey the restorationof Athens went to the rebuildingof the Peiraeus(Plutarch,Pompey 42.11, with IG II2, 1035, line 47, and J. Day,An Economic under Roman New Domination, York 1942, pp. 145-149). History ofAthens



A-eE *e D-360 14 5.40 *f T-843 15 4.38 15 4.79 (E 14:3) *g r-1068 The first, and more common, form of the ethnic and the occurrence of three somewhat worn specimensin Deposit E 14:3 (TableVI, p. 329 below)show that the varietybelongs early in PeriodIVA.

AE 4
mid-80's-70s B.C.

[Head of Apollo r., laur., hair rolled;border of dots.] 132 rT-301 12 1.93

A e-[E] Two wheat ears; all in wheat wreath.

Sv. 107.12-14; Dlos XXVII, pi. 66, F240-246


8 coins *a r-1064 *b Z-680 *c ZZ-35

Head of Apollo r., laur., hair falling in archaizingcurls; border of dots. 10-11 Av. 1.87 (8) 11 (E 14:3) 1.64 10 1.71 10 1.79

A-9 E Poppy between two wheat ears.

Dlos YXVH, pl. 66, F270-277


3 coins *a BB-416 *b PP-803

Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet; border of dots. 10-12 Av. 1.69(3) 1.63 12 11 2.27


Sv. 107.16, 17

[133, 134] 5 coins of uncertainAE 4 Poppy-between-wheat-ears variety. 11 *a OX-9 flan trimmed before striking 2.03

135 *a *b *c *d *e *f *g h-k

Head of Apollo r., laur., hair falling in archaizingcurls; border of dots. 10-11 Av. 1.70(22) 33 coins 1.33 B-358bis 11 11 1.91 BA-197 10 1.48 00-956 1.79 11 A-72bis 10 1.10 PP-647 2.06 KK-29bis 11 1.93 10 r-1059 (E 14:3) r-1054a and b, 1064, 1080 (E 14:3)

A-eE Two wheat ears; border of dots.

Sv. 107.18-21; Ddlos XXVII, pi. 66, F 279-290

PERIOD IV: CATALOGUE Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 136 3 coins *a K-1592 *b NN-987 *c H'-3296bis 10 10 10 10 Av. 1.54(3) 1.62 1.55 1.46 Similar.


Sv. 107.22, 23; Dilos XXVII, pl. 66, F301

[132, 135, 136] 24 coins of uncertainTwo-wheat-ears variety. The datingof the AE 4 varietiesis based on the contextsof TableVI (p. 329 below)and the possibleassociation of 133 and 134 with 118 and 128.


42/1-39 B.C.

Reduced AE 1 Head of Athena Parthenosr.; border of dots. 137 *b *c *d *e *f * g h A-O E Zeus stridingr., hurling thunderbolt,eagle perched on his extended 1. arm; at 1., wheat ear. Sv. 80.25-28; Krol 1972, pl. 36:6-10

45 coins

*a In-350
P-290 KK-359 BA-363 r-170 N-440 BB-602 PP-132

overstruckon AE 2 coin of pure, yellowish alloy flan trimmed hexagonallybefore striking halved (as also NN-1285) extremelyworn and punched on obv. with a shallow cavity (as also fA-84) Followingupon Antony'sarrivalin Athens afterPhilippi,this reformissuewill have been struckat the end of 42 or during 41 B.C. The arrangementof the ethnic and particularlythe omission of the eagle before Zeus's feet suggest that the revived type was copied from the early Ist-centuryFulminatingZeus variety 95 (mystic-staff symbol)or 96 (thyrsossymbol).The only modificationsare the change in emission symbol and the eagle added upon Zeus'soutstretchedleft wrist. Similar. A-OE Tripod; at 1., poppy; at r., thunderbolt. GRC,fig. 15 overstruckon heavy Owl-on-amphoraAE 1

18-22 Av. 7.65 (21) 21 8.21 20 7.93 19 8.68 19 7.05 19 4.80 19 5.45 18 4.85 20

GRC,fig. 15

138 *a *b *c *d *e *f *g h

139 coins IIo-142 II-473 KK-149 N-663 A-67 AA-81 K-584 f-313

Sv. 80.1-7; Kroll 1972, pl. 36:11-15

17-22 Av. 7.47 (47) 20 7.26 20 7.64 19 8.44 20 10.26 18 8.56 17 5.92 19 17 3.46

halved (as also Z-2594, N-813, NN-1309, and NN-1546a) overstruckon unleaded AE 2 coin (as also X-49)


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. As suggested above (p. 86), the Pythian tripod on the reverseof these coins can be explained as an allusion to Antony'sproposedcompletionof the templeof PythianApollo. The poppy and thunderboltsymbolsfill out the design and the range of religiousreferences;Athena, Apollo, Demeter, and Zeus, the four principle deities in the numismaticiconographyof HellenisticAthens, are here uniquely representedon a single coin. The poppy and thunderbolt,however,may also be servingas magistrates' signatures. Gorgoneion. A-8E Athena advancing r., holding lowered spear in r. hand; aegis draped over extended 1. arm. Sv. 25.22-28; Kroll 1972, pl. 36:16-20


*a *b *c *d *e *e *f *g

79 coins 17-21 Av. 7.88 (30) 9.17 T-113 20 8.06 4-346 20 5.76 20 II1-46 7.75 20 AA-247 19 7.34 NN-524 flan cut down before striking 19 6.91 II8-321 same 9.93 21 AA-488 halved 21 S-3721 of 139f even afterpart of the flan had been crudelyremovedsuggeststhat it was overstruck The heavy weight on a heavy Owl-on-amphoracoin. Three other Agora pieces are definitelyoverstrikes, although the undertypes are unclear. Sv., pi. 25, connects this issue with the island of Skiathos,which Antony gave to Athens in 41. Some 4th- or bronze coins of Skiathosdid employ the gorgoneionas an obversetype (BMCTessaly, 11:19), pi. 3rd-centuryB.C. Athenian tetradrachms,didrachms, and obols,202 but so did a large and important series of 6th-centuryB.C. and it is more likely that these were the source of the present gorgoneion obverse (Kroll 1972, p. 98). The learned revival of historic coin designs occurs again in the Athenian coinage of the 2nd century after Christ (pp. 113-114 below).The reversetype is continuedin the next issue. 39-37 B.C. Head of youthfulDionysos r., wearing ivy wreath;border of dots. 17-21 Av.5.68(16) 5.49 19 6.09 18 17 7.25 17 5.42 5.95 17 halved 18 Similar. Sv. 25.29-32; Kroll 1972, pl. 37:1-5

140 *a *b *c *d *e f

29 coins PP-628 Z-1895 00-453 X-99 K-1036 PP'-1047

Reduced AE 2 Similar. 12-15 Av. 2.60(16)203 15 3.23 13 2.92 A-e AE Kantharos. Sv. 25.33-35


21 coins *a nII-385 *b rr-14

Sv. 1.62-75; Seltman, Groups D and K; Kroll 1981b, pp. 10-15; H. Nicolet-Pierre, "Monnaies archalques a I: et d'Athenessous Pisistrate les Pisistratides Les tetradrachmes la gorgone,"RJ, ser.6, 25, 1983, pp. 15-33, pls. 2-5. AE 1 issue 140. Cf. 203 The averageis close to halfof the averageof the weighedAgora specimensof the contemporary note 211 below,p. 107.

PERIOD IV: CATALOGUE *c K-1487 *d ME-64 13 12 2.96 1.46 (sic) AE4


A-E Bust of Athena Sv. 25.43-50 E Head of bearded Dionysos r., r., wearing Corinthianhelmet. wearing ivy wreath. 10-12 Av. 1.39(19) 52 coins 142 11 *a E-318 1.65 11 1.85 *b A-163 11 1.91 GRC,fig. 15 *c NN-679 flan cut down before striking *d rr-101 1.85 12 same 11 1.31 *e K-1254 A Two other specimenswere also struckon reusedflans that had been trimmedbefore striking. more notable featureis the broken-baralpha, makingits firstappearancein this issue. One specimen(Br-559) had been picked up and was being hoarded as a one-nummuscoin in the 6th century of our era; seeJ. H. Kroll, G. C. Miles, and S. G. Miller, "AnEarlyByzantine and a Late TurkishHoard from the Athenian Agora,"Hesperia 1973 42, (pp. 301-311), pp. 303, 308, no. 93. The Dionysos heads on this and the two precedingvarietieshonor Marc Antony,who declaredhimselfthe Neos Dionysos upon arrival in Athens in the summer or fall of 39. The symbolismis paralleled in two emissions of struckat Ephesosin the same year;these depict Octavia,Antonywearingthe ivy wreath cistophorictetradrachms The precipitousdrop in the of Dionysos, and, on the reverseof one emission, a standingimage of Dionysos.204 AE 1 emission (TableIXV 326-327 below) may reflect the Athenians' difficultiesin pp. weight of the Athenian raisingthe exorbitantdowry that Antony demandedfor his wedding to Athena. Dio (48.39) and Zonaras(10.23) 1.6) give the amount as one million drachms, Seneca (Suasoriae a thousand talents (six million drachms).The AE 4 issue, which pairs the head of Dionysos and the bust of Athena, may have been designed to commemorate the marriage of Antony to Athena, like the "wedding"aurei, with the head of Anthony on the obverse and the bust of Octavia on the reverse,struckin 39 and 38 to celebrateAntony's marriage to Octavia (Crawford, RRC, nos. 527 and 533/3a). Indeed, if Raubitschek(1946) is right in supposing that the Athenians honored Octavia as Athena Polias,the referencesmay extend to Octavia-Athenaas well as to Antony-Dionysos.However this may be, the three Dionysos varieties140-142 should date to Antony'sstay in Athens from 39 to 37 B.C.
ca. 36-33 B.C.

Reduced AE 1 Head of Athena Parthenosr., border of dots. A-e E Archaic image of Apollo Delios, holding the three Graces in his r. hand and a bow in his 1.;at 1., cicada. Sv. 80.8-14; Kroll 1972, pl. 37:11-15


*a *b *c *d *e *f *g

16-20 Av.5.33 (36) 19 4.38 18 5.94 17 4.98 17 5.85 18 5.84 4.85 overstruckon pre-87 B.C. 20 FulminatingZeus AE 2 18 halved (as are AA-171 and Z-1108) By weight this should be the last of the six PeriodIVB AE 1 issues,but other considerationssuggestthat 144 and the was actually the last, since it can hardly date before 32 B.C. was the issue to which belong, apparently, 81 coins N-1112 K-201 E-278 B-100 HH-26 00-1116 AA-285

204 BMCRR II, pp. 502-503, nos. 133-137; III, pl. cxiv:l-4; Sutherland,Olcay, and Merrington,pp. 86-88; RPC I, 2201, 2202.


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-IST CENTURIES B.C. chopped coin blanksthat were abandonedon the floor of the mint in the southeastcorner of the Agora square. could be squeezedinto the anxiousmonths Thus, althoughthe presentissuewith its nontopicaltypestheoretically between variety 144 and the Battleof Actium, it fits more comfortablyin the ample span between the Dionysos issues of 37-39 (140-142) and the Zeus/Dionysos and Zeus/Eagle issues of 32 (144 and 145). Confirmation of this arrangementmust await metallurgicalanalyses of several specimens to allow comparison of their lead content with that of 144. The Archaicstatueof Apollo Delios (L{MCII, p. 234, no. 390)was earlierused as the symbolof the 2nd-century of New Style silver emission of Sokrates-Dionysodo (NewSyle, nos. 611-628); Sokrateshad served as epimeletes in 117/6 (Habicht 1991, p. 9). But whethersuch a personalconnection lay behind the Apollo Delios type Delos of the present coins is debatable. None of the other changing types of the IVB bronze appear to have private associations;and the present reverse has the subsidiarysymbol of a cicada, which one would ordinarilytake for an emissionsymbol, even though such administrative symbolswouldbe redundantin a coinage with regularly changingtypes.The reverseis in any case the lastallusionto Delos in Atheniancoinage. By the 30's the islandhad lost its commercialimportanceand most of its formerpopulation,althougha settlementremainedon the island and the Athenianscontinued to manage it and the cult of Apollo as before;see Roussel,pp. 336-340.

32 B.C.

Head of Zeus, r., laur.;border of dots. 144 *a *b *c *d *e *f 152 coins MM-505 E-3957 00-1586 H-1718 AA-555 E-24 *g IIe-238 *h E-4136 15-20 17 17 17 17 17 15 17 18 Av.5.47(61) 5.71 5.86 6.98 4.46 5.17 4.07 E Head of bearded Dionysos r., Sv. 25.36-42; Kroll 1972, pl. 37:6-10 wearing ivy wreath.

GRC,fig. 15 shallow cavity punched in center of reverse

halved reused, presumablyfor some industrialpurpose; obv. obliteratedby filed notches in a rosette pattern, as also ee-25 (Period IV Unclassified, p. 110 below). on examples,E-292 is halvedand BA-414, a totallyworn coin, is countermarked the Among the unillustrated The of the lattercoin precludesillustration. obversewith an owl in incuse circle(7 mm. diameter).The condition at 22.73 percent the highestknown issue is notable for the extremelyhigh lead content of its analyzedspecimen, Atheniancoin (TableIV,pp. 326-327 below).The percentageis largelyresponsiblefor the from any pre-imperial associationof the issuewith the choppedblanksexcavatedfromthe floor of the mint in the southeastcornerof the in Agora (25.5 percentlead;see AppendixB) and is approximated the contemporaryZeus/Eagle-on-thunderbolt fraction 145 (20.21 percent205). On this fourthAntonianemissionthe head of Dionysosis displacedfromthe obversein favorof a head of Zeus. But an explanationis immediatelyforthcomingfrom variety 145 with its standardPtolemaic Zeus/Eagle types. The Zeus obverse of the present issue is to be similarlyunderstoodas a reference to Egypt and so dates with 145 after Antony had thrown in his lot with Kleopatra. According to Plutarch(Antony 57.1-2), the Athenians had a great affectionfor Octavia and did not vote honors to Kleopatrauntil she and Antony arrivedin Athens in late spring of 32 and she bribed them with gifts. These circumstancesmake it doubtful that the Athenian issues could have been struckbefore late spring or summer of 32 and suggest why they refer to the kingdom of Egypt ratherthan to Kleopatra,the New Isis, directly.


Caley,pp. 52-53, table IX, no. 11.

PERIOD IV: CATALOGUE Reduced AE 2 Head of Zeus r.; border of dots. 145 14 coins *a D-98 *b AA-665 *c f2A-42 13-15 Av. 3.24 (13) 14 2.33 14 3.93 13 4.01 A-OE Eagle, wings spread, r. stg. three-quarters on thunderbolt. Sv. 22.59-61; Kleiner 1976, pl. 4:105-109


For the standardPtolemaic bronze pairing of Zeus head and eagle on thunderbolt,see 1005, 1006, 1009, 1010, 1013-1017; for the eagle reverseof Kleopatra'sown bronze, 1019. 145 is the only Athenian emission in any period with the device of an eagle. Citing the Antony head/Eagle bronze of Zakynthos(RPCI, 1290), I. Touratsoglou(in CRWLR, 57, 67, note 33; pl. 8:13) attributes Zeus/Eagle issue of Thessaloniketo Antony a pp. and Kleopatra.Another attribution(Aigion:Dionysos/Eagle) is proposedunder 733 (p. 233 below).


31-early 20's B.C.

Reduced AE 1 Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet; border of dots. 146 5 coins *a N-339 *b S-4129 19-20 Av. 7.82 (5) 19 7.70 19 7.79 AOE upwardsat 1. Demeter or Kore stg. r., carryinglit torch; at r., plemochoe; all in (?)wheatwreath. Sv. 25.13, 14; Kroll 1972, pl. 38:2-4

This, the last varietyin the AkropolisNorth Slope 1936 hoard (note 141 above,p. 81) and hence the firstafter the unwreathedPeriod IVB coinage, was irregularly designed (cf. Athena'sCorinthianhelmet and the position of the ethnic), poorly struck, and meager; known examples (includinga mere three from the great Chaidari hoard) were struckfrom one or possiblytwo obverse dies. It would seem to have been little more than a token emission, which, with the Eleusinianreverse, suggestsattributionto September of 31, when within a week or so after Actium, Octavian sailed to Athens to distributegrain to the Greek cities and to be initiated at Eleusis 68; (Plutarch,Antony Dio 51.4.1). Head of Athena Parthenosr.; border of dots. AGE downwardsat r., Nike advancing r., holding fillet in outstretchedhands; all in olive wreath with berries. Sv. 78.10, 80.15-17; Kroll 1972, pl. 37:16-20

147 *a *b *c *d *e

43 coins rr-18 r-963 E-4437 00-618 A-137

18-21 20 20 19 19 18

Av.8.08 (17) 8.13 8.94 8.01 8.24 5.90

Stylisticallyand technicallythese are the crudestcoins ever minted in ancient Athens. As in variety 146, they are weaklyand often incompletelystamped;and, althoughAthena is at least given an appropriate New StyleAttic the rude, inept die cutting is without parallel. The issue was evidently hurried. As Octavian probably helmet,


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. visited Athens for a second time while crossingfrom Asia to Italy in 29,206 the issue may have been rushed into production for this occasion. The Nike in any case probablyrefers to Actium; and since she is posed as though crowningthe legend on the coins, the conceit impliesthat Actium was also a victory for the Athenians. Similar. A-GE Zeus stg. r., holding thunderboltin lowered r. hand, 1. arm extended; all in olive wreath. Sv. 80.22-24; Kroll 1972, pl. 38:1





Exceptionallyrare (but a single example in the Chaidarihoard),the issue neverthelessemployedtwo or three obverse dies (compareKroll 1972, pl. 38:1 with Sv. 80.22-24). Style and technique are noticeablybetter than in the preceding Demeter and Nike varieties,and the Parthenoshead and linear ethnic conform to standard New Style precedent. The importantStanding Zeus statue,which appearedfor the firsttime on Athenian coins in the early 190's, evidentlywith referenceto Flamininus,can be identifiedwith some probabilityas the statue of Zeus Eleutherios the by (see 78-80 and pp. 56-57 above).Accordingly, presentreverseought to referto a "liberation" Octavianin et the sense that he would have confirmedthe rightsof Athens as a cvitasfoederata libera. Augustuswas honored or Eleuterios are Eeutherios Zeus for in Lakoniaas Eao-xpxal ' EXeu0ptolo just such a confirmationof freedom.207 And at Athens an annex was added to the Stoa of Zeus Soter-Eleutherios found among his titles elsewhere.208 to house an imperialcult, surelyincludingAugustus.209





345 coins *a II-8 *b IIO-143 *c N-722

Reduced AE 1 A 3 E at upper I. Athena Head of Athena Parthenosr.; border of dots. advancing r., carryinglowered spear in r. hand, aegis draped over extended 1. arm; at lower r. owl; all in olive wreath. 17-21 Av.6.88 (101) 8.46 19 GRC,fig. 15 7.62 20 7.41 20

Sv. 80.29-32; Kroll 1972, pl. 38:15-19

Bowersock,Agustus,pp. 120-121, with Dio 51.21.1. V Ehrenbergand A. H. M. Jones, Documents IllutrsatigtheReign of Augtus and Tibeius,Oxford 1955, no. 122b, T. in AnEconomic with the commentsofJ. A. O. Larsen, Rome, Frank,ed., IV,Baltimore 1938, p. 447. The ofAncient Survey liberatorof the Free Lakonians,was still receiving honors at same inscriptioninforms that Flamininus, the original the festival that celebrated the re-liberationof Augustus.For a surveyof coins that possibly commemorate Augustan to Cambridge 1946, pp. 338-347. Imperwm Auctoitas, grantsof freedomto other communities,see M. Grant,From 208 Eeutherios Mytilene: R. Cagnat etal., Inscriptiongraecae resromanaspertintes, ad Paris 1927, no. 62. ZeusEtrios at Oxford 1971, p. 144, note 1. at Carian Mys: BCH 11, 1887, p. 306, no. 1. In Egypt S. Weinstock, DivusJulius, 209 H. A. Thompson (note 102 above,p. 57), pp. 182-186, with a surveyofassociationsof Augustusand lateremperors with Zeus Eleutherios.On the associationsfurther,see below under 728 and 729 and B. Levy, "Nero'sLiberationof Achaea: Some NumismaticEvidence from Patrae,"in JMwckle pp. 167-185; RPC I, p. 47. Papers,


PERIOD IV: CATALOGUE *d *e *f *g *h *i j K-1603 S-5621 A-1109 I;-104 E-3392 PP-827 PP'-1032 18 19 19 20 19 18 20 4.95 6.46 6.82 5.65 5.99 6.40


halved (as are six others)210 cut down; heavily worn heavily worn; cavity punched on obv. (U 13:2a)Plate 34:4 In this PeriodIVD inauguralissue the letteringis neat and compact, the Athena heads are relativelysmall and rendered,and the strikingis superb.The undertypesof severaloverstruck attractively pieces cannot be identified. Reduced AE 2

A E Veiled head of Demeter r.; Poppy between two crossed Sv. 104.38-45 border of dots. wheat ears. 150 40 coins 13-16 Av. 3.26 (26)21l *a B-77 16 3.25 *b NN-816 15 4.73 GR fig. 15 !C, 14 *c N-824 2.48 14 *d NN-368 3.08 *e IIII-990 13 3.28 *f NN-1370 13 3.22 14 3.34 g r-1204 (E 15:3) The broken-baralpha, the style of the Demeter head, and the superiortechnique connect the variety with the AE 1 149.
Reduced AE 1 A Head of Athena Parthenosr.; border of dots. 151 *a *b *c *d *e *f g 135 coins A-1582 A-1145 neO-796 K-125 KTA-15 E-2249 e-768 18-21 19 20 20 19 20 19 20 Av.6.83 (49) 8.62 6.06 7.76 8.71 8.36 6.65 halved (as also E-3992)

e E Athena advancing r.,

as 149, except at r., coiled snake.

Sv. 80.33, 34; Kroll 1972, pl. 39:1-5

With this emission, style and technique drop off abruptly.The Athena heads are coarse, squared, and (like the lettering)enlarged, to remain so throughthe succeeding 152 and 153. In addition to the precedingAthena advancing,owl, and the presentAthena advancing,snake,there is a rare variant (Kroll 1972, no. 568, pli.39:6) with Athena advancing,wheatear,thatprovidesa linkbetweenthe presentvarietyand the followingOwl-on-prow emission,which has a wheat-earsymbol also at the right.212 210 BB-1015, r-1157, A-190, NN-224, II-265, P-452. 211 The average is about half of the weight averageof Agora specimens of the accompanyingAE 1 variety 149. Cf. note 203 above, p. 102. 212 A more curiousvariantis the Athena advancing,snake,piece publishedas Sv.80.35. The obversewas struckfroma makeshiftdie engraved with nothing more than an AOE ligature, evidently at a time when production had outrun the supplyof serviceableAthena-headdies.



Similar. Similar,except symbol illegible. [149, 151] 151 coins of uncertainParthenos/Athenaadvancingvariety.Nearlyall areworn flat. Twelveare halved.213 Illustrated is 19 *a ST'-584 5.93 scored across by a chisel in preparationfor halving

O E Owl stg. r. on prow;

at r., wheat ear; all in olive wreath. 152 501 coins *a 00-1248 *b E-260 *c MM-193

Sv. 80.37-43; Kroll 1972, pl. 39:7-11

16-22 Av.6.84 (140) 5.77 20 19 4.14 overstruckon Sikyon variety 727 7.52 20 8.30 *d rr-181 20 19 3.64 overstruckon Sikyon, as 152b *e ZZ-129 *f KK-231 19 5.89 halved (as are seven other specimens)214 20 *g Z-2231 h PP'-1031 19 5.20 (U 13:2a)Plate 34:6 At least two other coins (HH-77 and T-56) were overstruckon the same Ist-century B.C. Sikyon variety p. (Apollo/Dove flying 1., AINEAE),as are BMCAttica, 92, nos. 669 and 670, and Sv. 80.41; see Warren 1984, from those of 151 and 153, the fact that some coins p. 20. Although the Athena heads are indistinguishable on of the presentvarietyalone were overstruck Sikyonprovesthat the threeAthenianvarietieswere struckseriatim.

Similar. 153 *a *b *c *d

-E Sphinx wearing modius, seated r., all in olive wreath. GRC,fig. 15

Sv. 80.18-21; Kroll 1972, pl. 39:12-16

overstruckon a coin that had been chisel markedon both sides with XI; possibly from the FulminatingZeus star-and-crescents variety;cf. 97h *1 KK-65 overstruck 19 9.07 f halved (as are eight others)215 19 g BB-52 shallow cavity punched on one side (as also on 11II-117) 18 I AA-540 6.48 h with unidentifiableundertypes.For the significanceof the sphinx reverse, A few of the coins are overstrikes see p. 88 above. Reduced AE 2

277 coins NN-881 H'-2357 NN-1066 00-1480 B'- 1104

17-21 19 18 20 20 19

Av.6.73 (92) 8.44 6.41 6.67 8.99 6.98

Triptolemos1. holding scepter in 1. hand, r. arm extended, mounting winged chariot drawn by two snakes;border of dots. 14-16 3.46 (17) 3.00 15 3.55 15 15 3.21 e E Crossed mystic staff and wheat ear; all in olive wreath. Sv. 104.46-50


32 coins *a I-1664 *b B-165 *c E-2494

213 214 215

A-1230, BB-605, rr-285, K-366, K-476, K-1415, N-833, 00-1105, 00-1215, IIE-167, E-736, ET'-417. r-432, r-484, rr-181, E-2499, 1-1537, A-164, E-465. A-99, Br'-l 11, Z-904, Z-1538, Z-2884, 0-672, AA-404, 00-1230.

PERIOD IV: CATALOGUE *d IIn-59 *e 00-551 f r-1038 3.84 3.16 3.70 (intrusivein E 14:3216) (as on 154a-c) but not invariably(cf. Sv. 104.46, 47) have curvedor brokencrossbars. Alphas frequently A-e 15 15 14


Nike advancingr., holding fillet Sv. 104.51-53 as on 154; border in extended r. hand and lowered chariot, of dots. stylis(?)in 1.;all in olive wreath. 155 8 coins 13-14 Av.3.14 (6) *a i-5688 14 3.80 *b Z-917 13 3.30 Since obverse and reverseare identifiableby their respectivelydotted and wreathedborders,we have in 155 the one Athenianvarietywhose ethnic is on the obverse(asopposedto thejoint Athens-Eleusis and its relations 63 with legends on both faces).Unique, too, is the arrangementof the letters.Lettering,characterof reversewreath, but particularlythe linear rendering of the figures relate both this variety and 154 to the AE 1 variety 151, Athena advancing,snake. A

m Triptolemosmounting

Head of Athena Parthenosr.; border of dots. 156 *a *b *c *d

e E Two owls, 1. and r., stg.,

facing, on thunderbolt;all in olive wreath.

Sv. 80.45-47; Kroll 1972, pl. 40:2-6

24 coins 14-20 Av.2.97(9) I-1483 20 3.74 16 nI-323 2.37 r-153 15 4.33 15 Hn-229 2.06 The unmistakableobverse style links this variety to the AE 1 issues 151-153. Except for the arrangement of the ethnic, the reverse type was adopted from the common 2nd-centuryAE 3 variety 99, doubtless with denominationalimplications(p. 90 above).The six examplesfromthe Chaidariand Agia Varvarahoardsgave an averageweight of 4.25 g. (Kroll 1972, p. 119).

Period IVE
ca. 15-10 B.C.

Reduced AE 1 Similar. A-eE Owl stg. r., facing, on horizontal amphora;at r. coiled snake;all in olive wreath. Sv. 79.36, 37; Kroll 1972, pl. 38:5-9

157 *a *b *c *d

116 coins NN-1318 Z-1113 II-347 MM-346

16-20 17 16 17 18

Av.5.55 (38) 5.53 3.79 5.41 4.68

flan trimmed before striking

Not only is 154f more worn than the other (earlyPeriod IVA) coins from this deposit, but the much later date of the variety is certified by the figural style, the wreathed border, and the occasionallybent crossbarsof the alphas of the reverse.With the exception of 129, reversesof the PeriodIVA intermediatefractions(127-131) are unwreathed. Bent crossbarsdo not appear until late PeriodIVB (142).

110 NN-1633 E-1205 17 18

ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-1ST CENTURIES B.C. 6.11 4.22 Similar,except at r., cicada. Sv. 79.38-42; Kroll 1972, pl. 38:10-14

Similar. 158 *a *b *c *d *e *f g 199 coins IIII-862 ET'-562 Q-460 AA-15 A-1241 H-83 PP'-1007 16-20 19 19 18 17 17 18 18 Av.5.53 (57) 6.63 6.27 6.02 4.88 5.14 3.24

halved (as are r-1150b [E 15:3], H-1887, and II-247) (U 13:2a)Plate 34:6

[157, 158] 160 coins of uncertainlight Owl-on-amphoravariety.One (Z-1196) bears an illegible countermark;three (BB-161, H-1439, and KK-12) are halved. a PP'-1008 17 (U 13:2a)Plate 34:7 5.22 The revivalof traditionalNew Style design in these two finalAugustanemissionsextends even to the obverses of the coins, which have the conventionaltwo tailsof the crestbehind the helmet. But the styleis atrocious.Except for the fine initial die pair or pairs of the issue with snake symbol (157a: Kroll 1972, pl. 38:7; Sv. 79.37, obv. die only), Athena heads are coarse, and the owls, economically rendered in heavy lines and punches, have a spookyappearance.Lettersare serifedwith dots, and many alphashave dots in place of crossbars.

PERIOD IVA-E UNCLASSI'IED [115-126, 137-140, 143, 144, 146-149, 151-153, 157, 158] Three (rr-258, Z-767, and Z-1077) 849+ coins of Period IV AE 1 size and fabric worn completely illegible.217 are halved. Five others (BB-177, E-441, AA-54, 11-741,and T-1064) received a punched cavity on one side, proof of circulationas late as the 3rd centuryafterChrist(p. 94 above).98-25 was reusedfor some industrial purpose;both sides were filed with notches in a rosette pattern, like the obv. of 144h. In addition, two of the totally worn pieces were countermarked: cmk.: A at 1. of amphora (D4:1) 19 5.14 *a AA-263 cmk.: AOE in incuse oval 6.73 19 *b AA-788 For illustrationsof 26 specimens (PP'-1009-1022, 1033-1037, 1073-1079) of Deposit U 13:2a of ca. A.D. 100, see Plate 34:8-33.


Bust of Artemis r., quiver at shoulder;border of dots. 159 *a PP-692 *b IIn-384

[A]H-MNIStag stg. r.

Sv. 75.24 = BMCAttica, 88, p. no. 628

14 20

2.16 2.86

letters of legend as recorded above possible traces of letters only

The 849 total does not include an estimated one to several hundred illegiblyworn Period IV pieces that were discardedin the late 1940's as being too uninformativeto merit storage. Most of the discardedpieces are identified in the field notebooksas "Greek"or "New Style".



The second line of the legend is not visibleon the heavilyworn BritishMuseum specimen and is not recorded in the line drawingof the only other publishedspecimen, E. Beule, Lesmonnaies Paris 1858, p. 345. But d'AthInas, on an exceptionallythick and heavy specimen at the AmericanNumismatic Society (1944.100.25998 [Newell], 13 mm., 5.43 g.), there are tracesof the eta at the left of the stag and mu nu at the right.The chunkyfabricclearly identifiesthis as a PeriodIV issue,althoughwhetherit belongsearlyin the period or dateswith the followingthree varieties to early Period IVD there is at present no way of knowing. The types pertain to the cult of Artemis at Myrina, which minted coins with its own name and the head of the goddess and reverse bow and quiver der Musen zu Berlin, (J. Friedlanderand A. von Sallet, Konigich MiuzenI, Berlin 1888, p. 283, Beschreibung antiken nos. 12, 13;NC, ser. 1, 4, 1841, p. 8, fig. 3). Bow and quiverare used on other Myrinareverseswith AeE (456) and AOEIMY(see note 218 below).
ca. mid-20's B.C.

Head of Athena Parthenos,r.; border of dots. *159A 00-1147 17 4.76

[A-eE] [AH-MNI]Head of Hephaistos r.; behind, tongs.

Kroll 1972, nos. 705-709, pl. 40:7-11


Similar. 160 *a *b *c *d 5 coins AA-278 AA-365 NN-569 K-1692

15-18 18 17 17 15

[A-eE] [C-KY]Female deity seated 1. on throne; olive-wreath border.

Kroll 1972, no. 711, pl. 40:13

Av.5.15(5) 7.91 5.52 5.23 5.53 ATHENS-IMBROS

Similar. 161

INBPI Two pilei, wreathed, of the Kabeiroi. Kroll 1972, no. 11, pl. 40:12

16 coins 16-19 Av.5.13(11) 0-589 17 3.72 ne-156 17 5.04 AA-73 16 5.02 PP'-730 19 4.03 The Agora specimens of 159A-161 have nothing to add to the discussionof these three cleruchyemissions in Kroll 1972, pp. 101-104. The Chaidari and Agia Varvarahoards produced seven slightlyworn specimens (Kroll 1972, pp. 119-120; av. weight 6.19 g.), of which two Athens-Lemnospieces were countermarkedon the obversewith a small owl r. in incuse circle. The single, bushy tail of the helmet crest and the refinedengravingof all obverses,which appear to have been cut by the same die sinker,date the varietieswith the first emission of Period IVD (149: Athena advancing, Struckin Athens, therefore,not long afterAugustuspresumablyconfirmedAthens' continuedpossession owl).218 218 Further supportfor this dating (and the mintingof these issuesat Athens)comes from the curiousAthens-Lemnian Sv. Myrina overstrike, 80.44 = Kroll 1972, pp. 102-104, pl. 40:14, now in the BritishMuseum: obv.: Owl r. (identicalin to the Owl-on-prowowls of 152), rev.:A-eE above M-Y,bow and quiver;overstruck Sikyon, style on Apollo head/Dove, AINEAE, as are occasionalregularexamplesof 152, q.v.Kroll (1972) suggestedthat this late PeriodIVD overstrike was improvisedto appease the citizens of Myrina after the early IVD minting of 159A, whose Hephaistos-headreverse may have associatedthe issue too closely with Hephaistia, Myrina'srival city on Lemnos. But if 159 with its Artemis *a *b *c *d


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: 4TH-IST CENTURIES B.C. on of Skyros,Lemnos,and Imbros,the coinswere surelyintendedfor circulation these islands.Kroll(1972, p. 103) the legendsas coordinatedoubleethnics,curtailments for example, 'A0cvallxv xal Ar)jvltv, etc.; of, interpreted but the legends would be more meaningfulif they designatedthe demoi of the Athenian cleruchieswithout an understood conjunction. The correct expansionsshould probably translate"of the Athenian Lemnians,"and the like.

types of Myrina happened to have been struckas a coordinatefractionalissue of 159A, the circumstancesbehind the would be more complicated. overstrike

MONEY of Early Roman ImperialAthens remained unchanged from the time of Marc THE Antony and Augustus:the silvercurrencywas suppliedby the Roman denarius,while for more than a century the Athenians continued to make do with their old, increasinglyworn Period IV bronze.l Minting of a fresh bronze coinage did not resume until the revival of the city's fortunes in the first half of the 2nd century after Christ. Begun under Hadrian (A.D. 117-138), this new 2nd-centurybronze (PeriodV) evolved throughseveralphases and extended into the third quarter of the century under the Antonines. Then, after another century-longhiatus in minting, Athenian coinage came to an end in a brief but massivestriking(PeriodVI), which datesjust before the city
was overrun by the Herulian Goths in A.D. 267.2

These 2nd- and 3rd-centurycoinagesof Roman Athensperpetuatethe old Atheniantraditionof placing the head of the city goddesson obverses.This is certainlyunexceptionalfrom the standpoint of historical Athenian coin design, but it is a dramatic departurefrom the practice, which had become well establishedthroughoutthe Roman worldby this time, of reservingthe obversesof civic coins for the effigy and inscriptionof the reigning emperor.The coinages of Athens, Chios, and Termessos in Pisidia are, in fact, the only three Greek coinages of the Imperial era that consistently resisted this innovation. Yet if the Athenian imperialsare notably conservativein this one respect,they sharewith contemporarybronze coinagesfrom other Greekcities a propensityfor rich, iconographicalvariety that is entirely alien to the characterof Greek coinages of the past. As the obverseheads of Athena came to be renderedin a wide range of differingstyles,helmet types, and subsidiaryornament, the numerousreversetypesprovidea virtualpicturebook of much of the city's famouscult and mythologicalstatuaryin additionto monumentsand traditionalAtheniandevicesof other kinds.

CHRONOLOGY It is curious, however, that the coinage did not begin this way. The earliest issues (Period VA) are restrictedto a small fractionaldenomination,normally 14-15 mm. in diameter,designed with Athena/Owl types that copy the types of AthenianOld Style silver.The die cuttersnormallyspelled the ethnic AOH (163), althougha few of the earliestreversedies give the correctAGE (162). Fidelityto the prototypesis maintained in the severe head of Athena, her Attic helmet with tendril and leaf ornaments,the stockyowl facing rightwith olive sprig,and the verticallegend. The coins are struck on blanks that had been cast and then punched on one side with a shallow cavity,apparentlyfor 1 See 91-92 above,withPlate34. pp. 2 Svoronos of on for (1904,p. 110),placedthechronology theAthenian imperials a secure footing identifying the by

firsttime the separate2nd- and 3rd-century phasesof the coinage. In subsequentstudies,Kroll (1973) and Walker(1980) workedout the refinementsthat resultin the more detailed chronologypresentedbelow.



anchoring a rotaryplaning device that, when turned, smoothed and trimmed the cast planchet.3 The use of cast, punched blankscontinuedthroughthe successivePeriodVB and VC coinages. After the large initial issue (162 and 163), the Athena/Owl fractionsgraduallyevolved away from the Classicalmodel. Even as some of the original obverse dies were in use, new reversedies introduceddifferentarrangementsof the ethnic, droppedthe olive twig, and sometimesturned the owl to the left (164 and 165). Then, at the end of the series(166 and 167), these developmentsare joined by freer and more varied obverse dies that favoredbusts of Athena wearing a Corinthian fromthe obverseheads of the PeriodVB fractions.The VA helmet in stylesthat are indistinguishable owls give the impressionof being struckcontinuouslyand leading without a break into PeriodVB. Since most of the coins and dies belong to the initial, classicizingphase of Period VA, the coinage would seem to have been relativelycompact, lastingsurelyfor less than a decade. Historicalprobabilityvirtuallydemandsthat the elaborate,succeedingPeriodVB coinage begin under Hadrian, possiblyin connection with his firstimperialvisit to Athens in 124/5 or, better,his second and longest visit in 127/8-128/9. In either case the start of the VA owls should probably fall in the earlier 120's, a time that is reinforcedin general terms by the fact that VA owls first appear in reliable archaeologicalcontexts of the earlier 2nd century.4But it would probably be mistakento assume that Hadrian himself was directlyresponsiblefor the coinage. The financing and organizationof Greekcivic coinageswas normallya local concern, initiatedand maintainedby wealthycitizensas a publicbenefaction,so thatAthensis more likelyto have owed her PeriodVA and B (andeven C?)coinage to her other greatbenefactorin the 2nd century,the millionaireintellectual Herodes Atticus of Marathon, whose distinguishedpublic career began at Athens with the office in of agoranomos the early 120's, followed by his archonshipin 126/7.5 These dates independently the 120'sfor the beginning (VA)and initialelaboration(earlyVB) of the coinage. suggest The learned archaism of the VA owls is in keeping with the antiquariantastes of Hadrian, Herodes, and their contemporaries.But one has to wonder why this coinage was nonetheless so tentativeand limited. Restrictedto a small denomination,it could at best have only supplemented the heavilyworn Period IV pieces that were servingas the dominant bronze currency.Perhapsthe large initial striking(162 and 163) was produced for a festivaldonative. Or was it the Athenians' reluctance to strike a normal imperial coinage with the emperor'seffigy that was responsiblefor the unassumingcharacterof these pieces?6Whateverthe explanation,the VA owls set the precedent for a revivedAthenian coinage in the old Athena-headmanner,while the very inadequacy of the coinage will have given rise to the expansionof the coinage that followed. Period VB inauguratesthe developed imperial coinage with its many reverse types and four denominations, includinga largenew unitof 24-26 mm. thatquicklybecamethe majordenomination.
of and D. Brown,eds., New York1976(pp. 66-73), pp. 66-67. Foradditional bibliography a survey the use of the see in Imperial Athens, Amandry, 81-82. Greece, pp. omitting although technique 4 See 166aand to U D Deposits 4:1 and,especially, 13:2aand b. Krol (1973,p. 327)proposed datethe VAowls datedto this afterChriston the evidenceof DepositE 14:2,LevelII, whichwas ceramically to the late 1stcentury be below(pp. 305-306),the dateof thislevelshouldprobably extended in but as explained the list of deposits time; the startof the VA owlsmoreplausibly A.D. 111/2, the in Walker into the 2nd century. (1980,pp. 257-258)placed but Athenian dateof Hadrian's archonship, eventhisis too early. 5 P. Graindor, milliardaire Cairo 1930,pp. 55-57; W.Ameling,Herodes Atticus Hrode Un Attiuset safamille, antique, York Hildesheim/Zurich/New 1983,p. 1. II, 6 Thatis, there of the units here bronze, obverses whichwere Imperial mightbe a parallel withthesmallest of Roman See thanthe headof the emperor. rather withthe headof Athenaor someotherdeityor symbol normally designed cities. otherGreek of on the smalldenominations certain of RPCI, p. 41, notingthe omission the imperial portrait
3 For reconstructionof the instrumentand D. Crajfs, Strong and technique, see D. Sellwood, "Minting,"in Roman



The VB coinage is notable for the exceptionalqualityand elaboratenessof much of the die cutting, which resulted in some of the most magnificent coins ever struck at Athens (see Sv. 89.3 and or 94.2-6). Reverse legends are AeH, AeHNAIWN, an abbreviatedvariant. The wide range of and types of busts of Athena on the obverses indicates that the dies were cut by several styles artists or groups of artistsworkingover an extended period. The end of the VB coinage is markedby a slight reduction in the diametersof the coins and a simplificationof the obverse dies, which are linked to reversesthat sometimes have the typical VB legend AeHNAIWN, others that spell the ethnic with a bowed omega, AOHNAIQN.7 and These "transitional" obverse dies tend to dispensewith the ornate VB aegis and draperyand replace the full bust by a helmeted head with slight draperyaroundthe neck (cf. 175a and 182b). The succeeding PeriodVC coinage has ethnics regularlyin AeHNAIfTN, the types become and and more uniformstill: thereis usuallyjusta plain helmetedhead ofAthena, ratherblocky orrr simpler in shape, and a simplereverseof one figure.The laterVC coins are the most commonlyfound square of all Period V issues, both in the Agora and in hoards discoveredin Attica, and their numerous, nearly indistinguishableobverse dies and extensive die linking imply a sudden burst of minting activity at the end of Period V Period VB and C coins continued to be minted from cast flans with central cavities. Sawn flans without the cavities,however,were introducedfor late VB or VC fractionsand seem to have been experimentally used for a few of the largestpieces at the end ofVC,8 to speed up flan productionfor intensivecoining at that time. t apparently It is clear from severalhoardsburiedor lost at the time of th Herulianinvasionof Attica in A.D. the 267 that the PeriodVC imperialshad come to an end by the close of the 2nd century,if not already by the reign of Commodus (A.D. 177-192): the Severan sestertiiand many sestertiiof Commodus in these depositsare less worn than the accompanyingAthenianVB and VC pieces. The heavywear of the Athenian pieces is comparableto the sestertiistruckfrom Trajan through Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161-180). As stated, the start of the Period VB coinage should coincide with the start of the Hadrianicrenaissanceof Athens in the 120's.9 The stylistic heterogeneity of the VB obverses suggests a coinage of some duration, struck very likely in severaldisjointedemissions,although it is doubtfulthat there were any lengthy gaps. The existence at the end of VB of a substantialtransitionalcoinage employing "new" obverse dies with occasional "old" AeHNAIWN reverses implies an overall continuity in minting at least to around the middle of the 2nd century,where the transitionalpieces seem to belong. A rough indication of date here comes from an Athenian lead token published in 1900.10 It is an official token of the Athenian Boule signed by an otherwiseunknownPammenes.On the obverseis a bust of Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161) with somewhat elderly looking features,and on the reverse is a
7 Characteristicexamples of obverse dies used with both types of reverselegend are 17la (= Sv. 82.29) and 175a (= Sv. 92.5, 6) paired with the VC reverse 264a (= Sv. 92.17, 18). This obverse links with other VC obverses,which are also transitional,throughother reverses,as Sv. 98.22 and 21 (280). 8 Sawing striations are visible on large VC pieces in the Eastern Attica Hoard (note 17 below, p. 117) and the collection of the AmericanNumismaticSociety. 9 On Hadrian and Athens, see D.J. Geagan, "RomanAthens: Some Aspects of Life and Culture,I, 86 B.C.-A.D. to 267," AJW 11.7.1, 1979 (pp. 371-437), pp. 389-399, 426-430 (bibliography); which now add A.J. Spawforthand S. Walker,"The World of the Panhellenion I: Athens and Eleusis,"JRS 75, 1985, pp. 78-104; D. Willers, Hadrians Athens durch Kunst Beiheft 16), 1990, pp. 7-12, Beitrge (Antke panhellenisches Programm, Archdologische Hadrian zuNeugestaltung 93-103; and the papers cited in notes 11, 60, and 61 below,pp. 116 and 124. 10 Svoronos 1900, 334, no. 180, p. pl. 19:22: Obv.: Bust of Antoninus Pius draped and cuirassedr.; at L.,BOT. Rev.: Draped bust of Athena r.; at 1., flAM-M. This Pammenes is a descendant of the well-knownfamily of the 1st New Style, 578; Habicht 1991, p. 15. centuryB.C. p.



bust of Athena similar to 182b (VB transitional)and 280a (VC). To judge from transitional-style the token, the transitionallate VB/early VC phase of the coinage had probablybeen completed alreadyby the end of Pius' reign in 161, which suggestsin turn that the VB coinage lasted beyond the end of Hadrian's rule in 138 into the 140's or I50's, leaving the mainstream VC issues to continue apparentlyinto the reign of MarcusAurelius.The exceptional scale and intensityof the concluding VC minting may suggest (on the model of the Period VI coinage, discussed below) emergencypreparationsfor defense against the invadingKostoboksin 170, if not coinage also for the repair of the damage at Eleusis they left behind.11 There is obviously much room here for futurechronologicalrefinement.For the present,the approximatechronologyof PeriodV appears as follows: PeriodVA earlier 120's PeriodVB mid/late 120'sto ca. 140's(or 150's) PeriodVC ca.(140's or) 150'sto ca. 175 The Lifeof Severus Augusta reports that Septimius Severus (A.D. 193-211) (3.7) in the Historia harboreda grudge against the people of Athens and upon becoming emperor revoked certain of This notice has been cited to explain an assumed cessation of minting at the start their privilegia. of his rule.12But since it now appears that the Period V coinage had run its course even before the joint reign of MarcusAureliusand Commodus in 177-180, Septimus'punishmentof Athens, if it had anything to do with coinage at all, at most could have deterred the resumptionof minting. The Athenians,in any case, again became accustomedto using old and ultimatelyextremelyworn bronzecoins, this time untilafterthe middleof the 3rdcenturywhen the immense PeriodVI coinage was put into production. The Period VI coinage was conceived fundamentallyas a revival of the Hadrianic-Antonine coinage: some new obverseand reversetypes and type variantswere created,but most types are the same. Many reversedies appearto have been copied, with variousdegreesof accuracy,directlyfrom VB and VC coins, some of which may have been worn and unclear in detail.13The reverselegend continuesto read A8HNAI9N on fractions,A9H.Most obverseand reversedies have a prominent or, the type (as opposed to PeriodV bordersthat were wreathed,dotted, or borderof dots surrounding omitted). The main, large-denominationcoin is slightly smaller,again, than its VC counterparts and is accompanied by only two smaller denominations,both of which are uncommon and may have been struck largely to legitimize the continuing circulationof worn Period V coins of like value. Finally,instead of being cast, the Period VI blanks were sawn from long, roughly cylindrical bars.14Rapid sawingproduceda number of coins of abnormalthicknessor thinnessand markedly divergentweights, even among coins struckfrom the same pair of dies. The blanks were heated before striking,and blobs of semimolten metal occasionallyadhered to a die to be transferredto the surfaceof the next coin struck(e.g., 284b, 299b, 318a, 343a, 350a). Strikingfaults are far more
"GreekConstruction 10, Rebuildingof Philon'sPorchand the Telesterionat Eleusis,"Boreas 1987, pp. 97-106; cf. idem, and Roman Rebuildingat Eleusis"(lecture,Cincinnati 1983),abstractin AJA88, 1984, pp. 262-263. 12 Kroll 1973, p. 323; Walker1980, pp. 251-252, 262-264. Cf. Hari, p. 24.
13 P. 126below.

"Roman 11On the Kostobok and damageat Eleusis,now see Clinton1989b,pp. 64-65; R. E Townsend, raid

Saw marksare visibleon 284g, 376a, Sv.84.30,85.41, and on many of the faulty,unusedblanksfrom the PeriodVI mint at the southwestcorner of the Agora;see Appendix B:IV and Plate 33.




common than in Period V, as are mistakesof die cutters,who turned out a few reverse dies with retrogradetypes (Sv.89.33, 34, 98.38-43) or with legends that are either retrogradeor abbreviated in some way due to miscalculationof space (see especially378). Rapid strikingwas facilitatedby the soft, cheapened bronze alloy,which contained an exceptionallyhigh admixtureof lead.15 Evidentlya hurried coinage, it was also of immense size and surprisingly compact. More than 800 obverse and reverse dies were used, as compared to slightly more than 700 for PeriodsVA, VB, and VC combined (TableIX, p. 332 below).While there were surelymany die engravers,they all seem to have been workingwithin a single tradition, without the often extreme differencesof style seen in Period VB. There is, accordingly,no evidence of stylisticdevelopment or of discrete stylisticsubgroupswithin the coinage. Nor is it possible to point to any type or variety as being either early or later in the coinage as a whole. Instead, the entire coinage is closely bound together by a complex matrix of die linkages,certain obverse dies being paired with as many as 15 to 20 reversedies, while a reversedie may be linkedwith up to 7 or 8 obversedies. This scrambleddie-box effect points to a single, compressedspace of miting that, despite the volume of dies and output, need not have lasted for more than a few years. That these are the years immediatelypreceding the catastrophicHerulian invasion of 267 is seen from the fresh condition of the many Period VI coins in hoards and other accumulations buried or lost at the time of the invasion. In addition to the two recordedHerulian-invasion finds from outside Athens, the 2,000-piece Eleusis 1902 hoard16and the 197-piece EasternAttica 1975 hoard,17a dozen hoards, dropped purses, and destructiondeposits connected with the disasterof 267 have been recoveredby excavatorsin the Agora.18While no two accumulationsare identical in composition, they collectivelygive a relativelycomplete picture of the money in circulationand savings at this time: mid-3rd-century"silver"antoniniani, mostly recent issues of Gallienus' sole reign (A.D. 260-268); some Roman sestertiiof the 2nd century and first half of the 3rd century; but primarilyAthenian imperialbronzesof PeriodsVB (extremely worn),VC (heavilyworn), and VI of (unwornand most plentiful).The representation virtuallyevery PeriodVI type in one or more of these recorded deposits confirms that the strikingof the coinage had been completed by the time of the barbarianattack,which happened to be responsiblealso for the destructionof the building in the southwestcorner of the Agora where the PeriodVI coinage had been struck(see Appendix B:IV).That the strikingprobablydid not commence beforeGallienusbecame sole emperorin 260 is suggestedby the comparableconditionof the PeriodVI bronzesand the antoninianiof Gallienusin the depositsof 267 and by the haste and intensityof the manufactureof the Athenian coins. Some of the Period VI pieces in the Herulian deposits have been damaged by corrosion and cleaning,especiallyby the redepositingof particlesof copperon the surfacesof the coins. The slightly dulled obverse relief on other hoard and deposit coins,19however,must be due to the wear of the obversedies;for the accompanyingreverses,havingbeen stampedfromdies thatwere changedmore
Analysesof four PeriodVI pieces (Caley,pp. 26-27, table IV,nos. 8-11) determinedthat lead made up 26.8 to 32.5 percent of their alloy. In contrast, the lead content of one PeriodVB specimen (ibid.,p. 43, table VII, no. 1) came to only 10.35 percent, and of a single VC piece (ibid., 26-27, table IV, no. 7) to 23.0 percent. pp. 16 Svoronos 1904; Kroll 1973, pp. 312-321, 329-333; Walker1980, pp. 146-147; Noe, no. 380. '7 A. Walker,"AHoard of Athenian ImperialBronzesof the Third CenturyA.D. from EasternAttica," CH 3, 1977, no. 95, pp. 40-48; Walker 1980, p. 147. Thirty-threecoins in this hoard are fresh antoniniani from the sole reign of Gallienus. 18 For a full list, see Walker 1980, pp. 46-47, 125-130. The most importantof these deposits are those listed below under B 17:1 and Q 19:3, pp. 303-304, 316. 19 Kroll 1973, pp. 315, 318.



frequently,are usually quite sharp. If allowance is made for the soft alloy and rapidityof striking, the Herulian deposit specimens seem not to have experienced any wear from circulation.Their condition is closely paralleledby specimensfrom the similarlylarge and hastilystruckFulminating Zeus issue of 87/6 B.C. (97) found in hoardsand debris from the Sullan sack of 86 B.C.20 As with the latterissue,we surelyhave to do here, too, with a crisiscoinage struckto help financethe resistanceof the city againstimminent attack. for In the 260's the new money was needed particularly the rebuilding,repair,and garrisoningof startedat the urging Athens' walls.A remarkof Zosimos (1.29.2-3) indicatesthat the refortification But of Valerianas early as 254, aftera seriousGermanicattempton Thessalonike.21 the workmust have continuedas long as time and money allowed.The wallsofEleusis were also strengthened,and the maintenance and provisioningof the garrison at Eleusis is now recognized to be the subject of a fragmentaryimperial letter from Gallienus,dated to 265.22 The emperor'spersonal interest in the military defense of Attica was surely a major reason for his visit to the city for a month in the fall of 264. Since the magnitude of the Period VI coinage requiresa period of production of a few years before its end in orjust before 267, it followsthat strikingprobablybegan in connection with this imperial visit.23Not that the emperor himself need have been personally involved with the organizationof a civic coinage. The first citizen of Athens at this time and the leading figure in the city's resistanceagainst the Herulii was the antiquarianand writer of history P. Herennius to If Dexippus.24 the PeriodVI coinage is to be attributed the initiativeof any one individual,thereis no better candidatethan this patrioticAthenianworthy. A few moderatelyworn PeriodVI coins from post-267 Agora contexts attest that these pieces continued in circulationfor a short time after the Herulian sack, until the increasinginflation of the 3rd centurydrovethem out of use.25

DENOMINATIONALVALUES Unlike the bronze coins of Hellenistic Athens, whose types and size both played a part in the identificationof denominations, the denominationsof Athens' imperial coins were distinguished by size alone. One denomination was struck in Period VA, four in VB, and three each in VC and VI, although in these last two phases the two smallermodules were minted in relativelyslight quantities.The distribution,averageweight, and normal range of diametersof the denominations are presented in Table VIII (p. 331 below), where each of the modules is identified with one of the four bronze denominationsattestedin the Hadrianicor earlyAntonine property-taxinscription IG II2 2776.26This crucialtext recordssums in denariiand four local Athenian subdivisionsof the

the the denarius: drachm of thedenarius), hemidrachm the obol(6), andthe hemiobol (h). (L), (g
The readycorrespondencebetween the fourunitsof value of this systemand the four modulesof the reasonenough contemporarybronze coinage is, in the absenceof any more plausibleinterpretation, the PeriodV moduleswith the drachm/obol units of the inscription. for identifying

20 Pp. 69-70 above. 21 On the literaryand archaeological XXIV pp. 1, 1 ;J.J. Wilkes, documentationfor Athens'ValerianWall,see Agora 187-192. in Greek "CivilDefence in Third-CenturyAchaia," RenJssane, pp. 22 D. Armstrong,"Gallienusin Athens, 264," ZPE 70, 1987 (pp. 235-258), pp. 246-251. 23 Ibid., 251, followingWalker1980, pp. 248-251. p. 24 For whom, see Millar 1969, pp. 12-29. 25 Walker1980, pp. 130-131, 133. 26 Pp. 83-84 above.



A second Athenian inscription,IG II2 1368, of A.D. 175/627 refers to the bronze drachms as to "light"drachms,XexCoiU any Bp(aXVcal), avoid, apparently, confusionwith silverdrachms.Within the 2nd-century context of the inscription, silver drachms would have been denarii, which were x commonly known as 'Axrtxal pacXaltthroughoutthe Roman East.28But if bronze drachmswere first introduced into the Athenian monetary system in the 80's B.C.,as proposed in the preceding chapter,the term XentxoibSpacXji probablygoes back to that time as well, before the denariushad ousted the drachm as the standard silver coin of Athens.29 Indeed, the entire system evidenced by IG II2 2776 seems to have been created in stages during the 1st century B.C., remained intact throughoutthe 1stcentury of our era, and was simplytaken over by the PeriodV imperials. The key denominationhere is the second imperialunit, the bronze hemidrachmof 18-22 mm. and 5.40 g., which was the same size as the basiclate PeriodIV reducedAE 1 unit that stilldominated the circulatingbronze coinage at the time when the PeriodVB imperialsbegan. With the creation of the larger VB bronze drachm, the importance of the old AE 1 hemidrachm faded, however, and before the end of Period VB, minting of this denominationwas discontinued. Hemidrachms from Periods IV and VB remained in circulationas late as the mid-3rd century,as one sees from Deposits B 17:1A and Q 19:3 and from a number of worn Period IV pieces that were punched with cavitieson one side to make them appearlike worn imperials;30 it is possiblethat some of and the heavier hemidrachmseventuallypassed as drachms after the diameter of the latter had been reducedin PeriodVI. At any rate therecan be no mistakingthat the new drachmquicklybecame the main denomination of the Athenian imperialbronze alreadyin Period VB and that it underwent a progressivesize and weight reduction with each new phase of minting. Another, more abrupt reductionhad occurredearlierin the Athena/Owl hemiobolsafterthe largerimperialdenominations began to be struckin PeriodVB; for the type continuitybetween the largerAthena/Owl pieces of VA (162-167) and the smallerones of VB and C (226-231) makes it extremelydoubtful that the reductionin module could have involvedan accompanyingchange in denominationalvalue. Athens' idiosyncratic 2nd-century denominational system is not easily compatible with the conventional Roman system, in which the denarius is divided into 16 bronze asses. It has been observed that at certain times and places in the eastern part of the empire, local bronze assaria seem to have been tariffed at 18 to the denarius and that, if the bronze drachms, hemidrachms, obols, and hemiobols of Athens had to be readily convertibleinto assaria, an assarion tariffedat ofa denariuswould give them direct equivalenciesof 3, 1?, and l assariarespectively.31 This 2, neat although conjecturalreconciliationof the Athenian and the Roman systemshas not met with general acceptance,however;and it is more likelythat the Athenian and the Roman bronze systems functioned separately: at Athens the denariuswas divided into 6 bronze drachms, while Roman bronze coins would have been accepted at their own rate of exchange. It follows in any case that, within Athens, the Athenian imperialswere highly overvaluedin terms of the as/assarion,32which probablyexplainswhy they are so seldom found outsideAttica.33
27 A. J. Notopoulos, "Studiesin the ChronologyofAthens under the Empire,"Hesperia 1949 (pp. 1-57), pp. 29, 51. 18, 28 See note 67 above, p. 15. 29 See pp. 83-84, 90-91 above. 30 See note 197 above, p. 94. 31 Walker 1980, pp. 166-168; A. S. Walker,"16 or 18 Assaria,Drachmai and Denarii in Mid Second Century A.D. Numismatic Athens,"Israel 6-7, 1982-1983, pp. 142-174. Journal 32 Cf. 91 above. p. 33 Walker(1980, p. 149) mentions the few specimensfrom Boiotia, Corinth, Kenchreai,Isthmia, Olympia, Knossos, and Poitiers,but he notes (p. 170)that all but one or two are fromPeriodVI, as one might have predictedfromthe size of this final coinage, which may have been the largestsingle issue of coinage ever struckin Roman ImperialGreece.



of retained Althoughthe drachm/obol nomenclature the 2nd-centuryimperialswas presumably in PeriodVI, the same probablydid not applyto the value of the coins in Roman silver,which by the mid-3rd century had become extremelydebased. The Period VI drachmsare comparablein size to a number of contemporaryGallienan bronze issues from other mints in Greece; at Sparta and Nikopolis and for the Thessalian League such coins were produced with denominationalmarks, most commonly A for 4 assaria,34 showing that they were valued at a quarterof a denarius.One suspectsthat the value of the PeriodVI drachmshad risento a similarlevel of about 4 to the denarius, instead of 6 as earlier. ICONOGRAPHY the Numismatically, most unusualaspectof the Athenianimperialsis the omissionof the portraitand of the currentemperor.Such omissionis not altogetherwithoutparallelon contemporary inscription civic coinages, for other cities did strikeissues on which one finds the head of some figure (Roma, the Senate, the Boule, Demos, or a local god or hero) other than the emperor. But these issues, conventionallyknown as pseudo-autonomousissues, normally made up only a small part of the coinage of any city, which consisted for the most part of imperial portrait coins; and they are usually restricted to the smaller denominations.35Although they prove that it was not legally obligatoryfor a coin to bear the emperor'simage, they remain minor exceptions in a world that had come to accept and prefer (presumablywith strongencouragementfrom the Roman authorities36)the image as an expressionof respect and authorityon coinage in general. Even some of which originallystruckwithout the portraitin earlyJulio-Claudiantimes (p. 88 the ciitatesliberae, above),adopted it sooner or later: Rhodes for the firsttime under Nero, Spartaregularlybeginning with Claudius,Tyre under SeptimiusSeverus.Only Athens, Chios, and PisidianTermessos(which may have struckone smallJulio-Claudianissue, RPC I, 3514) held out to the end. All three cities were free, and this may be explanationenough for the exceptionalcoinagesof Chios and Termessos. But at Athens it is possible to go furtherand identify the attitudes that would have resisted any change in the autonomous characterof the city coinage: a proud historicalconsciousnessand a nostalgicconservatismthat ran more deeply here than anywhereelse in the Greekworld. The initial Athena/Owl hemiobols of Period VA, which imitate Athens' 5th-centuryB.C. owl silver,revealjust how sentimentalthe Athenianshad become about the cherishedtraditionsof their ancient coinage. As the intellectual center of the Greek world, the city had become, in fact, a hotbed of learned archaizingconceits.Under the subtitle Athens and the Re-creationof Antiquity," E. L. Bowie has written several amusing pages on the antiquariandreamworldinhabited by the wealthy intellectualsof 2nd-centuryAthens and their obsessiveinfatuationwith the past glories of Hellas.37Therein would seem to be the main impetus for continuing the head of Athena on the
Sparta (4, 6, and 8 assaria): Grunauer,pp. 94-96 (Valerianand Gallienus);Nikopolis (4 [see 563 below] and 8 assaria):Oikonomidou,pp. 33 and 188 (Gallienus,sole reign);ThessalianLeague (3 and 4 assaria):Rogers,pp. 53-57 (Valerianthrough Gallienusand Salonina).On the increasein the value of bronze and the mid-3rd-centurymonetary crisisin general, see Howgego, pp. 65-73; Harl, pp. 19-20; Burnett, CRW,pp. 111-114. 35 See GreekImperials," ANSMA 30, 1985, pp. 89-112; Burnett, A.Johnson, "The So-called 'Pseudo-Autonomous' nea del dimenticato storia Senato Roman,"Memorie 83-84; G. Forni, "IEPAe EEOC CTNKAHTOC,Un capitolo CRW,pp. di R della AccademiaNazionaleLincei VIII.v, 1953, pp. 49-168; and, especially,RPCI, pp. 15, 33, 41-42. 36 RPC I, pp. 37, 53. 37 E. L. Bowie, "Greeksand Their Past in the Second Sophistic,"PastandPresent 1970 (pp. 3-41; reprintedin 46, M. I. Finley,ed., London 1974 [pp. 166-209]), pp. 28-35. The name of Herodes Atticusrecurs Studies Ancient in Societ, throughoutBowie'sessay like a leitmotif.



imperial coinage, even as the coinage was otherwisemodernized through contemporarytrends in style and type variation.On a symboliclevel, the traditionalAthena heads served as an affirmation of Athens' unique culturaland historicalpreeminence among all cities of antiquityand her claim, widely accepted by all educated Greeks and Romans, to have been the cradle of civilization.38 Given this recognition,there is somethingalmostinevitableabout the revivaland maintenanceof an ancient traditionof coinage in which Rome historically had no place.39As men of culture,Hadrian, the Antonine emperors,and Gallienuswould have appreciatedthis as much as any Greek. The obverseAthenas of PeriodsVB-VI wear either an Attic or, more commonly,a Corinthian helmet. Pick argued that these two general types respectivelyrepresentedAthena Parthenosand Athena Promachos,40 apartfrom the fact that the kind of helmet worn by the Promachosstatue but is unknown, the great number of variationsin helmet and bust/head designs imply that the die engraversborrowedfrom many sources,includingthe minor arts, often eclectically.41 Until a die study of the complex PeriodV coinage is completed, only a few generalitiesabout its varied obverse types and styles can be offered here. Beginning in VA, the head of Athena wears a simple Attic helmet in the fashion of 5th-centuryAthenian coins (P1. 15:162a-164a). In VB the representationchanges to a bust, usually with a Corinthian helmet and a small head so that considerableareas of the shoulder and chest, normally wearing an aegis, can be shown. On smallerdenominationsone can distinguishbetween a phase of finely designed busts (Pls. 16:186a190, 17:198-201) and a phase of more coarsely cut ones (Pls. 16:191a-197e, 17:202a-208a). On drachmsthe busts tend to be quite tall and elaborate (P1. 16:169a, 170, 174a, 181a, 182a, 183a185a), but there is one contemporarybust with a larger head wearing a Corinthian helmet with very slight drapery at the neck or shoulderline (P1. 16:172a; Sv. 82.1, 2). Later,or "transitional", VB drachm obverses,although simplified,continue the latter design with large (PI. 16:171a, 175a, 178a, 179a, 182c)or smallerheads (P1.16:182b).These simplifiedbustswith their negligibledrapery become in turn the primaryobversetypes of VC. While full bustscontinue in VC (P1.18:248a,253, 257a, 261a, 269a), they usually were avoided, as they were in Period VI, because of the greater demands in execution. Plate 19:280b-283d illustratesa run of typical mainstreamVC obversesat their most monotonous.42 Like the obverses, the many reversesof the developed coinage emphasize ancient Athenian traditions.The types are mostly of deities and heroes as they were depicted in celebratedAthenian statuesof the 5th and 4th centuriesB.C.The rosterof types createdfor the first developed coinage, early PeriodVB, is of interestfor its size alone:
and See C. Habicht,Hellenistic Athens HerPhilosophers MagieLecture1988),Princeton1989, pp. 20-21, (David decreeof ca. 120 B.c. (FdD ii, no. 69); Cicero(proFlacco Plutarch quotingan Amphictionic 345 HI, 62); (Moralia F), Athenaios PlinytheYounger (Lettrs 8.14.2); (15.691D);andSt.Augustine ofGod18.9). (Cit 39 Millar(1969,p. 21) notesanother and into the proofof Athenian pride: "Therise of provincial local families Romanaristocracy of courseone of the greatthemesof Imperial is Athensprovides of a different history. examples the over sometimes centuries, a prominent over of phenomenon, maintenance generations, in position the intellectual andpolitical of thecitybyfamilies life whosemembers couldeasily havesought Romanoffice, whodidnotchooseto but do so. Therewasa realsensein whichAthensremained capital, a provincial a not city."
40 38

41 Lacroix, 285-286;see note64 below, 124.The helmetof AthenaPolias pp. was,however, see p. Corinthian; p. 53 above.
42 Obverse types other than a head or bust of Athena occur on certain VB and C hemiobols: a bust of Theseus with a club over his shoulder (232-241); a bust of Asklepios(paired only with the Telesphorosreverse: 242); a bust of Demeter or Kore (243, 244); a young male bust wearinga wreath (245, 246); and a boukranion (247).

Pick 1931, pp. 59-74.



Athena Parthenos(169-171)43 VelletriAthena holding Nike (172)44 Athena running,pointing (Sv.85.4, cf. 310 [VI]) Athena facing olive tree (173) Contest of Athena and Poseidon,olive tree between them (174)45 Triptolemosin chariot(198) Triptolemosin chariotbetween Demeter and Kore (177) Demeter enthroned(186) Kore holding two torchesdownwards(187) Iakchosholding torch (188)46 Dionysos Eleuthereusenthronedbeforethymiaterionon a table (176)47
Apollo Patroos (191)48

Heraklesherm holding cornucopia(Sv.95.6, 7)49 Theseus leading the Marathonianbull to King Aigeus (Sv.95.23, 24) Theseus drivingthe Marathonianbull (180) Theseus raisingrock at Troizen(181)50 Theseus and Minotaur "boxing"(Sv.96.30-36) Theseus strikingat Minotaur(189, 200, 201) Theseus (or Herakles)holding phiale (199) Themistoklescarryingtrophyon ship (182, 183)51
43 Lacroix,pp. 266-281, especiallypp. 277-278, pls. 23, 24, has the best discussionof the numismaticevidencefor this statue (LMC II, p. 1031, pls. 729-730:220, 221). The Parthenoscontinued as the most common type in PeriodsVC (248-250) and, frequentlywith variantdetailsintroducedby the die engravers,VI (284-294). 44 Forthe statue type, L/MC II, p. 1033,pl. 733:247. 45 and NCP, pp. 130-131,pl. Z (relatedrepresentations brief discussion). 46 The hemidrachm reverses, 186, 187, and 188, employed with shared obverse dies, were designed together as an Eleusinianset. Collectively,they may representPraxiteles'group of Demeter, Kore, and Iakchos that was seen by Pausanias(1.2.4) near the Pompeion in the Kerameikos(NCP, p. 140, no. 5b). See I. N. Svoronos, I<parLetXous: type is of K6pr}xac IaxXO<ev AO9vcalS>, ApXEpl1911,pp. 39-52. The common Triptolemos-in-chariot A7nLTrlp, course a throwbackto the Eleusinianbronze coinage of the 4th and 3rd centuriesB.C.(3840, 48, 49, 51, 55). 47 It has been universallyassumed that this is the chryselephantinestatue of Dionysos sculptured, according to Pausanias(1.20.3),by the 5th-centurysculptorAlkamenes.The temple that housed the image, however,was not erected beforethe middle of the 4th century(J. Travlos,PictoialDictionary Anient Athns, New York/Washington1971, p. 537). of The statue is pictured without the table and incense burner on the New Style silver of Diokles-Diodoros(New Style, nos. 1269, 1270). p. 390, pl. 142, 48 The statue XIV, pp. 136-139, II, pl. 69. by Euphranor:LLMC p. 145, pls. 184, 185:39;Agora 49 Forthis statue in stone, see LMCIV,p. 783, 524:1163-1166. pl. type 50 180 and 181 ought to depict statuegroups that Pausaniassaw on the Akropolis(1.27.8-10), although for the bull dedication, see H. A. Shapiro, "The MarathonianBull on the Athenian Akropolis,"AJA 92, 1988, pp. 373-382. A third Akropolisgroup, Theseus fighting the Minotaur (Pausanias 1.24.1), must be representedby one of the several differentreversetypes depictingthis event. 51 Pausanias (1.36.1) mentionsa trophyof Themistokles'victoryon Salamisand goes on to say that a snakeappeared among the ships during the battle. In NCP (p. 153) it is implied that this Salamis trophy might be the Themistokles monument of the coins, since some VB dies show a snake on the ram of the ship. But the monument is much too elaboratefor a battle trophyand would have requireda long, rectangularbase, whereas the probable remains of the base (P. W. Wallace, "Psyttaleiaand the Trophies trophy on Salamis show that it rested on a ca. 1.80-meter-square of Salamis,"AJA73, 1969 [pp.293-303], pp. 301-303). The coins probablydepict anothermonument to Themistokles, not necessarilyone of those recorded in extant literatureand listed by G. M. A. Richter, ThePortraits theGreeks,st of ed., London 1965, pp. 97-98. On the other hand, the trophy on Salamis may be representedin the trophy-on-prow symbol of the silver issue of Themisto-Theopompos (NewStle, pp. 221-225, pls. 62, 63, nos. 596-610, 117/6 B.C. [Morkholm1984]). For the 5th-centuryB.C.statueof Themistoklesat Magnesia, see 926.



Miltiadeswith captive Persianand trophy(190)52 Agonistic table with prizes (184, 192-194)53 Owl in olive tree, with or without amphora(195, 196, 211) Owl on amphora(197) Round altar on base next to olive tree (202)54 Rectangularaltarbetween olive trees (203)55 Akropolisviewed from the north and west (Sv.98.19-20, cf. 280 [VC])56 Boukranion(185). Five furthertypes were introducedlater in the transitional phase of PeriodVB: Zeus sacrificingat altar(175)57 Demeter and Kore standing(178) HeraklesFarnese(179)58 Goddess (Demeter?)seated on rock (204)59 Nike (207). Veryfew of these VB typesare knownfrommore than one or two reversedies. The concentration of early VB types concerning the Eleusiniandeities and Theseus is notable and should possiblybe
Two Athenian monumentsof Miltiadesare known. One was the monument at Marathonmentioned by Pausanias (1.32.4) as being separatefrombut near the famousMarathontrophyof white marble(forwhich, see E. Vanderpool,"A Monument to the Battle of Marathon,"Hesperia 1966, 93-106). The other was a statue group of Miltiades and 35, a Persianin the Theater of Dionysos; scholia to Ailios Aristides(W.Dindorf, Arstides Leipzig 1829, pp. 535-536) III, explain that the statues of Themistoklesand Miltiadesin the theater were each paired with a Persianprisoner.Since it is unlikely that the coins would give a conflation of two widely separatedmonuments, the monument on the coins mustbe the more importantone at Marathon,as the trophyindicates.The statuein the theaterwas probablya copy of it. Since the armed general with Persianis positioned at the left of most reversesbut in mirror image at the right on a variant die (Sv. 97.32), Richter ([note 51 above, p. 122], pp. 96, 98) naively thought that the coins show two statue groups,thereforethe groups of Miltiadesand Themistoklesin the theater. 53 The prize table was a popular reversetype in the coinages of other Greek cities duringthe 2nd and 3rd centuries after Christ; L. Anson, Numismata I, graeca London 1911, nos. 328-330, 690-740, 750-773, 779, 781, 943-947 gives a useful compendium. The standardAthenian VB type (184) is continued in Period VC (281, 282 = Sv. 58-61) and Period VI (386-400 = Sv. 91.1-45), when, however,the dies of some tables are inscribedwith the name of an Attic festival: AAPIANEIA (396), EAEVCINEIA (397, 398), OAVMnlIA (399), nANAOHNEA (400), and nlANEAAHNIA On all these Period V and VI tables, the standardthree prizes are wreath, model owl, and model (Sv. 91.43, 44). bust of Athena in Corinthian helmet. On the VB hemiobols 192 = Sv. 91.46, 47, the Athena bust is replaced by a marbleVarvakion Athena standingAthena with shieldat her side, apparentlya model Parthenos,like the ca. 1-meter-tall (LIMCII, pl. 729:220). 54 The caption to Sv. 87.38-40 identifiesthis scene as the "fountain"and olive tree of the Erechtheion(Pausanias 1.26.5 and 27.2). The cylindricaldrum certainlylookslike a wellheadsince it restson a wide base, and thejuxtaposition with the olive tree is suggestive,but can the threetonguesrisingfromthe cylinderon Sv.87.40 be interpretedas spraysor jets of water? It is highly doubtful,as such tongues were commonly employed on coins to representflames on an altar (e.g., the cylindricalflaming altar before Athena on 337 and before the temple of Divine Julius on Crawford,RRC, no. 540). The base of the round altar here possiblywas enlargedto give a clear orientationto the coin type. 55 See p. 56 above. 56 Showing the steps of the PanathenaicWay;the Cave of Pan, occasionallywith what seems to be a statueof the god within it (P.J. Riss, "A Colossal Athenian Pan," ActaArchaeologica 1974 [pp. 124-133], pp. 130-131); the gabled 45, fa9adeof the Propylaia; statueof Athena Promachos(note 64 below,p. 124),usuallyon a base; and the nonperipteral the Erechtheion with east porch. On the earliest dies (Sv. 98.19, 20) the east end of the Akropolisis surmountedby an owl. Compare 280 = Sv. 98.21-29 (VC)and the less dependablePeriodVI reversedies (375, Sv. 98.30-36), including one that was cut retrograde(Sv. 98.37-43). Discussion and bibliography:NCP, pp. 128-129; Pick 1931, pp. 63-70; Lacroix,pp. 281-286; Price and Trell,pp. 75-78. 57 See pp. 55-56 above. 58 Forthe IV, prototype:LUMC pp. 762-764, pl. 493, nos. 681-726. 59 NCP, p. 152, for the total uncertainty surroundingthe identificationof this type.



understood in light of Hadrian's initiation and patronage at Eleusis60and his massive building program at Athens that made him a second founder of Athens and a New Theseus.61 Beyond documenting monuments to these heroes, the reversesdepicting Miltiades and Themistoklesunderscorethe importanceof Marathonand Salamisin the civic consciousnessof Roman Athens.The theatricalcharacterof both monumentgroupssuggeststhat the sculptural prototypesmay have been Hellenisticor even Roman in date. In Period VC, the repertoryof major reverse types62was enriched with the introductionof additionaldesigns: Athena fighting(253) Athena of the ParthenonEast Pediment(254-256)63 Athena standing,shield on left arm and holding spear in right hand (257)64 Athena in chariot(210, 260) Athena and Marsyas(262)65 Zeus Olympios (263)66
Hadrian and Eleusis: Clinton 1989a, pp. 1516-1525, 1537-1538; and Clinton 1989b. Renaissance 10-16), pp. 10-11. See A. Adams, "The Arch of Hadrianat Athens,"in Greek (pp. 62 Severalminor obol and hemiobol have not been included,since it is uncertainwhether they are VB or VC. types 63 This Athena rushing to the right is similarto the Athena on the Madrid Puteal (LIMCII,pl. 749:373), which is widely believed to representthe missing figureson the ParthenonEast Pediment. NCP, pp. 129-130 notes a general similarityas well to the Athena of the West Pediment, insofar as she is known from the Carrey drawing (LIMCII, pl. 731:234). But the West PedimentAthena moves to the left, and there is no reason why a PeriodV die cutter,having chosen a model, would have reversedits orientation. 64 The identityof thisfigurehas occasionedmuch debate,chieflybecauseit is one of the most common of all Athenian imperialreverse types (althoughit does not appear until after Period VB) and thus might be thought to representan importantmonument.It has been consideredPheidias'colossalAthena Promachosand equatedwith the Athena Medici pl. (NCP,p. 128; caption to Sv., 86; and in other workscited by Lacroix,p. 284, note 2). But whether its relationto the Athena Medici is maintained (P. Chamoux, "Le type de la Minerve Ingres,"BCH 58-59, 1944-1945, pp. 227-229) Kunst Beiheft 15, 1988, or rejected (E. B. Harrison, "Lemniaand Lemnos: Sidelightson a Pheidian Athena," Antike the identificationwith the Promachosis impossible.On the reversesdepicting the Akropolis(280: see pp. 101-107), note 56 above,p. 123),the colossalstatuefacingwest towardsthe Propylaiais shownwith rightarm extended, holdinga Nike, and, on the earlier and best die or dies (Sv. 98.19, 20), with the left arm holding a spear and shield that rest on the ground. Colossalsize, positionbetween the Erechtheionand Propylaia,and orientationmake it clear that, despite in the close similarities schema, this is not the Parthenos.As Lacroix(pp. 283-286, with pls. 24, 25) correctlyconcluded in a judicious and fully documented discussion,the Promachosand Parthenoswere apparentlyvery similarin general reversesdo not give enough detailto establishhow the form, and the miniaturerenderingsof the formeron the Akropolis two images may have differed.It is by no means certain,for example,that the Promachoswore a Corinthianhelmet, as Pick (1931) proposed. In light of the Period V coins showing the Akropolis,one is obliged to reject all other reverse Athenas that have been claimed as the Promachos,such as 172, 298-300, the Veletri Athena (note 44 above, p. 122); the Period VI 297= Sv. 83.24-28 (Pick);and the PeriodVI 301 = Sv. 84.1-7 (Price and Trell, p. 76, fig. 132). The very similarityof the Parthenosand the Promachosmay explainwhy the latterseems not to appearindependentlyon the coinage. 65 The statuegroupby Myron on the Akropolis; Lacroix,pp. 252-254; H. A. Weis,"The 'Marsyas' Myron: Old of see that the reversedposition of Problemsand New Evidence,"AJA83, 1979, pp. 214-219, where it is not appreciated error. Athena and Marsyason a PeriodVI reverseis an engraver's 66 As Pheidias'statueat statuein Hadrian'scompleted Olympieion Olympia,but this shouldbe the chryselephantine that would have been copied from it (Lacroix,p. 266). It is uncertainwhether the Seated Zeus reverse in Period VI a (one die: 356) was intended to replicatethe VC reverse,for it is not a seriouscopy at all: Zeus is seated to the righton that this was the Zeus on the stool rather than on a throne and holds an eagle instead of a Nike. Svoronos thought Tou ParthenonEast Pediment(<<DGECd HIap0ev6Svo,>,JL4N 1912 (pp. 193-339), p. 273), but as the MadridPuteal 14, suggests(note 63 above), the ParthenonZeus held a thunderboltat his side. The Period VI Zeus appears in fact to




Demeter standing(266)67 Eirene holding Ploutos (267)68 EarlyClassicalnude Apollo holding branch and bow (269)69 Nude Apollo sightingalong arrow(270)70 Young Heraklessacrificing(272) Theseus subduingfallen Minotaur(276) Asklepios(277). Kephisodotos' statue of Eirene and Ploutos may have been introducedbecause of its topical relevance to the peace and prosperity of the Antonine regime. In this connection it could be significantthat the Eirene and Ploutos was one of the three Period VC types not repeated in the PeriodVI coinage.71Might it have been judged too inappropriate the troubled260's? for to achieve the greatest possible richness in iconographical variety, the Period VI Designed coinage involved more than a dozen differentkinds of obverseAthena heads and busts, including one wearinga Roman maskedcavalryhelmet (401a) and a left-facingbust with a shield and spearat the shoulder(314a, 322a), and at least forty-sevendifferentbasic reversetypes, of which twenty-one are entirelynew: Fifteen entirelynew Athena types (296, 297, 301-304,72 305, 306, 308, 309, 311, 316, Sv.85.41,42 [runningleft], Sv.87.6, 7 [droppingballotin urn]) 317,334-338,348,349, Zeus standingwith perpendicularleft arm (unpublished)73 Hermes (358,359) Apollo Lykeios(363, 364)74 Artemiswith torches(370) Theater of Dionysos (376) Owl, olive tree, amphora,and palm (377-385).
have been copied from a silver coin of Alexander the Great, which might have been thought by the Period VI die cutter to show the Zeus of Olympia and thus of the Olympieion. 67 The caption to Sv. 92.22, 23 identifiesthe divinity as Hera, but the image is clearly the same Demeter shown next to Kore on 178. 68 The statue by Kephisodotos;see Lacroix,pp. 295-297. 69 Assumed by some to be the statue of Apollo Alexikakosby Kalamis (Pausanias 1.3.4); LIMC II, p. 217, pl. 206, no. 281. 70 The Vienna of specimen(althoughnot the illustration it in Sv. [Sv.95.10]) showsthe shaftthat the deity holds up for in his left hand; and from the Berlinspecimen(althoughthis again is not clearfrom the photographpublished inspection by Svoronos, Sv. 95.12) one sees that the god's right hand hanging at his side holds a doubly curved bow in a nearly vertical position. Accordingly,on the ticketsin the Vienna and Berlin trays the figure is correctlyclassifiedas Apollo (ratherthan Theseus [so BMC,p. 105, no. 759] or Hermes [soNCP,p. 149, whence Sv.,pl. 95]). Foran identicallyposed figurewithout preservedattributes,see the statuein EarlyClassicalstyle known as "Stephanos'Athlete"and the similar nude male in the so-called Orestes and ElektraGroup (B. S. Ridgway,TheSevere in Greek Syle Princeton 1970, Sculture, pp. 135-137, figs. 174, 175). On the evidence of the coins, the Stephanosfigureshouldprobablybe identifiedas Apollo. 71 The otherswere the standingDemeter (266) and Apollo (270). A few of the more complicatedPeriodVB typesalso do not reappearin PeriodVI: 177, 178, 190, and Sv. 95.23, 24. 72 N. Eschbach (Statuen des aufpanatenischn Preisamphoren 4. Jhs. v. Chr.,Mainz am Rhein 1986, p. 124) compares a statueknown from a Panathenaicamphoraof 336/5 (ibid., 109-110, 113, pl. 28:1, no. 63) with 301 = Sv. 84.1-7, pp. although on the latter,Athena wears an Attic, not a Corinthian,helmet and holds a spear rather than a stylis in her left hand. 73 See note 91 above, p. 55, and pp. 56-58, where the image is identifiedas the cult statueof Zeus Soter-Eleutherios. On the PeriodVI die, thereis no altarbeforethe image;cf. earlierrepresentations the statueon coins (78-80 and 148). of 74 LMC II, p. 217, pl. 206, no. 281. The statue is also depicted on the New Style silver of Epigenes-Xenon (New Style, 383, pl. 139, nos. 1237-1240; see under 121 above,p. 96). p.



Besides these new types, the Period VI penchant for diversityled to the creation of a great number of type variants,such as the otherwiseidenticalagonistic-tablereversesthat are separately inscribedwith the namesof Athens'fivemajorathleticfestivals(note53 above,p. 123),and seemingly endless versions of Athena Parthenos,including one holding an owl instead of a Nike (293) and another with an owl rather than a snake at her feet (292). On a Period VI die (357) an eagle was gratuitouslyadded to the wrist of the sacrificingleft arm of the Standing Zeus, although, as confirmedby the representationon the VB die (175), the wrist of the statue must have been bare. What all this means of course is that the Period VI die engraverswere not above "improving" on the statue types they reproduced,sometimes because they were copying from other coins and did not know the prototypes at first hand, at other times because variety or speed in execution could be more importantto them than representational accuracy. Fidelityto sculpturalprototypes can regularlybe expected only in the more deliberateand conscientiousdie cutting of PeriodsVB and C. In the followingcatalogue,the varietiesare arrangedwithin each period and denominationby reversesubjects,beginningwith Athena, followedby other gods and goddesses,heroesand historical figures, and finally miscellaneoustypes. Reversesare presented whenever possible with the most common varietyfirst, followedby all variantsrepresentedin the Agora collection. No attempthas been made to give a variety number to every known variant or to legend variantsthat are unique to single dies. Owing to the heavily worn condition of most Period VB and C drachms from the fine condition of the many PeriodVI drachmsthat were hoarded excavationsand the contrastingly or lost during the Herulian invasion of 267, the 2nd-centuryvarieties could not be illustratedso fully as the 3rd-centuryones. Die positions are loose in all phases of the coinage and are not recorded.



Christ earlier 120's after



11 coins *a A-268 *b MM-500

Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet; helmet bowl ornamented with two or three upright olive leaves and, usually,a curved tendril ending in a blossom;border of dots. 13-16 Av.2.38 (10) 14 2.02 14 2.50

AIE Owl stg. r.; to 1., olive twig with two leaves and berry;border of dots.

Sv. 88.24, 25

CATALOGUE Similar. 163 *a *b *c *d *e *f 200 coins BB-18 E-2122 KTA-51 AA-256 S-5021 OA-125 13-16 Av. 2.25 (78) 15 2.33 1.89 15 14 2.01 15 2.43 14 2.83 14 2.57 Similar,except AOH. Sv. 88.23, 26


Similar. 164 *a 6 coins 1-1607 13-16 Av.2.50(6) 2.60 13

Similar,except A-elH and no olive twig.

Sv. 88.27

Similar. 165 I-50 14 2.33

Similar,except Aje-H and Owl stg. 1.

Sv. 88.28

Similar head of Athena or bust of Athena wearing Corinthian helmet and aegis; border of dots. 166 *a 12 coins Br'-281 14-16 Av. 3.22 (11) 16 2.99

AO-H, Ale-H, or A-eH Owl stg. 1.;border of dots.

Sv. 88.29, 30, 46

rev. at 1. inscribeddownwards,flA, ITA or TTA (?);found with 5 illegible pre-imperialcoins in a floor layer of the earlier 2nd century after Christ

*b 00-270



Similar head or bust of Athena r. 167 16 coins *a 8-499 *b AA-178 *c NN-1334 14-17 Av. 3.01 (15) 15 2.78 14 3.22 15 3.08

A-ElH or AlO-H Owl stg. r.

Sv. 88.31-34

Bust of Athena r., wearing helmet and aegis.

Ale-H or A-OlH Triptolemos seated 1., in winged chariot drawn by two serpents;border of dots.

Sv. 94.7-12


4 coins

14-16 Av. 2.27 (3)

linked through a common obverse die to 166 and 167



ca. 120's-140s orlater Christ after DRACHMS Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet; some busts fully draped ("elaborate") and armored with aegis, other busts with little or ("transitional") no drapery at the shoulder line; either wreathed or no border. 169 *a 6 coins T-18 24-26 25 Av. 7.66 (4) 10.32 AeH-NA-IWN Athena Parthenosstg. 1., holding Nike in outstretchedr. hand and resting 1. hand on shield to r.; between Athena and shield, coiled snake and spear; at 1., boukranion;border of dots. Sv. 82.1-4

Similar. *170 0-635 25 9.46

A9H-N-AIWN Similar,but lacking boukranion.


Similar,but transitionalbust with slight drapery;border of dots. 171 *a 3 coins H'-2817 24-25 24 Av.6.72 (3) 5.46

AeH-NA-IWN Athena Parthenosstg. 1., as last; to 1., coiled snake; border of dots.

Sv. 82.29-31

Similar. [169-171] 11 coins. Bust of Athena r., of elaborate or transitionaltype; wreathed or dotted border.

Similar,but details illegible.

Sv. 83.29-32; AOH-NAI-WNor AeHNAI-WN NCP, Z:xxii Athena, wearing Corinthian helmet, aegis, and long dress, stg. r.; holding spear with point downwardsin upraisedr. hand and Nike in outstretched1.;border of dots.

172 *a

8 coins 00-1506

24-25 25

Av.8.39 (6) 8.78

Elaboratebust of Athena r.; wreathed or dotted border.

Sv. 87.15-17 AeH-NAIWN Athena stg. 1., holding transversespear with r. hand and resting 1. on hip; at r., oval shield and snake; at 1., snake and olive tree with owl perching in branches;border of dots.





CATALOGUE Similar,but wreathed border. AlelH or Ale-H or AeHN-AI At center, olive tree, with owl in branches and snake entwined around trunk;at 1., Poseidon, half nude, stridingr., brandishingtrident in upraised r. hand; at r., Athena moving 1., extending r. hand toward tree and holding spear and shield with 1.;border of dots.

129 Sv. 89.6-10; NCP, Z:xi, xii, xiv

174 *a

2 coins IIII-575

24-25 24

7.90(1) 7.90 AEHNAI-UJ-NZeus stg., nude, to r., holding thunderboltat side with r. hand and sacrificing with 1. hand turned downwards over low altar at r.; border of dots. Sv. 92.5, 6; NCP, BB:iii

Transitionalbust of Athena r.; border of dots.


2 coins *a II-243

23-24 24

4.85(1) 4.85 AeHNA or AeHNAI-WN Bearded Dionysos, wearing crown of ivy leaves and elaborate robes, seated r. on high-backedthrone; resting r. hand on knee and holding long thyrsoswith 1.;at r., low table bearing burning thymiaterion; border of dots.

Elaboratebust of Athena r.; wreathed border.

Sv. 92.8-11, 14, 15; NCP, CC:ii-iv

176 *a

3 coins r-404

22-25 25

Av.4.80(2) 5.19 AeHNAIWN At center, Triptolemosstg. 1., holding long torch, in chariot drawn by two snakes to 1.;at 1., Demeter stg. r., holding long torch with 1. hand and wheat ears with r.; at r., Kore stg. 1., holding torch with r. hand; border of dots.

Elaboratebust of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet, necklace of pendants, and cuirasswith aegis; no border.

Sv. 94.2-6, NCP, BB:xxiv


2 coins


Av.8.57 (2)

Transitionalhead of Athena r.; border of dots.

178 *a

2 coins IIII-473

Ae-H-NAI At r., Demeter stg. Sv. 94.16, 17 1., holding scepter and wheat ears; at 1., Kore stg. r., holding long torch; border of dots.

24 24

8.70 (1) 8.70

(B 17:lb)


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. AeHNAI-WN Herakles,nude and bearded, stg. r., holding r. hand at side and leaning 1. on club propped on rock;lion skin draped around 1. arm; border of dots. Sv. 95.1, 2


5 coins *a K-1398

23-24 Av.6.32 (4)

23 5.94 A9H Theseus driving Marathonianbull to r.; border of dots. Sv. 95.16-20; NCP, DD.vii, viii

Elaboratebust of Athena r.; wreathed border. 180 II-966 24 Similar. 10.46

A9H Theseus stg. r., raising the rock at Troizen;border of dots. GRC,fig. 20 A-OH, elH-A, AIH-e, Ale-H, or AeHN-AIWN Themistokles, in militarydress and holding trophywith 1. hand and wreath with upraisedr., stg. 1. on galley sailing 1.;on prow, owl stg. 1.;on ram, snake to 1.;border of dots.

Sv. 95.25, 28;. DD:ii JNCP,

181 *a

8 coins 00-826

22-24 22

Av.5.88(5) 8.34

Elaborateor transitionalbust of Athena r.; wreathed, dotted, or no border.

Sv. 97.1-14; NCP, EE.xxi, xxii


17 coins *a T-545 *b Z-2716 *c 00-35

22-25 23 23 25

Av.8.17 (14) 8.99 7.63 8.35

GRC,fig. 20

Elaboratebust of Athena r.; wreathed or no border.

AeH, Ale-H, or Ae-H Similar,

but types to r., Themistokles holding trophy over shoulder and, on one die, owl replaced by head of Athena; border of dots.

Sv. 97.20-25

183 *a

5 coins Z-526

24-26 25

Av. 7.48 (3) 6.98 Similar,but details illegible.

Elaborateor transitional bust r. [182, 183] 15 coins. Elaborateor transitionalbust of Athena r.; wreathed or dotted border.

AGHNAI-WNFour-leggedtable with amphora below; at r., palm branch;on table from 1. to r., wreath, helmeted head of Athena r., and owl stg. .; border of dots.

Sv. 88.55-57

184 *a

4 coins Z-2416

23-25 24

Av.6.78(3) 7.19

CATALOGUE Elaboratebust of Athena r.; wreathed or no border. 185 *a 8 coins S-3612 23-26 25 Av. 7.40(4) 8.03 AEH-NAI-WN Boukranionwith fillet hanging from each horn; border of dots. Sv. 99.1-3


UNCLASSIFIED Elaborate or transitional bust of Athena r. [169-185] 97 coins. Illegible reverse type.


(a)Fine-stleobverses Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet and aegis; border of dots. Sv. 93.36-42; AeH-NAIWN, A-EHN-AIWN, or AeHNAI-WN NCP, BB:xxii AEHN-AIWN, Demeter seated 1., holding wheat ears in extended r. hand and long scepter with 1.;at 1., usually,snake to 1.;border of dots.


43 coins *a A-257 *b QA-105 *c T-52

18-22 Av.5.45(17) 19 6.80 19 4.11 20 7.31

Similar busts of Athena r., some with Attic helmets; border of dots. 187 24 coins *a A-666 *b T-285 19-21 Av. 5.05 (13) 19 6.52 20 4.79

AOH-NAI-WNor AOHNAI-WN Kore stg. r., holding two torches downwardto r.; border of dots.

Sv. 93.43-47; NCP, BB:xviii


AOHNAI-WNIakchos,wearing short tunic and boots and holding long torch, stg. r.; border of dots.

Sv. 93.32-35; NCP, BB:xv


13 coins *a rr-87 *b S-4635

18-21 5.32 (7) 19 4.16 18 5.39

Bust of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet and aegis; border of dots. 189 *a 2 coins III-359 19-20 5.43 (1) 19 5.43

A-eH Theseus, nude and with Sv. 96.17; club in his upraised r. hand, DD:iv JVCP, striding1.;before him at 1., Minotaur falling 1.;border of dots.


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet and aegis; wreathed border. Ale-H Miltiades,in military dress, stg. r.; holding with both hands Persiancaptive stg. r. with hands bound behind back; at r., trophy; border of dots. Sv. 97.32-35, NCP, EE:vii, viii




8.82 obverses (b) Coarse-syle

Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet and aegis; border of dots. 191 *a 2 coins E-92 18-19 Av.6.49 (2) 18 6.70

AIH-9 Apollo Patroosstg. ., wearing long robe, holding lyre with 1. hand and phiale in extended r.; border of dots.

Sv. 93.4

A-Hj8 Four-leggedtable with amphora below; on table at 1., owl stg. 1., and at r., statue of Athena Parthenosfacing; border of dots.

Sv. 91.46, 47


3 coins

18-19 Av.6.51 (3) Similar. Similar,but both owl and statue of Athena stg. 1.; border of dots. heavily corroded
Sv. -






Ale-HFour-leggedtable with
amphora below; on table, owl stg. r. and wreath;at 1., palm branch;border of dots.

Sv. 91.48


2 coins *a rr-38

20 20

Av.8.85 (2) 8.82 Similar,but details illegible.

Similar. [192-194] 1 coin. Similar.

Ale-H Olive tree with owl perching 1. in branches;at r., large amphora;border of dots.

Sv. 90.33

195 *a

6 coins 8-949

18-19 5.00 (6) 19 6.06 Similar. A8-H Similar,but owl perching r.; border of dots. Sv. 90.34

196 *a

9 coins T-216

18-19 4.19(8) 19 3.82

CATALOGUE Similar. [195, 196] 3 coins. Similar. Similar,but details illegible.


A-elH, Ale-H, or AIH-e

Owl stg. r. on large amphora; border of dots.

Sv. 90.35-38, 40

197 *a *b *c *d *e

44 coins A-200 NN-2015 00-1376 ET-186 fl-434

18-20 Av.5.60 (18) 7.63 20 4.81 20 7.23 20 19 5.10 18 5.18


issues:VB (a)Earlier Helmeted bust of Athena 1., with shouldersbare; border of dots. *198 T-103 19 4.45 AeHN-AI-WN Theseus or Herakles stg. 1., holding phiale in r. hand and club with 1.;border of dots. Sv. 95.13-15; DD:i JVCP, AOHNA-IWNTriptolemos, holding long staff, stg. in chariot drawn by two snakes 1.;border of dots.
Sv. -



5 coins *a B-171 *b Z-1973

16-18 Av.5.14 (5) 16 6.27 18 4.20 Similar. AeHNAI-WN Theseus striding1., Sv. 96.28 nude but for cloak wrapped around 1. arm, and holding club in upraisedr. hand; border of dots. 2.70 AOHNA-IWNTheseus striding1., Sv. 96.19 as last; at 1., Minotaur falling 1.; border of dots.






Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet; border of dots. 16 5.87 Bust of Athena r. or 1., wearing Corinthian helmet and aegis; border of dots. 15-16 Av.409(4) 15 4.13

A-O-H Flaming cylindrical altar on wide base; at r., olive tree; border of dots.

Sv. 87.39 (cf 38, 40, 41)

202 *a

6 coins IIII-273


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar,bust r. No legend. Rectangularaltar topped by boukranionbetween two situlae;at 1. and r., olive tree. Altar face ornamented by wreath enclosing boukranion; border of dots. Sv. 87.42, 43

203 *a

4 coins 00-269

14-15 Av. 3.37 (4) 16 3.59

Issues:VBorC (b)Later Head or bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet and sometimes aegis; border of dots. 204 25 coins *a 4-75 *b Q-418 16-18 Av. 3.12 (15) 16 4.59 16 3.79 Similar. 17-18 2.99 (2) 3.43 18 Similar. AleHINAIIfN Similar to last.

AleHJNAIIWNDemeter (?) seated r., on rock, leaning 1. arm on low column and resting r. in lap; border of dots.

Sv. 89.35-40; NCP, EE:xvi, xvii

205 *a

3 coins r-421

A-e-H-NAI, A-eHN-AI, or AeHN-AI Triptolemosstg. 1. in chariot drawn by two snakes to 1.;border of dots.

Sv. 94.22, 38, 40, 41, 43


50 coins *a B'-929 *b T-286

16-18 Av. 3.04 (15) 18 5.03 17 3.18 Similar. AOH-NAIor AOHN-AINike stg. 1., holding wreath in upraised r. hand; border of dots. Sv. 96.44

207 *a

2 coins T-926

17-18 Av. 2.85 (2) 18 3.48 Similar. AeHN-AI Theseus striding1., draperyover 1. arm and shoulder,club in upraised r. hand; border of dots. Sv. 96.26, 27

208 *a

7 coins AE-14

15-18 Av.3.18(7) 15 2.30 Similar. AOHN-AlfIN or AeHNA-I2N Theseus striding1., as last; border of dots. Sv. 96.20, 21

209 *a

2 coins Z-1975

17-18 Av. 3.66 (2) 18 4.83

CATALOGUE Similar. AOH-NAI-fN or AOH-NAIQ-N Athena, wearing armor and hurling spear,stg. r. in biga galloping r.; border of dots. Sv. 88.10-13


210 *a

13 coins 00-1228

16-18 Av.3.40(7) 18 5.20 Similar. AOHN-AIWN,AOH-N-AI, AGH-NAI,AG-H-NA-I, AOH-N-A, or A-eH Olive tree with owl perching 1. in branches;border of dots. Sv. 89.19

211 *a *b *c *d *e

24 coins AA-1140 E-2024 IIA-412 E-3976 S-4879

16-19 Av.3.15(24) 17 4.13 16 4.12 16 3.90 17 3.00 19 3.69 Similar. AOH-N-AIor AGH-NA-I Large amphora with long scepter at r. and palm branch at 1.;wreathed or dotted border. Sv. 90.41,43

212 *a

7 coins T-1018

16-18 Av.3.41 (6) 17 4.14



2 coins

Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet and aegis; wreathed or dotted border. 11-12 Av.2.08(2) Similar;border of dots.

AOHNA-IWNKore walking r., holding two torches;border of dots.

Sv. 94.47, 48; NCP, BB:viii

AOHN-AIWNor AEHNA-IWN Nike stg. 1., holding wreath in upraisedr. hand; border of dots.

Sv. 96.47

214 *a

9 coins T-866

12-14 Av. 2.20 (8) 12 2.19 Similar. AOH or A-OIH Nike as last, sometimes to r.; border of dots. Sv. 96.46, 48, 49

215 *a

16 coins n-289

11-13 Av.2.12(7) 11 1.21 Bust of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet; border of dots. AO-HNAIAsklepiosstg. 1., draped with r. shoulder bare, holding 1. hand at waist, resting r. on short staff entwined with snake;border of dots. Sv. 98.11, 12; EE:iv JVCP,

216 *a

6 coins P-1050

11-12 Av.1.40(6) 1.68 12


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Bust of Athena r. or 1., wearing Corinthianhelmet; border of dots. 11-12 Av. 1.36 (24) 11 1.39 11 1.52 Similar,bust r. A-9lH Similar figure of Asklepiosstg. 1.;border of dots. Sv. 98.13, 14


31 coins *a B-533 *b K-367

A-elH Drapedfigureof
Telesphorosstg., facing, wearing conical hat; border of dots.

Sv. 98.15



12 Similar. A-eH Snake coiled 1.;border of dots. Sv. 98.17


9 coins *a NN-210

11-12 Av. 1.53(9) 2.13 12 Similar bust 1. or r., sometimes with Attic helmet; wreathed or dotted border. AeH, AeJH, A1eH, or A-eIH Prow of galley r., or 1., often with owl stg. r. on ram; border of dots. Sv. 97.37-39, 41-44


52 coins *a N'-1342 *b E-3615 *c E-4154

11-13 Av. 1.32 (33) 1.32 12 1.41 13 11 1.61 Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet; border of dots. 11-13 Av. 1.74 (26) 2.00 12 13 Similar. A-eIH Snake emerging 1., from basket with upraised lid; border of dots. Sv. 94.32-35


28 coins *a 00-1013 *b Z-1687

AeHN-AIWN Tripod; border of dots.

Sv. 93.21, 22


7 coins *a AA-387

11-12 Av.2.42 (7) 12 2.44 Similar,but bust sometimes 1. A-EIH or AE-H Tripod;border of dots. Sv. 93.23, 29, 30


31 coins *a Z-1147 *b Z-2759

11-12 Av. 1.25 (18) 1.36 12 1.15 12 Similar bust 1. or r.; border of dots. 11-12 Av. 1.30(4) 0.95 11 1.41 11

Ale-H or A-elH Olivetree;

trunkentwined by snake and owl perched r. in branches; border of dots.

Sv. 89.24


6 coins *a A-1469 *b 00-1203

CATALOGUE Similar. 225 9 coins 11-13 Av. 1.49(8)

137 Sv. 89.22, 23

Ale-H or AeH-N Olive tree as last, but owl 1.

Similar. [224, 225] 32 coins.

Similar,but details illegible.

226 *a *b *c *d *e *f *g

78 coins AA-489 r-302 AA-4 E-2334 Z-699 --289 BE-483

Similar bust r. or 1.; border of dots. 11-13 Av. 1.54 (72) 1.46 12 1.10 12 1.63 12 1.66 13 11 1.38 11 1.38 12

Alj-H or A-eiH Owl stg. r.; border of dots.

Sv. 88.35, 39, 40


AlelH or A-e Owl stg. r.; to r., olive branch; border of dots.

Sv. 88.36, 37


17 coins *a M-208 *b --681

11-13 Av. 1.79 (16) 1.44 12 11 1.48

Similar. 228 *a 3 coins S-6096 11-12 Av.1.36(2) 11 1.17

A-ElH Owl as last; wreathed border. chisel markson obv.: II- (?)

Sv. 88.41

229 *a *b *c d

76 coins M-36 NN-217 E-4051 11-644

Bust of Athena r.; wreathed A-ElH, Ae-H, or Ale-H Owl or dotted border. stg. 1.;border of dots. 10-13 Av. 1.45 (71) 11 1.29 1.40 13 1.81 12 GR( fig. 21 13 2.25 C,

Sv. 88.47-51, 53

Similar;wreathed border. 230 *a 16 coins IIII-282 10-12 Av. 1.49 (15) 10 1.34

or AlOlH A-elH Owl stg. I., on olive branch; border of dots.

Sv. 88.52

Similar;border of dots. 231 6 coins *a II-426 11-13 Av.1.25(5) 13 1.04

Ae-H Owl stg., facing, with spread wings; border of dots.

Sv. 88.43, 44


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Bust of Theseus r., head bare, with club over 1. shoulder; border of dots. AeH Piglet walking r.; wreathed or dotted border. Sv. 94.15

232 *a

10 coins ST'-704

10-12 Av. 1.56(7) 1.39 10

Similar. 233 *a 5 coins t-214 10-12 Av. 1.24(4) 11 1.35

A-EH Grape cluster;border of dots.

Sv. 92.24-26

Similar. 234 12 coins *a rT-99 *b Z-1965 *c H-416 10-12 Av. 1.45 (5) 1.38 12 11 1.87 1.66 10

Sv. 90.45-47 AOH Amphora on conical foot; at r., palm branch;border of dots.

GRC,fig. 21


A-e9H or Ae-H Three wheat ears emerging from rounded, handlelessvase or basket;border of dots.

Sv. 94.36


9 coins

10-11 Av.0.96 (9)



Similar. 1.63 11

A-O-H Tripod;border of dots.

Sv. -

Similar,but bust sometimes 1. 237 17 coins *a KK-114 *b IIII-152 *c E-3801 9-11 9 10 10 Av.0.97 (7) 1.16 0.75 1.03

A-9|H, A-9, or AIO-H Club with handle upwards;border of dots.

Sv. 96.37-40

Similar,bust r. 238 *a 9 coins BB-499 10-11 Av. 1.48(9) 1.86 11

A-elH, Ale-H, or A9eIH

Two torches;border of dots.

Sv. 94.50-52

Similar. 239 3 coins 10-12 Av. 1.74(3)

A-OH Five ears of wheat; border of dots.

Sv. 94.53, 54

CATALOGUE Similar. 240 39 coins *a Z-438 *b H'-3379 *c IIII-118 9-13 12 10 11 Av. 1.37 (25) 1.91 1.42 1.24 AIe-H Boukranion;border of dots. Sv. 99.39-42


Similar. 241 *a 14coins Z-733 10-12 Av. 1.14(9) 11 0.88

A-eH or A-eIH Winged

caduceus;border of dots.

Sv. 92.33, 34


6 coins

Draped bust of Asklepios1., snake emerging 1. from drapery;border of dots. 10-11 Av. 1.42 (3) Draped bust of Demeter or Kore r., wearing necklace; border of dots. 11 1.44

A-|eH or Ale-H Telesphoros

stg., facing; border of dots.

Sv. 98.16, 18

AeH Piglet stg. r.; border of dots.

Sv. 94.14



Similar. 244 *a b 2 coins II-161 MM-36 11-13 1.97(2) 11 1.63 13 2.30

Ale-H Two torches;border of dots.

Sv. 94.49

GRC,fig. 21 AE-H Caduceus;border of dots. Sv. 92.32



Male bust r., wearing wreath with leaves above forehead; border of dots. 10 1.04

Similar. 246 *a 3 coins Z-2221 9-10 10 Av.0.90 (3) 1.11

Ale-HBoukranion;border of

Sv. 99.43, 44

Boukranion. 247 *a 2 coins KK-435 9 9 1.20 (1) 1.20

No legend. Three wheat ears.

Sv. 99.45-47

UNCLASSIFIED Bust of Athena or other deity. [213-246] 277 coins. Details uncertain or illegible.



Christ (140'sor)150s-ca. 175 after DRACHMS Head or simple bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet or, rarely,Attic helmet; border of dots. 21-25 Av.6.75(70) 8.38 22 6.86 24 23 8.29 8.48 23 GRC,fig. 2 7.11 23 halved 23 AeH-N-AlQN or, very rarely, Ae-HN-AIAN Athena Parthenosstg. ., as 171; border of dots. Sv. 82.32-35

248 *a *b *c *d *e *f

77 coins 1-1043 MM-446 NN-208 IIe-245 nII-716 E-3750

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet; border of dots. 249 A-833 22 6.15

AOHN-AIN .Athena Parthenos as last, but with boukranion replacing snake at 1.;border of dots.

Sv. -


AeH-NA-IQN, AeH-N-AIQN, or Ae-HN-AIQN Athena Parthenosstg. 1., as 248, but with phiale in place of Nike; border of dots.

Sv. 87.13


13 coins


Av.6.83 (13)

Similar. [248-250] 59 coins.

Similar,but details illegible.

Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet; border of dots.

AOH-N-AIQNAthena stg. 1., holding Nike in r. hand and leaning 1. on upright spear held aslant;as 172, but type reversed;border of dots.

Sv. 83.37






Legend illegible.Athena as last, but with spear held vertically; at r., upright shield leaning on base of spear; at 1., snake coiled to 1.;border of dots



4 coins



CATALOGUE Similar. Sv. 84.36; NCP, AOHNA-IQNAthena stridingr., AA:xvi to strikewith spear preparing held in upraised r. hand, and holding round shield with 1.;at r., owl stg. r.; at 1., olive tree entwined with snake;border of dots. 8.64 AOHN-AI-f-N Athena striding r., looking 1.;1. arm slipped through strap of round shield, 1. hand holding spear; r. arm extended to 1.;at r., snake to r.; at 1., owl stg. r.; border of dots. Sv. 85.8-10





Similar head or bust of Athena to r.; border of dots.

254 *a

6 coins B-370

21-23 23

Av.6.50(6) 8.20 AeH-NAI-QN Similar to 254, but at r., owl stg. r. and, at 1., olive tree entwined by snake; border of dots. Sv. 85.32-35; NCP, Z:viii


255 *a

14 coins r-1452

21-24 23

Av.6.56(14) 10.55 Sv. 85.12-18 AeHN-A-IQN, AeH-N-A-IQN, AOH-N-AIQN,AEH-NA-IQN, AEHNA-I-QN, or AeHN-AI-QN Similar to 255, but with only snake at r.; border of dots.


256 *a

34 coins IIE-47

21-24 22

Av.6.40 (32) 7.02 AOHN-A-IQN,AeH-N-AIQN, AOH-N-A-IQN,AOH-NA-I-QN, AeHN-A-I-QN, or AeHN-AI-QN Athena stg. 1., holding spear with r. hand and round shield with 1.; border of dots. Sv. 86.1-4


257 *a

125 coins MM-139

21-24 23

Av. 6.63 (44) 4.36 AOHN-AIQNor AeHNA-IQN Athena stg. 1., with olive tree, as 173; border of dots. Sv. 87.18-20; NCP, Z:xviii


258 *a

17 coins ft-19

21-23 23

Av.6.16(14) 7.98 AOH-NAIQNSimilar,but with snake entwined around tree; border of dots. Sv. 87.21

Similar. 259 I-650 22 6.64


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. AOH-NAID-NAthena, holding shield and hurling spear with r. hand, in biga galloping r.; below horses at r., giant emerging from earth preparingto throw boulder with both hands; border of dots. Sv. 88.8, 9

260 *a

13 coins E-3396

22-25 23

Av. 7.50 (10) 7.52


AEHNA-I-QN Contest of Athena and Poseidon, as 174; border of dots.

Sv. 89.11-15; NCP, Z:xvi

261 *a

4 coins NN-66

22-24 24

Av.8.27 (2) 8.67


A9HNAIJONor AEHNA-I-fN Athena stg., facing, arms at sides and looking r.; at r., Marsyas,nude, advancing towardAthena with r. arm raised;border of dots.

Sv. 89.26-32; NCP, Z:xx

262 *a

4 coins II1-277

22-24 23

Av. 7.13(3) 5.87


AeHN-AI2N Zeus seated on throne to 1., holding Nike in r. hand, long scepter in I.; border of dots. GRC,fig. 20

Sv. 92.1, 2; NCP, BB:iv

263 *a

3 coins A-56

22-23 23

Av. 7.24 (3) 6.76


AOHNA-I.N Bearded Dionysos seated r., behind low table. As 176; border of dots. (B 17:lb) AOHNA-I-DNAs 264, but no table; border of dots.

Sv. 92.17, 18; NCP, CC:ii

264 *a

2 coins IIII-510

23 23

Av. 7.42 (2) 7.80

Similar. 265 *a 3 coins 1-1262 23 23 Av.6.79 (3) 10.13

Sv. 92.19


AOHN-AinN Demeter stg., facing, head turned to r., holding long scepter in upraised 1. hand and wheat ears in lowered r.; border of dots. 7.55

Sv. 92.22, 23




CATALOGUE Similar. AGHN-AIfN Eirene, draped, stg., facing, holding long scepter in r. hand and turning head to look at infant Ploutos held on 1. arm; Ploutos raises r. hand towardsEirene'sface and holds cornucopia in 1.;border of dots. Sv. 92.38-44; NCP, DD:ix, x


267 *a

8 coins IIII-871

22-24 24

Av.6.32 (8) 6.49


AOH-NA-IQNApollo Patroos, wearing long chiton, stg. 1., holding lyre with 1. hand and phiale in outstretchedr.; border of dots.

Sv. 93.2, 3; JNCP, CC:xxi

268 *a

7 coins Z-1581

22-25 24

Av.6.74 (6) 9.38


AOHNA-I-QNApollo, nude, stg. r., holding bow in 1. hand and branch in r.; border of dots.

Sv. 93.8, 9

269 *a

11 coins 00-619

23-24 24

Av. 7.18(10) 7.37


A9HNAI-fN Apollo, nude, stg. Sv. 95.10-12; with head turned to r., NCP, DD:xxii, xxiii frontally, down arrow which is held sighting up in 1. hand; r. arm at side holding bow; border of dots.






Sv. 94.20, 21, 23, 24 A-9H-NA-IfN, AEH-NA-IQN, AEH-NAIfN, A-EH-N-AI2N, Ae-HNA-IlN, or AEHN-A-I-lN Triptolemos,holding torch and wheat ears, stg. 1. in chariot drawn by two snakes to 1.;border of dots.

271 *a

26 coins E-4313

21-24 23

Av.6.71(19) 7.68


AeH-N-AIQN Herakles,nude, stg. 1., holding phiale in outstretchedr. hand and club, resting on ground, in 1.;border of dots.

Sv. 95.8; .CP, DD:xiii

272 *a

2 coins r-1482

24 24

Av. 7.84 (2) 6.49


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. A9H-NAIl|N Theseus driving Marathonianbull, as 180; border of dots. Sv. 95.21, 22


2 coins *a AA-605

23 23

Av. 7.92 (2) 7.19


AeHN-AIfN Theseus raising rock at Troizen, as 181; border of dots.

Sv. 95.26, 27, 29


2 coins


5.53 (1)


A9-HNA-I-flN Theseus
attackingfalling Minotaur,as 189; border of dots.

Sv. 96.15, 16

275 *a

3 coins Qf-329

23-24 24

Av. 7.06(2) 8.29


AOHNA-IQNor AeHNAI-RN Theseus leaning r., holding club with r. hand and, with 1. hand, clutching horn of Minotaur,who falls to r.; border of dots.

Sv. 96.1-7

276 *a

11 coins KK-300

22-24 24

Av.6.22 (10) 7.49


A9HN-AIQN Asklepiosstg., facing, head to 1., wearing himation, with 1. hand at waist and leaning r. on staff entwined with snake;border of dots.

Sv. 98.1, 2


4 coins *a IIA-77

23-24 23

Av.5.46 (3) 5.85


Themistokleson galley to r., as 183, but owl stg. 1. on prow and no snake on ram; border of dots.

Sv. 97.15, 19

278 *a

7 coins E-1171

22-23 22

Av.6.20 (6) 5.45 Sv. 97.16-18

Similar. 279 *a 17 coins A-1589 21-24 24 Av.6.44(17) 8.28

AeHNA-IQN As 278, but owl stg. r.; border of dots.

Similar. [278, 279] 11 coins.

Similar,but deails illegible.

CATALOGUE Similar. Sv. 98.21-29; AOHN-AIQNor AOH-NAIQN View of Akropolisseen from NCP, Z:iii-vi north and west. On r., steps of Panathenaicway lead up to Propylaia;at center, colossal statue of Athena Promachosstg. r. and holding Nike in outstretched r. hand, sometimeswith owl stg. r. below; to 1., Erechtheion.Halfway up Akropolisrock, to 1. of stairs, niche with curved lintel representing Cave of Pan; within niche, minuscule statue of Pan; border of dots. Av.5.93 (9) 8.76 5.79 6.13



11 coins *a KTA-117 *b IIII-485 *c E-5367

21-24 22 21 22

(B 17:lb)


AOHNA-I-Q-N,AOHNAI-QN, or AOHNAIQNAgonistic table as 184; border of dots.

Sv. 88.58-60


19 coins *a N'-1290 *b T-1013

21-24 24 23

Av.6.96 (17) 6.81 8.05 AO-HNAIQNSimilar to 281, but on table, owl stg. I., bust of Athena r. and wreath;border of dots. Sv. 88.61



4 coins


Av.7.04(4) Details illegible.

Similar. [281,282] 11 coins. Similar.

Sv. 99.7-9, 23 AeH-NA-IQN, AeHN-A-IQN, or AeHNA-IQN AeHN-AIQN, Boukranionwith fillet hanging from each horn, as 185; border of dots.

283 *a *b *c *d

76 coins OA-219 M-140 IIII-172 S-1172

21-24 22 22 21 23

Av.6.75 (47) 6.53 6.62 7.11 7.27 UNCLASSIFIED

Similar. [248-283] 83 coins. a 1-1336 24

Illegible reverse type. heavily worn and halved



ca. A.D. 264-267

284 *a *b *c d e *f *g h

133 coins AA-1091 AA-1029 AA-1006 AA-1070 AA-1097 B-328 III-491 r-279

Head or bust of Athena r., t AOHN-A-I2N Athena Sv. 82.5-24, 26-28; Parthenosstg. 1., holding Nike in NCP, Y:xviii 1., wearing Corinthian, rarely outstretchedr. hand and spear with Attic, or composite heir net, often highly varied in st tyle. 1., which rests on a shield, shown in profile,with base on the ground She occasionallywears a necklace. If a head, trui ncation line; similar to 169-171 and 248; is either bare or with sli border of dots. ight drapery;if a bust, it may be heavily draped or armo,red with aegis; border of doits. 19-23 Av.5.15 (108) 5.43 20 (Q 19:3) 5.96 23 (Q 19:3) 3.67 21 (Q 19:3) 4.35 21 (Q 19:3)H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:b 6.61 21 (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:c 4.55 22 (F 10:2) 3.78 21 (B 17:lb) 22 8.25 GRC,fig. 4



Sv. 82.25

Athena Parthenosas 284; border of dots. 285 *a 10 coins AA-1019 19-23 Av.6.23 (8) 7.07 21 (Q 19:3)


AeH-N-AIQN Athena Parthenosas last, but at 1., snake coiled to 1., as 171; border of dots.

Sv. 83.8


13 coins


Av.5.32 (13)

Similar. 287 15 coins *a AA-1050 *b AA-1132 20-23 21 21 Av.5.33(14) 4.65 5.21

Ae-H-NAIQN As 286.

Sv. 82.39, 40; 83.4, 10; NCP, Y:xx

(Q 19:3) (Q 19:3)

Similar. 288 *a 19 coins AA-1118 20-22 21 Av.5.13(15) 2.99 (Q 19:3)


Sv. 83.12

CATALOGUE Similar. 289 *a 14 coins AA-1104 20-22 20 Av.4.91 (10) 4.55 AO-HNAIQNor Ae-H-N-AIQN As 286. Sv. 82.36, 38; 83.1-3


(Q 19:3)



Sv. 83.5-7, 9, 11, 13, 14


4 coins


Av.4.36 (4)


4 coins

Similar. 20-23 Av.4.82 (2)

Ae-H-NAfN As 286.

Sv. 82.37, 41


AO-H-NAIfN or AOH-N-AIQN Sv. 82.42 Similar to 286 but, at 1., in place of snake, owl stg. 1.;border of dots.


2 coins


Av.5.12 (2)

Similar. [284-292] 82 coins.

Similar,but details illegible.


A-eH-NAIQN Athena stg. I., similarto 284, but, in place of Nike, holding owl r. in r. hand; at 1., snake coiled to 1.;border of dots. (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pL 44:d

Sv. 83.38, 40







3 coins

AOH-NAIfN or AEH-N-AIQN Athena stg. 1., similar to 284, but seen so that shield is facing and not in profile;shield emblazoned with gorgoneion;border of dots.

Sv. 83.15-19; NCP, Y:xix





3 coins

AE-H-NA-I Athena stg. 1., holding Nike in outstretched r. hand and raising 1. to grasp upright spear; at r., between Athena's legs and spear butt, shield seen in profile;at 1., snake coiled to 1.;border of dots.

Sv. 83.22, 23




ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. AEH-NAIQN or A8HN-AIQN Sv. 84.24, 25 Athena stg. r., raising r. hand to grasp upright spear and resting 1. on profile shield with base on ground before her to r.; between shield and Athena's legs, sometimes snake to r.; border of dots.


3 coins


Av.4.76 (3) Ae-H-NAIQN or Ae-HNAIf2N Sv. 83.24-28; Athena stg. 1., holding Nike in NCP, Z:xxiii outstretchedr. hand; she passes her 1. arm through strap of shield at shoulder and holds spear with 1. hand; wreathed or dotted border.


297 *a

7 coins ZZ-95

20-22 21

Av.5.07 (7) 5.76 AOHNAI-fN or AeHNA-I-QN Athena stg. r., holding Nike and spear,as 172; border of dots. Sv. 83.33, 34



4 coins *a 1-509

20-21 20

Av. 3.76 (3) 3.93


As AOHNA-I-QN 298, but

Athena holds owl 1. or r. in place of Nike; border of dots.

Sv. 83.35, 36


6 coins *a AA-1087 *b -802

19-22 Av.5.04 (2) 5.59 22 4.60 19 Similar.

(Q 19:3) GRC,fig. 22

Sv. 83.39, 41, 42; AeH-NA-IQN, AeH-N-AIQN, Ae-HNAIQN, Ae-H-NAIfN, or NCP, AA:iii A-e-HNAI Athena stg. 1., holding owl in outstretchedr. hand and graspingdownwardpointing spear in upraised 1.; sometimes with coiled snake to 1.; similar to 299; border of dots.

300 *a

5 coins E-357

19-21 Av.4.58 (4) 4.59 20 Similar.

Athena stg. r., holding owl r. or 1. in r. hand and transversespear with point downwardin 1.; between spear point and legs of Athena, usually snake coiled to r.; border of dots.

Sv. 84.1-7; NCP, AA:iv


11 coins *a I-1420 b NN-963

21-22 21 22

Av.4.91(11) 6.04 5.04

GRC,fig. 22

CATALOGUE Similar. AOHN-AIQNAthena stg. r. with owl in r. hand, as 301, 1. hand not visible; at 1., column on base supportingflat plinth, upon which stands owl facing; border of dots. Sv. 84.9-14


302 *a

3 coins EA-231

20-21 21

Av.4.82(3) 5.04






AeHNAI-Q-N Athena stg. r., as 301; in addition to spear, she carrieslarge, round shield over 1. shoulder;border of dots. (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:e

Sv. 84.15-17, 22, 23


AOH-N-AIQNAs 303, but Athena's r. arm extended straightout, not bent upwards at elbow, and she holds Nike in place of owl; border of dots.

Sv. 84.18-21





AOHN-AI-QNor AeHNA-I2N Athena stg. r., holding round shield with 1. hand and butt of spear with downward-pointing upraisedr.; at r., snake coiled to r.; border of dots.

Sv. 84.26; JVCP, AA:ix

305 *a

4 coins NN-841

20-22 22

Av.5.29 (3) 5.85


AOHN-A-IQNor AEHN-AI-QN Athena advancing r., brandishing aegis before her with 1. hand and holding spear with r.; border of dots.

Sv. 84.31-35; NCP, AA:xix

306 *a

3 coins AA-1085

20-22 21

Av.6.61 (3) 4.20

(Q 19:3)

Similar. 307 *a 2 coins AA-1032 20-22 22 6.94 (1) 6.94

AEHNA-IfN Athena attacking to r., as 253; border of dots. (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:f

Sv. 84.37-40


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. AOHN-A-IQNAthena stg. r., holding shield with 1. hand and preparingto hurl spear with upraisedr.; border of dots. Sv. 84.29, 30; NCP, AA:xv


2 coins *a r-368

20-22 21

Av.6.24 (2) 8.15


AOHNAI-QNAthena advancing Sv. 85.1-3 r., holding round shield with 1. hand and transversespear,point upwards,with 1.;at r., snake coiled to r.; Athena wears either Attic or Corinthianhelmet; border of dots.


3 coins


Av. 5.11(3)


AeHN-A-IQN Athena running to r., round shield over 1. shoulder; she points r. with 1. hand and holds transversespear,point upwards,in r.; at r., snake coiled to r.; border of dots. GRC,fig. 22

Sv. 85.5-7: NCP, AA:xi

310 a

3 coins 111-469

21-22 22

Av.5.59(2) 4.49


Sv. 85.38-40; AOHNA-IQNor AeHNAI-fQN Athena advancing r., head NCP, AA:x turned back, holding round shield with 1. hand and pointing r. with r.; at r., snake coiled to r.; border of dots. (Q 19:3)


9 coins *a AA-1004

20-22 22

Av.4.75(9) 6.96


AeHNA-fI-N, A9HN-AI-QN, AeHN-A-IQN, AeH-NA-I-QN, AOH-N-AIQN,or AeH-N-A-I2N Athena advancing r., head turned back; similar to 254-256 but without snake, owl, or tree; border of dots.

Sv. 85.24-31


20 coins *a K-1633

20-22 22

Av. 5.58 (20) 7.54

Similar. 313 *a 2 coins AA-1049 20-22 20 Av. 7.75 (2) 7.96

Sv. 85.21 variant; A9HN-AI-Q-N As last, but with snake to r., as 256; border of dots. NCP, Z:ix (Q 19:3)

CATALOGUE Similar. Sv. 85.19, 20, 22, AeH-NA-I-QN, Ae-HNA-I-QN, or A-e-HNAIQN As last, but at 1. 23; NCP, Z:x of Athena, snake coiled to 1.; border of dots.



4 coins *a AA-1033

20-21 20

Av.6.00(4) 5.88

(Q 19:3)
AOH-NAI-Q-NSimilar,but at 1. of Athena, olive tree entwined by snake; as 255 but no owl; border of dots. Sv. 85.36, 37







AOHN-A-I-QNAthena stg. r., head to 1., holding Nike with r. hand outstretchedto 1., and spear and round shield with 1.; at 1., snake coiled to 1.;border of dots.








AOH-N-AIQNAthena stg. 1., holding Nike in outstretched r. hand, round shield over 1. shoulder and spear in 1. hand; at 1., snake coiled to 1.; border of dots.

Sv. -




Similar. 318 71 coins *a AA-1018 *b E-2 *c S-4308

AOHN-A-I-QNAthena with spear and shield, as 257; border of dots.

Sv. 86.6-12, 14-18; NCP, Z:i, ii

20-24 22 21 22

Av. 5.43 (63) 5.38 7.37 4.98

(Q 19:3)

Similar. 319 3 coins *a 1-768 21-22 21 Av.5.28 (3) 4.74

AOHNAI-f-N Athena as 257.



10 coins

Similar. 20-22 Av.5.60 (9) Similar.

AOHNA-I-QNAs last.

Sv. 86.24, 25, 28, 29

AOHN-AI-QNAs last.

Sv. 86.13, 19

321 *a

7 coins AA-1057

20-22 20

Av.4.72 (6) 6.06

(Q 19:3)




3 coins *a AA-1022

20-21 21

Av.6.52 (3) 4.67

(Q 19:3)
AGH-N-AIQNAs last.

Similar. 323 1 coin 22 4.05


AOHN-AI-QNAthena with spear and shield, as 257 but, to r., snake coiled to r.; border of dots. (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:a AeHN-AI-Q-N As last.

Sv. 86.21, 23

324 a

11 coins AA-1023

20-23 21

Av.5.95 (8) 5.43

Similar. 325 7 coins 20-22 Av.5.02 (7)

Sv. 86.20, 39

Similar. 326 6 coins 21-22 Av.5.56(4)


Sv. 86.22, 38

Similar. 327 AA-1028 21 5.38

AeHNAI-n-N As last.

Sv. -

(Q 19:3)
AEHNA-I-QNAs last. Sv. 86.26, 27

Similar. 328 5 coins 20-22 Av. 5.27 (3)

Similar. 329 4 coins 20-21 Av.5.85 (4)

AeHNA-I-Q-N As last.

Sv. -

Similar. 330 III-337 21 4.53

AOHN-A-IlN As last.



4 coins *a IIA-164

Similar. 21-22 Av. 6.77 (4) 7.83 22 Similar.

AeHN-A-I-fN As last.

Sv. 86.37

AeH-NA-I-fN As last,
sometimeswith owl at 1. GRC,fig. 22 AeH-N-AI-IfN As 324.

Sv. 86.5, 31, 33-36

332 a

7 coins Z-1408

21-24 21

Av.5.95(6) 4.49


10 coins

Similar. 20-22 Av.5.72 (9)

Sv. 86.32

CATALOGUE Similar. AE-HNAI-fN or Ae-HNA-I-.N Sv. 86.40 Athena stg. r., head 1., holding phiale 1. in outstretchedr. hand, and round shield and spear in 1.;at 1., snake coiled to 1.;border of dots. (Q 19:3)


334 *a

3 coins AA-1101

20-22 20

Av.5.97 (3) 5.18

Similar. 335

AOHNAIf-N As 334, but snake, coiled to r., at r. of Athena; border of dots.






AOHNAISimilar to last, but at 1., low altar and no snake; border of dots. 5.26 (F 10:2)

Sv. 86.41, 42





Sv. 87.8, 11 AeHNAI-f2N Athena stg. 1., holding phiale in outstretched r. hand; 1. arm goes through strap of round shield at 1. shoulder,and she holds transversespear,point upwards,with 1. hand; at 1., low flaming altar;at r., snake coiled to 1.;border of dots. 4.80 (Q 19:3)





AeHNAI-fN As last, but in place of snake, owl facing; border of dots. 4.72 (Q 19:3)

Sv. 87.9, 10





AeHNA-IfN Athena stg. 1., as 250, but in place of snake, low altar;border of dots.

Sv. 87.14


3 coins


Av.4.84 (3)


AOHNA-IQNAthena stg. 1., with 1. hand on hip and right holding upward-pointingspear; at r., below, round shield; similar to 173; border of dots.

Sv. 87.1-5; NCP, AA:vii

340 *a

2 coins IIII-1036

21-22 22

Av.5.53 (2) 5.89


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. AOHN-AI2N Athena stg. 1., with olive tree to 1.;similar to 258, but without snake between Athena and tree; border of dots. Sv. 87.27, 29, 30

341 *a

5 coins AA-1122

20-21 20

Av.5.86(4) 5.75

(Q 19:3)

Similar. 342 2 coins 21-22 4.99(1)

A8-H-NAIQ As last.

Sv 87.23


AeHN-AIQN or AOH-NAIQN Similar,but with owl perched to 1. or r. in tree; border of dots.

Sv. 87.28; NCP, Z:xix


6 coins *a AA-11

20-21 21

Av.6.28 (6) 5.44

(Q 19:3)


AeHN-AIQN Similar to 341, but with snake entwined around tree; border of dots. 3.32

Sv. 87.31, 32




Similar. 345 *a 3 coins B-354 20-21 21 Av.6.34 (2) 6.58

AOH-NAIlN Athena and olive tree, as 258; border of dots.

Sv. 87.22, 24, 25


As AQH-NAIS2N 345 but, in place of snake, owl stg. I.; border of dots.

Sv. 87.26


4 coins


Av.5.42 (4)


A-eHNAIMN Athena stg. 1., holding round shield and spear with 1. hand, and extending r. towardsolive tree at I.; border of dots.

Sv. 87.12





Similar. [341-347] 3 coins.

Similar,but details illegible.

CATALOGUE Similar. Sv. 88.1-7; Ae-H-N-AIQN, Ae-H-NAIQN, Athena seated 1. NCP, AA:xx or AeH-N-AInN on backlessthrone, holding Nike in outstretchedr. hand, transverse spear in 1.;she rests 1. elbow on an upright shield seen in profile; border of dots. Av.5.50 (8) 6.29 (Q 19:3) A-eH-NAIfN Similar to 348, but Athena holds phiale in place of Nike; at 1., olive tree entwined with snake;border of dots. (Q 19:3) GRC,fig. 22 AOHNAIfiN or AOH-NAIfN Athena seated 1., on backless throne, holding phiale in outstretchedr. hand, raising 1. to grasp upright spear; at 1., olive tree entwined by snake; at r., leaning against back of throne, upright shield seen in profile;border of dots. (Q 19:3) AO-HNAIf2N,AOHN-A-IM-N, AOHN-AIf-N, AeHNAI-fN, AEHNA-IRN, or AeHNIAIlIN Athena in biga galloping to r., as 260, but without giant emerging from ground; wreathed or dotted border. Sv. 88.14-18; JCP, AA:xxii Sv. 87.33, 36 Sv. 87.34, 35; NCP, AA:xxi


348 *a

9 coins AA-1102

20-22 21


349 a

2 coins AA-1103

20-21 20

Av.5.90(2) 6.90


350 *a

4 coins AA-1081

20-21 21

Av.4.90(4) 4.84


351 *a b

13 coins 0-204 AA-1056

20-22 21 20

Av.5.71 (10) 5.56 6.10

(Q 19:3) GRC,fig. 22 AOHNAIIQNor AeHN-AIIN2 As 351, but biga to 1.;border of dots. (B 17:lb)
AeHNIAI|IN Similar to 351, but Athena in triga to r.; border of dots.


Sv. 88.19, 20

352 *a

5 coins IIII-478

20-22 21

Av.4.57 (4) 5.13


Sv. 88.22; NCP, AA:xxiii

353 *a

3 coins AA-1030

21-22 22

Av.5.88(3) 6.40

(Q 19:3)


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. AeHINAIlfN Similar to 351, but Athena in quadriga to r.; border of dots. Sv. 88.21

354 *a

5 coins 1-970

20-22 21

Av.5.76 (3) 4.20


Sv. 89.16-18; AOH (in ex.) Olive tree entwined with snake, owl JCP, Z:xvii r. in branches;at 1., perched Athena stg. r., 1. hand pointing to r., and r. holding spear and resting on profile shield; at r., Poseidon stg. 1., r. foot on rock, holding trident (head downwards?) in upraised1. hand and dolphin (?) in r.; border of dots.


7 coins 20-22 *a IIIn-1100 20

Av.4.99 (5) 4.03


AOHNA-I-fN Zeus seated r. on stool, holding vertical scepter in upraisedr. hand and eagle, looking back with wreath in beak, in 1.;border of dots. (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:g AOHNAI-f-N Zeus sacrificing r., over altar;as 175, but with eagle on 1. wrist;border of dots.

Sv. 92.3, 4

356 *a

3 coins AA-1009

20-22 21

Av.6.22 (3) 7.47


Sv. 92.7






AOH-NAIfN (retrogradefrom lower r.) Hermes, nude but for cloak billowing over shoulders, striding1., wearing petasos and holding coin sack with outstretchedr. hand, caduceus with 1.;border of dots.

Sv. 92.27-29; DD:xxi NVCP,

358 *a b

2 coins 1-1400 AA-1034

22-23 23 22

Av.6.75 (2) 6.17 7.33

(Q 19:3) GRC,fig. 22 AeH-N-AIRN Hermes as 358, but stridingr. and r. hand empty (?);border of dots. Sv. 92.35-37


359 *a

2 coins 1-593

20-21 20

Av.5.94 (2) 3.70

CATALOGUE Similar. *360 IIIn-544 20 7.52 (B 17:lc) AeH-NAI-QN Apollo Patroos stg. 1., as 268; border of dots. Sv. 93.5-7; NCP, CC:xx



AOHN-AIQNor AeHN-A-IQN Nude Apollo stg. r., as 269; border of dots.

Sv. 93.10-14; NCP, CC:xvi

361 *a

4 coins 1-1520

20-22 20

Av.6.30(3) 5.80


AOHNA-I-Q-NSimilar to 361, but Apollo holds laurel branch before him with r. hand; border of dots. 5.66

Sv. 93.15-20; NCP, CC:xvii









AOHNAI-f-N Apollo Lykeios stg. r., holding bow with r. hand and placing 1. atop head; at r., tripod entwined with snake; border of dots. GRC,fig. 22

Sv. 93.28


AOHNAI-Q-NApollo Lykeios, as 363, but with laurel bush at 1.;border of dots.

Sv. 93.27






AEHNAI-QN Herakles leaning on club r., as 179; border of dots.

Sv. 95.3-5; VCP, DD:xi

365 *a

8 coins Z-1979

21-22 21

Av.5.84 (7) 6.51

Similar. 366 E-1281 21 5.03

AeH-N-AIQN Herakles holding phiale 1., as 272; border of dots.

Sv. 95.9


AeHN-AIQN, AeH-NAIQN, or AeHNA-IQN Asklepiosstg. 1., as 277; border of dots.

Sv. 98.3-10; NCP, EE:iii


17 coins *a M-191 *b IIn-551

21-23 21 21

Av.6.30 (16) 8.73 6.94


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. Sv. 94.25, 26, 28, 29 AOHNA-I-NN,AeH-N-AIQN, or A-eHNA-If-N Triptolemosin chariot to 1., as 271; border of dots.


9 coins *a N-202

21-22 22

Av.5.44(6) 7.57


AeH-N-A-IMN or A-eHNA-I-fN Similar to 368, but Triptolemos holds wheat ear in outstretchedr. hand, sheaf of wheat in I.; border of dots.

Sv. 94.27, 30, 31


2 coins


Av. 3.84 (2) Ae-HN-AIQN or Ae-H-NAIQN Artemis walking 1., usually quiver over shoulder,holding two torches;border of dots. holed Sv. 94.44, 45; NCP, BB:xi



2 coins *a Q- 154

21-22 22

4.59(1) 4.59


AOHN-AI-Q-NTheseus r., raising rock at Troizen, as 181 and 274; border of dots. 5.52

Sv. 95.30-36





AeHNA-I-QN, AGHN-A-I-QN, ANA HN-A --NHN-HN-A-I, , or AeHN-AI-2 Theseus and fallen Minotaur,as 276; border of dots. (Q 19:3) (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:h A-OH-N-AI-O-NTheseus, nude but for chlamys covering outstretched1. arm, striding r., preparingto swing club held in r. hand outstretched behind him; border of dots.

Sv. 96.8-14; NCP, DD:ii


17 coins *a AA-1072 *b AA-1099

21-24 21 21

Av.4.94 (13) 5.22 4.92


Sv. 95.37-40; NCP, DD:xviii


4 coins


Av.4.57 (3) Ae-HNAIQ-N, AeHN-AIQN, or AeHN-A-IfN Themistokles on galley to r., as 279, but sometimes with owl on stern; border of dots. (Q 19:3) Sv. 97.27-31



6 coins *a AA-1067

20-22 22

Av. 5.96(3) 5.97

CATALOGUE Similar. A9HNA-IQN, AOHNAIQ-N,or AeHNAI-QN Akropolis,seen from north and west, as 280; border of dots. Av.5.76 (4) 7.42 3.56 5.67 Sv. 98.30-36



6 coins *a AA-1059 *b B-329 *c I-560

21-22 21 21 21

(Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:j; GRC,fig. 22 broken (F 10:2)


AOHN-AIQNor AEHNA-IfN Theater of Dionysos, seen from south; above, at center, Parthenon;at 1., possibly the Chalkothekeor Propylaia;at r. of Parthenon,round temple of Roma and Augustus;border of dots.

Sv. 98.44-46; NCP, CC:ix, x

376 *a

4 coins AA-1052

21-22 21

Av.4.38(3) 4.72

(Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:i; GRC,fig. 22 Sv. 90.1, 2, 5-8 AeHNAIQIN, AeHNAIIQN, AeHNAIIQN, AeHNA, or AOH (legendsin ex. only). From 1. to r., amphora, olive tree, and owl stg. r.; sometimes palm branch under legend in ex.; border of dots.



14 coins *a Z-393 *b 1II-986

19-22 Av.4.54 (10) 6.88 21 19 4.73 Similar.


Sv. 90.19, 20

AeHNIN-Q-I-A (legends begin in ex., often partiallyretrograde). As 377. 378 17 coins *a AA-1035 *b 1-302 19-22 Av.4.86 (17) 19 5.09 7.70 22 Similar. 379 K-1452 21 Similar. 4.23 (Q 19:3)

A-GH-N-AI-QN(egend ending in ex.). As 377.

Sv. 90.15

AGHNAIQN,AOH-NAIIQN,or, in ex., AGH From 1. to r., amphora, olive tree, owl facing; palm branch sometimes in ex.; border of dots. (F 10:2)

Sv. 90.9-12, 16, 18

380 *a

5 coins B-320

19-23 Av.4.92 (5) 23 5.74


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. AGHNAIjIN or AeHIN-f-IAN (legend in ex. or beginning in ex. and then retrograde).From 1. to r., amphora, olive tree, owl stg. 1.; border of dots. Sv. 90.13


6 coins *a 5-734

20-22 20

Av.4.42 (6) 4.11

Similar. [377-381] 6 coins. Similar.

Similar,but details illegible.

AGHNAIfN, AeHNAIM-N, AeHN-AtNOi, or AeHINAiQN (legend sometimes finishingin ex.). From 1. to r., owl facing, olive tree, amphora;sometimes palm tree on r. or palm branch in ex.; border of dots.

Sv. 90.17, 22-26, 30, 31


14 coins *a IIII-710 *b K-1482

20-22 21 21

Av.4.42 (11) 5.82 4.53


AeHNAIfN (in ex.). From 1. to r., owl stg. r., olive tree, amphora;border of dots. (Q 19:3)

Sv. -


2 coins *a AA-1016 *b AA-61

19-20 Av.5.05 (2) 4.83 20 19 5.27

Similar. [382, 383] 6 coins. Similar.

Similar,but details illegible.

AeHNAIIND (legend finishing in ex.). From 1. to r., owl stg. r., amphora, olive tree; border of dots. (Q 19:3) ASHNAIIflN (legend in ex.). From 1. to r., olive tree, amphora, owl facing, palm tree; border of dots.

Sv. 90.27






Sv. 90.29




4.87 Similar,but details illegible.

Similar. [377-385] 1 coin.



Sv. 91.2-7, 9-15, 19 AeHNAIQN, AeHNAIQ-N, AeHN-A-IQN, AeHN-A-IQ-N, AeHN-A-I-QN, AeH-N-AI-QN, AeH-N-AIINR, or AeH-N-A-IQN Four-leggedtable, sometimes seen in perspective,with amphora below; on table top, from 1. to r., wreath, head of Athena r., owl stg. 1.;border of dots.

386 *a b

12 coins Q-242 AA-1069

19-23 Av.4.46 (12) 5.54 21 4.49 21 Similar.

(Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:1 AOHNAI-Q-N,AeHN-AI-f-N, or AeHNAI As 386, but with palm branch to r.; border of dots. (Q 19:3) GRC,fig. 22 Sv. 91.16-18, 20, 21


7 coins *a AA-1092 *b I-796

20-22 20 20

Av.5.91 (6) 5.44 6.55


Ae-H-N-AIQN or AeHNIAIQN Similar to 386, but no amphora below table; border of dots.

Sv. 91.1, 22, 23


4 coins


Av.5.08(2) AeH-NAIQN or AeH-NAIINn Similar to 386, but with owl facing; border of dots. Sv. 91.8



4 coins


Av.4.96(3) AeH Similar to 386, but on top of table, from 1. to r., owl stg. r., head of Athena r., wreath;border of dots. Sv. 91.29



4 coins


Av.4.21(4) AeH-NAIQN As 390, but owl facing; border of dots. (Q 19:3) AOH-N-AIQNor AeH-N-A-I As 386, but on top of table, from 1. to r., owl stg. r., head of Athena 1., wreath;border of dots. (Q 19:3) (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:k
Sv. Sv. -

Similar. 391 AA-1125 22 4.24



4 coins *a AA-1001 *b AA-1079

20-21 20 20

Av.4.93(3) 4.30 4.94


ATHENIAN BRONZE COINS: SECOND AND THIRD CENTURIES AFTER CHRIST Similar. As AeHNjAIA2N 392, but legend beneath table and amphora, and palm to r.; border of dots. Sv. 91.30






AeIHNIA As last, but no amphora, and palm to 1.;border of dots.

Sv. 91.31






AeHNAI-Q-N or Ae-HNAIQN Four-leggedtable seen in elevated perspectivewith amphora below; on top of table, from 1. to r., owl stg. 1. or r., bust of Athena r., prize crown; palm branch sometimes to r.; border of dots.

Sv. 91.27, 28


6 coins




AeHN-AIfQ-NFour-legged table with amphora below; on table top, from 1. to r., bust of Athena r., owl facing, wreath; along front of table, in tiny letters, AAPIANEIA;palm branch in ex.; border of dots. 5.73

Sv. 91.33-38





AeH-NAIMN Similar to 396, but Sv. on table top, from 1. to r., wreath, bust of Athena r., owl stg. 1.; along front of table, in tiny letters, border of dots. [EAEVCINEIA];





Similar. 398 3 coins 20-21 Av.4.20(3)

AeHN-AIQN As 397, but owl facing; border of dots.

Sv. 91.42


AeHNA-I-N Similar.On table top, from 1. to r., owl facing, bust of Athena 1., wreath; along front of table, in tiny letters, OAVMnIA;border of dots.

Sv. 91.39, 40


5 coins



CATALOGUE Similar. AOHNAIQ-NSimilar to 399, but along front of table, in tiny letters, nANAOHNEA; border of dots. 4.14 Similar,but details illegible. Sv. 91.41, 45





Similar. [386-400] 15 coins. Similar.

AOH-NA-IQNBoukranionwith fillets hanging from horns; rarely, star above skull;as 185 and 283; border of dots. 5.49 5.87 4.86 6.42

Sv. 99.24-37


74 coins *a AA-1013 *b AA-1002

*c BB-352


20-23 21 21 21 22

Av.5.21 (63) (Q 19:3) (Q 19:3)

GRC,fig. 4 GRC,fig. 22 AOH-NAI-QNAs last. Sv. 99.38


7 coins

Similar. 20-22 Av. 5.46 (6) Similar. 20-22 Av. 5.79 (14) 7.69 20 7.19 21 6.17 21 Similar. 20-22 Av.5.55 (13) 6.66 21 Similar.

A6HN-AIQN As last.

Sv. 99.10-12

403 *a b c

15 coins AA-1096 AA-1012 AA-1089

(Q 19:3)
(Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:m (Q 19:3) H. A. Thompson 1958, pl. 44:n AOHN-AI-QNAs last. (Q 19:3) Sv. 99.15-18 AOHNA-IQN,AOHNA-I-QN, A-eHN-AI-QN, or A-OH-NAIQN As last. (Q 19:3) (Q 19:3) AOHN-AIQNBoukranion as above, but within ornamental frame; border of dots. Sv. 99.13, 14 Sv. 99.19-22

404 *a

14 coins AA-1062


11 coins *a AA-1003 *b AA-1063

20-22 20 21

Av. 5.63 (10) 5.70 5.60



3 coins *a I-559

20-21 21

Av.4.73 (2) 5.13 Similar,but details illegible.

Similar. [401-406] 20 coins.



[284-406] 88 coins. OBOLS Head or bust of Athena r., border of dots. 407 H'-3647 fragmentary Similar. AeHNA-IQN or AeHN-AIQN Theseus attackingto 1., as 209; border of dots. Sv. 96.22-25, 29 Ae-H-N-AIMN (obscure) Triptolemosin chariot to 1., as 206; border of dots. Sv. 94.37

408 *a

15 coins NN-666

16-18 Av. 3.15 (14) 16 3.48 Similar. AQHN-AIf2NNike advancing r., Sv. 96.45 holding wreath in r. hand and palm branch over shoulder with 1.; border of dots.


13 coins *a rr-47 *b NN-833

15-18 Av. 2.89 (12) 16 3.59 17 4.44 Similar. Ae-HNjAI-QN Olive tree with owl perching r. in branches; border of dots. Sv. 89.20, 21


3 coins AA-880 *a *b NN-1283 *c T-1425

15-18 15 18 17

Av. 3.81 (3) 4.52 3.96 2.95 AOHNAIIN (legend in ex.). From 1. to r., owl facing, olive tree, amphora;border of dots.



4 coins

16-17 Av.2.44(4)


Similar. *412 1-1324 13 Similar. 1.69

AOH-NA-I.N Tripod; border of dots.

Sv. 93.31

AeHNINf2IA (legend ending in ex.). Prow of galley to r.; border of dots.

Sv. 97.40

413 *a

2 coins EI-3562

12-13 Av. 1.35(2) 0.99 13

CHRONOLOGY Similar. 414 *a 5 coins Q2-139 13-14 Av. 1.59(4) 14 1.98 Similar. *415 E-4658 12 Similar. 416 5 coins *a 4-237 *b E-869 11-13 Av.1.41 (5) 11 1.10 13 1.43 Similar. [414-416] 2 coins. Type uncertain. 1.94 A-@ Owl stg. 1.;border of dots. Sv. 88.54 AOH-NAIQNAs last.

165 Sv. 88.38

A-e Owl stg. r.; border of dots.

THE 2,197 identifiableforeigncoins cataloguedin thischapterspan nearlythe entirechronological range of ancient Greek numismatichistory.The earliestcoins, two Aiginetan silverstaters (658a and b) and a plated counterfeitof a Siphnian hemidrachm(846), go back to the 6th century B.C. The latest, dating after the collapse of civic minting in the Greek East in the 260's and 270's of our era, belong to the final issuesof the Roman provinceof Egypt under Diocletian (1029, 1030) and to the last known ruler of the Black Sea Kingdom of Bosphoros, King RheskouporisVI, a contemporaryof Constantinethe Great (853a and b). Geographicalrepresentationextends from Italy and Sicily in the west to the PersianEmpire in the east, and fromthe Crimeancoast of the BlackSea in the northto Egypt, Cyrene,and Numidia in the south. The range is impressive,but no more so than one would expect from excavationsin the heartof Athens,which possessedone of the majorportsof the EasternMediterraneanand whose made it a culturalmecca for visitorsfrom all over festivals,monuments,and educationalinstitutions the Greco-Romanworld. of most of the largerconcentrations coins come fromneighboringand nearbystates. Predictably, heads the list with over 300 pieces, chieflyfrom two prolificbronze varietiesof the late 4th Megara and earlier 3rd centuries B.C. (643, 644). Then follow three mints that are representedby more than 100 cataloguedpieces each: the Boiotian League, the city of Chalkis,and, particularlyafter refoundationas a Roman colony in 44 or 43 B.C., the city of Corinth. The only other foreign coinage that has been found in comparable quantity is the coinage of the Macedonian kings from Alexander III through Antigonos Gonatas. Many of the more than 250 Macedonian regal coins must have originallybeen used by Macedonian troops in the garrisonsimposed on the Athenians from 317 to 307 and again from 296 to 229. But it should be emphasized that about two-thirdsof the total come from a single coinage and reign, the Panbronze of Antigonos Gonatas (507, 508). Although it is possible that all coins of erecting-trophy this type were originallyconsigned to Attica for garrisonpay and dispersedonly secondarilyinto coins in the currencypool general circulation,the tremendousnumber of the Pan-erecting-trophy of 3rd-centuryAthens might equally result from an undocumenteddonative of bronze money by Gonatas to the Athenian people (p. 36 above).Nor can one insist that all the precious-metalcoins of Alexander and Philip III recoveredfrom the Agora, a gold stater (487) and ten silver drachms (488a-h, 496a, b), were necessarilysent to Athens in militarypayrolls;for such coins of Alexander served as one of the dominant internationaltrade currenciesof the Aegean world as late as the early 2nd centuryB.C., and some at least must have arrivedin commerce. It is notablein this connectionthat most of the otherforeigngold and silverfromthe excavations alsobelongsto coinagesthat enjoyedin theirday a similarstatusas preferredinternationalcurrencies for commerce and for militarypay. These include the severalsilver statersof Aigina (658a and b, 660, 661), an electrum staterof Kyzikos(866), a Persiangold daric (1003), three silver Lysimachi (461-463), a Rhodian didrachmand two or three pseudo-Rhodiandrachms(959-962), and fifteen Histiaian tetrobols(632a-o, of which eight had been deposited together in a hoard). If the loss of these pieces in the Agora is somehow a reflection of their wide distributionand popularity,the presence of plated forgeriesof silver coins can be attributedto their worthlessnessonce they were



detected and evidently thrown away.To thefourree Athenian coins mentioned previously(pp. 4, 7, the non-Atheniancatalogueadds a plated Celtic drachm(417), a plated drachmof Alexander 9-10), (488i), a plated hemidrachmof Siphnos(846), a platedstaterof Elis (747), which had been cut in half to expose and probablydemonitizeit, and a platedAiginetanstatercunninglyprovidedwith a bogus test cut during manufacture(659). Three hemidrachmsof Demetrios Poliorketes(502a and b, 503), whose presence suggests,perhaps, Macedonian militarypay, a Euboian League drachm (610), a Corinthian drachm (666), an Achaian League hemidrachm (745), a tetradrachmof Ptolemy VI (1011), and a denariusofJuba I (1035) complete the modest total of foreignnon-Roman silverfrom the excavations. The bronze coins struckby or in the name of Athens'severalcleruchiesmake up anothernotable group. As full-fledgedcitizens of Athens permanentlyresidingabroad in territorialcommunitiesof their own, Athenian cleruchsare sometimesidentifiedin writingsand inscriptionsas Atheniansbut at other times by a localized ethnic, as Lemnians,the people of Salamis,or the like.1Their coinages are similarly varied. In the 4th and early3rd centuriesB.C., Myrinaand Hephaistia,the two cleruchy cities on the island of Lemnos, each minted coins with AthenianAthena head/Owl types that were with a branch of Apollo and H4A accompanied by a local legend and an adjunct symbol, MYPI with the tongs of Hephaistos (455, 455A). But when Lemnos, after a century of independence, was returnedto Athens in 167/6 and the cleruchieswere reestablished,their coins bore the legend AOEbut used reverse types emblematic of the issuing city: Artemis' quiver and bow at Myrina (456) and a lighted race torch at Hephaistia(454). Still later,in the earlyAugustanperiod, Athens minted for the island a coinage with the types of Athena head/Hephaistos head and thejoint ethnic AOEIAHMNI (159A). SimilarAugustanissueswere struckfor the cleruchiesof Skyros(160: AE| CKY) and Imbros (161: AeEINBPI). Whether Augustan or earlier,the smaller Lemnian cleruchy coins with Artemis/Stag types (159: AEEIAHMNI) belong to the 1st centuryB.C. also transferto Athenianownershipin 167/6 B.C., Delos became the most importantof Athens' Upon overseaspossessions. Because of its proximityand closer ties to Athens, the island used Athenian money and did not have a coinage of its own. The one momentary exception is a special bronze emissionin two denominationsstruckby the Roman legate GaiusValeriusTriariusafterthe piratical devastationof the island in 69 B.C. (see 830); Triarius'name appears on obverses, but the ethnic is the AOEof the Athenian demos. Owing to its entirely "non-Athenian"character,the more common 4th-century bronze "of the people of Salamis,"inscribedEAAA(Ltvi.ov) (640-642), stands somewhat apart from foregoing cleruchycoinages.Archaeologicaldata indicatethat the Salaminianbronze began in the firsthalf of the century,apparentlyto fill a void in the small-denomination currencyon the islandand ultimately Attica in general. Its utility was diminishedwhen Athens' Eleusinianbronze entered throughout circulation,and afterAthens was coining bronze in her own name later in the century,the Salamis bronze was finallydiscontinued. of Turningto the smallerconcentrations foreigncoins, one suspectsthat the nine pieces fromthe northernBlackSea ports of Olbia, Pantikapaion, IstrianonLimen, and Phanagoria(430-434, 852) were broughtby sailorsaboardtransports engagedin the Euxinegrain tradeand that the majorityof the fifteen early Ptolemaic bronzes (1004-1006, 1009) came with the soldiers sent by Ptolemy II to guard Attica at the outbreakof the ChremonideanWar.The abundant finds of Ptolemy I and II coins at severalAttic fortswhere these troopswere stationedmakeit clearthat for a few yearsin the early 260's B.C., Athens was being suppliedwith Ptolemaicmoney as at no other time in her history
1 2nd andMother inAncient City A.J. Graham, Colony Greece, ed., Chicago 1983, pp. 167-168.



(note 42 above, p. 11).But beyond such limited conjecturesas these, diminishinghistoricalreturns set in quickly,and it becomes difficultto attach significanceto the rest of the mostly isolated and seemingly random finds from dozens of Greek mints. A few coins owe their interest to discovery in a chronologicallysignificantcontext. Good examples are the three-assariacoins of Chios, 948a and 949, whose contextsof the mid-3rdcenturyafterChriststrengthenthe recent downdatingof the importantseriesof Chiote imperialsas a whole. Mention shouldalso be made of the few bronzecoins from the excavationsthat are noteworthyfor their artisticmerit. The large medallionlikeimperial bronzes from Philippolis(447), Pergamon(878), and Mytilene (905) stand out for their showiness and exceptionalcondition. Less well preservedbut of considerabledocumentaryvalue for the later career,heroization,and portraitureof the ostracizedAthenian statesmanThemistoklesis the large and quite rare imperial bronze of Magnesia on the Maiandrosthat pictures the altar and bronze statueof Themistoklesthat stood in the city agora (926). The essential question for the bronze coins catalogued in this chapter is to what extent they could havebeen used as money in a foreigncity likeAthens.Producedas token or fiduciarycurrency, did they retain their value when transportedacross the borders of the state that issued them and at implicitlyguaranteedtheirredeemability a given amountof silver?Or,leavingtheirvalue behind, or intentionallydiscardedin the Agora on account of their very worthlessness?The were they lost large cast bronze of Olbia, 433, may have made a fine souveniror barteringtrinketin 4th-century Athens, but it is hard to imagine an Athenian shopkeeperaccepting it as a conventionalmeans of payment in a normal retail transaction.But this is a highly unusual coin, which ordinarilywould have to be taken to a moneychanger.When we turn to smaller,more conventional coins, there is reason to believe that at least in the 4th and 3rd centuriesB.C., foreign bronzes were generally negotiablein Athenian commerce.2 The best evidence comes from the Agora A 18:8 hoard, analyzed and dated to the 260's B.C. on pages 35 and 302. Apart from four Athenian lead military tokens and two small silver coins (a hemidrachmof Demetrios Poliorketesand a drachm of Lysimachos),the deposit contained 92 legible bronze coins, of which 45 are Athenian, 21 Eleusinian,and the remaining 30 percent from foreign mints: Megara (16), Phokis (4), Lokris(2), and the Carian mint of Demetrios Poliorketes, Aigina, Chalkis,and Larissa(1 coin each). Since the hoard'sowner clearlyregardedthese non-Attic bronze coins as worth holding on to, the presumptionis that he could have spent them about as freelyas he could have spent his local Athenian bronze money.And since all the non-Atticbronzes are essentiallysimilarin diameter and weight to the Athenian and Eleusinianpieces in the hoard, all AE 3 dichalkia,one expects that the non-Attic coins would have passed in Athens at the same it value. In supportof these suppositions shouldbe rememberedthat in the 4th centurythe Athenians to usingthe bronzecoins of Salamisand the Eleusinianfestivalsfor a generation became accustomed or more before the appearance of their Athena/Owl bronze and that for a while after the latter entered circulation, all three bronze currenciesremained in use together.3 In an already mixed monetary context such as this, one would not expect random AE 3 pieces from Megara, Chalkis, or other Greek states to meet with much discrimination,especiallysince their value was so slight: if each coin was worth no more than a quarterof an obol, it is unlikelyto have made much difference to anyone whether a given AE 3 piece happened to have been minted locally or outside Attica. This suggests in turn that it did not make much differenceto the state. For whether or not the

Acceptabilityof most foreignbronze coins found at Corinth is assumedin Price 1967, pp. 367-369. 3 See the late 4th-centurydestructiondeposit of KerameikosBuildingZ-3, p. 298 below.



Athenianseverpassed a law in the 4th or earlier3rd centurydiscriminating againstthe use of foreign bronze coins, there is certainlyno evidence for the effectivenessof such legislation. AE The higher-valuePan-erecting-trophy 2 hemiobols of Antigonos Gonatas provide further evidence of the actual use of non-Athenianbronze coins in 3rd-centuryB.C. Athens. Granted that these were introducedwhile Athenswas underMacedoniancontroland beforeAthens had begun to mint in this larger bronze denomination, the Macedonian bronze circulatedneverthelessin such volume that when the Athenians called it in after 224, they were able to restrikeover it a very substantialbronze coinage of their own (69). The duoviralbronze of Antonian andJulio-ClaudianCorinth (670-704) is another non-Attic currencythat calls for special consideration.The close size equivalencybetween the duoviralasses and the Athenian Period IV AE 1 pieces that constitutedAthens' main bronze currencyin these same periods surely accounts for the exceptional total of 48 Corinthianasses found in the Agora. Proof of their absorptioninto the pool of circulatingmoney comes from the five asses with heads of Nero that had been intentionallycut in half. This operation was performed on a number of local AE 1 coins circulatingin Julio-ClaudianAthens but is unattested among the duoviralasses recoveredin the excavationsat Corinthitself.4Even so, it is doubtfulwhether such Corinthianasses ever reached Athens in sufficientquantity to have had a perceptibleeffect on the city's currency. In numbersof Agora finds,no other non-AthenianGreekcoinage of the Roman period can begin to rival the duoviralbronze of Corinth. But when the Agora total of 63 duoviralasses and fractions is compared with the approximately4,000 Athenian Period IV coins from the excavations,it is clear that this Corinthian coinage could have made a barely marginaldifferenceat most. Indeed, for non-Attic Greek bronze coinages that did have a significantimpact on Athenian monetary circulation,one must go back to the late 4th- and early 3rd-centuryAE 3 coinage of Megara and to the Pan-erecting-trophy bronze of Antigonos Gonatas. After the Athenian restrikingof this Macedonian bronze in the 220's, therefore, the inflow of supplementaryoutside bronze currencieswas sharply reduced, either because the supply of Athenian bronze had become more abundantor, more probably,because a new attitudeor policy discouragedthe,use of non-Athenian bronze now that bronze coins were more commonly issued in larger denominations and were playing a larger role vis-a-vis silver in the monetary economy. The figures collected on page xxvi show that of the total 4th- and 3rd-centuryB.C. bronze coins excavated in the Agora, approximately20 percent are non-Attic. For later centuries (except for the 1st century after Christ when Athens did not strike coins), the percentage ranges from 7 to 2 percent if we count only Greek coins, or 12 to 2 percent if we include all Roman bronze with the Greek. Attic hoards give the same picture. In contrastto the sizable non-Attic component of the 3rd-centuryA 18:8 hoard, bronze hoards from the 2nd and 1st centuriesB.C. contain only the occasional strayforeignpiece. If allowanceis made for the exceptionalhoardingof Roman sestertii in the mid-3rd century after Christ, the evidence from the Herulian-invasion hoards of A.D. 267 is no different.The straynon-AthenianGreekcoins accountfor a mere 0.3 percentof the total coins in all these post-3rd-century hoards.5Whethersuch strayswere keepsakesor coins hastilymistaken B.C.
See above, pp. 92-93. 729, a Neronian as of Sikyon,was also halved at Athens. Only 15 of the 3,402 bronzecoins fromthe fourteenAttichoardsof the late 2nd and early 1stcenturiesB.C. surveyed on pp. 66 and 67 above are not Athenian. There is 1 non-Athenianpiece among the 713 coins of the Chaidari and Agia Varvarahoards of the end of the 1st century B.C.(pp. 80-81 above). Herulian-invasionhoards (p. 117 above) have producedjust 4 coins from other Greek cities: 1 of Thessalonikeand 1 of Argos in the ca. 972-piece Numismatic Collection of Athens lot of the Eleusis 1902 hoard, and 1 of Chios (949) and 1 of Lydian Tripolis (969b) in the Agora hoard Deposit B 17:1A. 5



as Athenian, one cannot attach any more significanceto them than to the occasional Canadian penny or dime that will usuallyturn up in a large accumulationof U.S. change today. at The Canadian-U.S. analogy probably illuminatesthe "circulation" Athens of most of the non-Atticcoins cataloguedbelow.As with any Canadiancoin in the U.S., the lower its value and the more similarits appearanceto local coins, the more likelythat a foreigncoin might informallypass No from hand to hand. But this is hardlythe same as officialacceptability. foreign coin could ever the advantageof legally enforcedcirculation6and could alwaysbe refused,in which case its enjoy owner would have to go to the money-changersand take the best exchange he was offered. After the restrikingof Macedonian bronze in the later 220's B.C., foreign bronze coins apparentlywere in disfavored normalretailtransactions. Nevertheless,since they were alwaysworth somethingat the money-changers'tables, the great bulk of those that have turned up in the Agora were, like the thousandsof local Athenian bronze coins from the excavations,most likelylost by accident. The coins are catalogued in the traditionalorder: by geographicalarea, then by cities of the area arrangedalphabeticallyand by rulers.Coin varietiesin the earlierpart of the catalogue,Italy which is to Thessaly, are chiefly referencedto entries in the fully illustratedCopenhagen Sylloge, From Museum Catalogue. of the British generally more useful than the correspondingearly volumes Illyricumonwards I cite the more complete BMC. References to these works are directly to the under consideration. Thus, for coin numbers of the city (BMC)or region (Copenhagen Sylloge) example,the referenceBMC 145-148 undervariety573 is to coin nos. 145-148 of Leukas,regionof to Akarnania,in the BMC volume Thessaly Aetolia 184). The dates assigned to the pre-imperial (p. are probablymore eclecticallyderivedthan they shouldbe. On the whole, the datingof the coinages with CopenhagenSylloge its practiceof assigningbroaddatesby centuriesis preferredto the absolute historicaldates favoredby the BMC,except when such precisehistoricaldating is warranted.




B.C. 2nd-lst centuy


Female head r.


PP'-1 153

15 \


A. Pautasso,Le PrAomane Monete del' Itaia SettentriVarese 1966, onale, xxvii ff. pls. remain. For subaerateGaulish coins No traces of silver plating such as this that have been found in North Italian hoards, see ibid., pp. 95-96. Lion 1.;above, traces of a few blunderedletters.

On this essentialprinciple,see the papersof Buttreyreferencednote 3 above, p. 5.



ca. 217-200 B.C.7


Head of Poseidon r.

B[RVN]below Youth on dolphin 1., holding Nike and lyre; to r., S.




20 +- 8.45


B.C. 4thcentury Head of young Herakles r. 12 \ 1.29 [KPO] below Crab. Cop1823




ca. 203-89 B.C. TETRAS

Head of Artemis r. *420 E-3806 16 / 2.40

PHrINQN at r. of Lyre.




late5thcentury-406 B.C.



[AKPArANTINON] Eagle stg. 1., wings spread. 26 / 12.11

Crab; below, conch shell and octopus; six pellets around.

Calciati I, p. 177, no. 47

intentionallyhalved (found with coin 00-1141, a specimen of Athens variety 59, of the 260's B.C.)

StaatlicheMunzsammlungMunchen 3, Berlin 1973, nos. 558-569; cf. Crawford,CMRR, 66. 7 SNGDeutschland, p.



ca. 420-405B.C.

TRIAS Horned head of river god r.; behind, wheat grain. *422 2-82 18 4 3.93 FEAAEabove Bull walking 1.; in ex., three pellets. GRC,fig. 19

G. K. Jenkins, The of Coinage Gela, Berlin 1970, no. 497

ca. 220-200 B.C.




Head of Apollo 1.; behind, lyre. 25 1 7.88+

Warrior [MAMEPTINQN] stg., facing; at r., n.

Calciati I, p. 103, no. 26



Head of Zeus r.; behind, spearhead. 27 / 9.70+

[MAMEPTINfN] Warriorcharging r.; at r., n.

Calciati I, p. 109, no. 41 Ds 2


ca. 410-400 B.C.


Female head 1. 425 EE-30



4 2.93+

[EYPA] between Dolphin 1. and scallop shell.

Calciati II, pp. 55-58, no. 24

426 a b

NN-2123 Z-2994

[EYPA] above Head of Athena 1., wearing Corinthianhelmet. 20 \ 6.65+ 17 / 4.85 (broken)

Hippocamp 1.

Calciati II, pp. 76-94, nos. 34, 35, 41-45

317-289 B.C.

Head of Artemis r. 427 --706 22 -+ 7.23+

Winged thunderboltbetween illegible two-line legend.

Calciat II, pp. 277-279, no. 142



Head of Persephone1. 428 a b H'-2682 T-158a 17 / 16 l 1.83+ 2.09

Horse stg. r., before palm tree. Sicilian mint same

Cop(Zeugitania: 109-119 Carthage)

B.C. earl-mid-3rd century

Head of Persephone1. *429 nII-105 19 , 4.01

Horse head r.; at r., o.

Cop(Zeugitania: 151 Carthage)

Sardinianmint; GRC,fig. 19 found while demolishinga modern house in the Agora, Fora modern imitationof a Siculo-Punictetradrachm see Appendix A, coin b (p. 291 below).



ca. 330-315 B.C.

Head of young satyr r. 430 *a E-4260 b N-316 13 f 14 1.75 broken

nAN ITI above and below Bow in case.

Shelov, no. 55

B.C. first half 3rd century

Head of young satyr 1. 431 a E-1163 *b BA-405 18 14 l 3.36 1.85

nAN below Bow and arrow. Shelov, no. 65 Shelov, no. 66

Shelov, nos. 65, 66

third 3rd B.C. quarter century Head of Poseidon r. *432



22 f


Shelov, no. 75 nAN[TI] below Prow 1. obv. cmk.: head of Athena r. in Corinthian helmet

Formint attributionsand dating,see Morgantina pp. 113, 150-151, nos. 436, 437. II,




4th century B.C.

Gorgoneion. *433 NN-2160 37 t 19.43

Eagle on dolphin 1. rev. in ex., inscribed n; GRC,fig. 19



4th B.C. late5th-early century wheel. Four-spoked


E. H. Minns, and Scythians Greeks, Cambridge 1913, p. 484, pi. 11:5

434 *a b

PP'-1221 ET'-458a

13 12 -

1.30 1.71

(foundwith pottery of first half 4th century B.C.)



B.C. 4th century

[Griffinseated on club r.]

ABA-HP]I[TE-.N] Head of Apollo r. in linear square.




13 f


(K 9-10:1)


after400 B.C.

Head of Apollo r., laur. 436 AA-251 11 IJ 0.91

A at lower 1. of Anchor; at r., crayfish.

cf. Cop462 (which is larger)



4th centuy B.C.9

r Y above
437 B'-620a Cow walking on dolphin 1. 17 \ 3.09+

Trident between two dolphins.




222-235: JuliaMamea COL-FLPA-CDEVL around Eagle on altar;on each side a standardwith a star in center; in ex., T. J. Jurukova,Die von Munzriigung Berlin 1973, Deultum, no. 173




24 t


(A 14:2) GRC,fig. 24


ca. 398-347 B.C. Horse prancing r. MAP-lNI-TQN Square containing vine and grapes. E. Schonert-Geiss, Die Miinprgung vonMaroneia, Berlin 1987, nos. 598-943

439 *a b

Br-279 BB-274 00-934

13 \ 15 t 11 t

1.95 1.90+ 1.35

ca. 189-45 B.C.

Head of young Dionysos r.



26 t


SchOnert-Geiss [AIONY'OY- EQTHPOEMAPQNITQN]Dionysos (under 439 above), two spears and nos. 1354-1510 stg. 1., holding grapes. ob,v., two circularcmks.: one containing a head, one a rose(?) Similar,but at lower 1. monogram based on H. Schonert-Geiss (under 439 above), nos. 1511-1639

Similar. 441 *a b 18 \ 17 t

X-120 r-171

5.92 3.99+

and 4th centuries B.C.

9 E. Schonert-Geiss(DieMinzrigungvon Berlin/Amsterdam1970, pp. 128-129) gives thisvarietyto the 5th Byzantion,



4th century B.C.

Helmet facing. 442 a b NN-2068 AA-634 19 13 4.42+ 1.63

[M]-E-T-Awithin four spokes of Wheel. (BMC 5, 6) smallermodule (BMC 7)

BMC 5-7

3rd-2nd cenfry B.C.

Female head r. 443 NN-279 16 t 4.35+

2N] [M]ETA[MIBPIAN Athena fighting 1.

Cop660, 661


A.D. 161: Lcius Verus

AV KAI A AV-PHAIOC OVHPOC Bust r. *444 0-428 30 / 17.47


Fish-tailedserpent rising erect from multiple coils.

L. Ruzicka,Die Minzenvon Pautalia, Sophia 1933, no. 161


late3rd century and later B.C.

Jugate heads of Serapis and Isis r.

[nEPINIr.N] Anubis stg. r.

E. Schonert-Geiss, Die Minzpr'gzqg vonPeinthos, Berlin 1965, nos. 31-39



23 t


A.D. 253-268: Galienus

CEB AYT rAAAIHNOC Bust 1., cuir., spear and shield.

nEPINl1QN AlE NEQ2KOPQN Herakles slaying stag 1.

Schonert-Geiss (under 445 above), nos. 899 (obv.)and 854 (rev. [Gordian Il])



30 /




A.D. 218-222: Elagabalus

AVTO M AVPHAANTONEINOC CEB Bust 1., laur., cuir., dr. *447 S-3788 41 f 37.63

MHTPOnOAEQC (sic)Herakles stg. 1., hand resting on club, holding lion's skin. GRC,fig. 25




A.D. 193-217: Julia Domna

AO-MNA CEBA [IOVAIA] Bust r. 448 Z-2135a 26 6.53 (H 12:4)

AVrOVCTHC TPAIAN[HC]Illegible type.

cf. BMC 8, 9



A.D.218-222: Elagabalus ANTO-NINVS PIVS Bust of Elagabalusr., laur., cuir., dr. *449 rr-5 17 t 2.54 AELMVNICOE-LA Prow r.; cornucopia above. BMC 4


4th-3rdcentury B.C.

[E]-A Amphora.

Cop932, 933


NN-1036a 12 -+ 1.63

Head of Hermes r. 451 K-1073 19 t broken

[EHE] at r. of Lyre.

Cop936, 937




276/261-167 B.C. Female head r. [IMBPOY]at 1. of Hermes Imbriamosstg. r., before thymiaterion,holding branch. Kleiner 1976, p. 20, no. 1 (B 20:9) Cop952-957

452 *a b *c

15 t 3.45 13 t 1.92 12 4 1.27 Between 166 and 86 B.C.the reestablished Atheniancleruchyon Imbrosstruckan AE 2 emissionwith a reverse that repeatsthe present reverseof ithyphallicHermes Imbriamosbefore thymiaterion,althoughwith the legend AeENAIfN; the obverse type, Athena head in Corinthianhelmet, was modeled on the obverseof the standard "Muinzen KleruchenaufImbros," der 2nd-centuryB.C.Athenian FulminatingZeus AE 2 (F.W. Imhoof-Blumer, AM 7, 1882, pp. 146-148; idem, Amsterdam1883, p. 49, no. 49). Monnaes grecs, The bronze here representedin three Agora specimensshould be earlierand presumablybelongs to the long period of Imbrian independence from Athens which began in 276 or 261 B.C. (Ferguson,p. 320, note 3). For an Augustan"cleruchy" issue with the compound legend AGE INBPI,see 161. NN-1126 9-994 ET-285

Hephaistia 276/261-167 B.C. Male head r., diad. H-0IA-I Race torch between pilei of the Kabeiroi. (from drain deposit with coins to 86 B.C.) Cop979

453 *a T-856 b NN-1498 c A-1104 d II-902

15 18 18 16

/ t t

3.24+ 3.75 3.99

t 5.03

166-86B.C. Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 15 \ 2.88 12 / 2.79 14 \ 2.70 E Race torch bound with fillet. AE Cop(Atica) 102, BMCAttica 577

454 *a IIO-115 b 1-44 c A-26

By size and arrangementof the ethnic, this last varietyis relatedto AthenianAE 3 varietiesof ca. 170-86 B.C. (PeriodIII).The race-torchreverseand the rude styleof the Athena head make it dear, however,that it shouldbe to attributed the Atheniancleruchyat HephaistiaafterLemnoswas retured to Athens in 167/6 (Polybios30.20). 456 is a parallelstrikingfrom Lemnos'second cleruchycity,Myrina.



It is probablethat at least a few of the coinslistedunder455A are from4th- or early3rd-century Hephaistia. B.C. For an early Augustanissue in the name of the Lemnian Atheniansbut with an Hephaistos-headreversetype, see 159A.


386-276/261 B.C. Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 455 *a *b *c *d *e *f g h 41 coins ME-31 0-505 ET'-528 fl-432 NN-1790 T-1602 II9-697 X-107 12-16 14 t 15 t 14 -17 t 13 t 12 t 13 A 15 vAv. 2.19 (27) 3.16 2.82 2.16 2.47 1.82 1.71 2.26 very worn MYPI (usuallyupward at 1.) Owl stg., facing; usually at r., a branch. Cop988, 990

GRC,fig. 19 MYPI downwardat 1. (as also --173) (B 13:1) (N 18:3)

Similar,except legend and symbol illegible. 455A 28 coins 12-15 mm., of variety 455 or the parallelbut less common Hephaistia variety Cop973: Head of Athena in Corinthianhelmet/Owl, stg., facing,between tongs (on 1.)and HOAdownwards(at r.). *a Z-2854 14 \ 1.98 obv. cmk.: X in incuse circle b 0-657 14 t 1.91 same c E-91 14 - very worn (N21:4) d IIE-529 14 - 2.58 (B 13:1) Three specimensof 455 were excavatedat Olynthos,one definitelyfromthe floorof a house destroyedin 348,10 the other two in less clear stratigraphical which neverthelessrelate to the pre-348 occupation of circumstances, the city."1 The Athena/Owl coinage of Myrina (and Hephaistia,see 455A) thus began between the restoration of the Lemnian cleruchies in 386 and the middle of the 4th century.A considerablevariety in style implies a lengthy period of minting, lasting probablyuntil the loss of Lemnos to Athens in 314, or even later if some of the coins shouldhappen to belong to the restoredcleruchyof 307-276 or -261 (Ferguson, 49, 64, 320, note pp. 3). Since the larger 14-17 mm. pieces were probablyissued as dichalkia(see p. 38 above), the of countermarking 455Aa and b with an X might have servedto devalue each to a X(aXxou0). Forspecimensin published2nd-centuryB.C. deposits,see Kleiner 1975, p. 307, nos. 112, 113 (Myrina),p. 312, no. 195 (Myrinaor Hephaistia,not Athens as published); 319, no. 267 (Myrina); Kleiner 1976, p. 12, nos. 4, 5 p. (Myrinaor Hephaistia). 10 XIV p. 422, no. 1; from the floor of house B vi, room f. Olynthus 1 Olynthus p. 86, nos. 760, 761, respectivelyfrom Streetvi before house A vi 2, and from a house(?)in Section G, VI, Area 29, probablyat floor level. Nicholas Cahill informspe litteras the areas,levels, coins, and other materialfound that with these coins point to deposit at the time of the 348 destructionor during the habitationthat preceded it. Although also belonging to 348 destructiondebris, OlnthusIX, p. 240, no. 1 is not a coin of Myrina.



NON-ATHENIAN COINS 166-86B.C. A Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. Quiver,upright, crossed by Q diagonal bow. E Sv. 106.27-29

456 *a *b *c *d

A-9E; same obv. die as 456c Size, format,and crudeobversestyleassociatethisvarietywith the Athena/Race torchAE 3 cleruchyemission of Hephaistia 454. Since the bow and quiver of Apollo or Artemis was, like Apollo's branch on 455 and the bow on Cop989, used from time to time as a symbol of Myrina (see under 159 and note 218 above, p. 111), the presentemissionis doubtlessfrom this second cleruchycity on Lemnos.

13 coins E-370a IIE-84 T-1809 A-347a

13-16 14 / 14 / 13 \ 13 \

Av.2.42 (7) 2.49 3.25 2.21 2.12


1st B.C.12 2nd-early cenury Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 457 a b

1-57 K-1558 E-988a

19 \ 4.47 18 +- 4.51 18 - 6.38

EAMO (457a, b) or EAM00P (457c) at 1. of great goddess seated 1. rev., downwardsat r., nYeOK same name illegible [EAMO] Forepartof ram r.


Similar. 458 00-1479 15 f 3.89

cf. Cop1002


ca. 390-310


CHALKOUS Head of young Herakles r. 459 a b K-176 A-1554


11 -+ 0.97 10 - 0.63

[eA]EION between Bow and club; rudder within bow. below bow, star within bow, A, and caduceus?

cf. Cop1050, 1051

Head of bearded Herakles r. 460 BA-316 20 -+ 5.72

GAEION above. Club over bow.

cf. Cop1052

12 O. Picard,"Thrace,"in CRWLR (pp. 79-92), p. 81. 13 0. Picard,"L'atelier monetairede Thasos,"RN,ser.6, 29, 1987, pp. 7-9, identifyingalso the denominationsof 459 and 460.



306-281 B.C. Lysimachos, AR DRACHM Head of young Herakles,r. BAEIAEQEIAYIIMAXOY Zeus seated 1., holding eagle and scepter;at 1., dolphin above lion's forepart;below throne, tripod or quiver(?). Thompson, EssaysRobinson, no. 36 (but with differentsymbol below throne)



16 /


Lampsakosmint, 299-296 B.C.

AR DRACHM Head of deified Alexander r. BAEIAEflEI AYSIMAXOY Athena seated 1., holding Nike; at 1., lyre. Thompson, EssaysRobinson, no. 174



20 4 4.26

Ephesos mint, ca. 294-287 B.C.;EABC,p. 152, pl. 17, coin R:69 (A 18:8);GRC,fig. 16

AR TETRADRAcHM Similar. Similar,except at 1., k; on throne, BY; below, trident between dolphins. 13.85 cf. Cop1142, 1143



35 t

Posthumousstrikingof Byzantion: 2nd century B.C.;14 (D 4:1)

Head of Ares r., wearing Attic helmet. 464 a b ZZ-109 e-345 18 X 18 t 3.76 3.03

BAIIAEQE[ AYEIMAXOY Lion running r.; beneath, spearhead.


above lion 1., BA; below, IE (Cop1157) no details

Rhoimetakes 11 B.C.-A.D. 12 I,

POIMHTAAKOY BAYIiAEQE Head r., diad. 465 BB-619 19

KAIZAPOE EEBASTOY Head of Augustusr., bare.

Cop1192-1195; RPC I, 1718

4 4.39

14 H. Robinson 183-200), pp. 197-198: Seyrig,"Monnaieshellenistiquesde Byzance et de Calcedoine, in Essays (pp. "Les'emissions Byzance avec tridentorni et initiales." de




first halfof 4th centuy B.C.15



Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 18 -+ 4.39

A-KIA-Nin the four quarters of a Wheel.



ca. 31-27B.c.:


[KAIEAPiEOY YlOE] Head of Octavian r. 467 2-729 22 4.84

AM lInOA[EITDN]below Artemis Tauropolisriding bull r.

Cop89-91; RPC I, 1626

A.D. 161-175: FaustinaII

CEBACTH [<(AYETEINA] Bust r. *468 AA-451 18 4 broken

[AMOlnOAEI]TQN Artemis Tauropolis riding bull r.



ca. 187 B.C. Head of Zeus Ammon I *469 NN-1121 16 t 3.46 [AtY] above Two birds billing. Kleiner 1976, p. 15, no. 1 (A-B 19-20:1) Cop131, 132




Head of young Pan r. 470 IIIn-533 21 . 11.55

B above Two goats, kneeling r.; all in oak wreath.

BMC, p. 13, no. 46

15 OlyntusIX, p. 216, no. 3; pp. 263-266: eight specimens. Note the seventy Olynthos specimens of the related smallerdenomination(Cop 23), Athena head/AKIANin square(Olynthus p. 263, and Olynthus p. 413, no. 2). 22, IX, XI, 16 Touratsoglou,CRWLR, 55, pl. 7:17. p.



43 B.C. (orlater)

COL-[DIENSIS] Plow r. *471 P-549a 16 -4 3.00

DI[ANA BAPHYR] Diana Baphyras running r., trampling on a vexillum.

RPC I, 1503


ca. 400-348 B.C. Head of Apollo r., laur. *472 T-11 15 4 2.87 XAA-KIA-Ef2Naround Lyre. Cop246


4th-3rdcentury B.C. Star of eight rays. 473 a b rr-268 Br'-309 18 - blistered 16 - brokenedges [OYPANIAQ-nOAERE] Aphrodite Ourania seated 1. Cop455-457


after168/7 B.C.17

Head of Athena Parthenosr. 474 PP'-443 16 / 5.97

nEAI[AHE]Cow feeding r.



ca. 356-350 B.C. Head of young Herakles r.

? IAIlfll2Nat r. of
Tripod; above, branch; at 1., bunch of grapes.

BMC 13

*475 17


16 -4 5.45

Price, CRWLR,p. 100, and Mattingly 1990, p. 67. Touratsoglou (CRWLR,pp. 55, 63, pi. 10:2) prefers 187-168/7 B.C.


27B.C.-A.D. 68

Nike stg. 1. VIC-AVG 476 *a MM-150 b IIO-864 c II-650 20 t 2.75 18 4 2.99+ 17 4 3.01+

COHOR PRAE PHILThree militarystandards.

Cop305, 306; RPCI, 1651

Forpossibleadditionalcoins of the Roman colony,see under 868-870.


B.C.18 firsthalfof 4thcentury

Head of Aphrodite r. 477 Z-1695 13 1 3.01

[E]KI-QDove r.



187-168/7 B.c.19 Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. eEEEAAOINIKHE Horse running r. below horse, caduceus (BMC 40) (E 14:3) rev. symbol illegible 168/7-146 B.C.20 Head ofJanus. 479 S-2981 18 -+ 4.22 Cop370 [e]EEEAA[O]JNIKHE] Two centaurs rearingback to back. BMC 40-42

478 a r-1099
b A-291

21 t blistered 20 f 5.69




[AmrNOEIIA] Head of Agonothesia r. 20 \ 5.41

ANTIKAIin laurel wreath.

Cop375-377; RPC I, 1552

A.D. 54-68: Nero

Head of Nero 1. 481 ST-91a 16


eEEE[A-A]O[NIKH] Nike stg. 1. on globe.

Touratsoglou 1988, p. 174, nos. 6-10; RPC I, 1595

4 4.11

18 Oyntus IX, p. 227, no. 4; pp. 311-312; Olynt XIV, p. 419, no. 2: total offifty-eight specimensfrom Olynthos. 19 Touratsoglou,CRWR,Ip. 55, pl. 8:9. 20 Ibid.,pl.8:16.

A.D. 98-117: Trajan


Bust of Trajan r. 482 AA-7a 26 1 10.76+

[------- ]

Nike striding1.; in field 1., crescent.

Touratsoglou 1988, pp. 186-187, nos. 5-12


211-217: Julia Domna

Bust ofJ. Domna r. 483 r-158 24 t 9.18


striding1., carrying Kabeiros image and palm.

Touratsoglou 1988, pp. 222-223, nos. 31-55


243-249: time Philip I (?) of



Bust of eE[CCA]IAON[IKH] city goddess r., veiled and turreted. 16 +- 2.17


Touratsoglou 1988, pp. 348-350, nos. 1-8


Philip II, 359-336 B.C.

485 a b

d e

BB-1262 00-1011 Q-473 00-563 T-1369

above Young male head (ApoU r., lo?) [IAIllnnOY] taenia. Nude horseman r. wearing 19 - blistered below horse, NE(as McClean 3374) 17 \ broken same? 15 +- broken below horse, N-monogram 17 - 4.34 no details 15 - broken obv. head 1. (as Cop616); no details
Head of young Herakles r. s,






12 -


Alexander 336-323 B.C.,includig III, posthumous coinage


Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet decorated with snake. *487 ME-204 19 t 8.60

AAE-ANAPOY behind BMCAlexander 2598 Nike stg. 1., holding wreath and stylis;to 1., : and race torch. Sardis mint, ca. 323-319 B.C.; Kleiner 1975, p. 307, pl. 76, no. 114 Drachm Mints : 12-14); GRC,fig. 16; M. Thompson, Alexander's desandMiletus(Numismatic Studies New York 1983, no. 170, 16),

186 AR DRAcIm


Head of young Herakles r.

AAE-ANAPOY behind Zeus seated 1., holding eagle and scepter.

488 *a


16 t 18 t 17 t 16 t 20 / 19 t 16 t 18 ? 18 /

3.90 3.96 3.47 3.00 3.52 3.02 3.41 broken 2.47

*b II-525 *c A-415

*d T-1503 *e E-356 K-1387 0-431 T-352 EA-320

*f *g
h *i

rev at 1., t. BMCAkxander r. 3109: Kition mint, ca. 325-320 B.C.GRC, 16 fig. rev at 1., spearhead;below, star.BMCAexander v. 1761: "Kolophon" mint, ca. 323-319 B.C. rev at 1., 4; below, r. BMCAexander 1817: "Kolophon"mint, ca. r. 314 0-301 B.C. rev at 1.,ME; below [ivy leaf]. BMCAkxander v. 1560: "Abydos" mint, ca. 310-301 B.C. rev at 1., E; no symbol below. BMCAkxander v. 2771: WesternAsia inor(?)mint, ca. 323-280 B.C. v.at 1., crescent(?) details details LtedAE; no details

MacedonianBronze,ca. 336-323 B.C. Young male head r., diad. 489 a b c d e Symbolson rev.illegible 17 -+ 3.76 A-217 14 \ 3.44 B'-935 15 t 4.10 K-1505 NN-1686 17 . 3.59 16 \ 4.31 -440 AAEEANAPOYabove Horse prancing r. 338BMCAlxander 370

Kleiner 1976, p. 16, no. 2 (A-B 19-20:1)

Head of young Heraklesr. 490 *a b c d Symbolson rev.illegible 18 t 4.90 K-1756 20 4 4.20 BE-298 17 4 5.23 BE-576 19 - 4.97 S-3a

AAEEANAPOYbetween Bow in case and club.

BMCAxander325, 326, 329-333, etc.



Similar. 13 / 1.64


BMCAexander 328

Similar. 492 *a BB-546 *b MM-23 c 00-1246 10\ 11 \ 12 1.15 1.34 2.01

Similar,except club above bow in case.

BMCAkxander 327

CATALOGUE ca. 325-310 Similar. *493 NN-2046 18 e 4.84



BAEI between Bow in case and club. Macedonian mint B A between Bow with quiver and club. symbol on rev. illegible;Macedonian mint BAEIAEfZ between Bow in case and club; below, race torch. WesternAsia Minor(?) mint
PhilipIII, 323-316B.C.

267 BMCAlexander

Similar. 494 AA-939a 18 4.85

BMCAlexander 376-390


BMCAlexander 2800



19 +- 5.68

AR DRACHM Similar.

Zeus seated 1., holding eagle and scepter. rev. at 1., torch; below, Ml. BMCAlexander Sardis mint, ca. 323P68:
319 B.C.

496 *a


16 t 16 t

3.80 3.90

*b ME-136

rev. at 1., bee or rosebud;below TI. BMCAlexander 92A: Sardis P92, mint, ca. 323-319 B.C. Regal Anonymous Bronze
ca. 325-300 B.C.



Macedonian shield; in center, club. 16 - 3.98

B-A Macedonian helmet.

BMCAlexander 419

The datingby K. Liampi("ZurChronologieder sogennanten'anonymen'makedonischenMunzen des spaten 4. Jhs. v. Chr.,"JVG 36, 1986, pp. 41-65) of this (ibid.,group 11.3)and all other varieties of the Macedonian Shield/Helmet Bronzewithouta royalmonogramon the shieldto the last quarterof the 4th centuryis confirmed by the thirteen Shield/Helmet pieces that were excavated, along with coins of Alexander III and a coin of Kassandros,in the Northwest Quarter of Olynthos, inhabited until 316 (Olynthus pp. 237, 394, nos. 2-4, IX, with pp. 329-330 and p. 297 below)and the twentyexamplesexcavatedat the Olynthianport at Mekyberna,also abandoned in 316 (Olynthus pp. 257, 397, nos. 3-5, with pp. 372-374). IX, Similar. Similar,except symbol or monogram on shield illegible. 9 coins, 16-17 mm., of uncertainMacedonian Shield/Helmet variety Tracesof a royalmonogramappearin the centerof the obverseon two of these coins (BB-666, T-346), but it is unclear whether the monogram is that of Demetrios (as 506), Pyrrhos,or Antigonos Gonatas. For the issues of these kings,see Liampi (aboveunder 497), p. 45, pl. 6:a-c.



COINS NON-ATHENILAN 316-297 B.C. Kassandros, Head of young Herakles r. Recumbent lion r.


Cop1 38-1141




t 4.33
Nude horseman crowning horse r.




16 coins *a NN-1462 b E-2458 *c 1-151

17-21 Av.5.35 (12) 19 - 3.80 19 t 5.69 20 t 4.87 Head of Apollo r., laur.

cf. below horse'sbelly, A (?), Cop1147 between horse's legs, bunch of grapes(?),cf. Cop 1151 no details, as on all other specimens


Tripod lebes.




5.85 306-283 PbIior*etes, Demetrios




Nike on prow 1.

Poseidon, striding brandishing trident 1.;at 1., A; at r., S. Tarsos mint, ca. 298-295 B.C. GRC,fig, 16 EABC,p. 152, p1. 17, no. Q.68 (A 18:8)

Newell, no. 45


rr- 187

14 13


t 1.51


Head of Demetrios r., vvearing diadem and bull's horn *503 '11-330 12 +- 0.96+

AHMH[TPIOYI BAEIIAE[flEI Newell, no. 56 or 58

Poseidon brandishing trident 1.;at r., ivy leaf. Ephesos mint, Ca.301-295 B.C.

504 *a *b c d

f g h

B A above Prow r. Newel, nos. 20, 34, Head of Demetrios r., 40, 170, 172-174 wearing Corinthianhelinet with horn. 300-295 B.c. 15-17 Av.2.87(13) 18 coins no details 16 3.94 A-283 same 16 t 2.55 11-6 same 16 t 2.27 NN-131 same 16 t 3.61 BB-20 below prow,M1.Newell, no. 20: Salamis mint broken r-781 same (A 17:3) 1111-1002 broken below prow,R. Newell, no. 34: Tarsosmint broken 00-338 broken EA-377 (O-R 7-10)

Head of Poseidon r. *505 0Er-63 16


B A above Prow r.; at r., Newell, no. 167 double axe; below,R. Carian mint?, after 300 B.c.; EABC,p. 152, p1. 17, no. P:67 (A 18:8)

CATALOGUE Macedonian shield; in center, M1P.



BA-EI Macedonian helmet; Newell, nos. 125uncertain symbol at 1. 131 / 3.81 NN-1688 17 Amphipolisor Pella mint, ca. 294-288 B.C.;Kleiner 1976, p. 16, no. 10 (A-B 19-20:1) For the attributionof this variety to Demetrios Poliorketes(as opposed to Demetrios II, cf. Cop1224-1229), see Newell, pp. 118-120, and Liampi (under497 above),p. 45. 277-239 Antigonos Gonatas, Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet.

B-A on either side of Pan erecting trophy;between legs, 4J.


507 *a *b *c d *e *f g h i j *k *1 *m *n

160 coins 00-305 NN-1585 N-529 InnI-260 r-1110 NN-2116 E-4386 ME-328 Z-1118 e-189 A-210a H-46 A-1 _-467

18-22 Av. 5.52 (99) 20 -* 5.39 21 +- 8.73 6.06 21 19 6.12 21 -+ 8.00 18 / 4.49 6.68 20 22 - 5.28 20 4.43 21 +- worn 19 1 6.22 19 4 5.29 18 - 5.25 19 6.57 Similar.

rev. at 1., 1 at 1., 0 (as also r-619 and r-1098) at 1., 0 or flower(?)(as also H'-2326) at 1., K over 4>(as also K-1307) thick, angularflan, as 507b rev. Pan, holding wreath in r., crowning trophy at 1., K (as also T-7) at 1., Macedonian helmet with two side plumes same, and at lower r., B at lower r., trident at lower 1., pedum; obv. cmk.: facing head of Hera obv. cmk.: facing head of Hera (as also 00-327) cmk.: head of Pan r. in circularincuse (as also rr-348) cmk.: wreath (as also K-1004) Similar. Pan crowning(?)trophy same Cop1212, 1213


5 coins *a NN-969 *b A-1106

16-17 Av. 3.50 (5) 16 / 2.66 17 -+ 3.94

The size distinction between the two denominationsof this Pan-erecting-trophy bronze is clearer from the than fromour illustrations. judge from the Athenian evidence To specimensillustratedin the Copenhagen Sylloge (p. 38 above), the common AE 2 variety 507 ought to representthe hemiobol, the rare AE 3 variety 508 the quarter-obol. The countermark a facinghead of Hera on threeAgora specimens(see 507k, 1)was added at Chalcis;Picard, of Chakis, 180-181, for other examplesand discussion.The identification the profilehead in the countermark of pp. of 507m (cf.McClean also 509c below)as Pan'sseems clear from the little horn above the brow. 3606, 3608; Head of young Herakles r. 509 *b c *, d e 19 coins B A above Nude horseman crowning horse r.; below, J1. Cop1214-1221

*a 0-6
HI-759 NN-1455 ET'-549 EA-161

rev. cmk.: head of Pan r. in incuse circle obv. cmk.: Boiotian helmet in incuse circle between front legs of horse, 4 These Herakles/Horsemancoins bear the same ANTI monogramas Gonatas'Athena/Pan bronze (507, 508) and have been variouslyascribedto Gonatas(Cop 2114-2121; Price 1967, p. 374, no. 28) or to AntigonosDoson, 229-220 B.C. (e.g., by Head 1881, pp. 261-263; Svoronos 1908, p. 230; Walker 1978, p. 43). The problem is bound up with the attributionof the AntigonidPoseidon/Apollo-prowtetradrachms, which I. L. Merkergave to

16-19 16 4 17 t 17 \ 19 +- 4

Av.4.00 (15) 3.32 4.10 4.40 3.84 broken

at r. of horse, crescent


NON-ATHENIAN COINS Doson ("TheSilverCoinage ofAntigonos Gonatasand AntigonosDoson,"ANSMN 1960, pp. 39-52, followed 9, by Boehringer[p. 99]), but which more recent studies(R. W. Mathisen, "PanHeads and Poseidon Heads: Two Third-CenturyMacedonian TetradrachmTypes," SAN 16, 1985, pp. 29-35; N. G. L. Hammond and F. W. in Walbank,A History Macedonia Oxford 1988, pp. 594-595, following C. T. H. R. Erhardt, Studies the III, of Doson[diss. State Universityof New Yorkat Buffalo 1975]) now reattribute Reigs of Dmetrus II andAntsgonus to the later years of Gonatas' long reign. This reattribution leaves Doson without any silver in his own name, but this is paralleledby the preceding monarch, Demetrios II, 239-229 B.C., who did not mint, at least in his own name, in either silveror bronze. ProfessorMathisen has compiled a record of severalhundredAntigonid bronzes and in correspondencehas kindlyexplained that there are good groundsfor assigningthe Herakles/Horsemanpieces to Gonatas. Some of these coins are markedwith a controlsymbolof Macedonianhelmetwith two largesideplumes,which occursalso on a numberof the Athena/Pan bronzes(cf.507h and Cop1205-1207) and all Gonatas'silverdrachms(Cop 1203). To this one may add that (eaving aside the rare,small-moduleAthena/Pans, 508, which may antedatethe start of the horseman series)the two bronze varietieshave differentsizes and weights, clearlyrepresenttwo different Unlike the AE 2 Athena/Pan pieces, the AE 3 denominations,and could verywell havebeen struckconcurrently. in Athens,nor like the Athena/Pan coins were they Herakles/Horsemanbronzedid not circulatevery commonly with Atheniantypes(see 69). But both circumstances called in duringthe 220's and overstruck may be explained and need not imply any chronologicaldistinction. by the smallersize and value of the Herakles/Horsemancoins Just as Athens massively recoined the larger Athena/Pan pieces, so thousands of the Antigonid Herawith local types in Boiotia;see 595. kles/Horseman bronzeswere overstruck

[500 or 509] 4 coins of 18-19 mm. Herakles/Horsemantype of either Kassandrosor Antigonos.

Philp V,220-178 B.C.

Head of Zeus r.

B [A]I0 Athena Alkidamos stridingr., brandishing thunderboltin raised r. hand, holding shield on extended 1. arm; at lower r., bird.






3.35 Cop1248-1251

Head of young Heraklesr. 511 IIn-852 21


B-AI[0] Two goats kneeling r.


Similar. 512 r-1390 23 -+ broken [Head of Perseusr.] 513 EA-385 18 4.06

Harpa r.; all in oak wreath.

Cop1261, 1262

Harpa 1.;all in oak wreath. in O-R 7-10) (intrusive 178-168 B.C. PhilipVorPerseus,


[Head of Perseusr.]


1., Eagle stg three-quarters lifted, head to r. wings 514 BA-362 20 3.73 (Q6:2, see under P 6:2 and Q6:2)

Cop1254-1256 or 1271-1280



3rdcentury Christ after AAEEANAPOY Head of Alexander wearing lion's skin r. 24 4 9.95 24 4 10.93 27 1 6.75 KOINONMAKEAONQN B NEQ Horseman r. Cop1372, 1373

515 *a b c

1-316 K-1796 _-la



B.C. 4th-3rdcentury Head of Zeus 1., laur. 516 a b A-511 A-315 16 4. 1.18 15 \ 1.78 Warriorslinging r. [AINIANQN] Rogers, no. 137; Cop4, 5

B.C. ca. 168-1st century Head of Zeus r., laur. *517 'i-132 20 f 6.48 Similar. Rogers, nos. 143150; Cop22, 23


3rd century B.C.

Head of Apollo r., laur. 518 KTA-123 18 t 4.66

ATP-[Arl]-QN Horseman r.

Rogers, nos. 169172; Cop30, 31


4th-3rd century B.C.



Head of nymph facing threequartersr. 19 t 4.16+

[rOM4] Zeus Palamnaios, with scepter,seated 1. on rocks.

Rogers, no. 214; Cop50



4thcentury B.C. Head of Zeus 1. or r., laur. 520 a b c d fA-47 S-1841 AA-298 KK-523 19 18 21 18 /

t t

4.53 5.08 5.74 4.15

FYPT-f2NIQN Horse Rogers, nos. 232235; Cop59, 60 stepping r. Zeus head r. same Zeus head 1.; M monogram below horse (D 4:1) Zeus head 1.


B.C. 4thcentury Head of nymph facing. cf. Rogers, nos. 238240, 242-245 and Cop 64, 65, all with Zeus-head obverses (4th-centuryB.C. context: in stone bedding of pebble floor of house) und A. Moustaka,Kulte Mythen Miinzen, Wirzburg 1983, aufthessalische no. 168. p. 135, pl. 2, [AAEf2N]Phrixos riding ram r.


NN-2104a 15 % 4.75

B.C. 4thcentury Head of Poseidon r., laur. 522 B-504 19 / 3.69+ Bull charging r. MAFNIKPANN variant of Rogers, nos. 187-189 and Cop41, 42 [KPA]Thessalian horseman r. Rogers, nos. 179185; Cop39, 40

Thessalian horseman r.



15 t


B.C. 4thcentury Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet. 524 1-1209 15 4 1.75 Philoktetes [AAMIEf2N] kneeling,shooting r. Rogers, no. 388; Cop84-86 [M]AAIE[fN] Philoktetesstg., shooting r. Rogers, no. 384; Cop87, 88

Head of nymph Lamia r. 525 II-532 14 / broken



B.C. 4th century



Head of nymph Larissafacing three-quarters1. 20 \ 7.75 [Similar.]

[AAPIEEAinN] Horse stepping r.

Rogers, nos. 269280; Cop136-139

[AAPIEEAIQN] Horseman holding lance r.

Rogers, nos. 284287; Cop140, 141



17 -

7.05 [AAPIEjEAIQN] Horse grazing r. Rogers, no. 288; Cop142

Head of nymph Larissar. *528 AA-167 17 f 4.26

Similar. 529 *a -_-30 b nI-408

[AAnlElEAIQN] Horse grazing 1.

Rogers, no. 295; Cop144

13 t 2.34 EABC,p. 152, pl. 17, coin S:70 (A18:8) 12 / broken The good condition (w2) of 529a in the A 18:8 hoard of the 260's suggeststhat the bronze coinage of Larissa might have continued into the 3rd century (so Kroll, EABC,p. 152), even though Larissa ceased to mint in silver around 320 B.C. (Martin [note 50 above, p. 12], p. 52). That this and the other Larissabronze varieties from the seventeenpieces (mostlyof varieties began well before the middle of the 4th centuryis clearnevertheless 528 and 529) from the Olynthos excavations(Olynthus p. 343; Olynthus IX, XIV, p. 424).

ca. 302-286B.C.

Head of nymph 1.

AAPI below Harpa r.; all in olive wreath.

Rogers, nos. 319, 320; cf. Cop152 (head r.)



12 +- 1.68


ca. 197-146B.C. Head of Zeus r., laur. *531 00-290 31 +- 6.56 Head of Zeus.1. or r., diad. 532 *a 1-487 b T-671 20 " 5.67 17 1 2.21 Rogers, nos. 348352; Cop161, 162 MAr-NH-TQ[N] Centaur r.; below, star. Rogers, no. 339; cf. Cop157-160

MArNHITQN Prow r. Zeus head r. same

194 c d A-10 1-227 20 f 18 t 5.38 4.45

NON-ATHENIAN COINS Zeus head 1. same

Head of Zeus r. 533 4-15 18 -+ 4.99

MAr[NIH]T2N Horse stepping r.

Rogers, no. 353


235-238: Maximinus Rogers, no. 375



[FA]IOYK BH [MAEIMEINOC] [APFrQMArNHTfN] Bust r., laur., dr. Argo with rowers r. " 23 5.38+


4th-3rd centuy B.C.

Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 535 Q-206a 16 -+ broken

Trident in wreath.


Rogers, nos. 423425; Cop184


4th century B.C.

Young male head r. 536 *a *b c d KK-267 0-323 Z-2268 ET'-450 20 20 19 19 t / / / 6.36 5.90 6.41 7.45

4AAANNAIDN Head of nymph r. rev., behind head, A; behind shoulder,Bo no rev. letters (Rogers,no. 452)

Rogers, nos. 446452; Cop203-208


4thcentury B.C. Head of Athena facing I., three-quarters wearing helmet with three crests. 17 \ 2.74 Similar. e-A-P-n Horseman charging r. Rogers, nos. 494, 495




Rogers, nos. 489492, 496-507; Cop230-233

538 a


20 f


CATALOGUE b c T-660 H-1568 20 f 19 5.27 3.75


Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. *539 NN-1642 10 +- 0.98

[<-A-P-E] Horse's head r.

Rogers, no. 509


196-1st century B.C.

Head of Apollo r., laur. 540 *a *b c d e f g 21 coins NN-1992 00-14 1-168 E-3490 $-36 II-1276 K-1467 17-23 Av.5.80 (17) 19 \ 6.93 18 t 6.43 17 t 4.44 20 t 6.62 19 t 6.62 19 t 6.70 21 t 6.48

Athena Itonia fighting r. rev. at r., lC(Rogers,no. 17)

Rogers, nos. 5-42; Cop310-317

nos. F [(i]-AOKIA-OPlE- (Rogers, 29, 30)

[<I]-AOK(Rogers,nos. 29-32)

nos. (Rogers, 42, 42b) T-[II]M-[A]

at 1., T (cf. Rogers, no. 15) Kleiner 1975, p. 312, pl. 76, no. 201 (H-I 14:1)

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 541 *a r-912 b H-651 c e-242 d e-352 e KTA-2 18 18 18 16 16

Horse stepping r.

Rogers, nos. 43-51b; Cop324-328

t t t t t

5.43 5.41 3.23 2.53 2.60

no. obv.,NYEIEANI[APOY] (Rogers, 45)

Kleiner 1975, p. 307, no. 117 (H-K 12-14)


14-37: Tzberius

OEEE[AANQN EEBA]ETHfN Head of emperor 1. 542 e-857 24 t 5.75

ETPATHrOY [ANTIrONOY] Athena Itonia fighting r.

Rogers, no. 64; Cop333; RPC I, 1435


81-96: Domitian Domitia and [AOMITIANEEBAETH] Bust r. Rogers, nos. 88, 89; Cop339

[AOMITIANONKAIEAPA eEEEAAOI] Bust r., laur. 543 BB-655a 19 4.15


A.D. 117-138: Hadrian


Bust r., laur. 544 H'-3439 21

[A OX NIKO-MAXOY] Athena Itonia fighting r.

Rogers, nos. 90, 91; Cop340

4 4.38
NIKO-[MAXOY] Horse stepping r.; below, R. Rogers, no. 92; Cop341, 342



[AXIA-AEYC] Bust of Achilles r., wearing crested helmet. 17 , broken

[AXIA]-AEYC Bust of Achilles r., wearing crested helmet. *546 A-479 13


[eE]CCAAQIN Horse stepping r.

Rogers, no. 93; Cop344


A.D. probably 211-217: Caracalla Bust of emperor (Caracalla?)r. 27 . extremelyworn


[KOINONeECCAAflN] Athena Itonia fighting r.

cf. Rogers, nos. 107, 108; Cop351



A.D. probably 253-268: Gallienus

[----548 1-321 24

Athena Itonia fighting r.

Bust of emperor (Gallienus?)r.

cf. Rogers, nos. 126, 127; Cop355, 356

4 extremelyworn

3rd-2ndcentury B.C. Head of young Dionysos r., wearing ivy wreath. 18 t 3.00


Rogers, no. 562; Cop362



B.C. 2nd-lst century Athena Itonia fighting r. 550 H-1907 16

Owl 1.

Rogers, no. 566


Fora coin of Peparethosin a 4th-centuryB.C. context, see p. 300 below.Forcoins of earlyAugustantimesstruck in the name of the Atheniancleruchsof the Thessalianisland of Skyros,see 160.




2nd-lst century B.C. Head of Dodonian Zeus r. s AYP below Tripod; at 1. and r., magistrate'sname; all in olive

BMC 158-169

551 *; a 1 b c d e f

E-462 I10-297 A-297 Q-504 S-4885 r-1617a

17 . 18 t 18 f 17 18 .

3.36 3.76 3.90 4.81 2.85

(BMC 169) XAIPIAIAOY VIAQlTA(BMC 167, 168) [4I]AnQTA ] [nO]AAIl[f2NO' (BMC 165)

16 f



55 if comes froma context of the earlier1stcenturyB.C.: MartyrII, layer4 to east of terracottapipes."In this "r is layer,the latestAtheniancoin, of variety94 (99/8 B.C.), worn to the same slightdegree as the Dyrrhachioncoin.


168-1st century B.C. Head of Dodonian Zeus r. *552 00-320a 16 -+ 6.33 [IKOAPI-NQN] Illyriangalley. BMC 1



A.D. 98-117: Trajan

Bust of Trajan r., laur., cuir. *553 E-1245 19


Emperor charging on horsebackr.

4 3.37
A.D. 117-138: Hadrian

Oikonomidou, Trajan, nos. 2-4 (obv.);rev. unpublished

AAPIANOC KAI[CAP] Bust r., laur. *554 NN-979 19 \ 2.68

NEIK[On]O-[AEWC] Tyche stg. r., with rudder and cornucopia.

Oikonomidou, Hadrian, no. 32



Head of Augustusr.

[NEIKOnOAEWC] Prow in form of boar's head r.

Oikonomidou, Augustus,no. 53 (obv.);Augustus, no. 57 and Hadrian, no. 5 (rev.)21



21 +- 3.01


136-137: Alius Caesar

[A AIAIOCKAICAP] Head of Aelius r. 556 00-726a 17 \ 3.19

[NIKOnOAEWC] Galley 1.

cf. Oikonomidou, Aelius Caesar, nos. 12-15


193-217: Julia Domna

AO[MNA CEB] [I]OYAIA Bust r. 557 B-255a 22 t 5.65

Kybele riding lion r.

Oikonomidou,Julia Domna, no. 43

A.D. 198-217: Caracall

Bust of Caracalla r. 558 IIA-260 23 N 7.86


Tyche stg. r., with scepter and cornucopia.


Oikonomidou, Caracalla,no. 21

A K M AV-ANTQ[NEINOC] Bust r., laur., dr., cuir.

TurretedNike, walking r., holding palm and wreath; at lower r., wreath.

Oikonomidou, Caracalla,nos. 22, 23 (obv.); Julia Domna, no. 25a (rev.)



25 f


M AV ANTMNEINOY Bust r. *560 S-3696 23 / 6.38

NEIKOnOAEQC Aktia seated 1., holding agonistic urn and scepter.

Oikonomidou, Caracalla, no. 41



[-------I Bust of Caracallar., laur., dr. 22 / 6.48

IEPA[CNEIKOnrOAEnC] Nike walking r., with globe.

Oikonomidou, Caracalla,no. 128

posthumousAugustusissuesofNikopolis, see C. M. Kraays reviewof Oikonomidou,NC, ser. 7, 16, 1976, pp. 238-244; RPC I, p. 272.

21 On the

A.D.218-222: Elagabalus




Bust of Elagabalusr., laur., dr. 22 4 4.56


[NEIKO]lOAEWC Galley r.

Oikonomidou, Elagabalus, no. 17

A.D. 260-268:


[KOP] CAA[WNINA] Bust r. 563 A'-482a 20

Nike walking 1.;at 1., A.

Oikonomidou, Salonina, no. 96


234-168 B.C. Head of Dione r., wearing stephanos and veil; behind, 3(. *564 E-887 22 +- 4.80 Bust of Artemis r.; bow and quiver at shoulder; at 1., K; at r., CE. 21 / 7.69 Head of young Herakles r. 566 T-28a 12 / 1.69 Franke(under 564), nos. 610-612 [An]EIIPQTAN Tripod; all in laurel wreath. P. Franke,Die Antiken von Miinzen Epirus, Wiesbaden 1961, no. 400 (this coin)

AnlEIlIPTAN Spearhead;all in laurel wreath.



Club; all in wreath.

Franke(under 564), nos. 663-676

B.C. 4th century

Head of young Herakles r. 567 a b


0-7K or K-O Bunch of grapes.

BMC 101-116

A-323 A-415 A-234 E-3175

17 15 16 17

t t t

2.56 3.60 2.89 2.90

0-7W ethnic? same same 300-229 B.C.



Prow of galley r. 16 4. 1.71+

Bunch of grapes.

BMC 281


NON-ATHENIAN COINS 229-48 B.C. Head of Poseidon r., laur. Bull'shead; all in laurel wreath. BMC 449-468



17 t

3.40 BMC 521-523



[KOPKYIPAIQN] Aplustre. 17 -+ 2.85 Head of young Herakles r.


Forepartof galley r.

BMC 482-550, passim

571 *a AE-6 b IIII-102 c 00-673 d M-430 e Z-2096 f T-651 g A-976 h EA-416

20 22 20 24 21 19 20 20

t 4. t t t

7.81 8.84 7.63 6.98 7.15 5.94 3.66 4.87

rev. above, kIl(IAQN (BMC 536, 537) same same same rev. above, [KOPKYIPAI2N]; below, illegible name (H 12:4) rev. same rev. same

Bust of Poseidon r., trident at shoulder. *572 AP-50 16 4 3.68

[KOP] KYRA Amphora.

BMC 619-621




Head of young Heraklesr.

AEYKAAII[N] and wheat ear above Club r.; below, AHMAPETOE; all in oak wreath.

BMC 145-148

573 *a b

IIO-358 BE-487

19 \
18 -



B.C. 4th century

Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. *574 Br-921 14


ME upwardsbehind Owl r.

cf. BMC 6, 7 (owl 1.)




4th century B.C.

Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. *575 I-812 14 \ 2.50

OYP at lower r. of Owl r.; at 1. boukranion.

BMC 10



late 4th century B.C.22

Head of Aitolia r., wearing kausia. 576 BB-1219 18 +- 3.33

Kalydonian boar r.

BMC 27-33

Similar. 577 a b c H'-3562 Hn-878 11-242 18 \

17 16 -

Spearhead 1. no details same same; heavily worn

BMC 35-37

4.29 -

ca. 300-191 B.C.

Young male head r. *578 IIn-851 15 -+ 3.45

Trophy;at lower 1., (.

BMC 39


Spearhead and jawbone of boar; at 1., bunch of grapes.

BMC 43-62

579 *a b

19 BB-10 17 E-4742 c A-1272 17 d AA-982 16 e nIIn-942 20 f T-67a 16 16 g r-540 h-k H-144, NN-139,

4.29 \ 3.15 betwe< spearheadand jawbone, 41 or tICE en / broken KAEI(BMC 58) / broken ) (BMC 51) / 4.40 - 3.64 t 4.23 0-440, Q-354, all broken


Picard,Antre, 284-285, whose chronologyis followedalso for the other Aitolian League varieties. pp.


earl 2nd century B..?

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 580 a *b c d 8-288 4-103 H'-3542 Z-2798a 18 18 17 20 \ \ +f 4.25 4.50 3.87 4.10

AITfQAf2N Herakles stg. half 1. rev. above,,; at 1., F1(BMC 64)

BMC 64-72



338-ca. 300 B.C.

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 581 *a b c 14 coins I-59


AOK-PQN Bunch of grapes.

BMC 57-68


13-15 Av. 1.75(11) 14 t 1.52 13 f 1.17 13 \ 1.42

obv. above, KA (BMC 66); GRC,fig. 17 EABC,p. 153, no. 71 (A 18:8)

ca. 300 B.C.

Similar. 582 1-567 13 f 1.94

AOKP-EnlKN[A] Bunch of grapes.

BMC 71-76

[581, 582] 7 coins of uncertainAthena/Grapes variety.

ca. 300-272 B.C.

Head of Apollo 1., laur. 583 IIn-195a 15 / 2.20

A-O Bunch of grapes.

BMC 51-56

Head of Athena r., weal Corinthianhelmet. 584 19 coins *a IIII-841 *b ZT'-506 c _-518 d ---77d 14-16 Av. 2.23 (14) 14 t 2.34
15 -+ 2.61

A-O Bunch of grapes. rev. at 1., greave (BMC 80) at r., ivy leaf (BMC 79) same EABC,p. 153, no. 72 (A 18:8)
196-146 B.C.

BMC 77-80

15 16 t

2.23 2.31

Similar. 585 a 1-1635 17 \ 4.26

[OnOYNTIQN] Bunch of grapes.

BMC 81-84

CATALOGUE b c NN-1396 II-537 17 18 4.35 4.62 [OnOYNTIQN]behind Hero stg. r., with sword and lance, feeding snake. Cop79


Head of Apollo r., laur.


19 - 5.75 00-948 For the dating of varieties581-584, see Picard,Antre, 287-288, followingJacqueline Humphris'Lokrian pp. mint study currentlyin preparation.We thank Mmine. Humphrisfor her assistancein classifyingthe more worn Agora specimens. The two Lokriancoins from the Agora A 18:8 hoard of the 260's, 581c and 584d, are heavily and identically worn, suggestingthat the second coin was minted probablynot much after the startof the 3rd century.


mid-4thcentury-346 B.c.

587 a b

E-207 NN-1843

Facing bull's head. 18 - 4.82 12 - 1.97

Of2 in laurel wreath. BMC 94-96 small module: BMC 97-100 late4th-earlier centuy 3rd B.C.

BMC 94-100

0 or 0f' in olive wreath. BMC 66-77 Helmeted head of Athena, facing. 588 22 coins 12-15 Av. 1.70(14) (H-K 12-14)23 *a e-335 14 4 1.51 *b NN-1828 12 4 1.93 Kleiner 1976, p. 16, no. 12 (A-B 19-20:1) 14 t 1.30 c E-25a EABC,p. 153, pl. 17, no. 73 (A 18:8) d SS-25b 13 1.94 EABC,no. 74 (A 18:8) e EE-43a 12 t 1.50 EABC,pl. 17, no. 75 (A 18:8) f EE-43b 13 f 1.62 EABC,no. 76 (A 18:8) For the chronology of the two varietiessee Picard,Antre, 281-283. The Agora A 18:8 hoard of the 260's pp. produced four pieces of the facing Athena variety(588c-f) in a notablyworn (w4)condition. DELpHI


AEA-0TN around Laurel wreath, within which BMC 24



AYT[O KAI TPAIANOC]AAPIANOC AY[ Bust r., laur., cuir. 21 -- 3.59


mistakenlylisted as e-335 in Kleiner 1975, p. 308, no. 150, see 723A (Sikyon: -450). At the time Kleiner was preparinghis paper,6-335 and 6-450 had become transposed.

23 For the coin


afterA.D. 141: defiedFaustinaI

Bust r. *590 NN-978 24 \


AEA4)TN below Temple of Apollo: side and front, with statue of Apollo shown within. GRC,fig. 23

BMC 33, 34


Bust of Apollo with long hair, r.

BMC 41



20 f




B..24 338-early 3rd century

Boiotian shield.

BOIQTQNat 1. of Ornamented trident; at r., dolphin. rev., symbol?;GRC,fig. 17 symbol? symbol? symbol? at lower r., ivy leaf (BMC 57, 58) at lower r., K

BMC 57-62

592 *a *b *c *d e f

33 coins I-536 IIe-768 K-1320 P-134 P-1602 A-165

12-14 13 t 13 t 12 t 14 / 13 t 14 -

Av. 1.98(27) 1.36 2.69 2.34 2.58 2.06 1.20+

288-244 B.C.25

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet. 593 a b


NN-1 106 IIII-652 NN-1369



23 23 21 19

t t t

5.64 5.48 5.78 5.71

BOIQTQNat r. of Trophy. Kleiner 1976, p. 20, no. 2 (B 20:9)

BMC 64, 65

18 t 4.43

smallerflan and dies than 593a-d

datingmust be extended to account Picard,Antre, 289, who observesthat Head's (1881, p. 254) 338-315 B.C. p. for specimensin Boiotiantombsofthe secondquarterof the 3rdcentury(C. Vatin,P.Brunea, C. Rolley,and T. Hackens, V de de MMdon Phocide, Tombes helustiques,Objets metal-momies, Paris 1976, pp. 21, 127, coin M 79). 25 Head 1881, pp. 258-259. Relativewear of specimensin IGCH229 and 233 confirmthe priorityof Athena/Trophy (595). On the other hand, it is unlikelythat the trophy (593) to the FacingDemeter or Kore head/Poseidon overstrikes reverseof the formercould belong after the Aitoliansdefeatedthe Boiotiansin 246 and 244 B.C.

24 See

CATALOGUE Head of young Dionysos r. [BOIQ]T[QN]at r. of Apollo with bow seated 1. on cippus;behind on cippus, tripod;on side of cippus, trident r.; [at 1., wreath]. BMC 74



S -82a

17 -+ 3.04

later (oreary2nd?)century B.C. 3rd BOIQTQNbehind Head of Demeter or Kore, Poseidon stg. 1., with trident, three-quartersfacing 1., resting r. foot on rock. wearing wheat wreath. 16-20 Av. 3.54 (52) tra, of undertypes;GRC,fig. 5 ces 20 4- 3.77 tra, of undertypes ces 20 4 3.98 18 \ 3.61 san ne BMC 81-89

595 *a *b *c *d e

daimaged(N 18:3) This entire coinage was overstruckon Herakles head/Horseman bronzes of Antigonos Gonatas (509). Assuming that the Antigonid coins date from the reign of Antigonos Doson, Svoronos (1908, pp. 230-232) thought they were given by the king as a gift to the Boiotians,who fought with him against Sparta in the late was a routine conversionof foreign into local money. Because of the presence 220's, and that the overstriking of the overstruck coins in two hoardsthat date from the second quarterof the 2nd century(IGCH229 and 233), around 168, while Crawford(CMRR,pp. 124, Hackens (1969, pp. 727-728) preferredto date the overstriking 316), noting the wear of the hoarded coins, inclines to an earlier date, "between the late third century and 168." Since the Macedonian undertypesalmostcertainlyantedateDoson, however,and since the Boiotian types used for the bronze first appear on drachms as early as the middle of the 3rd century (Picard, Chalcis, 162; p. idem, Antre, 289), a plausible case can be made that the Macedonian coins entered Boiotia during the reign p. of Antigonos Gonatas or Demetrios II (who occupied the countryafter 236) and that the overstriking took place the sharp anti-Macedonianreactionupon Demetrios'death in 229 (see Hammond and Walbank[above during under 509], pp. 326-329, 341). This reconstructionat least has the advantageof close parallelismwith Athens, where a similarlytremendousinfluxof Gonatas'bronzeaccompaniedMacedonianoccupationbut was eventually overstruckafter the occupation ended (pp. 36, 51-52 above).

122 coins rr-23 II-357 r-164 AA-984 X-102

16 1 2.89
18 -

196-146 B.C.

Boiotian shield.

[BOIQTQN]at r. of Nike stg. 1. with wreath and trident.

BMC 105-107

596 a b

e-696 nI-600a

15 f 14 t

3.08 3.67

Boiotian shield. 597 *a 6 coins E-3341 12-13 Av.1.60(5) 13 \ 1.24

BOIQTf2Nat 1. of Trident; at r., dolphin.

BMC 108-111

General confirmationof Head's 196-146 dating for 596 comes from the Agrinion hoard (IGCH271) with its freshBoiotianLeague drachms,which have an identicalNike-leftreverse.Whether597 is to be similarlydated is less clear.The coins are a revivalof 592 but with a plainer,squaredtridentand no issue symbol.



[592 or 597] 6 coins of uncertainShield/Trident variety.


2nd-lst centryB.c.? Veiled head of Hera r.; scepter over shoulder. 12 A 1.59

Tripod; all in laurel wreath.

BMC 39, 40




Christ Ist-2ndcentuyafter

in laurel wreath. 599 Z-3011 15 +- 2.95

T-AIN-A Winged caduceus.

BMC 50

Christ 1stcntuy after

Head ofJulio-Claudian
emperor(?)r.; border of dots.

T-AIN-A Bearded male, nude, stg., facing, holding spear in r. hand and sword on shield resting on ground in 1.

RPC I, 1322



12 t


A.D. 5-19: Grmaicus

[FEPMANIKOE] Head r. 601 *a b XE-1036a 16 t 14 t 00-447 3.04 2.57

T-AIN-A Apollo stg., facing, holding branch and bow.

BMC 57, 58; RPCI, 1318

A.D. 14-37: Tibenius

TIBEPI-OCKAICAP Head r. 602 *a 00-273 *b BE-541 c K-433a d Z-2944 18 19 19 19

TANAIrPAIQN Tripod. rev. cmk.: tripod in incuse oval

BMC 55; RPC I, 1317

4 5.06 \ 5.80 +- 6.29 -+ 5.69

CATALOGUE Aurelius A.D.161-180: Marcus


Head of M. Aureliusr., laur. 603 E-457 27 t 9.55


TANArPA[IQN]at 1. of Hermes stg. r. before tree, on which eagle; at r., altar.



378-338 B.C.

Head of young Herakles r. 604 BB-310 14 / 2.11

Club and bow; above, [IA], below FEPr.

BMC 184, 185

315-288 B.C. Similar. 605 8 coins *a S-4323 *b A-268 c r-1055 11-14 13 +12 14 / Av. 1.88(7) 2.41 1.47 broken eHBAIQN between Thyrsos and club. BMC 201-206

(E 14:3)

ca. 210-208 B.C.

Head of Muse r., wearing modius and veil, laur. 606 8 coins *a E-6461 *b K-38 14-16 Av. 3.75 (8) 16 / 3.89 16 / 4.72 Same. 12 / 1.45 12 +- 1.64

Lyre; all in laurel wreath.

BMC 14-25

607 *a b

K-1282 S-4753

BMC 26 Same, except no wreath. (fromfill containing Athenian bronze to the 80's B.C.)

The above dating is that of A. Schachter,"ANote on the Reorganizationof the Thespian Museia,"JC, ser.7, 1, 1961, pp. 67-70. A specimen of 606 has been recoveredfrom a pre-146 B.C.well deposit at Corinth (Price 1967, p. 377, no. 62); another was overstruckin an emission of Sikyon, dated probably ca. 200 B.C.(Warren 1984, p. 2, no. 7.C.xiv).
A.D. 81-96: Domitian

608 a b

00-799 S-6323

Head of Domitian r., rad. Apollo seated r., holding lyre. 15 / 3.20 15 i 2.67 olbv.head may be laureate



cf. BMC 30-32

208 c d Br-432 II-396a 14 \ 15 2.40 3.23

NON-ATHENIAN COINS obv. head radiate;rev. illegible same



348-338 B.C.

Head of nymph Euboia r. 609 a b BA-482 T-857 14 t 13 1.45

[EYB] Protome of bull r., head facing.

Picard, Chalis, p. 168, no. 5

304-ca. 290 B.C.

AR DRACHM Head of nymph Euboia 1. *610 T-1512


[E Y] above Protome of bull r., head facing; at r., symbol(?).

Picard, Chalcis, pp. 155-156, nos. 9-12

15 t


Bull recumbent 1.

[EY-BO-ERN]below Two bunches of grapes on a branch.

Picard, Chacis, pp. 168-169, nos. 13-19



21 t




Bull stg. 1.; [above, star; below, monogram]. 14 / 2.40

E-Y below Bunch of grapes; [above, star].

Picard, Chacis, p. 170, no. 2027

ca. 253-245 B.C.


Bull stg. r. 613 a b 24 coins r-1063 NN-2103 12-15 Av. 1.85 (15) 13 t 1.74 14 t 2.18

EYBO Bunch of grapes on branch.

Picard, Chalcis, pp. 170-171, nos. 22-26

rev. below, EY-BO (no symbol) (Picard, Chalis, no. 22) (E 14:3) same

26 For the chronologyfollowed below, see Picard, Chalis, especiallythe "Tableaudes monnayageseubeens (IVe-II

siecle),"facing p. 350. The denominationalnomenclatureis also Picard's.His "unit","doubleunit", and "quadruple unit"denote the chalkous,the dichalkon,and the hemiobol (note 62 above,p. 38). 27 With W. P. and New Wallace, TheEuboian League Its Coinage, York1956, p. 128, no. 3, pl. XIV:11.



d e f

00-412 NN-1990 AA-581 NN-1484 e-399

12 12 13

t t

1.84 1.98 1.78


12 t 1.62 13 +- 1.95 13 14 13 13 12 12

00-750 Q-512 AA-222 *k HH-283 *1 Q-471 *m A-1065

h i

t 1.85

t t

1.90 2.35 1.60 1.41+ 2.11

rev. below, [E]-Y obv. above, club; rev. at r. EYBO downwards(Picard, Chalcis, no. 23) similar,with leaf on grape branch at 1. obv. above, sword;rev. at r., EYBO downward (Picard, Chalkis, no. 26). Kleiner 1975, p. 307, no. 123 (H-K 12-14) same obv. and rev. obv. above, sword;rev. at r., trophy(?)(BMC 22) rev. obv. at r., thymiaterion(?); below, EY-[BO] (BMC 28) rev. at 1., leaf on grape branch rev. at 1., star(?) rev. at r., EYB[ downwards
191-170 B.C.

UNrr DOUBLE Veiled female head r.

EYBOIIEQN Bull butting r.

Picard, Chalis, pp. 194-195, nos. 29-38


6 coins *a HH-322 *b E-1611 c NN-1088

16-18 18 / 17 ' 17 \

Av.3.94(4) 3.80 3.92 4.93

rev. in ex. at r., wheat ear (Picard, Chakis,no. 37); GRC,fig. 17 rev. symbol effaced same; Kleiner 1976, p. 20, no. 5 (B 20:9)
146B.C. before

Head of Hermes r. 615 E-1494 12 t 1.64

Wheat ear r.

BMC 4828


Coins cataloguedwith Agora inventorynumbersin Picard, Chacisare referencedin italics. 338-308 B.C. UNTr Bust of Hera facing, XAA Picard, Chalcis, diadem with fi% ve nos. 12-22 wearing Eagle holding snake; at r., symbol. disks, resting on Ionic capital. ' 2.04 13 trophy symbol (Picard, Chakis, 48, pl. XI, no. 15) p. 13 f broken cornucopia (Picard, Chakis, 49, no. 17) p. 14 t broken star (Picard, Chalcis, 50, no. 19) p. 13 f 1.77 no symbol (Picard, Chakis, 51, no. 20) p. 13 4 2.04 same 13 / 1.58 same

616 *a rr- 10 b 1-110 c NN-2056 *d ET-380 e BB-638 f B'-1034


Cf. Wallace (note 27 above, p. 208), pp. 130-131, pi. XV:21, which, like the BMC, also puts this rare variety at the end of the Euboian League coinage.

210 13 t 1.99 g BA-343 h H'-3301 14 / 1.43 Obv. below,collar in place of capital *i KTA-106 12 f 1.75 13 \ broken j IIe-644 k 5S-50 13 t 1.11

NON-ATHENIAN COINS same same no symbol (Picard, Cialcis,p. 53, pl. XI, no. 21) no symbol (Picard, Chalis, p. 53, no. 21) same; EABC,p. 153, pl. 17, coin U:73 (A 18:8) 290-273 B.C. Similar. Similar. 1.23 trophy symbol 245-196 B.C. Similar. Similar. Picard, Chacis, nos. 43-53 Picard, Calcis, p. 71, no.33f



13 t

618 UNrr 13 - 2.09 III-1056 bunch of grapes (Picard, Chakis, 79, no. 43) p. A-224 12 / 1.29 herm (Picard, Chakis, 80, pl. XVII, no. 44) p. 13 . 1.20 KK-331 herm (Picard, GCalcs, 80, no. 44) p. A-155 13 t 1.76 wreath (Picard, Chacis,p. 81, pl. XVII, no. 46) ZZ-135 13 / 1.13 rose (Picard, Chakis, 82, pl. XVII, no. 48) p. DoUBLE f r-873 18 . 3.83 0IAIZ-AAe (Picard, Chakis,p. 86, no. 53 [14-Z]) 17 / 3.80 0IAIE-AAe obv. cmk.: dolphin (Picard, Chakis, 87, no.53) *g 0-39 p. h-y 18 other Agora specimens of Picard emission no. 53, all listed in Picard, Chacis,p. 87 a *b c d e [616-618] 41 coins of Facing Hera/Eagle type that cannot be classifiedby emission. Of these, 6 are of the double, 16-18 mm. denomination. 170-46B.C. DOUBLE Head of Hera r. XAA Eagle holding snake; at r., symbol. star (Picard, Chalis, p. 100, no. 66) symbol? XAAKI-AEQN Eagle holding snake; no symbol. Picard, Chakis, p. 110, no. 81 Picard, Chakis, nos. 66-80

619 a b

17 coins H-1757 A-1427

16-18 Av.3.99(9) 16 - broken 15 / 4.30 Similar.

620 a b

d e

DOUBLE Z-2145 E-2410 K-937 IIe-10oo 00-1379

15 17 \ 16 15 15 4.

3.33 3.00 3.21 broken 3.85

CATALOGUE f *g h i Z-2239 AA-873a EA-21 T-833 16 16 16 15 3.95 2.91 3.39 1.37 1.63 obv. cmk.: bunch of grapes same


4 4.19

UNrr *j K-1496 *k Z-2964

11 t 11 1

1stcentu(y Christ after Head of Poseidon r.; trident behind. 18 f 6.05 18 f 5.58 XAAKI-AEQN Baetyl within baldacino. Picard, Chalcis, XXII, no. 97 pl. Picard, Chalcis, p. 127, no. 97

621 *a b

KK-538 00-1481

Head of Zeus r.

Eagle holding snake r.

Picard, Chalcis, p. 128, pl. XXII, no. 98.2b


18 f 3.88 Obv. cmk.: owl stg.r., facing,over? or X, in incuse square.Picard(Chalcis, 128)notes that the countermark p. is known only from this specimen and suggestsbecause of the owl that it was added in Athens. 00-1330


198-217: Caracalla XAAKI-AEQN Hera seated 1., bull at her feet. Picard, Chakis, p. 132, no. 101:[4-g]

[AV K MAP AV ANTQNINOC] Bust r., laur., dr. 623 *a b Q-347a E-3905 24 \ 25 t 10.25 9.07




27 /

XAAKI-[AEfN] Hermes facing, strikingfallen opponent (Panoptes)at r. with caduceus. 16.06

Picard, Chalcis, p. 136, pl. XXIV no. 108


192-191 B.c. DoUBLE Bull recumbent r.; in ex. [MANTIAfPOZ] *625 BB-821 14 / 2.39 [EPETPIEQN]above Two bunches of grapes. Picard, Chacis, p. 185, pl. XXX:lalit

Attributableto this Eretrian emission by size. Cf. the larger 16+ mm. pieces of the Euboian League with same types, Picard, Chalcis, XXX:28. pl.



Veiled female head 1.

EPETPIEfN below Bull recumbent1.;above, name in two lines. obv., [AY]EANlaPOE obv. name illegible

BMC 46-48; Picard, Chalcis, p. 196

626 a b

N'-1343 NN-1953

17 t 17 t

3.50 3.02


Head of bull, with fillets, E-PE below at 1. and r. of BMC, pp. 96, nos. 19-20 facing; [borderof dots]. Octopus; [all in border of dots]. (H 16:4) ET'-578 *627 12 +- 1.73 tablefacingp. 350) and suitsthe late, sketchy The post-146 B.C. datingis tentatively proposedby Picard(Chalcis, style of the coinage and its dotted obverse and reverseborders. Even so, the Agora context precludes a date much after the middle of the 2nd century.Note that the types are revivedfrom 5th-centuryB.C.Eretriansilver fractions(BMC,p. 122, nos. 33-39). HISTIAIA
338-late 3rdcentury B.C.29

Head of Maenad r., wearing vine wreath. 628 a b


[IETI]below Bull stg. r., before vine with two bunches of grapes.

Cop510, 511

T-18 K-138a IA-384

17 4 3.53 19 4 4.37 16 4 3.40 Similar. IE-TI below Forepartof bull r. rev. above, two bunches of grapes same symbol? (foundwith 1007e, 247-222 B.C.) Similar,except bull walking r. rev. above, trophy same IETI above Protome of bull, with fillets, to three-quarters r.; at 1., bunch of grapes. BMC 7-9 BMC 10-20


7 coins *a rr-69 b K-907 c N-96

13-16 Av. 1.84 (4) 13 t 1.81 13 \ 1.35+ 14 t 2.04 Similar. 14 \ 2.40 12 t 1.50 Similar.

630 a b

T-319 ET-125

BMC 29, 30

631 a b c

E-803 BB-1221 1-1235

16 t broken 16 4 2.47 14 1 2.09

pp. Picard,Antre, 289-291; with referenceto Picard, Chalcis, 176-178 (startof bronze after 338). pp.

late3rd century 146 B.C. to AR TETROBOL



ISTI-AI EQN Nymph Histiaia seated r. on stern of ship, holding stylis.

BMC 34-131

632 *a *b *c *d *e *f *g *h

FromM 21:1 14 AA-72 AA-90 15 15 AA-91 14 AA-92 AA-93 15 14 AA-94 14 AA-95 AA-96 15

+- 1.73 - 1.88 t 2.06 / 1.62 \ 1.49 / 1.51 t 2.01 - 1.89

on stern, aplustre winged thunderbolt;cf. BMC 113, GRC,fig. 16 AE no rev. symbols visible on stern, star?;cf. BMC 123-126 star?,aplustre;below, trident (BMC 36, 37) rev. symbols off flan rev. below, Ef (BMC 131) on stern, aplustre;below, E (BMC 79, 80) aplustre;below, A?, cf. BMC 42; same obv. die as 632b obv.: gorgoneion cmk.; Kleiner 1975, p. 319, pl. 76, no. 268 (M-N 15:1) same obv.: cmk. same

Other proveniences *i H-1380 15 +- 1.71 14 4 2.20 *j E-944 15 / 1.79 *k T-1224

I B-155 m 11n-737 n AA-185 *0 T-180 p KTA-130

14 14 12

- 1.56 - broken - broken t 1.79 - chipped

obv.: indistinctcmk. no details

Forthe late 3rd century-146 B.C. datingof thisprolifictetrobolcoinage, see W. P.Wallace,"The Meeting-Point of the Histiaian and Macedonian Tetrobols,"JVC, 7, 2, 1962, pp. 17-22, who isolates a small group of ser. emissionsof ca. 178-168 B.C. and explainsthat it belongsabout midway in the full series.Our 632a-h were found together in the uppermost fill of cistern M 21:1, known as the Komos Cistern. Shortly after excavationof the cisternin 1947 Professor Wallaceexaminedthe tetrobolsand reported(in a letterto VirginiaGrace at the Agora, dated September 7, 1949) that based on the issues representedand the respectivewear of the coins, the cistern hoardwas deposited"considerably after 170, say, 160-150 B.C." He noted that similarissuesin similarcondition are known from another hoard "believedto date very roughlyabout 150 B.C." The two latestbronze coins from the cistern date from the 180's, as does its latest stamped amphora handle (Rhodian, ca. 186 B.C.),and there is no reason to suspect that any of the pottery from the fill is later. Consequently,it appears that the "purse" of eight Histiaean tetrobolslost or secretedat the top of the fillingis a later intrusion. The gorgoneioncountermark 632k-n has been attributed Parionin Mysiaby W. Schwabacherin a review of to of L. Robert, Atudes numismatiquegrecque, 1951, Gnomon 1953, p. 242; cf. L. Robert, "Circulationdes de Paris 25, monnaies d'Histiee,"Hellenica 11-12, 1960 (pp. 63-69), pp. 63-64.

ca. 2nd-lst century B.C.

Similar. *633 00-1043 16 t 3.25 (D 17:5)

ITTI[A]-IE[2N] Tripod.

BMC 138

Similar. 634 *a N-230 b M-94 18 \" 3.70

ITIA-IEMN Bunch of grapes. rev. above, club?

BMC 134-136

19 1 2.93


NON-ATHENIAN COINS S-4690 K-1022 18 4 3.44 18 - broken Similar.

alpha with broken bar

above IETIAIIEQ[N] and below

EYA/ [- -]; all in ivy wreath.

cf. BMC 137



15 t



B.C. 2nd-Ist century Head of young Herakles r. 636 a b KK-82a Z-939a 17 - 3.62 17 t broken K A above Protome of bull with r.; fillets, three-quarters at r. Ap. BMC 19-21

[636 or BMC 15, 16]: 2 coins (K-326, NN-1004) with the types Herakles head (young or bearded)/Bull'sprotome r. three-quarters No details. Head of Poseidon r. 637 e-390 16 t 4.09 [KA] above Trident. 1.50 BMC 27 BMC 25 [K-AIP-YIT-I:|Q-IIN] Dolphin twined around trident. BMC 24

Similar. 638 Z-2661 13 t

[Youthfulbust r.] 639 HO-221 13 damaged

KAIPY Dolphin r.

ATTICA excludingAthens and the Eleusiniancoinage


4th centuy B.C.

Head of nymph Salamis r., wearing stephane. 640 a b 42 coins PP-631 AA-30 15-19 Av.2.99 (18) 19 - 3.57 18 - 3.25

EA-AA Shield of Ajax, on which his sword in sheath with strap.

BMC 1-6; Cop455, 456

CATALOGUE *c N'-1360 *d NN-2104 *e *f g h NN-1876 00-1045 f2-322 F-1432 r-1441a r-1441b 17 \ 16 15 15\ 17 18 17 15 2.28 2.98 2.84 3.20 -


(froma layer containing pottery of the 5th and early 4th centuries

i j

broken (from a fill with "a few sherds of the late 5th century"B.C. [section f notebook]) broken (D 15:3) same same

Only eight of the forty-two-cointotal are entirelylegible. The rest are attributedto this variety solely by their large 17-19 mm. flans. Similar. downward at r. of Shield of Ajax; at 1., sword in device on sheath; [?triskeles shield]. BMC 7, 8; Cop458


*641 1


16 1

2.72 BMC 9

Head of Kore r., wearing wheat wreath. *642 B-524 15 2.59

[E]A-A[A] Shield of Ajax, [on which sword in sheath].

[640-642] 55 coins (13-16 mm.) of uncertain Female head/Shield type. Most have 15-16 mm. diameters, and of these the bulk doubtlessbelong to the common variety640. Clearly of some duration, the bronze coinage of Salamis was minted in several phases, the first and most substantialof which is representedby the common, largerpieces of variety 640, almost certainlydichalkia.In a later emission, the sword on the reverse is displaced to the left (641), on at least some pieces by a triskeles device on the shield (AmericanNumismatic Society). The slightly smaller coins of variety 642 with the Kore obverse representanother emission.There are finallyseveralsmall-flanvarieties(cf. BMC 9, 10, Cop547; Traitd, pl. 194:5),some with blazons(includinga gorgoneionand an eagle)on the shield: at 11-13 mm. and 1.50-2.00 g., these should be AE 4 chalkoi;their cruderstyle locates them at the end of the series. The two specimens of 640 excavatedat Olynthos3l inform that minting began earlier than 348. But by how much? The contextsof640d and g suggesta relativelyearlydate in the 4th century,as does the reportof another Salamis coin (18 mm.) that was excavated in the Kerameikosfrom a grave dated 400-395 B.C.,32 although it would be prematureto drawany firm chronologicalconclusionsuntil the potteryfromthis importantgravegroup has been published. The destructiondeposit of Building Z-3 in the Kerameikos(p. 298 below) shows that the Salamis bronze was still in use as late as the last decade of the 4th century,while the absence of any pieces in the sizableAgora A 18:8 hoard is a good indicationthat it had ceased to circulateby the 260's. Room 4B of house "N", Layer 11: "potterymostly of 5th century but note a fragment of a small coarse saucer with bpack] gpaze], probablyearly IV" (NN notebook,p. 7226). 31 Oylnthus no. 830 (pl. 20), found on the floor of the destroyedhouse A 11, room 1; and Olynthus no. 1722 VI, IX, position of the latter coin is unknown, but in correspondence (pl. 32:23) from house A vii, room 5. The stratigraphic Nicholas Cahill explainsthat the area was free of later occupation. The three coins reportedto be from a hoardfound at Aspropyrgos near Eleusis(IGCH99) compriseanotherfind of aroundthe middle of the 4th century.The date is impliedby two of the pieces, which are earlyEleusinian(38: ivy-branch symbol, 17 mm., w4; grapevinesymbol, 16 mm., w3); the thirdis Salamis, 18 mm., in fine (w2)condition. 32 Mentioned in ApAeXAX18, 1963, B', p. 50, note 6. Dr. Peter R. Frankekindly sent a photograph of the (18 mm.) coin and his notes on the find.


NON-ATHENIAN COINS The very existence of a Salaminiancoinage is curious.Since the island was a subjectterritoryof Athens and settled by Athenian cleruchs, some scholars have argued that the coinage must belong to a time of political independence from Athens.33In 31734 a successionistparty of Salaminians,probably cleruchs, betrayed the island to Kassandrosand apparentlygovernedit for a decade, but this episode belongs around the end, not the start of the coinage. More than a century ago Paul Monceaux suggestedthat Salamis may have broken away but from Athens for a time at the conclusion of the PeloponnesianWar,35 however convenient this hypothesis an early 4th-centuryorigin of the coinage, it, too, does not carry conviction. Apart might be for explaining fromthe unsoundnessof Monceaux'sepigraphicalargument,it is knownthat the islandwas stillsubjectto Athens under the Thirty Tyrantsin the springof 403 and that when Athens sent out new cleruchiesin 386 to Lemnos, Imbros, and Skyros,overseaspossessionsthat she had lost in 404, these cleruchieswere to be modeled on the one then existingon Salamis.36 Salamishad remainedAthenian. If the coinage cannot be attributedto an independent Salamis, it has to be understood in terms of the cleruchy status of the island. As explained under 455, the cleruchycities of Lemnian Myrina and Hephaistia also struckcoins before the middle of the 4th century.Although these cities were certainlymore distant from Athens than was Salamis,their constitutional positionwith respectto Athenswas the same, and so, one assumes, was their motivation for minting a bronze coinage: such a coinage was apparentlyneeded, and as none was being supplied by Athens, the cleruchy governmentswere left to produce it themselves. It may well be that the Athenians encouraged the Salaminianbronze, which they were able to use while continuing their policy of strikingexclusivelyin silver.



B.C. lasthalforthird 4tharly 3rdcentury of

Prow on which stands a 1., tripod. 643 *a *b *c d *e 160 coins 13-16 Av.2.43(54)

MEF or MEFAbetween Two dolphins swimming r. in circle;border of dots.

BMC 21-29

MEr (legibleon 35 coins) 15 t 2.42 S-3655 15 -+ 2.20 A-891 14 \ 2.76 ME-192 14 t 2.56 IIA-1 14 -+ 2.40 X-36

obv. above, trident 1. (BMC 22); GRC,fig. 17 same obv. same same

33 raiti pp. II, iii, pp. 142-143; Picard,Antre, 292-293. 34 and C. Horner, QZaestiones Saamae, Basel (dissertation)1901, pp. 11-12; Ferguson According to Picard,Antre, (p. 117, note 2) prefers304 B.C. 35 de P. Monceaux, "Inscriptions Salamine,"BCH 6, 1882 (pp. 521-539), pp. 522-523. Monceaux's argumentfor Salaminianindependence rested on IG II2 3093, an early 4th-centurychoregic monument from Salamis that names Athenaion a local archonin its datingformula.We know,however,fromAristotle, Polita 58.8 and 62.2 that 6 iv EacXoaiMvt he was directlyresponsiblefor organizingthe local Dionysia, and that he served was an Athenian official, that &pXov as the normaleponymousmagistrateof the island.Horner (note 34 above)adds that, as a privatededication,IG I12 3093 should not be expected to recordthe name of the archonin Athens after the name of the archon in Salamis. 36 Salamisunder the Thirty: DiodorusSiculus 14.32.4. Existingcleruchyin 386: G I2 30, line b 7 ( p. 165, line 34, from the North Slope of the Acropolis,I," Hesperia in the expandedtext with commentaryby R. S. Stroud,"Inscriptions the cleruchy on Salamis as a legal precedent in regulationsfor the new cleruchy on 40, 1971, pp. 162-173), citing Lemnos.

CATALOGUE MErA (egible on 20 coins) *f AP-25 15 N 2.38 *g NN-1054 16 / 1.90 *h NN-1754 15 K\ 2.17


Either ethnic i 00-1075 14 -+ 2.15 obv., prow r. EABC,p. 153, pl. 17, nos. W:78-85 (A 18:8) j-q 8 _ coins The above dating is deduced from the worn example from a 348-316 B.C.house at Olynthos37and the moderate to heavy wear of the eight pieces (643j-q) in the Agora A 18:8 hoard of the 260's (EABC,p. 154). For fifteen published specimens from Late Hellenistic deposits in the Agora, see Kleiner 1975, p. 308, pl. 76, nos. 141-143, and p. 312, no. 203 (allH-K 12-14); Kleiner 1976, p. 18, nos. 131-141 (A-B 19-20:1).

second 3rd B.C. quarter century MEFA above or below Prow 1. 644 127 coins 13-16 Av. 2.23 (44) EABC,p. 153, pl. 17, no. X:86 (A 18:8) MEFAabove (23 coins) *a -5-31 14 / 2.16 *b NN-1014 16 t 2.58 *c IO-488 14 / 1.85 *d r-301 13 / 2.42 MErA below (8 coins) 14 \ 2.51 M-209 r-456 14 \ 2.30 NN-1741 14 4 2.18 Eitherformat h AA-762 14 t i-o 7 E_ coins obv., prow r. EABC,pp. 153-154, pl. 17, nos. X:87-93 (A 18:8) 644i-o were among the freshestcoins in the A 18:8 hoard and could hardly have been minted before the 270's (EABC, 154). p. Twenty Agora pieces from deposits of the 2nd and early 1st century B.C.are listed in Kleiner 1975, p. 308, nos. 144-146; p. 311, nos. 186-188 (H-K 12-14); Kleiner 1976, p. 19, nos. 142-154 (A-B 19-20:1); and p. 21, no. 111 (B 20:9). 2.50 Tripod between two dolphins upward;border of dots. BMC 30-34

second 3rdcentury-early century 2nd B.C. half MEFA above Prow 1. 645A *a *b *c *d

Obelisk of Apollo between two dolphins upwards; border of dots.

BMC 35-39

15 coins NN-1966 H'-3298 NN-743 rr-44 T-1284

13-15 Av.2.04(10) 15 4 1.80

15 t 1.83 14 t 2.09 13 t 2.03


4 broken

Kleiner 1975, p. 323, no. 332 (M-N 15:1)

IX, Olynthus pp. 245, 249-250, 370, pl. 32:24.

218 Same. 645B *a *b c d r-1323 NN-2024 NN-1871 nIII-918 11 11 12 12 /


NON-ATHENIAN COINS Same. 0.73 1.07 1.03 broken

/ -

firn E 0. Waage (Greek BrownCoins a WeUll [JNM 70], New York, 1935, p. 17) has alreadynoted that atMegara this Prow/Obelisk-dolphins bronzewas minted in two denominations.The smaller('AE 4": here 11-12 mm., ca. 1.00 g.) should be the chalkous,the largerAE 3 denomination,representedby varieties643 and 644, as well as 645A, its double (seep. 38 above).Typologically derivedfromProw/Tripod-dolphins (644), the Prow/Obelisk bronzeought to followit at some point afterthe 260's B.C.burialof the A 18:8hoard.A pre-183 B.C.datingfor the followingApollo/Lyre AE 2 is providedby the context of 646b. Head of Apollo r. 646 6 coins *a A-229 *b K-1310 19-21 Av.5.46 (6) 21 i 5.01 19 - 5.27

Lyre. obv.: illegible cmk. Kleiner 1975, p. 311, no. 185 (H-K 12-14)
B.C. 2nd-Ist century

BMC 11-14

Head of Apollo r., laur. 647 10 coins *a BB-51 *b AA-230 15-17 Av.3.76(7) 16 t 4.63 15 t 2.17 Similar. 15 t 2.66 15 t 4.66 Similar. 649 H'-3565 16 broken

MErAIPEfN Tripod.

BMC 16-18

MEIr in laurel wreath.

BMC 19

648 *a AA-995 *b II-330

[M-E] Lyre.

BMC 44-46

1stcenry B.c.-3rd c Head of Zeus r.; linear border. *650 II-680a 14 I broken

Christ ryafter unpublished

[MErA]IPEWN at 1. and r. of Tripod.

Bust of Athena r., wearing unpublished [ME]-rA-PE1.,above, and r. of Tripod;border Corinthianhelmet; of dots. border of dots. / 2.21 12 651 *a N-976 11 \ 0.85 *b II-957 Lunateepsilonsand the cursiveomega of650 place the latterand 651 in the Roman era. Althoughthe Athena bust of 651 is similar to some on Hadrianic-Antoninecoins of Athens (see 229-231), it is most unlikelythat



the coin was minted to commemoratea reconciliation betweenAthensand MegaraunderHadrian,as mentioned in T. L. Shear, "The Campaign of 1937," Hesperia 1938 (pp. 311-362), pp. 357-358. 7,

A.D. 172-192: Commodus

ANT K[- -AN]TWNINO Head r., laur. *652 Br'-486 25


Demeter stg. r., lighting large torch.

cf. BMC 48 (S. Severus)


[-------] Head of Commodus(?)r. 653 E-4700 24 t 4.04

Zeus seated r., with scepter [and Nike].

BMC 46

A.D. 193-217: Sepimius Severus


Head r., laur. 654 E-6410 25 / 8.69

M[Er-APEWN] Tyche, with phiale, sacrificing 1. over altar.

BMC 51, 52

A.D. 193-217: Julia Domna

Bust ofJulia Domna r. *655 Br'-487 24

. 6.02

MEr[AP]EWN Artemis running r., with torch in each hand.

cf. BMC 47 (Commodus)

A.D. 202-212:

Geta cf. BMC 49 (S. Severus),53 (Caracalla)

[AOY CEnlT] ETA [KA] Bust r. *656 E-4259 25 $ 5.46

MErA-PEWN Artemis running r., holding bow and drawing arrow.


A.D. 161-180: MarcusAurelius

M AVP ANTW-NEINOCAV Bust r., laur.



26 \


nAr-AIWN Gate with large central entrance and two smaller niches with statues at either side; on top, three statues. GRC,fig. 23

cf. NCP, p. 9, pl. A:v, vi; Cop500 (all Severan)




Sea turtle. 18 17 /

Incuse square with five sunken triangularsegments.

Kraay,ACGC, p. 44, pi. 6, no. 11638

658*a T-240 *b H-2192

11.78 11.23







cf. Kraay,ACGC, Incuse square with "windmill sail"pattern of four triangular p. 44, pl. 6, no. 11539 segments. obv. cut with two chisel gashes before plating in order to deceive the receiver.No traces of the silver plating remain.
ca. 490-480 B.C.



Incuse square divided into five "smallskew"compartments. 10.31 479-456 B.C.

Kraay,ACGC, p. 44, pi. 6, no. 11740



19 -


Sea turtle with T-shaped arrangementof pellets on shell. *661 KK-9 22 t 11.71 GRC,fig. 7

Incuse square divided into five "largeskew"compartments.

Kraay,ACGC, p. 46, pl. 6, no. I23

B.C. 4t-first haf 3rdcentury


14 coins *a SZ-66 *b

I-464 I-79 nI-765

BMC 206-222 Incuse square divided into five A between Two dolphins compartments. upwards. 10-14 Av.1.58(8) rev., in lower 1. compartment,A (BMC 213, 214); FABC p. 154, 11 1 1.59 p . 16, no. Y:94 (A 18:8) s;ame rev. 12 4 1.27 1.50 12 t 14 A blistered

London 1975, pp. 6-70, "GroupII," with Hoard, and N. M. Waggoner, "A Greek Archaic Silver Hoard from the chronology of C. Arnold-Biucchi,L. Beer-Tobey, Selinus,"AIV5N 33, 1988 (pp. 1-36), p. 17. 39 Price and Waggoner,op.cit.,p. 71, "GroupIV". 40 Ibid., 73, "GroupVII". p.

38 M. Price and N. The Waggoner,ArhaicGrekCoinage: 'y"



ME-57 10 - chipped Kleiner 1975, p. 308, no. 147 (H-K 12-14) NN-1669 14 4 chipped Kleiner 1976, p. 19, no. 155 (A-B 19-20) Two examples from the Olynthos excavations41 imply a startingdate before 348 B.C. The context and good condition of 662a suggestthat the coinage extended throughthe firstquarteror third of the 3rd century.

3rd-2nd B.C. century AI[rI]above

663 *a b ME-53 A-661 Prow r. 16 t 4.18 17 T 3.99 Head of Zeus r.; border of dots. *664 IIII-183 17 t 4.25 ArAA below Ram's head r.; border of dots. BMC 230-232

Kleiner 1975, p. 308, pl. 76, no. 148 (H-K 12-14)

Archaic statue of Apollo stg. r., with branch and bow. (found in earth layer with 67i of the 220's B.C.)
A.D. 202-212:

BMC 236, 237

PlautiUa BMC 239

[0OY]ABIA nAAYTIAAA Bust r. *665 NN-689 23 / 4.69

AIrEI[N-HTWN] Hekate triformisholding two torches.


4th century B.C.

AR DRACHM ? below Pegasos flying 1. 13 t 1.55+ Head of Aphrodite 1., hair bound up. BMC 181, 182



late5th-3rdcentury B.C. ? below Pegasos flying 1. 11-14 Av. 1.60 (24) 13 / 1.81 11 - 1.16 12 / 1.58 13 \ 1.29 13 +- 1.59 Trident upward. BMC 423-471


54 coins *a BB-1263 b T-4 *c rr-4 d e-354 e X-52

rev. at r., running griffin (BMC 437); GRC,fig. 18 tripod (BMC 439) race torch (BMC 441) same same


OlyntusIX, pp. 350-351.

222 ET'-510 IF-176 K-1586 1-894 J 00-1210 k A-81 *1 Z-1020 m T-1252 n E-795 *o Z-400 f g h *i 13 14 12 13 13 13 12 12 12 \ 1.65 blistered . 1.24 - 1.59 A 1.40 / 1.10+ x 1.72 1.69

NON-ATHENIAN COINS rev. at ., A (BMC 453) rev. [A] - pine cone (BMC 453) EY - Ares holding scepter (BMC 456) H - wreath (BMC 458-460) E - thunderbolt(Corinth p. 15) VI, ? -amphora amphora-? A? - ?; Kleiner 1975, p. 323, pl. 76, no. 333 (M-N 15:1) -A -? 131.58 flan cut down before striking Five publishedexamplesfrom context of ca. 100 B.C.:Kleiner 1976, p. 19, nos. 156-160 (A-B 19-20:1). Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet. K beneath Pegasosflying r. BMC 476

668 *a II9-574 b T-254

14 / 2.35 14 +- 1.30+ [Head of bearded Heraklesr., wearing wreath.] 11 $ 1.15 ? beneath Forepartof Pegasos r. BMC 481, 482



Recent excavationdata at Corinthindicatethat the startof the Pegasos/Tridentbronze (667) may go back as 55, earlyas the later5th century;see 0. Zervos,"CoinsExcavatedat Corinth, 1978-1980," Hesperia 1986, pp. 184, 203; with Warren1983, p. 33, note 46, supplementedin Warren1984, pp. 23-24. Price (1967, pp. 365-367) puts the end of the pre-Romanbronze of Corinthbefore 200 B.C. As ROMAN COLONY Coinage Signed by Duoviri Coins cataloguedwith Agora inventorynumbersin Amandryare referencedin italics. L Aeficius C. Certus, Iulius,44 or43 B.C. As LAVSIVLIICORINT Head ofJulius Caesar r., laur. 670 a b 8-401 II-944 23 / 23 7.02 broken [L CE]RTOAEFICIOI[C IVLIOIIVIR] Bellerophon,strikingwith spear,on Pegasos flying r. Amandry,p. 121, no. Ia; RPC I, 1116


43 P Tadius C. Jicephorus, or42 B.C. Chilo, Iulius As in CORINTHVM ex. Bellerophonrestraining h. Pegasos r. before a porcl *671 NN-465 24 / 7.10 IVLI P TADI CHILOIC NICEPIIIVIR Poseidon, with trident, seated r. on rock. no.II: d6-r7:1 Amandry, Amandry,p. 124, no. II; RPCI, 1117

CATALOGUE 40 M. Cn.Publiius, Antonius Orestes, B.C.



Vase with one handle 1. 672 *a b II-66 00-683 11 11

COIRINin wreath.

Amandry,pp. 129130, no. IVb; RPCI, 1123

4 1.98
. 1.58

Amandry,no.IVb:d3-r5 Amandry,no.IVb:d4-r5:6

C. 39-36B.c. PAebutius, Pinnius, As

Head of M. Antony 1. 673 BB-515 As 24 -- broken


Prow 1.

Amandry,pp. 130131, no. Va; RPC I, 1124

Head of Poseidon r.


Chimaera r. no. Vb; RPC I, 1125



22 4 5.74

Similar. 675 Br-931 16 \ 4.07

P AEBVTIOIC PINNIOIIIVIR in pine wreath. Amandry,no. Vc:dll-r5:2

Amandry,p. 133, no. Vc; RPC I, 1126

34-31 B.C. C. HeiusPamphius, Caecilius Niger, Q As

Head of Aphrodite r.

HEIO Q CAECIL-NIGRI[C PAM IIVIR] on r., Bellerophon Pegasos Chimaera. fighting

as above

Amandry,pp. 137138, no. VIc; RPC I, 1128

676 a b

E-6295 8-69

22 -+ broken 22 4 6.73

effaced inscriptions

P M. Antonius Theophilus,Aebutis 30 B.C.


*677 E-1685 Boukranion. 18 / 2.94

IIVIR QUINQ [P] AEBVTIVS Vaseto r., withpalmdrooping overtop.

Amandry,p. 139,

no. VIIb;RPCI,


NON-ATHENIAN COINS C. Srvilis C.f Primus, Antonius 2/1 M. Hiparchus, As [CAESARI CORINT] Head of Augustusr. C [C SERVILIO F PRIMO M ANTONIO HIPPARCHO IIVIR] Heads of Gaius and Lucius 1. and r. Amandry,pp. 145147, no. XIa, b; RPC I, 1136

678 a b

KK-244 MM-104

20 -+ 5.39 20 - 5.57

A.D. 4/5 C. Mussius riscus, C. Heus PolUo,

As CAESAR[COR] C HEIOPOILLIONE ITERIC GER[MANIC]VS MVSSIOPRIISCOIIVIRin Head of Germanicusr. parsley wreath. 679 H'-3619 22 Amandry,p. 154, no. XIIIe; RPC I, 1139


no. Amandry,pls. XIII, XIYV XIIIe4:2

A. L Rutilius Labeo, Plancus, Vatronius A.D. 12/13-15/16 As Head of Tiberius 1.

[--------19 +- 5.61

Nike stg. 1. [on globe].


Amandry,pp. 160165, nos. XIV2141, 60-73; RPC I, 1146



L. Arris Peregrins,L. FuriusLab, A.D.32/33



E-1934 As

LABE-ONE IIVIRI IIVIR] [L FV]RIO [L ARR]IOPERE[GRINO in ex. [COR] Head of Augustus1., rad. Hexastyle temple, inscribed [GENT IVLI]. Amandry,pl. XXI, no.XVI.19:b-If3 21 t 6.61

Amandry,p. 173, no. XVI.19; RPC I, 1151

[L. FVRIOLA-BEONEIIV] Head of Augustus1., rad. 682 r-1481a



in IIVIR] ex. [COR]

Similar hexastyle temple. 19 -+ 6.49 Am; andry,no.XVI.22:aa-IIa2:2

Amandry,p. 174, no. XVI.22; RPC I, 1157

683 a b

00-742 00-1187

[COR]below Melikerteswith thyrsos riding dolphin r. 16 / 2.84 16 \ 3.76

[C]ORbelow Pegasosflying r.

Amandry,p. 178, no. XVI.47; RPC I, 1162



COR below Pegasos flying r. 684 IIII-564


[COR]below Pegasos flying r.

Amandry,p. 178, no. XVI.48; RPC I, 1163

16 \


COR below Pegasos flying r. 685 a b AA-444 r-1105 14 t 2.43 16 +- 2.94

[S E] Isthmos, nude, stg. frontally,with rudder in each hand.

Amandry,p. 179, nos. XVI.54-61; RPC I, 1168

A.D. P Vipsanius M. Proculus, 37/38 Agrippa, Bellius As (1) C CAESARAVGVS or P.VIPSANIOAGRIPPAIIVIRI COR below Pegasos flying r. Amandry, pp. 184-186, nos. XVII. 1-27; RPCI, 1172

686 *a N-429 *b NN-968 c H-163 d n1-293 As

AVG (2) CAIVS-CAESAR Head of Caligula. head 1.;obv. legend (1);Amandry,nos. XVII.3, 8, 11, or 22 19 t 5.91 head r.; obv. legend (2);Amandry,no.XVII.17:e-Ih3:2 21 - 7.49 head r.; obv. legend ? 22 \ 5.92 same 21 t 6.39


M BELLIOPROCVLOIIVIRI COR below Pegasos flying r.

Amandry, pp. 186-189, nos. XVII.29-67; RPCI, 1173

687 *a b

MM-136 S-4224 ET'-739

21 - 7.73 20 t 7.06 4 4.96 21

head r.; obv. legend ? same same

[686 or 687] Two asses of uncertainCaligulahead/Pegasos variety. head r. 19 -4 6.10 a EA-453 head r.; Pegasos 1. b P-1609 20 +- 6.51

A.D. M. AciliusCandidus, Fulius Flaccus, 54/55 Q

As AGRIPPINA-AVGVSTA Bust of Agrippina Minor r. Q FVL FLACCOIIVIRICOR Amandry,p. 204, no. XX.21; RPC I, Genius of Colony with phiale 1190 and cornucopia;in field, GEN COR. GRC,fig. 24; Amandry,pl. XXXIV, no.XX.21:h-b5



20 t


226 As


AGRIPPIN-AVGV Bust of AgrippinaMincir 1. 689 a b NN-128 II-173 As 21 \ 6.48 21 A 6.61

[M AC] CANDIDO IIVIRCOR Aphrodite in biga drawn 1. by tritons. Amandry,no.XX.73:2 effaced obv. and rev. legends

Amandry,p. 208, no. XX.73; RPC I, 1198

[NERO]CLA[V-CA]ES AVG] Head of Nero r., laur. 690 --589 21 \ 6.58


Bust of Aphrodite I.; beneath, galley 1. Amar idry,no.XX.80:3

Amandry,p. 209, no. XX.80; RPC I, 1200

T7.Claudws C. Optatus, uitusPolyaeu, A.D. 57/58 or58/59 As NERO CLAV-CAES AVG Head of Nero r. OPTATO IIVIR Amandry,pp. 211(1) TI CL[AVDIO] COR or 213, no. XXI.1-18; (2) C IV[LIOPOLYAENO IIVIR] RPC I, 1201 COR Bellerophonwith shield leaning r., restrainingPegasos 1.

691 *a b

Z-653 N-1138 H-1544 As

21 \ 21 / 21 \

8.64 7.40 halved

rev. legend (1);Amandry,pl. XXXVI, no.XX.5:a-a6:l rev. legend (1);Amandry,no.XXI.5:a-a6:2(L 19:2) rev. legend (2);Amandry,no. XXI.12-18


OPTATO IIVIR Amandry, (1) TI CLAVDIO or pp. 213-215,

692 *a IIA-213 b r-291 c KTA-17

19 -+ 6.85 19 - 4.99 21 . 7.07

IIVIR nos. XXI.19-33; (2) C. IVLIO[POLYA]ENO in RPC I, 1202 ISTHIMIA parsley wreath; COR below. head 1.;rev. legend (1);Amandry,pl. XXXVII, no.XXI.22:g-a4: head r., legend ?; rev. legend (1); Amandry,nos. XXI. 19, 20, 23-26 head r., legend ?; rev. legend (2); Amandry,nos. XXI.29-31

L RutiiusPiso,P Memmius A.D. Cleaner, 66/67 As IMP NERO CAE-AVG Head of Nero r., rad. [L] R PISON[E IIVI]QVI COR Galley 1.;in field, ADVEIAVG. Amandry, pp. 217-219, nos. XXII. 1-28; RPC I, 1204

693 *a '-6 b AA-161

22 +- 7.19 20 -4 6.40

Amandry,no.XXII.9 similar,but head 1. and both legends effaced

CATALOGUE As [NERO CAESARIMP] Head of Nero. (1) [L RVT PISONE IIVIRQVIN] Amandry, or pp. 219-221, nos. XXII.29-51; (2) [P MEM CLEANDROIIVIR RPC I, 1205 QUIN] Emperoron tribunal,orating to 1.;in field, AD-LOIAV-G. head r., laur.;rev. legend (1);Amandry,no.XXI.29:3 head r., laur. head 1.;rev. legend (2);Amandry,no.XXII.44:2 head 1. head r. head r.


694 a b

118-224 rr-122
I-143a P-512a I-325a I-1257a

d e f

19 20 18 18 20 19


t 5.64 t halved 4' halved

halved halved

P Anaxilaus, Ventidiws A.D.67/68 Ti. Claudius Fronto, As [NERO CAE-SAR] Head of Nero 1., laur. Amandry, pp. 221-223, nos. XXIII. 1-12; RPC I, 1207 Amandry,pl. XL, no.XXIII.7;obv. cmk.: tripod in incuse square (Howego, no. 478) rev. legend effaced P VE FRONTONE IIVIRICOR Emperor stg. 1., with phiale, being crowned by Tyche.

695 *a b

AE-1 AP-49a As

20 \ 16 -

6.88 4.24

[NERO CAE-SAR] Head of Nero 1., laur.



19 \

P VE ]FRON-TONE[ IIVIR]I [COR] Emperor stg., facing, with phiale, on podium of tetrastyletemple.

Amandry,p. 225, no. XXII.24; RPC I, 1208


[690-696] As (P-994a) with obv. head of Nero r.;rev.effaced.

L Caninis Agrippa,A.D. 68/69 As

[SENATV-P.Q.R.] Veiled bust of Senate r. 697 BB-1315 As [ROMAEET IMPERIO] Turretedbust of TycheRoma r. 698 T-229 19 3.66 19 6.37


Clasped hands holding poppy and wheat ears. no. XXIV2 or 9; RPC I, 1210


Amandry, pp. 230-231, nos. XCI7, 8, 14-16; RPC I, 1213

228 As


[SENATV]-P.Q.R. Veiled bust of Senate r. 699 EA-215 As [NEPTVNOIAVG] Head of Poseidon r. 700 IIO-345a 19 ' 6.37 21


L CAN AG[RIPP]AEIIVIICOR Tetrastyletemple shown in perspective. Amandry,no.XXIV.59:a-IIIb6:2

Amandry,p. 234, no. XXIV59; RPCI, 1218

[L CAN AGRIPPAEIIVIR]I [COR]Isthmos stg. 1., with two rudders.

Amandry,p. 236, nos. XXIV71-73; RPC I, 1222

41-31 B.C. Fractions, Anonymous


Bust of Helios r. 701 a b BB-186 Z-470


[CORINT]below Pegasos flying r.

Amandry,p. 238, no. C3; RPC I, 1227

14 , 2.35 16 +- 2.58



[COR]beside Rudder. 12 - 1.03

Dolphin 1.

Amandry,p. 240, no. Fl; RPC I, 1231

COR at 1. of Rudder. *703 A-94


Trident. Amandry,pl. XLVI, no.F2:1

Amandry,p. 240, no. F2; RPC I, 1232

15 4 2.79

Head of Poseidon r. 704 *a b A-3 N-372a 16 t 14 / 2.76 1.93

COR below Pegasos flying r. Amandry,no.1:2

Amandry,p. 242, no. I; RPC I, 1235

WithoutNames of Duoviri

A.D. 117-138: Hadrianic

Head of Aphrodite r.

COL-IVL COR Tyche stg 1., with cornucopia and phiale(?).42





4 7.52

Although it should be a phiale, the object held in the goddess' right hand is large and globular,like the apple held by Aphroditeon other imperialreversesof Corinth;see 706 and 719. The die cuttermay have conflatedattributes.

A.D. 161-80: MarcusAurelius


Head M. Aurelius laur. Head ofM. of Aureliusr., r., laur.

706 T-947 27 t 13.72

CLI-COR Aphrodite stg. r., with scepter and apple.

BMC 607

[M AVR]ANTO[NINVSAVG] Head r., laur. 707 H'-3678 21 t 4.96

[CLICOR] Melikerteson dolphin r., under pine tree.




]M AVR A[NTONINVSAVG] Bust r. 26 / 13.24

in ISITHMIIA celery wreath.


A.D. 161-169: Lucis Verus

IMP L AVR-VERVSAVG Bust r., laur. *709 r-124 21 t 6.62

CLICOR Melikerteson dolphin r., under pine tree. GRC,fig. 24

BMC 623

IMP L AVR VERVS AVG Bust r., laur., dr. *710 Q-277 27 -+ 11.90

CLICOR Tyche sacrificing1. at altar, with cornucopia and phiale.

cf. Cop323 (M. Aurelius)

[-- ---]AVG Bust of L. Verus r. *711 T-716 26 \ 10.74

CLICOR Hermes seated 1. on rock; at 1., a ram.


A.D. 176-192: Commodus

[-- COMMOD]V[S]A[NTON--] Bust r., laur. 712 00-272 27 +- 11.93

[CLICOR] Athena stg. 1., with Nike and spear; at foot, owl and shield.

Corinth 174 VI,


193-211: Septimius Severus CLICOR Peirene seated 1. on rock, holding vase. BMC 656

L SEPT SEVRE [PT AVG] Bust r., laur. *713 A-44 25 +- 10.97


NON-ATHENIAN COINS L SEPT SEV PER[T A]VG IMP VIII Bust 1., laur.,with shield and spear. 18 A broken

[. .]C COR
Melikerteson dolphin r., under pine tree.

BMC 648-649



[----715 ET'-669a 16 \


Bust of S. Severus r.

[CLICOR] Pegasoswalking 1.



198-217: Caracala





4 8.71

CL[I]C[OR] Building,from which rises taperingcolumn with statue on top; at 1. and r., equestrian statue. olbv.: obscure cmk.

NCP, p. 15, pl. C.xlviii

A 202-212: PlautiUa L.D.




24 N 5.35

CLICOR Tyche sacrificing1. before lighted altar,with cornucopia and phiale.

BMC 673

AVGUSTA PLAVTILLA Bust r. *718 00-50 24 +- 5.70

CLICOR Athena stg. 1., with Nike and spear.

BMC 667, 668

PLAVTILLAE AVGV[STAE] Bust r. 719 1-1047 24 -+ broken

Aphrodite stg. r., with scepter and apple.

BMC 669


209-212: Geta


Bust r.



23 t


CLICOR unpublished? Nike walking r., head 1., holding palm in 1., and in r. shield with gorgoneion(?) device. e The reverseis entirelydifferentfrom the other Nike reverses cribedand illustratedin Corinth pp. 39-40, pl. VI, nos. 223, VI, , 227.




4th century B.C.

Bull butting 1. 721 *a H-1112 b K-1086 c e-272 d B'-910 e H'-3758 f OA-181 14 14 13 12 12 17/ \ \ 1 broken 1.16 1.82 1.11+ broken 2.66

0 framed by four globules.

cf. BMC 13-17

Kleiner 1975, p. 308, no. 149 (H-K 12-14)

All belong to "Issue 1 [ca. 400-350 B.C.]"of J. D. Mac Isaac, "PhliasianBronze Coinage,"ANSMJV 1988, 33, 45-54. Denominations are the chalkous (721a-e, Mac Isaac type A) and the dichalkon (721f, Mac Isaac pp. type B).



ca. 345/325 B.C. Head of Apollo r. 722 K-299 17 t 2.49 E in olive wreath. Warren 1983, Group 3

ca. 330-200 B.C. Dove flying r. or 1. 723 16 coins *a 0-15 *b ET'-468 *c NN-447 12-16 Av. 1.97 (8) 16 $ 2.81 14 \ 2.20 12 / 2.11 E or El in olive wreath. Warren 1983, Group 4

Warren 1983, no. 4.c.8.viii

ca. 303 B.C.?

Dove flying 1. 723A 0-450 14 / 3.06

AH above H in olive wreath.

Warren 1983, Group 5.9f

Kleiner 1975, p. 308, no. 150, but with wrong inventorynumber and provenience.See note 23 above, p. 203.


NON-ATHENIAN COINS late3rdcenry-1 60/150 El above Dove feeding r.


Tripod in olive wreath.

Warren 1983,

or 1984,


9 coins *a Z-2248 *b E-2057 c 00-848

13-16 16 15 / 14 -

Group 9 Av.2.24(8) 3.42 2.91 1.63 obv. below, AH (Warren1984, Group 9.8) dove 1.

ca. 196-160/150




Dove flying 1.; in field, [letter]. 15 \ 2.32

El (with serifs)in olive wreath tied above.

Warren 1984, Group 8

ca. 160/150-146


Dove flying 1.; above wing, OA[YMllA](?). 726 r-483 15 -+ 2.86

El in olive wreath.

Warren 1984, Group 10.1

[723, 725, 726] 39 coins of Dove flying l./E, El, or [?] in olive-wreathtype. A few of these pieces could belong to Warren1983, Group 5: lettersother than El in the reversewreath.The 39 coins include 2 from Deposit B 20:9 (Kleiner 1976, p. 21, nos. 112, 113). 1stcentury B.C. Head of Apollo r. 727 *a II-636 b 0-647 c BB-7a d AA-260 17 17 17 17 \ / f t 2.00 1.86 3.43 4.68 [El] Dove flying or alighting 1.; in field, name. Warren 1984, Group 12

dove flying;AINEA[E].Warren,Group 12.1; GRC,fig. 18 similar,but name not preserved dove alighting;name(?) same

of For the overstriking pieces signed by Aineas in late Ist-centuryB.C. Athens, see Warren 1984, p. 20, and under 152 (p. 108 above). Nero RPC I, 1241

A.D. 67-68:

N K ZEYC EAEYOEPI-OC Head of Nero r., laur. *728 BZ-29 19 / 7.30

Enl F.l.nO-AYAINOY Nude, male youth, walking r. with raised arms.



[NE KAI ZEYC] EAEYOEPIOC [nOAY]AINOY.AA Man on horse 1.;in ex., [Cl]. Head of Nero r. 18 4 3.28 intentionallyhalved

RPCI, 1238

A.D. 209-212:



[- - EEnTIM?]IOC r[ETA- -] Bust of Geta r. *730 ET'-502 25


CIKY-W-N-I-WN Artemis stg. half r., holding raised torches.

H.xvii, xviii VCP,




ca. 32-31 B.C.

AIrIEfN Head of Zeus r., laur.



22 4 5.28

[eEOE]IOE KAHTAIOE Zeus stridingr., throwing thunderbolt,eagle on extended 1. wrist. GRC,fig. 18 [eEOE]IOS KAHTAIO' 1. Eagle stg. three-quarters

BMC 4, 5



AIrIEfN Head of young Dionysos r., wearing ivy crown. 18 t 3.02

BMC 6, 7

2ndcentury Christ? after


Head of Zeus r., laur. *733 NN-84a

(ast three HMI[OBE]AIN letters retrogradein ex.) Goat stg. r., nursing baby Zeus within a cave.

NCP, R.xiv; JHS 17, 1897, p. 82, no. 5

21 J 7.73 The Dionysos and eagle typesof 732 shouldreferto Antony and Kleopatra(seepp. 103-105 above)and date it and the other issues signed Theoxios-Kletaiosjust before Actium. The chronology of 733 and related Aigion varieties inscribed HMIOBEAIN more problematic.Al use lunate epsilons, as do Aigion's imperial portrait is issues, which begin under Antoninus Pius. Head (HN2, p. 413) assigned the coins with hemiobol inscriptions to the time of Hadrian and later,Price (CRWLR, 97) to the time of AntoninusPius. p. BouRA

A.D. 193-211: Septimius Seveu



Bust of Severus r., laur., dr. 22 t 4.67


BOVPA-EWN Tyche stg. 1., with cornucopia and rudder.




ca. 146-14 B.C.

Head of bearded Herakles r. 735 *a X-178 b PP-243 21 +- 6.67 22 f broken

FIat 1. of Athena, BMC 7-13 advancingr., with shield and lowered spear. MHTflOAWPOC MENEKAEOCnATPEWN; at r., owl rev., (BMC 8-1 1) KAAAICTPATOY [NIKOCTP]ATOC nATP[ELN]; at 1., palm (BMC 12, 13) RPat 1. of Dionysos stg. 1., with torch. rev., name (?) same Cop156, 157

[flATPE-QN] below Cista mystica of Dionysos. 736 a b H417a IIA-426 19 t 18 / 3.32 4.75

As Roman Colony, fiom 14 B.C.



Cista mystica between bunch of grapes and thyrsos. 15 t 1.95

COL.A-[A PATR] Club.

BMC 16; RPC I, 1250

A.D.81-96: Domitian IMP CAES DOM[---] Head r., laur. 24 1 6.07 COL A A I [PATRENS] Priestwith two oxen plowing 1. BMC 27



A.D. 161-180: MarcusAulius

Bust of M. Aureliusr.

COL AA PATR Distyle temple containing statue of Athena with spear [and phiale]; at feet, owl.

JVCP, Qxiv (rev.); cf. Co 200 (Commodus)



20 /

A.D. 176-192: Commodus

[------740 EE-68

Bust of Commodus r. 24 +- 5.10

[COLAA P]ATR Zeus seated 1., with scepter and [Nike]; at feet, eagle.


A.D. 198-217: Caracalla

[--...---741 BB-1259

Bust of Caracallar. 19 f 3.77

COL A[A] PATR Hermes seated 1., on rock.

BMC 47

CATALOGUE M AVR ANTONINVS PIVS AVG PATR COLAA GERM Distyle temple containing statue of Hermes seated 1. Bust r., laur., dr. 18 \ 4.09 " 20 4.33 GRC,fig. 24

235 BMC 51

742 *a b

AA-977 H-941

B.C. 4th-3rd century

Head of Apollo r., laur. 743 *a b


rEabove Ram's head; all in laurel wreath.

BMC 10-12

d e f

EA-475 NN-263 ME-99 ST'-599 r-1356 NN-1653

14 k/ 2.10 15 2.65 15 / 2.43 16 N/ 4.03 16 broken 19 3.81

obv. head 1. or r.; rev. ethnic above or below.


193-211: Septims Seveus [TE]N[EA]TfN Tyche stg. 1., with phiale and cornucopia.

Bust of S. Severus r. *744 1-1034 21




befor251 B.C.

Head of Zeus r., laur.

X in laurel wreath.

M. G. Clerk, Catalogu of theCoins of theAchaean League, London 1895, p. 1, no. 1; BMC 1



14 +- 2.58

191-146 B.C.43

Zeus stg 1., with Nike and scepter;border of d lots. 746 *a S-305

Female figure (Achaia)seated 1., with wreath and scepter.

20 t


obv., AXAIQNover A(?); rev. at 1., upwards, EPMIONEfN; at r., downwards,MNHEI[E]. Hermione mint (Clerk,op.ci., p. 24, no. 47: "Epidauros")

According tJennifer Warren,whose study of the Achaian League bronze is in preparation.We thank her also for the mint attributionsof 746b and 746e.


236 b

NON-ATHENIAN COINS r-1239 BA-522 E-2229 EA-62 EA-133 A-1432 AA-1 19

17 broken

22 t 18 t 20 /

6.50 5.90 4.47

d e f g h

3.47+ 20 19 / broken 18 A fragment

Hermione mint? obv., [AXJAI[QN]. MEEEANIQN.Messene mint (Clerk, obv., AEXIAE; rev., AXAIfMN op.cit.,p. 31, no. 108; BMC 154) obv. at r., XAPMIA[AE];rev. AX[AtIN nArAIfN]. Pagai mint (Clerk,op.cit.,p. 23, no. 33; BMC 135) rev., [MErA]PfN. Megara mint (Clerk,op.cit., p. 23, nos. 33-37). Kleiner 1975, p. 317, no. 253 (P-R 6-12) details and mint unclear
same same


ca. 363-323 B.C.44 PLATED COUNTERFEr AR STATER OF [F]-A Head of Hera r. 21 \ 3.61 BMC 95, 96 Eagle stg r., wings spread; in olive wreath. intentionallyhalved; no survivingtrace of silver plating 312-271 B.C. Head of Zeus 1., laur. 748 B-351 20 \ 5.49 [F-A] Eagle stg. 1., wings spread. BMC 115



271-191 B.C. [Head of Zeus r.] F-A Eagle r., wings spread, seizing snake; at 1. [KAA]. BMC 141





Head of Zeus, laur. 750 *a ne-406 b T-23 c B'-849a 19 \ 4.99 19 % 5.13 18 t 5.48

[F-A] Horse trottingr. head 1. (BMC 145) head r. same

BMC 144, 145 (or 129)

afer 191 B.C.

[Head of Zeus r.] 751 A-405 18 4.38+

[F-A] Winged thunderbolt; all in olive wreath.

BMC 148

44 C. T.

Coins Seltman, The nempk of Olmpia,Cambridge 1921, pp. 92-105, Group GH1, Series XXX.

CATALOGUE Head of Zeus r., laur. 752 a b ME-295 T-1650 20 18 6.08 3.39 [FAIAEIlN] in olive wreath. Kleiner 1975, p. 324, no. 353 (M-N 15:1) BMC 149-155



117-138: Hadrian



Bust of Hadrian r., laur. 27 - 9.84


in [HAEIIWN] olive wreath.

BMC 157, 158


[HAEI-WN] Zeus stridingr., throwing thunderbolt. 2.55

BMC 159



19 4





, 3.75

[HAEI-WN] Youthfulnude Zeus stg. r., arms extended 1. and r. [holding thunderboltand eagle].

Liegle, pl. III:5



4th-3rd century B.C.



Ram stg. 1. 19 \ 5.45

Bow in oblong incuse.

BMC 18



Crested helmet with cheek pieces 1. 12 - 1.70

[K] in incusesquare.

BMC 26, 27


B.C. 4th-3rd century



Bust of Athena facing. 11 - disintegrated


in wreath.

BMC 18



4th-3rd centuy B.c.

Head of Apollo r., laur. 759 *a b T-203 r-637 15 \ 18 3.06 broken


BMC 42-47



370-280 B.C.

Head of Demeter 1., wearing wheat wreath. 760 a b EA-391 NN-1122 16 / 15 3.85 broken

M-E Tripod.

BMC 4, 5

Kleiner 1976, p. 19, no. 162 (A-B 19-20:1)

280-146 B.C. Head of Demeter r., wearing wheat wreath. 761 a b c NN-9 Z-147 NN-1863 ItEat 1. of Zeus stridingr., throwingthunderbolt;at r., tripod. BMC 21-36

20 4 6.81
21 , 21 t 6.35 5.78

no details same obv., head 1.;rev., tripod at 1. (cf BMC 34)

Head of Asklepiosr., laur.

at ME r. of Snake on staff;at 1., NIKAPIXOE.


762 *a b

E-4256 BB-639

18 t 2.62 18 4 3.47


A.D. 198-217: Caracall

Bust of C Caracallar. 763 T-72 22 +- 3.02


KYnA[PICCIEWN] Athena stg. 1., with spear and phiale.




A.D.193-211: Sepimius Seraus

Bust of S. Severus r. 764 E-1553a 22 +- 5.15


Athena stg 1., with spear.

cf. BMC 6 (Geta)


ca. 220-182 B.C. Head of Zeus r., diad.

eoY at 1.of Athena,

stg, facing, with spear and shield; downwardat 1., [NI]KfNYMOS; at r., wreath.

BMC 2, 3



20 "


A.D.198-217: Caracalla ?

Bust of Caracalla() r. 766 X-185 21 4- 3.25+

[--------]] .

A-A 1. and r. of Athena stg. 1., with phiale and spear. pierced with 4 mm. hole

BMC 5, 6



ca. 223-222 B.C. Two pilei of the Dioskouroi; border of dots. 767 BB-66 15 +- 1.74 A-A Club. Grunauer,p. 116, Group VII

Grunauer,p. 116, coin a

caa 197-192

B.C. Grunauer,p. 127, Group XI

Head of Apollo r.

Two pilei of the Dioskouroi; between them the monograms A (above)and ? (below).



16 t



ca. 48-40 B.C.

Head of Athena in Corinthian helmet r. 769 00-865 13 / 1.41

[A-A] Owl stg. r., in olive wreath.

Grunauer, pp. 127-129, Group XII

Head of bearded Heraklesr.

A-A Club; in field, [etters]; all in olive wreath.

Grunauer, pp. 129-134, Group XIV

770 a b

E-825 BB-705

16 14 -

2.55 1.80

Grunauer,p. 134, coin f

ca. 43-31 B.C. Jugate heads of the Dioskouroir. 771 a b c Z-412 E-2430 Z-1963 19 18 16 2.72 2.85 1.61+ [A-A] Two amphorasentwined by snakes;in field, [letters]; all in olive wreath. Grunauer, pp. 134-140, Group XV

[Head of Lakedaimon,r., diad.] 772 00-986 19 4.68

A-A Eagle stg. r., wings closed; at l.; at r.,A.

Grunauer,p. 147, Group XVI, Ser. 14

35-31 B.C. [NOMOOYAAKEC] Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. *773 NN-143 27 / 15.47 A-A Dioskouroistg., facing, with spears;between them, A PICITAINA; all in wreath. Grunatier, pp. 155-156, Group XVIII

Head of Apollo r., laur. 774 K-1562 25 \ 11.43

A-A I -i1 Artemis 1., leaning on spear;beside her, dog; all in wreath.

Grunauer,p. 156, Group XIX, Ser. 1

31-7 B.C.

Head of Zeus r.

KAEjO-E A-AIEni-EYIPY1. and r. of Club.

Grunauer,pp. 163168, Group XXVI; RPCI, 1103

775 a b

A-119 NN-404a

22 20

- 5.12 - 6.60

ca. 21 B.c.: Augusts


Head of Augustusr. 776 *a b

Eaglestg r.

Grunauer,p. 168, Group XXVII; RPCI, 1104

E-949 P-1621 Z-605

17 17 / 18 4

2.24 1.53 2.97

legends effaced same

A.D. 117-138: Hadrian

AV KAIC[---] Bust of Hadrian r., rad., ~, with drapery on far shoulder; border of dots.



14 -+ 2.70

unpublished AAK[--- -] AAthena r., wearing peplos stg. with archaisticoverfolds, holding shield in 1. and brandishingspear in upraised r.; border of dots. for the reverse type at Sparta, see Grunauer,p. 103, pl. 32:40 (Geta)

Pius A.D. 138-161: Antonnus [AYTOKPATQP-ANTNNEINOC Club between pilei of Head r., laur.] Dioskouroi,in wreath. - 3.58 19 Similar. Grunauer,p. 185, Group XL, Ser. 1



[AAKEAAIMONIfiN] Apollo stg frontally,with lyre, head 1.

Grunauer,p. 186, Group XL, Ser. 4



19 A 2.95




HPI behind Bust of Aphrodite r. 18 - 2.99

Dove flying 1.

BMC 14, 15


4th-3rd centry B.C.

Head of wolf 1. 781 BB-46 12 broken

A; below, B in shallow incuse square.

BMC 98


NON-ATHENIAN COINS Archaic Athena fighting 1. Head of Hera r., wearing inscribed [APrE]. stephanos Kleiner 1975, p. 309, no. 151 (H-K 12-14) 17 \ 3.97 17 t 3.14
3rd-2nd cntby B.C.

BMC 106, 107

782 *a ME-304 b K-830

783 a b c d

AA-110 T-954 0-196 1-52

Head of Apollo, laur. 15 \- broken 15 4- 2.34 15 2.44 17 % 2.84

Wolf at bay.

BMC 125-130

types 1.;rev., above, [A] (BMC 125, 126) types r.; rev., above, X(BMC 128-130) same types r.; rev. above, APrEfi[N]; below, K (McClar 6865, 6866)

784 a b c

PP-736 n-571 IIII-852

BMC 131-135 Head of Apollo r., laur. Tripod. 14 / 1.88+ rev., [E]Y-eMIM-[E], [B] and club (BMC 131, 132) 16 , 1.90 rev., A-[All[K-PA],club and B (BMC 133) no details 14 - 2.19 [Head of Hera r., wearing stephanos.] BMC 140-142

n-[AMljJA-[HZ] Quiver; to 1. [trident];to r. prow.



16 -

Serus 193-211: Sepimus




[---]CE[nT] CEBH[POC] Head r., laur. 24 \ 6.11


NEIMEIIA in parsleywreath.

cf BMC 170 (Julia Domna)

198-217: Caracalla

-]ANTWNEINO[C] [----Head r.

AP[rE]IJWN Leto stg r., 1. hand extended over child Chloris.




J. Sabatier, "Monnaiesimperiales grecques,"RBN, ser. 4, 3, 1960 (pp. 1-25), pp. 1011,pl. I:8l;ith .NCP,p. 38


4th-3rd cetury B.C.

788 a ET'-638 b A-1046 c K-83 d r-1608

Head of Asklepiosr., laur. 15 f fragment 12 t 1.21+ 12 - 1.24+ 11 - 1.14+

E in laurel wreath.

BMC 16-21

CATALOGUE Similar. 789 a b Z-2643 0-528 16 N 1.77 16 t 2.66 E Thymiaterionbetween two cupping vessels. BMC 23



E above Coiled snake r.

cf. BMC 27 (monogram retrograde)

790 a b

K-1536 00-476

15 t 15 14 -

chipped 3.14 4.18


Similar. *791 rr-291a 20 N 6.63

EnlAAYPOY around IEIPAEin wreath.

Cop 132


second 4th B.C. quarter century


Head of Demeter 1., wearing wheat wreath. 792 *a b E-5552 X-175 14 \ 12 2.30 fragment

E-P Torch; all in wheat wreath.

Grandjean, Groups I, II

Grandjean,p. 33, pl. 8, d4-r6 (emission 1) Grandjean,p. 43 (emission 11) (N 19:1)


Head of Demeter facing, wearing wheat wreath.

t in wheat wreath.

Grandjean, Group I, emission 6





Grandjean,p. 39, pl. 10, d69-r?

third B.C. quarte4thcentury DICHALKON Head of Demeter r., wearing wheat wreath. 794 NN-2022 15 t 2.13+ EP between Two torches; all in wheat wreath. Grandjean, Group IV, emission 13

Grandjean,p. 44, pl. 11, d107-rl 12

244 CHALvOUS Same as 792.


Same as 792.

Grandjean, Group IV, emission 14

Grandjean,p. 45 not rely on the evidence from Olynthos, the Group II Hermione coin Although Grandjean(op.cit., note 22) did excavatedat this site (ibid.,p. 38 = Olynthus p. 94, pl. xviii, no. 785 = Olynthus p. 352, b) in an area that lay III, IX, abandonedafter 348 B.C. p. 297 below)confirmsher datingof GroupsI and II before ca. 350. (see
A.D. 198-217: Caracalla





[--- -] M AV ANTfNI Bust r., laur., dr. *795 E-3753 25 ? 6.22

[E]PMIONEW)N Tyche stg. 1., with cornucopia and rudder.

cf. BMC 19 (Plautilla)


B.C. late 4th century

796 a b

Z-1366 I-502a

Head of young Heraklesr. 14 - 1.72 12 - 1.41+

KA/Ef2in parsleywreath.

BMC 9, 10

A.D. 198-212: PhlutiUa

Bust of Plautillar. 797 Z-902 23


[K]AEM[NAIN] Athena stridingr., with spear and shield.

Corinth VI, no. 419

t 2.50


193-211: Sepmius Severus

Bust of S. Severus r.




ME9ANA-IWN Artemis stg. I., holding bow and drawing arrowsfrom quiver.

BMC 18



B.C. 4th-3rdcentury

Head [of Poseidon]. 16 3.37

[TPO] Trident.

BMC 17 (head 1.) or Cop160, 161 (head r.)



(E 14:3)

A.D. 180-192: Commodus


Head of Commodus r., laur. 800 Z-2099 22 / 6.75 (H 12:4)

[ --------

[TPOZHNIWN] Theseus r., raising rock.

BMC 20



aftr ca. 370 B.c.

Head of young Pan r. 801 A-245 20 $ 5.32+

A Syrinx.

BMC 62-69

Head of Zeus 1., laur. 802 a b r-1584 (-107 18 4. 2.17 18 4 2.40

A Syrinx;below, thunderbolt; in field, [F M].

BMC 87, 88


4th century B.C.

Head of Athena 1., wearing Attic helmet. 803 Z-344 15 2.99

H with curved sides and four pellets around.

BMC 23

Similar. 804 (-328 13 1 2.69

H with curved sides.

BMC 24, 25

A specimenof 804 was excavatedat Olynthos;see Oynthus p. 82, pl. XVII, no. 729 = Oynths IX, p. 352, d. VI,


370 after




Head of Helios facing. 13 - 0.81

BMC 12, 13



afer 370 B.C.

806 a b

II1-581 r-359

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthianhelmet. 15 \ 2.29 14 -+ 2.40 Similar.

[MAN] Trident.

BMC 20-23

M-A 1. and r. of shaft of Trident. broken




9 t



ca. 234-146B.c.

Head of Zeus 1., laur.

ME-r Pan seated 1. on rock; in field, AE-<I8c-A.

BMC 16



23 t



370 after B.c. Artemis kneeling r., with bow. 20 / [EPXOMEN-IQN] Kallisto seated 1., pierced by arrow;child Arkasbehind. BMC 1, 2





after370 B.C.



Head of Demeter r., wearing wheat wreath. 15 - broken

[E]-E Caduceus.

BMC 20

A.D. 198-217: Caracalla

M AVP ANTQNINOC Bust r., laur. *811 AA-22 23 / 3.65

[0E]NE-ATQN Dionysos seated 1., with thyrsosand [kantharos]. GRC,fig. 23

unpublished; cf. NCP, p. 98



4th-3rdcentuy B.C. Head of Athena r., wearing TEFE or TE Owl stg. Attic helmet. 16 f 3.87 TEfrE;owl r. (as McClean 7020) 15 \x 1.79 TE; owl 1. (BMC 10) 14 -* 1.07 samte 13 -+ 2.26 TEr ; owl 1. 15 \ 2.55 legend effaced;owl 1. Similar. 813 I-148a 14 [TErEA] Warriorcharging r. BMC 8-10

812 *a A-225 *b EE-25 c $-156 d PP'-756 e Br-293

BMC 12, 13

2.89 BMC 17-19

Head of Eileithyiaor Demeter r., [with torch over shoulder]. 814 T-1450

[TEFEA] Athena stg. r., [placing hair of Medusa in amphora held by child Sterope].

18 /



[AAEOE] Head of Aleos r.

815 a b

[TEFEATAN] Athena and Kepheus stg., face to face; between them, Sterope receiving hair of Medusa in amphora; [above and below, monograms].

BMC 20, 21

nI-315 ET'-576

22 f 21 -

broken 6.15

A.D. 193-211: SeptmiusSeverus



Bust of S. Severus r. 21 - 4.37


---- ]

TErE[-- -] Type effaced.


ca. 250-67 B.C. Head of Artemis r., wearing stephanos. 16 t 2.91 [An]-T[A] at 1. and r. of handle of Race torch. cf. BMC 12, 13





3rd century B.C.

Head of Athena 1., wearing Corinthianhelmet. *818 00-454 15 t 1.01

[AP]EI Two dolphins swimming r., the lower one inverted.



ca. 200-67 B.C.

[Head of Artemis r.] 819 0-24 15 1.96

[K-N]fn-Eliln-N Winged caduceus.

BMC 70

A.D. 4-14: T beus as Caesar

[Tl CAESAR] Head r. 819A NN-1994 19 4 4.32


RPC I, 983


A.D. 138-161: Antoninus Pius

AV AN[T-WN]EINOC Head r., laur.

K-K Artemis running r., drawing arrow from quiver.

j. N. Svoronos,
Nuismatiquede la Crte ancienne, Macon 1890, p. 354, no. 126



16 \


See also 1033 and 1034.


ANDROS 4th-2ndcenry B.C. Head of young Dionysos r., wearing ivy wreath. 18 . 5.50 (C 9:2) 16 - 3.80

[AIN-IIA-P] Amphora.

BMC 3-5

821 a b

KK-27 IIII-667

CATALOGUE Head of bearded Dionysos r., Kantharos, AIN-[IIIA-[P] wearing ivy wreath. 15 t 3.30 er Klein( 1976, p. 19, no. 163 (A-B 19-20:1) Head of young Dionysos r., A-NIA-PI Thrysos. wearing ivy wreath. 16 t 3.07 17 t 2.66 obv. cmk.: bunch of grapes in incuse circle 17 f 3.23 17 t 3.65 16 t 3.00 16 1 1.05+ BMC 7




BMC 14-19

823 *a b

d e f

A-1550 00-97a E-2069 S-5669 Z-2440 T-222



Head of bearded Dionyrsos r., BMC 20-22 A-NIA-PI Tripod. wreath. wearing ivy 10 t 0.90 (context ["Layer2 of MJ'1 with Period III Athenian coins to third quarterof 2nd century B.C. [three variety 98: Athena/Amphora]; see 984) DELOS

167 before


Head of Apollo 1., laur. 825 NN-2013 18 f Similar. 4.73+

A-H Palm tree.

Sv. 105.75-78

A behind Bust of Artemis r., with quiver at shoulder.

Sv. 105.91-93



fragment A-H Lyre. Kleiner 1976, p. 15, no. 93 (H 12:1) Similar. Sv. 105.35-41, 49-74 Sv. 105.32-34

Similar. 827 *a b H-8 Z-2804 17 t 16 f 3.07 4.08

Head of Apollo, laur. 828 Apollo head 1.(Sv. 105.35-41, 64-74) BB-903 12 t 0.80 NN-857 11 t 0.86 c Z-2767 10 t 1.41 *d II-447 9 t 0.99 head r. (Sv. 105.49-63) Apollo e Q-33 10 t 1.03 f E-1148 10 t 0.88 a b

250 g h i j k NN-935 Z-2837 T-1702 10 9 f - t 0.70 0.72 fragment


Kleiner 1976, p. 15, no. 95 (corrected)(H 12:1) Kleiner 1975, p. 322, no. 325 (M-N 15:1)

Apollo head 1.or r. A-1314 12 - 1.76 IIA-148 10 - 1.11

Head of Apollo r., laur. 829 r-1565 7 t 0.45


Sv. 105.30-31

The Delian Apollo/Lyre bronzewas minted in threedenominations.Accordingto the criteriaoutlinedabove, p. 38, the larger,AE 3 unit (827) should be the dichalkon,which leaves 828 and 829 to be identified as the AE 4 chalkousand the AE 5 half-chalkous respectivelySome of the smallerand lighterpieces listed under 828 in fact belong to 829. may


ca. 69 B.C. TPIA below Head of Apollo r., with quiver at neck. *830 AA-1149 18 t 4.57 A-eE Owl stg. r., facing, on horizontalamphora. Sv. 106.66-71

This is the only coin of this variety with a recorded Athenian provenience. All other specimens whose place of discovery is known (namely,the nineteen pieces in the Numismatic Collection of Athens, including Sv. 106.66-71) come from Delos.45 The obverse inscription is the signature of the admiral Gaius Valerius Triarius,legate of Lucullusin the Aegean and Black Seas duringthe Second MithradaticWar.4 Using Delos as his base of operations,Triariuscould have minted the coinage to compensate sailors in his'fleet; but in view of the Athenian ethnic and types of the coins, it seems far more likely that the coinage was ordered to pay wall that Triariusconstructedaround the ruined city of Delos after the pirate the workmenon the fortification Athenodoros devastatedthe island in 69.47 The nineteen Numismatic Collection specimens have an average weight of 5.05 g. This AE 2 issue was accompanied by an AE 3 denomination with the first three letters of Triarius'name in a monogram (Sv. 106.73-75, 13-14 mm., av. [of the eight NumismaticCollection specimens] 3.10 g.): Obv. --A at 1.and r. of Bust of Artemisr.;borderof dots. Rev. A-OE Two wheat ears;borderof dots. All exampleswith a recordedprovenienceare also from Delos.48 On the mistakenattributionof other AOE bronze varietiesto Delos after its transferto Athenian control in 167/6 B.C.,see above pp. 68-69 and under 104. Svoronos 1907, pp. 194-214, nos. 66, 76, 124, 125, 164, 304-306, pl. IV:8-10. Idem1911, pp. 60-61, nos. 85, 105;pp. 83-92, nos. 9.8, 9.9, 11.3, 14.26, 16.20, 16.21. 46 T. R. S. Broughton, TheMagstrates theRomn ubc I, New York 1952, pp. 113, 120, 125, 134, 141; Roussel, of Repan note 1, and pp. 331-333. p. 48, 47 de los,3rd ed., Paris 1983, p. 198. P.BruneauandJ. Ducat, Guide 48 Svoronos 1907, pp. 194-214, nos. 67 (pl. IV:11),77, 165-166, 307; idem1911, p. 78, no. 7.18.




second half3rd centuy B.C.49

Bearded head (Aristaios) r., laur. 831 a r-1481 *b NN-1612 C AA-436 d A-599a e $-368 f N'-1257 16 18 18 15 14 15

t 3.45 t 4.93 t t
2.15+ 2.27+ 1.30+ 3.52

BMC 1-9 KEIor KEIQN of dog Sirios 1., Forepart encircled by rays. KE- IQ N ethnic? Kleiner 1976, p. 19, no. 164 (A-B 19-20:1) ethnic? same same same

Head of Apollo r., laur. 832 *a Z-457 b II-8 11 -4 1.26 11 -4 1.18


BMC 12


4th-2nd century B.C.

Head of young Dionysos r., wearing ivy wreath. 833 *a b S-1427 E-595 19 \ 3.19 18 ., 5.95

[KAPeA] Bunch of grapes; at 1., star.

BMC 42

Head of Apollo r., laur.

[KAPeA] Forepartof dog Sirios r., encircled by rays.

BMC 44



16 t


*835 49 G.


Bearded male head (Dionysos?) r. 13 - 1.73

K A P e A between rays of Star.

cf. BMC 46 (Apollo head obv.)

as Reger and M. Risser,"Coinageand Federationon HellenisticKeos,"in Landscape ArchaeologyLong-term History: Keos Northern in the Cycladic Islands, Davis, J. Cherry, and E. Mantzourani, edd., Los Angeles 1991 (pp. 305-315), J. pp. 307-308.



B.C. 4th-2ndcentury Bearded male head r. (Aristaios) 13 - broken K 0 P [H] between rays of Star. BMC 57, 58



(found with two Athenian bronze of variety 85 or 108:

Cicada/Amphora, 2nd century

Head of Apollo r., laur. 837 *a b T-37a T-1205

Bee. [KOIPH]
obv. cmk.: head 1., in incuse circle

BMC 66

18 4 6.44
19 t 3.86


B.C. 4th-2nd century

Head of young Dionysos r.

IOY 1. of Bunch of grapes.

cf. BMC 69, 70 (beardedDionysos head)



11 t


Head of Apollo r.

IOY Forepartof dog Sirios r. [encircledby rays].

7246 cf. McClean





Bearded head r., laur. 840 EA-182 13 / 1.91


BMC 78-83


3rd-lst cenaryB.C.

Female head r. 841 E-5564 12 1 1.47

[K-Y] Bunch of grapes; all in incuse square.


Head of Apollo r., laur. 842 N-963 17

Rose. K-[Y]


4 2.76



lst-3rd century Christ after Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 25 f 7.67 in MHIAI[W]N olive wreath. BMC 38



A.D. 176-192



MHAIhN Bust of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 25 4 6.14


in olive wreath.

BMC 48


ca. before 150 B.C.

845 a b

EA-25 N'-1315a

Head of Demeter or Kore r., wearing wheat wreath. 16 t 3.58 17 t 2.45+

nAPI above Goat stg. r.; in front, star.

(context of before ca. 150 B.C.50)

BMC 32-34





Eagle flying r. 15 - 2.13

Incuse square. BMC 3 Bronze clearlyvisible beneath the silver envelope. The coin appears to have been intentionallyflattened.

B.C. 3rd-lst century

Head of bearded Pan r. 847 a b c 00-1261 NN-57 e-414 16 t 2.72 16 / 3.18 15 +- 3.05

[EYPI] above Goat. goat stg. 1.;obv.: indistinctcircularcmk. goat stg. 1. goat walking r.

BMC 1-12

poros fragmentfrom cisternQ9-1 0:1, which was coveredover duringconstruction of the terrace of the Stoa of Attalos in the middle of the 2nd century B.C. The cistern may have gone out of use in the early 3rd centurywhen the SquarePeristyle built (p. 315 below),but because of 2nd-centuryB.C. was contamination, it is unclearwhether the contextual terminus quem the coin should be pushed back to ca. 300. ante for

50 The coin was found stuckto a



288-ca. 230


Head of bearded Zeus Ammon r., laur. *848 T-1316 12 t 1.23

T-H Bunch of grapes.

Tnos II, p. 232, ser. 110

Tenos p. 246, no. 1 (context of first third of 2nd century B.C.51) II,

Head of young Zeus Ammon r., laur. 849 a b E-336 T-4a 14 t 16 t 2.30 4.70

T-[H] or [N-I]IT-[H] Bunch of grapes.

Tros II, p. 231, ser. 109

Kleiner 1975, p. 309, no. 152 (H-K 12-14); Tnos II, p. 246, no. 7 Tens II, p. 246, no. 1

to endof3rdcentury ca. 188 B.C. Head of Poseidon r., laur. [T]-HIN-I Trident, handle flanked by dolphins. TbwsII, pp. 239241, ser. 205-206

850 a BA-72 *b E-5550

19 t 11 t

4.60+ 1.30

Tenos p. 246, no. 4 (ser.205:iv) II, Tbnos p. 246, no. 5 (ser.206) n,

Head of young Zeus Ammon r., laur. Cmk.: bunch of grapes in incuse circle. 851 *a b KK-278a EA-46 22 / 20 6.07 5.03

THNIQN Poseidon stg. 1., with trident.

Tbnos pp. 241II, 243, ser. 207

TinosII, p. 246, no. 6 rev.: obs scurecmk. (owl?);Tenos p. 246, no. 3 II,



B.C. 1st century

Head of Artemis r. 852 S-3566a 21 t broken

Stag recumbent1.


Section T Shop Building,room 2. Out 51 Embeddedin layerc, the thirdfloorlayerbelow the finalfloor of ca. 150 B.C.; of a dozen identifiableAthenian coins from this layer,the latestis from the 180'sB.C.(85: Cicada/Amphora).



V: Rheskouporis A.D.314-342

Bust of Rheskouporisr.



[- ----]

Bust of Emperorr.

N. A. Frolova, The Coingeof theKingdom A.D. of Bosporous 242-341/342 (BAR InternationalSeries 166), Oxford 1983, pp. 209-210

853 a b

MM-27 E-1147a

19 4 6.29 18 - 6.42



ca. time ofMithradates Eupator, 120-63 Head of young Ares r., wearing helmet. 18 t 5.72


[A]MI-O[Y] Sword in sheath with strap.

BMC 40-50



Head of young Dionysos r., wearing ivy wreath. 855 *a b IIe-632 K-552 21 t 22 t 6.41 5.65+

AMIZOYbelow Cista mystica;behind it, thyrsoswith fillet and bell. rev. at 1.,hr (BMC 53, 54) no < details

BMC 53-56



A.D. 117-138: Hadrian



[AVTO KAICTPAI]AAPIANOC CEB Head r., laur. 33 4 17.10+

KOI-(NO]NIBElOYNIAC Octastyle temple. (E 14:2)

BMC 12-21




253-260: Valrian andGalleus I OMH[POCNI]KAIEfN Homer seated 1. on cippus, raising r. hand, with 1. hand on seat. Von Aulock 7081



AVT OVAAEPIANOC CEBB rAAAIH[NOC] Busts, rad., facing one another. 29 t 11.07


161-180: MarcusAureus

AV K M AVP-ANTl[NINOC] Head r., laur.

MHTP NEf NIKOMHI[AEQfN] Cop557 Eagle stg. r., wings spread, head turned 1., fighting snake rising at 1.



25 +- 7.43

A.D. 248-251:

Tran Decius



AVT KA TPAIN AEKIOC Aulock 850 NIKOMHAEQAIC NEQKOPQN Von Athena stg. 1., with shield on AV CEB 1. arm, holding phiale in r. Bust r., rad. 23 f 4.63 ob\v.:indistinctcircularcmk.

Similar. 860 00-1424 22 5.25

NIKOMHAE[---[Type effaced]. obv. cmk.: Z in incuse circle


Prousias 183-149 B.C. II, Head of ProusiasII r., diad. 861 IIe-251 18 t broken [BA I]AEf[E] nPO[YI OY] Heraklesstg. 1., holding club and lion's skin. BMC 3-7

Head of young Dionysos r., wearing ivy wreath. *862 r-1036 14 t 4.74

BAZIAE2iFnPOYEIOY Centaur Chiron r., playing lyre; to r., tr.

BMC 14

(E 14:3) GRC,fig. 19




B.C. 2nd-lst century

Head of Apollo 1., laur. 863 K-1184 20 t 8.13

AAPA-MYITH-[NQN] Cornucopia between pilei of the Dioskouroi.

BMC 7-8

A.D. 198-217: Caracala


Bust r., laur. *864 T-1023 34 14 16.17

H. von Fritz, Die anA-IA Enl [CTPA KO]M0 NEIKOV AAPAMV]TH[NfN] tikn Munzen Mysiens, Zeus stg. 1., holding scepter in 1. hand; eagle on outstretchedr. Berlin 1913, p. 51, no. 152


4th-3rd century B.C.

Head of Apollo r., laur. 865 II-353a 16 1 3.59

[ATAP] Forepartof horse r.; coiled snake above.

BMC 1-4


B.C. mid?)-5th century EL STATER Bull stg. 1., on tuna. Quadripartiteincuse square. H. von Fritz, "Die von Electronpragung Nomisma 7, Kyzikos," 1912, no. 88


GRC,fig. 6 Besidesbeing paid into the Athenian treasuryas tributein the second half of the 5th century,52 great numbers of Kyzikene staters served Athenian private interests.In 403 B.C.the strongboxthat the orator Lysias kept in his bedroom contained 3 talentsof silvercoin, 4 silvercups, 100 gold darics,and 400 Kyzikenes(Lysias12.11).


18 -


IGCH 47, a hoard of eighty Kyzikenes found in the Peiraeusin 1882, is now dated to the end of the 5th century (M. Laloux, "Circulationdes monnaies de Cyzique,"RBN 117, 1971 [pp. 31-69], p. 59).

52 See S. K. ANSM 16, 1970,pp. 13-22. W Eddy,"The Value of the Cyzicene Staterat Athens in the Fifth Century,"


4th century B.c.

Head of Kore Soteira r. 867 H'-3178a 17 t 4.82

Tripod;below, tuna. [K-YIZ-I]

BMC 136-143

Fourspecimensfrom Olynthos (O!ynthus p. 354, no. 56) confirm that this coinage began before the middle IX, of the century. PARUON(?)
A.D. 14-37: Tberius



[TI AVG] Head of Tiberius r. 16 t 2.29 DRV-CA Head of Drusus r. 17 1 5.32 [TI AVGDRVSVS] CAESAR Jugate heads of Tiberius and Drusus r. 17 / 5.41

Two priestsplowing with two oxen r.

BMC 89-91; RPC I, 1657


RPC I, 1659




BMC 92; RPC I, 1658



Christ 1stcenry after BMC 86-95 Priest or priests plowing with oxen r. T 18 - 5.41 871 a ST'-415 Julio-Claudianhead r.; obv. cmk.: E in incuse square 17 - 3.71 b EA-399 Julio-Claudianhead r. same 16 - 3.64 c III-1088 same 15 t 2.31 d 0-999 head 1. 16 4 2.69 (e 00-363 head 1., Nerva(?) (BMC 94) 18 +- 4.24 f H-1777 In RPC I (pp. 309-310), 868-870 are tentativelyassigned to an uncertain Roman colony in Macedonia, possiblyPhilippoi. Head of uncertainemperor.




B.C.53 mid-2ndcentury Royalcoinage,

872 *a b

T-1297 r-507

BMC 78-83 at OIAETAIPOY r. of Head of Athena r., wearing Coiled snake. Attic helmet. rev. at 1.,M.. Kleiner 1975, p. 323, pl. 76, no. 334 (M-N 15:1) 16 f 4.30 - details effaced 16

AttaidsofPgamon, Ithaca 1971, pp. 475-484.

Berlin 1910;and E. V Hanse, Th 53 Johnston, Sardis Pergamon, M7, pp. 19, 74, followingH. von Fritz,DieMwzn von

CATALOGUE ca. coinage, 197-133 Municipal Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet.


Nike stg. r., crowning inscriptionwith wreath in r.; in 1., palm.

BMC 135-138




t 6.0

Head of Asklepiosr., laur. 874 2E-99 21

Eagle stg 1., wings spread, on thunderbolt.

BMC 144-149

t 7.43

Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet ornamented with star. 875 B'-669 16 -

at 1.,T(?); r., M(?). at

[AeH]NA[E]INIKH4OPOY Owl, wings spread, stg., facing, on palm branch;

BMC 190-204

Bust of Athena 1., wearing aegis and Corinthian helmet. 876 00-533a 25 f 7.66

[nEPrAMHN9.N] Asklepiosstg., facing, with staff.

BMC 129-134

Period VespasianHadrian to of

Bust of Senate r. *877 EA-401 15

Bust of Roma, turreted,r.; border of dots.

Von Aulock13851387; with RPC I, p. 399



176-192: Commodus

Bust r., laur., cuir., dr. *878 OA-245 46 f 49.9

Enl CTP n A r-AVKf2NIANOVI Aulock Von 7508 nEPrAMHNfN[I-B NEOKOPMIN (samedies)

Statue of Asklepioson pedestal; on each side, centaur with a torch. GRC,fig. 25

54 Johnston, Sardis M7, pp. 20-21.



1stcentury Christ ater [eEAN PfMHN] Bust of Roma, turreted,r. 16 t 3.38 15 -

Bunch of grapes.

RPC I, 2350

879 a b

BB-1292 NN-1804


4th-3rdcentury B.C. [Head of Zeus Ammon r.] 880 1-1592 13 1.26

n I [T A] between points of

BMC 7-1055



A.D. 198-217: Caacalla



M AV ANTON[IN] PIVS AV Bust r., laur., dr. 24 4, 7.05 ANTONIN-VS PIVS AV Bust r., laur.

COL AVGTROAD Horse grazing r.

Belinger A261: cf. BMC 95-97

Horse grazing r.

BellingerA261; cf. BMC 95-97




4 7.36
COL A TROAD Eagle flying 1., carrying bull's head. BellingerA262; cf. BMC 98-101



M AVRANT-ONINVS PIVS AVG Bust r., laur., dr. 26 4 10.65

A.D.249-251: Trajan Decus [IMP] Q C M [TRAI]ANV DECIVS Bust r., laur., cuir., dr. 17 1 2.40 COL AVGVI TRO Horse grazing r. BellingerA396



55 Fora

IX, specimen excavatedat Olynthos, see Olynthus pp. 247, 355.

A.D.251-253: Volsian


AFINI IMP.C.VIBI OLVSSIANV Bust r., laur., dr. *885 IIO-792 22 4 5.01

TRO COL-AVG Eagle stg.; facing, head 1., holding bull's head. (A 14:2) GRC,fig. 24 Assos
A.D. 180-193: Commodus


Bust of Commodus r.


[Eni CTPATIB KA]AV APICTOAA[M]; upwardsin 1. field, ACCIQN; Zeus stg. frontally,holding eagle in r. and scepter in 1.

F Imhoof-Blumer, "Griechische Miinzen aus dem Museum in Klagenfurt,"NZ 16, 1884, pp. 264-265, no. 83




4 13.01

Flavian A.D. period, 79-96 [IAI]Bust of Athena 1., wearing aegis and Corinthian helmet. 20 t 5.06 Aineas walking r., carrying Anchises and leading Askanios. BellingerT129




310 B.C. before



Head of Apollo r., laur. 10 +- 1.07 Similar.

NE-AN Wheat ear.


[NE]AN above Horse grazing r.; in ex., wheat ear.

BMC 8-11



17 -+ 5.57


4th century B.C.



Forepartof winged horse 1., body ending in cornucopia. 16 t 3.71+

[E]-KH Fir tree in linear square.

BMC 19, 20



4thcentury orlater B.C. Female head r. 9 - 0.50 [T]-E Double axe. BMC 22-25





2nd-Ist century B.C.

892 *a NN-439 b A-746

Head of Athena r., wearing AIrAEf2NZeus stg. 1., Attic helmet ornamented holding scepter in 1.; with griffin. [eagle] in outstretchedr. 18 t 6.16 obv. cmk.: owl r. in incuse circle 16 t 4.26+
A.D. 222-235: SeveAu Alexander

BMC 12, 13

Bust of S. Alexander r., laur., cuir., dr. *893 X-8a



AIFrAE[N] Similar Zeus.

cf. onAulock1601 (Decius)

26 4 5.91
4th-2nd century B.C.

Head of Zeus r.

[AYTOKAN]Female head r., hair rolled.




4 1.35

L. Forrer,The Weber Collection: Greek Coins London III, 1926-1929, p. 171, no. 5472

ca. 133 B.c.-lst cenry afterChrist



Head of Kore or Demeter, wearing wheat wreath. 15 t 3.60

Torch; all in E-AAIIT-QN wheat wreath.

BMC 20-29; with RPC I, p. 408



B.C. 4th-3rdcentury


[Eagle stg. r.] VT'-539 10 - 0.75

K-Y Vase with one handle.

BMC 16-20

897 a b

T-20 00-220

Vase with one handle. [KY] Forepartof horse r. obv. name and rev. monogram effaced 16 f 3.04 same 17 - 3.39

BMC 40-52

2ndcentury B.C. Bust of Artemis r., bow and quiver at shoulder. 16 f 4.33 KY above Vase with one handle; BMC 90-92

in field,A-nAIT-OYIP-II0-E.



2ndcentury Christ after Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 14 t 1.41 [KVM]Eagle stg. 1.




A.D. 238-244: Tranquillina





E AVP ACKAHnI-IAKOV r B KVMIAI-flNStatue of Ephesian Artemis with forepart of stag at either side.

BMC 145 (same rev. die)


(A 14:2)



ca. 350/330-250/240 Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. Cmk.: bee.


Kantharos. [M]-AI[e]-Y

BMC 19-23; P. R. Franke,in H.-G. Buchholz, Methymna, Mainz 1975, p. 170, no. 22



12 t


(M 18:10)


B.C. 2nd-lst century

Similar,but cmk.: lyre. 902 rr-49 17 f 4.02

[M]-AIe-Y Kantharos;border of dots.

BMC 29-33; Franke (under 901), p. 171, no. 25


4th-3rd century B.C.

Female head r. 903 *a b E-1787 E-3899 13 t 14 1.80 1.53

M-YIT-I Lyre.
rev. at 1., T;at r., club

BMC 37-95

B.C. 2nd-lst century

Head of Zeus Ammon r.

Herm of Dionysos on prow; at 1., vine branch with grapes.

BMC 132-138



20 t


A.D. 198-217: Caracalla

AVT KPAT K-MAP AVPH ANTfNEINOC Bust r., laur., cuir., dr.





4 50.49

MENEMAXOVI MVTIAHNAIIQN Mounted emperor r., spearingfallen enemy. GRC,fig. 25

cf. Von Aulock1751 (but larger)



4th-3rd B.C. century E-0 Bee. 906 I-696 16 t 2.43 Stag kneeling 1., head turned back; above, astragal. BMC 63-67

Head of city goddess r., turreted. 907 Z-2032 11

[E]-< Bee.

BMC 68-70 (head 1.)

4 0.73+

ca. 48-27


Bust of Artemis r., bow and quiver at shoulder. 908 B'-927 19 t 3.77

[E-0] Long torch between two stags;above, below, and in field [magistrates' names].

BMC 182-184

27 B.C.-A.D. 14: Augustus

Head of Augustusr., bare.

[- - -- - ] Cult statue of Ephesian Artemis.

BMC 195, 196; RPC I, 2586, 2588, 2590, 2592



16 f


A.D. 138-161: Antoninus Pius

Bust of Antoninus Pius r. *910 00-473 23 t 5.05

[HPAKAEIT]OC-E<EC[IQ2N] Herakleitosstg. 1., with club in 1.;r. hand raised.

cf BMC 340, 341 (Philip II)

A.D. 161-169: L Verus



OVH-POC KAI Bust r., laur. 17 , 2.97

E(<ECIQNStag stg. r.

BMC 248


193-211: Septimius Severus(?) E?ECIfN Stag walking r. cf. BMC 262



Bust of S. Severus(?)r. 17 4 2.21



209-212: Geta



rE-TAC AV Bust r., laur., dr. 17 $ 3.95

E4<-ECIIQN Stag stg. r.

BMC 289


248-251: Eruscilla AnHMH-IEPAIEEECIQN Sacred wagon drawn by two mules. cf. BMC 335 (GordianIII)

EPEN ETPOYCKIAAA CEB Bust r., crescent behind. *914 IIII-466 28 4 8.77


A.D. 253-255: Saloninus

KOP OVAAEP[IA]NOC KAI Bust r., laur. *915 Br'-474 21 / 4.82

EOECI[nN A]-NE-OKOPQ Artemis holding transverse torch r.

cf. BMC 381 (Gallienus)

ERYTHRAI 4th-3rd centuyB.C. [Head of young Herakles r.] 916 ME-212 14 1.35 cf. BMC 66-81 (ethnic above club) (pro )bablyfrom H-K 12-14, but not listed in Kleiner 1975, pp. 304-312) EPY above Club and bow in case; between and below, [--]AKAE[-- I - -]ME[- - ]. BMC 85-94 EPY below Club and bow in case.

Head of young Heraklesr. 18 t Similar. 918 IIn-174 15 t 2.79+



3.49 BMC 115


afer ca. 133 B.C.

[Head of Zeus r.] 919 ET'-579a 18 5.45+





4thcentury andlater B.C. Helmeted head of Athena facing r. three-quarters 12 t 1.35 Similar. 921 N-581a 16 f 3.56 above KAAZO[MElINIQN Ram recumbent r.; below, [--- - - ]. BMC 85, 86
] [----Ram walking r.

BMC 56-72



[KAAZOMEINIMN] Forepartof ram r.

BMC 73-80

Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 922 A-317 17 t 4.83



4th-3rd centuy B.C.

Cavalrymanon prancing horse r. *923 B'-646 8 t 0.57

MArN above Bull butting 1.; below, - -][.].

BMC 35; Cop819821

after ca. 190 B.C.

Head of Athena r., wearing crested helmet.

[MArN]HTfN above Cavalrymancharging on horse r.; below [EYKAHEI KPATINOE].

BMC 44, 45



19 t


[MArNHT] below Stag stg. r.; above, star. 925 H-133 18 f 3.13

EYKAHEIKPATINOE1. and r. of Statue of Artemis Lykophryene.

BMC 47

A.D. 198-217: Caracalla

AVT KAI M AVP ANTfNEINOC Bust r., laur., dr.

MArNHTfN Statue of Themistoklesstg. 1., with phiale in extended r. hand and sword in sheath in 1.;at 1., burning altar and, on ground, slain bull. Above and below statue'sextended hand,


cf. S. Schultz, Die M'inprigug vonMagnesia am Mdander der in romischen Kaiserzeit, Hildesheim/New York 1975, p. 61, pl. 7, no. 103 (AntoninusPius), and p. 85, pl. 19, no. 244 (Severus Alexander).



40 1



1st centuy B.C.



Helmeted head of Ares or Athena r. 15 *- 3.25

MHTPOnlOAITf[N] Thunderbolt.

BMC 1, 2



370-350's B.C.56

Lion 1., looking back; above, M.

A ) 0 B H T 0 E around Star with eight rays.



13 -

B. Deppert-Lippitz, Die Minprgung Miets vonvirtenbis ersterJahruhndert v. Chr.,Aarau/ am Frankfurt Main/ Salzburg 1984, p. 150, nos. 265-269


GRC,fig. 19
mid-at 4th century B.C.57

Head of Apollo r., laur.

Lion stg. r., looking back; above, star;below [name].

Deppert-Lippitz (under 928), pp. 155-158, nos. 341-398

929 a b c

N-620 S-6322 00-1054

19 t 18 t 18 t

3.92 2.94 2.85

A.D. 81-96: Domitian

[EEBA]-ETO[E] Head of Domitian r., laur. 930 T-282 18

[MIAHEIRN] Lion stg. r., looking back at star;all in wreath.

BMC 154; Cop1015

4 3.57

B.C. 3rdcentury or ater Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. 12 t 1.68 Forepartof griffinbetween pilei of Dioskouroibelow, nYe[i]E. Cop1036




ca. 288-280 B.c.



Veiled head of Eurydike "I; [EYPYAIKEfN] at 1. of of LysimachoEr. s) Tripod. (daughter Kleiner 1976, p. 19, no. 165 (A-B 19-20:1) 14 \ 1.19

Milne 1923, nos. 6, 7

56 P. Kinns, "The Coinage of Miletus,"NJC146, 1986 (pp. 233-260), p. 250. 57 Cf. ibid.,p. 251.

ca. 280-190 B.C.


Head of Apollo r., laur. 933 a b NN-1113 NN-1665 13 , 14 / 1.85 1.23

EMYPNAIQNand [magistrate's name] on either side of Tripod. EMYPN only, at r. [IMYP]NAIQN at r.; [- -]-[- -] at 1.

Milne 1923, nos. 928

ca. 190-105B.c.

Head of Kybele r., turreted. 18 t

[ZMYPNAIQN] r. and 1. of [---------] Stratonikisstg. r. Aphrodite

Milne 1927, nos. 92, 98, etc.: Type M




ca. 75-50


Head of Apollo r., laur. 935 15 -+ 2.71

at [ZMYPNAIQN] r. of Hand in caestus;at 1., [MH or IA]TPOAfPO[E].

Milne 1928, no. 383 or 399



88/89: Julia Tt

IOYAIACEBACTH Bust r. *936 IA-112 22 t 4.82


Kybele seated 1.

Klose, pp. 242-243, no. XLI

A.D. 117-130: Hadrian

[AY KAI TPA AAPIANOC CE] Bust r. 937 I-23 22 t 8.25


Hexastyle temple.

Klose, pp. 247-248, nos. XLIV.1-18

ca. A.D. 193-235



ZEVC AKPAIOC Head of Zeus Akraiosr. 18 , 2.96


Klose, pp. 160-162, nos. VI.65-77

ca. A.D.210-235

[-----939 r-1463 Bust of Serapis r., wearing modius. 16 4 broken

[C]MYPN-[AI]|QN Prow r.

Klose, pp. 180-181, nos. XI.2-11



222-235: JuliaMamaea


En c r KAIOrE-NO[YC]
Amazon (Smyrna)stg. 1., with temple in r., bipennis and pelta in 1.


Klose, p. 301, no. LXVI.5




10.46 260-268: Galienus


AVT K no AIKINrAA Bust r., laur., cuir., dr.



24 t


CMVPNAIfN r NEfKO En Klose, p. 321, nos. LXXV36-50 C M AVP CE--CT-OV SimilarAmazon with temple, bipennis, and pelta. obv. cmk: 5 in incuse circle (Howgego, no. 813) TEOS 3rd-lst cntu,yB.C.

Griffinseated r.

TH-IQ[N]above Kantharos;below, ANTA-rOP[Ai].

Aulock Von 2284



17 f


3rd-2ndcentury B.c.58 [Sphinx seated r.] 19 at [Xl]0ol [M]ENEEE 1. and r. of Amphora. (N 18:3) XIOL at 1. of Amphora; at r., magistrate'sname; all in vine wreath. Mavrogordato1916, no. 67; BMC 8597 Mavrogordato 1916, no. 623; BMC 82-83




Sphinx seated with forepaw raised over bunch of grapes. 944 Sphinx r. a H'-2939 b B'-770 *c rr-225 d NN- 1730 *e AA-51 f B'-962 g K-841 14 12 t ? 14 t 14 t 16 K, 12 T 13 2.21 1.61 2.85 1.40 1.98 1.71 1.65

AnEAAHE (BMC 86) MHTPOA[I|PO?] (BMC 94) rOPrIA[ (Mavrogordato1916, p. 321) (F 19:6) same rPYIiOS-? no details

58 Mavrogordato(1916, pp. 297-355) assigns these issues of his Period IX to 190-84 B.c. But it is clear from the context of 943 that this varietybegan before then.

CATALOGUE h i 00-945 IIII-239 $-29 Sphinx 1. gI-239 13 t 14 t 13 t 2.49 2.66 2.64 1.56 2.59 0.75
same same same



4 1a t

1 rr-77 m NN-1937 n

4 1' t 1( t ) Sphinx 1.or r. E-6405 1i2 -

AEfAEIIOE; two pilei of the Dioskouroi between XI and 0O (cf. BMC 89: sphinx r.) [Z]HNOAOPIO:] (sic)(cf. BMC 50: drachm) no details

1stcentury after century Christ B.C.-1st Sphinx seated 1.;border of dots. 945 T-106 16 f 1.95 [XIOE] at 1. of Amphora; at r., [magistrate's name]. Mavrogordato1917, nos. 83-87; BMC 103-106

2ndcentury Christ59 after




[XIQN]above Sphinx seated 1., with raised forepaw. 16 t 2.95

around [TETPA-XAAKON] Bunch of grapes.

Mavrogordato1918, no. 124y, BMC 110, 111

Sphinx seated 1. 947 1-1055 17 t 3.42

ACCA-[PION]around Amphora between two stars.

Mavrogordato1918, no. 115p

later orearly centuyafter 2nd 3rd Christ 3 ASSARIA TPIA (in ex.) AC-CAP-IAJ X-IIj-N Amphora between two poppies; all in wreath. Sphinx seated r. or 1., forepaw raised over prow. 30 t 10.79 sphinx r. (A 14:2: ca. A.D. 250) 32 t 8.83(worn) sphinx 1.;inscriptionseffaced Mavrogordato1918, nos. 127a, 128

948 *a b

II-793 1-895

for (pp. 114-115) providesa chronologicalframework the later imperialbronze coinage of Chios by dating the issuessigned by the magistratesPreimos,Irenaios,and Chrysogonosto specificperiods in the 2nd and 3rd centuries after Christ on metrological grounds. Pending an inclusive re-studyof the entire coinage, it can be noted here that the comparativeweights of the unsignedvarietiescataloguedhere locate 946 and 947 respectivelybefore and around the time of the Hadrianic-earlyAntonineissueof Preimos,948 between the issue of Preimosand the essentiallySeveran issue of Irenaios(the context and condition of 948a imply a date as late in the Antonine or Severanperiod as possible), 949 around the time of Irenaios,and 950 aroundthe time of Chrysogonos(betweenA.D.222 and 238 [Klose]).

59 Klose


NON-ATHENIAN COINS firsthalf3rdcentury Christ after 3 ASSARIA TPIA (in ex.) ACCAP-IAI seated r., 1. forepaw Sphinx raised over prow. X I Q N around Apollo and Dionysos stg., facing, sacrificingat altar between them; in ex., star. Mavrogorgato1918, no. 134




4 7.94

Kroll 1973, p. 319, no. 14 (B 17:la: A.D. 267). As shown by the fairlyfresh condition of the obverse, the effacement of the reverse is due to corrosion, not wear.




X I Q N above Sphinx seated r., r. forepaw raised above amphora. 20 - 3.95

[ACCAP-IONHM-VCV] around Two crossed thyrsoi; all in ivy wreath.

Mavrogordato1918, no. 136a; BMC 136, 137


ca. 129-20


Head of Hera r., wearing stephane.

[EAMINN]below Peacockr. [on caduceus; behind, scepter;in field, two monograms].

BMC 201-208; Cop1721-1724

951 *a b c d e Large module, as Cop1721 ET-55 20 t 7.77 Intermediatemodule, as BMC 201-208, Cop1722-1724 15 -+ 2.90 rev. above, A-monogram (cf. BMC 201) EA-392 15 t 4.02 0-429a 15 f 3.55 0-629 14 t 3.75 EA-488


238-244: Tranquilna CAM-I!QN Tyche stg. 1., with rudder and cornucopia. BMC 311

0OVPIA TPA-NKVIAAINA CEB Bust r. 952 P-354 22

4 6.15




B.C.60 4th-mid-3rdcentury

Head of Aphrodite r. 953 a b r-384 BA-438 12 t 13 0.64 broken

[KNI]above Prow r.

BMC 55-64

Head of Apollo r., laur. *954 Z-2835 10 J 0.84

Similar. Kleiner 1976, p. 15, no. 96 (H 12:1)

BMC 67-71

210-190 B.C.61

Head of city-goddess1., turreted.

*955 BZ-73 18

KNIAI[fN] Forepartof lion 1.

BMC 52-54



B.C. 2nd-lst century Double axe. MYAA|IEf2N 1. and r. of Trident. BMC 14-16



9 f



B.C. 2nd-lst century Head of Zeus r., laur. *957


1. M-[YN]IAI-fN and r. of
verticalWinged thunderbolt.



4 4.20

cf. Cop445 (thunderbolt horizontal)

in of J. H. Nordb0, "The Coinage of Cnidus after 394 B.C.," Procedings the10thInternational Congress of I. A. Carradice,ed., London 1986 (pp. 50-56), pp. 53-54, 56, pl. 5:8, 9, 11. 61 Ibid.,pp. 54-56, pl. 5:17.




ca. 190-166B.C.62

s Head of young Herakle, r. three-quarters facing, 958 a b K-1422 e-291 17 /



KQIONabove BMC 103-110 Bow in case and club; below, magistrate'sname. Kleiner 1975, p. 311, no. 189 [Kf2ON]ITEAEtE0OP[OE];63 (corrected)(H-K 12-14) KOIONI[- --]; (foundwith other coins, the latest being Athenian Period II pieces of ca. 220's-190's B.C.and 991, Antiochos m, 223187 B.C.)

(c ? d

E-52 T-860

17 t 15 t

2.55+ 2.93

inscriptionseffaced same

It is possible that 958c, d, or both might come from the later variety,BMC 156-164, "166-88 B.C.," ethnic KOIQN.


304-ca. 265 B.C.64

AR DIDRACH Head of Helios three-quarters facing, r. *959 E-551 18 t 6.02 POAION above Rose with bud at r.; at lower 1., EY and bunch of grapes. BMC 35

or ca. in minted central northern Imitations Greee, 175 B.C.65 AR DRACHM Similar.Cmk: dolphin in incuse rectangle. *960 IIn-130 15 -+ 2.42 [P]-O Rose with bud at r.; above, AHMOKAH[E]; at 1., dolphin. BMC 199, 200

Similar.Same cmk. *961 IIe-512 19 / 2.35

Rose with bud at r.; above, NIKOETPA[TOE].

cf. BMC 199-202

62 The contexts of 958a and b are compatiblewith this standardcatalogue dating but suggest that the series might have begun somewhatearlier. 63 W. R. Paton and E. L. Hicks, TheInscriptionsCos,Oxford 1891, p. 309, no. 85. of 64 R. Ashton, "RhodianCoinage and the Colossus,"RN, ser.6, 30, 1988, pp. 78, 86: Series 2. 65 R. Ashton, "Pseudo-Rhodian e Drachmsand the Beginningof the Lycian Ceagu e,"JC 147, 197, pp. 16notes 15 and 18, which mentionsboth Agora specimensand attributestheir dolphin countermarkalso to mainland 17, Greece, "perhapsafterthe battle of Pydna in 168."

CATALOGUE B.C. 4th-2ndcentury AR DRACHM 962 00-1160 Similar. 14 - 1.61+ Similar. too damaged for classification
ca. 330'sate 3rd cntury B.C.66


963 a MM-172 *b A-492 A-900 c d r-489 e E-6105

P-O Rose with bud on r. Head of Rhodos r., wearing stephane. rev. at 1., H 11 t 1.21

BMC 74-117

11 t
11 4


9 t 1.16 9 t 1.05
ca. 200

Head of Helios r., rad. 964 a b Z-3303 BB-1231

P-O Rose.

BMC 324-326

11 4 0.97
12 -

ca. 188-88 B.c.

965 a b

BB-841 NN-1085

Head of Rhodos r., rad., P-O Rose with branch on each side; all in incuse square. wearing stephane. rev. above, (?)nOY[--] 13 f 1.69 Kleiner 1976, p. 21, no. 114 (B 20:9) 13 t 1.68
late 1st century B.C. orlater

BMC 327-333

Head of Helios r., rad. *966 NN-113 16

4 2.26

POAIQ-N Asklepiosstg., facing, with staff.

BMC 411-413




117-138: time Hadrian of EPMOKAnH-AITQN Bust of Roma r., turreted; at r., *. BMC 11-12

eEON CVN-[KAHTON] Young male bust of Senate r. 967



17 $


Dates for the Rhodian bronze we owe to personalcommunicationfrom Mr. Ashton.



after133 B.C.67

Head of Apollo r., laur. 968 a b c r-98 X-187 EA-394 15 . 2.39 15 - 2.36 15 t 3.41

EAPAIIANQN Club; [monogram] below; all in oak wreath.

BMC 10-21


late2ndorearly caturyafter Christ 3rd Bust of Serapis r., wearing modius. 969 *a b --426 III-464

Von Aulock 3312

Isis stg 1., with sistrum and situla.

18 4 3.49
18 4 2.62 Kroll 1973, p. 319, no. 15, where wrongly identified as from PhrygianHierapolis (B 17:1a)68



1st centuy B.C.

Head of Zeus r., laur.

[AKMONEQNI MHN]OAOTOIDIAAQN Asklepiosleaning frontally on staff.

BMC 16



15 t



ca. 133-48 B.C.

Head of Zeus r., laur.

[An]AME at r. of Cult statue of Artemis Anaitis; name] at 1. [magistrate's

BMC 33-36, 40-42, 48, 61, etc.



18 t


67 Sardis M7, pp. 42, 79-80. 68 The somewhat worn condition of the coin (w4/5) is comparableto that of the Severan and late Antonine coins hoard. in this Herulian-invasion



after133 B.C.



Female head r., wearing stephane. 18 t 4.79

[AAOAI]KEQNDouble cornucopia.

BMC 31-38


Imperialperiod Head of city-goddessr., turreted. 973 *a H'-3811 b IIII-456 CVNNA-AEDN Athena stg. 1., with phiale in r. and spear in 1. BMC 13, 14

19 f


4 2.82


ca. 100-mid-30'sB.c. Head of Apollo r., laur. [AYKIabove and initials of mint city on either side of] Crossed bow and quiver;all in incuse square. H. A. Troxell, The Coinage theLycian of League (mJM 162), New York 1982, p. 100 (unit)

974 a b

1-925 K-8

12 10 -

1.12 0.91
late30's-ear1y20's B.C.

[A-Y]Head of Artemis r., bow and quiver at shoulder. 975 00-546 18 \ 2.39

M A Stag stg. r.; [Inno above].

Troxell (under 974), p. 191, no. 169; RPC I, 3314


168 B.c.-Imperial period Head of Apollo r., laur. 976 AA-123a 8 f 0.83 [IIATAPE2N]Head of Artemis 1., wearing stephane. BMC 5-8




A.D.116-117: Trajan (Parthics) [A K TPAIANOC]-nlA[PeiKOC] [ATTAAEWJN] Head r., laur. Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 18 $ 3.83 BMC 16




3rd century B.C.

Sphinx seated 1. *978 N-805 13 t

MANAWAEI nPEI[IAE] Artemis stg. 1., with wreath and scepter.

BMC 15-20


B.C. 3rd-2ndcentury Head of Athena r., weaz Corinthianhelmet. 979 Largermodule (BMC59-61) PP'-1024 15 \ 2.69 Smallermodule (BMC 71, 72) 'b T-1652 13 t 1.91 c E-65a 12 d NN-8777a 10 a (U 13:2) Kleiner 1975, p. 324, no. 354 (M-N 15:1) Pomegranate. BMC 59-61, 71, 72


ca. 200-36 B.C.



Head of Athena r., wearing Corinthian helmet. 16 t 2.69

EI-AHT[DN] before Nike 1.

BMC 65-68


A.D. 181-193: Conmodus



M AP AV KOMM-[ANTNN] EINOC Bust r., laur., cuir. 34 4. 29.30

[CIAAV]EfN Men on horseback1.

Aulock 4874 Von (same dies)




2ndcentury Christ after ANTI[OCH] Bust of Hermes r., caduceus at shoulder. COLO-NIAE Lighted altar. A. Krzyzanowska, coloniales Monnaies de d'Antioche Pisidie,Warsaw 1970, p. 140, no. VI/6; p. 144, no. V/5



14 \



B.C. 2nd-Ist century Head of bearded Herakles r., club at shoulder. 983 K-92 13 t 2.73 [E]-E Winged thunderbolt and bow terminatingat upper end in head of stag. BMC 47, 48



2nd century B.C.

N E-E Head of Apollo r., laur.

EEAEYKEQNTN nlPOE TOI BMC 11-14 KAAYKAAN2I Forepartof horse r.; above, ZH; below, AYHE.



20 t


(fromthe same 2nd-centuryB.C.layer as 824 [Andros])


4th century B.C.



Head r., [wearinghelmet?]. [EOA]EfN(?) Bunch of grapes. 11 4, attributionof this coin to Soloi uncertain

cf. BMC 34


after 66B.C.

Head of Pompey r.

walkingr., with wreath and palm; at r., AP. 0

Von Aulock 5887, 5888

*986 II-64a 20 t 7.57


A.D. 235-238: Maximus


Bust r., cuir., dr. 987 E-3422 19 f 3.57

CVEAPEWN Prize crown containing two palm branches.


ca. 130-31 B.C.69

Head of city-goddessr., turreted. 988 KTA-121 20 f 7.14

at [T]APEEQ[N] r. of
Pyramidalpyre of Sandon.

BMC 106-114

KINGS OF GALATIA 36-25 B.C. Amyntas, Bust of Artemis r., bow and quiver at shoulder. 989 H'-2742a 17 f 3.26 BAIAE-ArElI[AMY]NTOM Stag stg. r. BMC 14, 15; RPC I, 3503


WSMand Cop assignall the followingto the mint of Antioch on the Orontes. Selukos 226-223 B.C. III, Head of Artemis r., quiver at shoulder. 990

[BAEIAEnqZI E]EAEYKOY Apollo seated 1., on omphalos.

WSM,no. 1032


15 t


at D. H. Cox, "The Coins,"in Excavations GiUiiKuk(Tarsus H. Goldman, ed., Princeton 1950, pp. 54-61. I),

CATALOGUE Antiochos 223-187 B.C. III, [Head of Apollo r.]


Elephant 1.

WSM,nos. 1110, 1114



11 -


Selukos 187-175 B.C. IV, Bust of young Dionysos r., wearing ivy wreath, thrysos at shoulder;behind, ME. *992 E-468 20 f 6.09

Forepartof galley 1.; above, A1 .

BMC 26; cf. Cop176


Alexander IBalas, 150-145 B.C. Head of Alexander r., wearing helmet. 993 00-256 9 t 5.82 [BAZIAEfEl AAEEANAPOY] Nike stg. 1., crowning second line of inscriptionwith wreath. BMC 51-54; Cop263-265

Antiochos 138-129 B.C. VII, Winged bust of Eros r. BAEIAE1EI ANTIOXOYI EYPrET[OY]Crown of Isis; below, nP; at r., H. cf. BMC 60, 61; Cop327


NN-1964 18 f



47-40 B.C.

Head of Zeus r., laur.


Zeus seated 1., holding Nike and scepter;thunderboltabove; pilei of Dioskouroi 1. and r.; all in wreath. *995 AA-268 30 / 12.60 (D 4:1)

BMC 49; with RPC I, 4218-4225 for date

A.D. 117-138: Hadrian



Bust of Hadrian r. 20 t broken


s c

BMC 289

A in wreath.


A.D. 252-254:



[--997 H'-3726

Bust of Volusian r., rad. 26 4 9.95

- ]

AHMAPX-E-OVCIACEagle, stg., facing, head 1., wreath in beak; in ex., S C.

BMC 658-663

JUDEA Alexander 103-76B.C. Imitation Jannaios, Anchor in circle. *998 PP-597 13 0.67 Star with eight rays, surrounded by diadem. illegible traces of inscriptions
4 HerodArchelaos, B.C.-A.D. 6

Meshorer I, p. 122, nos. Ce 1-8

HPWA[OY] Bunch of grapes on branch with leaf. *999 K-801 18


EENAPXO Macedonian helmet; at 1., caduceus.

Meshorer II, p. 241, no. 6; RPC I, 4917


Agrippa, year 6 = A.D. 41/2

Umbrella with fringe. 1000 a b c d NN-1048 NN-661 00-173 rr-95 18 16 17 16 t 2.63 -

L-S Three wheat ears.

Meshorer II, p. 249, no. 11; RPC I, 4981

inscriptionsas above details illegible same same

A.D. 58/9: Nero,year5

NEPIWNOICin olive wreath. *1001 K-1176 17 t 2.24

L E KAIC-APOC Palm branch.

Meshorer II, p. 285, no. 35; RPC I, 4972

The 2 JewishWar,year = A.D. 67/8 ?m nr(l)nr Krater. 1002 *a b Q1-109 rr-191 17 16 t 1.84 1.65
Vine branch.

Meshorer II, pp. 260-261, nos. 11-13

CATALOGUE PERSIAN EMPIRE 480's-mid-4th B.C. centuy



King running r., carrying spear and bow.

Oblong incuse.

I. Carradice,"The 'Regal' Coinage of the Persian Empire,"in Carradice, pp. 73-93, Type IIIb (early)


GRC,fig. 16 On daricsat Athens, see under866 and the Athens 1929 hoard (IGCH32) of severalhundreddarics,recovered near the Ilissosriver. 9-83 8.33

15 -



II, Ptolemy 285-246 B.C. Veiled head of Arsinoe II r. nTOAEMAIOYBAEIAEfI Eagle stg. 1. on thunderbolt, wings lifted; at r., AI. IIxoXcreatv, no. 351




t 4.33
Eagle stg. 1. on thunderbolt, wings lifted; at 1., E above shield; between legs, [letter]. pl. XIII:18-24

Head of Zeus r., laur.



27 f


Head of Zeus Ammon r. 1006 K-1676 14 t 2.64


Eagle stg. 1.;at 1., trident. Berytos mint III, Ptolemy 247-222 B.C.

IIcoXgatlov, no. 839

Bust of Ptolemy III, laur. and wearing aegis. 1007 *a BB-874 b Z-517a c E-9a d 0-78 e N-95a 20 23 20 20 19

nTOAEMAIOYBAEIAEQE Eagle stg. 1. on thunderbolt; cornucopia behind.

HIxoXeaiakov, no. 1000

t 5.24
t f t 7.15+ 4.59+ 4.59+ broken

(found with 629c)


NON-ATHENIAN COINS PtolmyIV,222-204 B.C. Veiled head of Arsinoe r. [nTOAEMAIOYBAEIAEQE] Double cornucopia. Cyprus mint IInoXcaljcov, no. 1160



13 t


I-IV,3rduntuy B.C. UndassifiabPtolemy Head of Zeus Ammon r. [nTOAEMAIOYBAEIAEBQ] Eagle stg 1. on thunderbolt, wings lifted.


All extremelyworn AA-82 29 0-583 28 t c N-1167 28 t d r-1224 27 t e 00-621 27 f 8-166 27 27 t g flA-94 h fl-152 26 t i 00-875 26 t - K-882 k NN-1888 20 t 1 nII-272a 21 a b

13.58+ 13.62+ 14.18+ 14.09+ 11.12+ 8.90+ 10.65+ 10.80+ 11.44+ 6.30+ 6.40+

(M 21:1) pierced (K 9-10:1)

(N 20:4)

V Ptolemy and VIII,jot coiageof 170-163 B.C. Head of Zeus Ammon r. nTOAEMAIOYBAEIAEQE Two eagles stg. 1. on thunderbolt;at 1., cornucopia. ntoXcEaklcv, no. 1426

1010 *a b c

KTA-120 19 19 T-102 NN-1786 18

t 8.34 t 8.91
t 6.80

VI, Ptolemy 181-146 B.C.


Head of Ptolemy I, diad. and wearing aegis. *1011 IIe-590 23 f 11.64+

[nTOAEMAIOYBAEIAEf] Eagle stg. 1. on thunderbolt; at r., nA; at 1., LKA.


loXepalov, no. 1433

Year 21 (160

Paphos mint

Head of Ptolemy VII r., diad. Cmk.: K in incuse square. 1012 r-1330 19 f 4.31

[nTOAEMAIOYBAEIAEQE] Eagle stg 1., wings lifted, on thunderbolt;at 1., dolphin.

HIIroXqalCv, no. 1488

Syrian mint

PtolemyVIII, 145-116 B.C.


Head of Zeus Ammon r.


1013 a


22 f 17 t

6.05 4.01

nos. 1651, 1652 EYrEPr[ETOY] Eagle stg. 1., wings lifted, on thunderbolt,at 1., eE. no. larger module (IIrxoXeclaov, 1651); legend effaced. Cyrenaica

*b BB-561

smaller module (IIroX)aiawv, no. 1652);legend as above. Same mint


EYEPrETO Eagle stg. r., wings lifted, on thunderbolt.

InoXe.o1alv, no. 1653


NN-1581 33 t


mint. GRC, 19 (?) Cyrenaica fig.

Ptolemy X, 117-81 B.C.

Similar. 1015 *a S-147


Isis crown; at 1. and r., E-Q. no. 1722 Cyrenaicamint same

b B-514

14 14

t 1.7 t 1.67

XI, 114-88 B.C. Ptolemy

Similar. 1016 a 00-1039 12 t 0.96 1.20 1.25

B-A Eagle stg. 1. on thunderbolt.

Hno.1ca73 v, no. 1733

*b NN-1009 11 t 13 t c rr-26


Eagle stg. 1. on thunderbolt; at 1., aplustre. Cyprus mint

IIHxoXeralov, no. 1813



28 f


PtolmyXII, 80-51 B.C. Similar.

Two eagles stg. 1. on thunderbolt;at 1., Isis crown on stand.

nroXoepaov, no. 1842



20 f


In the forthcomingcatalogue of coins from the Universityof PennsylvaniaMuseum excavationsof the Demeter sanctuaryat Cyrene, Theodore V Buttreyattributes1013, 1014, and 1015 to the Cyrenaica.See also 1032 below.


NON-ATHENIAN COINS VII, Klopatra 51-30 B.C. Bust of Kleopatra, diad. [KAEOnATPAEBAEIAIEZHE] Eagle stg. 1. on thunderbolt; at r., [M]. 187 v, IIno. no. 1872



20 f



A.D. Domitian, 81-96 AVTOK KAI-EAP A[OMITIANOZEEB] Head r., laur. 19 t 4.05 Year 3 Hawk stg. r., wearing skhent;

at 1., !:.

Milne 1933, no. 477; BMC 329



Trajn,A.D.96-117 Head of Trajan r., laur. 1021 E-4447a 13 f 1.79 Year 17 A.D. Hadrian, 117-138 Head of Hadrian r. Two pilei of Dioskouroi; below, LAE. Year 10. GRC,fig. 23 Nilus reclining1., with cornucopia and reed, 1. arm on elephant; in ex., LAUAEK. pierced. Year 12 Similar,but letters and details effaced. Year Antoninu IS Pius, A.D. 138-161 AVT K T AI[AAAP ANTWNINOC]EY Head r., laur. 34 t 20.90 Bust of Hermanubis r., wearing modius [date letters]. pierced with two holes. Year ? Griffinseated r.; above, LH. Year 8 Milne 1933, no. 1843 cf. Milne 1933, no. 1722; BMC 1135-1137 Milne 1933, nos. 1264-1269; BMC 786, 787 Milne 1933, no. 1172; BMC 909


Hemhem crown of Harpokrates; in field, [LI]-Z.

Milne 1933, no. 710; BMC 561




f 0.98




33 t




[---]-TPAI[---] Bust r. 35 t 20.10





Head of Antoninus r. 20 t 3.36


Pius hrjan-Antoninus


Effaced head of emperor.

Crown of Isis.

Milne 1933, nos. 1171, 52705272; BMC 560, 561, 891-901, 1211



12 -


A.D. 276-282 Probus,

BILL. TErRADRAcHM A K M AVP nPO-BOC CEB Bust r., laur., dr. *1028 I-1 21 t 6.86 Year 2 Elpis stg. 1., with flower; at l., B. L Milne 1933, no. 4528; BMC 2417

A.D. 284-305 Diocletian,

BILL. TETRADRACHM A K rOYA AIOKAHTIANOC CEB Bust r., laur., dr. *1029 E-2889 20 f 6.78 Years 2-6 Dikaiosyne stg. 1., with scales and cornucopia;in field, L-[?]. Milne 1933, nos. 4768-4773, 4935-4936


CEB AIOKAHTIANOC Bust r., laur., cuir. *1030 00-705 19 t 5.68 Year 11

Bust of Serapis r.; in field, L-IA.

cf. Milne 1933, nos. 5229, 5230



late 4th century B.C.

Head of Karneios r. 1031 00-1286 14 4. 1.15

K Y P Triple silphiumplant.

BMC 198-200


ca. 140-96B.c. Head of Ptolemy I r. *1032 I-1115a 13 Head of Libya r. BMC, p. 89, nos. 95-104


See also 1013-1015.



ca. 67 B.C.

Head of Roma r., weari Corinthian helmet. 1033 EE-78 24 f 11.63

Bee in dotted circle. (N 21:4) Minted in Crete 37-34


BMC,p. 113, no. 1; RPC I, 904

beneathchin, r.
*1034 r-1122 29 t 13.01

Head of Artemis r., bow and quiver at shoulder;

[L. LOL-LI]VS Stag stg. r.; below belly, [two letters].

BMC, p. 115, nos. 14 or 16; RPC I, 909

] Minted in Crete


Jubal, 60-46B.c.

AR DENARIUS REX IVBA Bust r., diad., scepter over shoulder. HMMLKT IOBAI in Neo-Punic characters. Octastyle temple approachedby steps. J. Mazard, Corpus Nwummorum Nwmndiae Paris Mauretanique, 1955, nos. 84-86; Cop523, 524



18 f


UNCLASSIFIED UnattributableGreekImperialswith IdentifiableObverse Portraits 1036 a b c d e f g h i j k Augustus PP-62 Nero 0-600 T-1092 15 16 16

Julio-Claudianemperor 0-619 24 11 00-771 18 PP'-284 Hadrian Z-2126 18

M. Aurelius,L. Verus,or Commodus E-1843a 22 21 00-1276 22 0-239 Caracalla ET-364 22

CATALOGUE IllegibleCoins with Countermarks 1037 The listing is by countermarks,which are stamped in an incuse circle unless otherwise noted. Nearly all the coins are totally worn.
4th century B.C.and Hllenistic


a b c d e f g h i

Cornucopia in incuse oval 14 E-3912 Dolphin on trident rev. type of beardlesshead 18 NN-502 r-1088 20 Dolphin on tridentin incuse square 15 KK-166 Lyre K-1568 15

Rosette or star H-1810 17 14 EA-15 Z-3004 13 18 BE-424 Bunch of grapes 15 j K-1497 k 00-1263 15 Crude wreath? 1 N-1120 20 X m B-606 15 Greek Imperials n Open left hand in incuse field of same shape IIII-230 22 The countermark,located in front of the obv. head, is considerably larger than the open-hand countermarksfound on earlier duoviral asses of Corinth (Amandry, 30-31, pl. I). pp. in incuse square Star(?) T-141a 21 obv. head ofJulio-Claudian emperor IN BE-501 20 R in incuse field of same shape P-1494 17 Halved Coins, Worn Illegible 1038 a b c d e f 16 17 19 21 24 25 By size and fabricthe firstthree could be Athenian (PeriodsIII and IV). 8-182 I-323 BZ-165 Z-1003 Z-1273 Z-1511

o p q




130 badly preservednon-Atheniancoins have so far resistedidentification.These are kept together in the Agora records office for furtherstudy by staff and visiting numismaticspecialists.

(Plate 32:a-c) As noted in ChapterI (p. 7 above),a few of the 5th-centuryB.C. Atheniandrachmsand tetradrachms fromthe Agora are suspect:if not ancientimitations,one or two conceivablycould be modern. Here we list three Greek coins from the Agora whose modern fabricationcannot be doubted. The source of the first, the Athenian tetradrachm,is uncertain,but one assumes that the coin either is a lost souvenir or derives from a house or tourist shop that stood above or near the place of discovery. The other two come from 19th- or early 20th-centuryhouses that were demolishedfor excavation. Whether any of the bona fide ancient coins from recent or disturbedcontexts in the excavations might be similarstraysfrom modern collections,antiquitiesshops,or the like, there is usuallyno way of knowing.But these three fakesmake it a clear possibility.
*a. "AR"forgeryof an Athenian tetradrachmof the second half of the 5th centuryB.C.Compare variety8 above. Head of Athena r., wearing Attic helmet. PP-192 24 -+ 10.14 g. AeE Owl stg. r., facing; behind, olive spray and crescent.

Betrayedby its mediocre style, light weight, pewterlikealloy, and dulled, cast relief, all of which are typical of cheap, modern imitations.Foundin mixed, late, althoughnot obviously"modern"fill. *b. AR forgeryof a Siculo-Punictetradrachmof the 4th centuryB.C. Compare Cop 978-982. (Sicily) Head of Persephone-Tanit; around, three dolphins. Z-1 22 /j 7.33g. Horse's head 1.;behind, palm tree; below, traces of Punic inscription.

The metal has a pitted, cast look, and the weight is less than half of what it should be. Found in the cellar of a modern house. *c. AR forgeryof a gold staterof PhilipII, King of Macedon, 359-336 B.C. et Compare G. Le Rider,Lemonnayage d'argent d'orde Philippe Paris 1977, pp. 71-198, pls. 53-82. II, Head of Apollo r., laur. IAIlnnlOY Chariot drawn by two galloping horses r. holed



4.06 g.

Apartfrom the fact that these typeswere not ancientlystruckin silver,the surfaceof the metal, especiallyon the reverse, has the pitted texture of a modern cast. The coin, drilled for attachmentas an ornament, was found in 1937 during the demolition of modern houses.

(Plates32 and 33) I The large square btuilding known as "The Mint" at the southeast corner of the Agora square (P-Q 16) owes its identificationto the more than 160 coin blanksexcavatedfrom its floors.1The best-knownblanksare the ten that were found in 1953 with the remainderof the bronze rod from which they had been chopped (P1.32:d).Renewed excavationin 1959 recoveredeight similarblanks from the floor of another room (see P1.32:e). During the final explorationof the building in 1978, floor areasand refusepits dug throughthe floor yielded an additional 144 blanksand relatedpieces of scrapbronze. had Measuringabout 27 by 29 m., the structure the form of an open courtyardwith threeroofed rooms along the backwall. The room at the southwestcornerwas much the largest,takingup about a quarterof the entireplan. The remainsof two furnacesand some cement-linedwater basinsset in the floor show that most of the bronze-working activitytook place in this southwestroom. Beforethe excavationsof 1978, it was assumedthat thiswas the mint of Classicaland Hellenistic mentionedin severalepigraphicaland literarytexts of the 5th, 4th, and Athens, t6 &pyupoxoxniov, 2nd centuries B.c.,2 and that Athenian silver as well as bronze coins were minted here. It is now apparent,however,that the presentbuildingplayeda far more limitedrole in the historyof Athenian coinage. Analyses of furnishingsand debris excavatedfrom the buildingin 1978 failed to produce trace elementsof silver,much less any more conspicuousindicationsof silverworking.And although the latest pottery recoveredbeneath the floors placed the constructionof the building as early as "the years around 400 B.C.,"3 none of the excavatedbronze blanks appear to be earlier than the Period IVB coinage of 42/1-32 B.C.,by which time Athens had ceased to mint in silver.Further study of the coin blanks may require minor chronologicaladjustments,but at present the dating of the three main groupsof blanksfrom the mint restson the followingconsiderations: Group 1 (1953). Plate 32:d illustratesten of the eleven pieces that were found together "immediately beneath the latest ancient ground level"just northeast of the large southwest room in 1953 and prompted identificationof the building as a mint.4 Collectivelyinventoriedas B(ronze)
1 For the in 23, building: H. A. Thompson, "Excavations the Athenian Agora: 1953," Hesperia 1954 (pp. 31-67), in in "Activities 24, 45-48; idem,"Activities the Athenian Agora: 1954," Hesperia 1955 (pp. 50-71), p. 59; idemn, pp. the Athenian Agora: 1959," Hesperia 1960 (pp. 327-368), pp. 343-344. A. Frantz, The Church theHolyApostles 29, of Agora (TheAthenian XIV, pp. 78-79. Camp, pp. 128-130, figs. 107, 108. XX), Princeton 1971, p. 3, pls. 2:b, 28. Agora Guide4, 162-163, figs. 106, 107. pp. 2 To the testimonia collected in 32, III, Agora pp. 160-161, add B. D. Meritt, "GreekInscriptions,"Hesperia 1963 no. 29. (pp. 1-56), pp. 31-32, 3 Camp, p. 129. 4 Thompson 1954 (note 1 above), pp. 46-47, pl. 14:b (with the photograph reproducedin M. Lang, TheAthnian of XIV, pl. 33:c; ide3,fig. 78; Citzen[Excavations the Athenian Agora PictureBook 4], Princeton 1960, fig. 13;Agora 1955 (note 1 above),p. 59. GRC, 3);Thompson fig.



1046, they comprisea shortlength of bronzerod, eight usableblanksthat had been chopped from it, and two unusableblanksthat had been chopped off incompletely. Diameters are 12 to 14 mm. The eight complete blanks have thicknessesof 7 to 10 mm., with an average thicknessof 8 mm., and weights of 7.58 to 5.10 g., with an averageof 6.48 g.5 One of the two incomplete blanks was sent for chemical analysis to E. R. Caley and W. H. Deebel at The Ohio State University,who determinedthat its alloy was composed of 66.5 percent copper, 7 percent tin, and 26.7 percent lead.6 The lead:tinratio (a critical index for metallurgical comparison,accordingto Caley and Deebel) is 3.62:1. Since the lead percentageis extremelyhigh for any pre-imperialissue of Athens (see Tables III and IV, pp. 324-327 below), Caley and Deebel correctlyrecognized that the blanksmust belong to the Athenian bronze coinage of the 1st century B.C., that is, the coinage of PeriodsIVB-E. In fact, the only AE 1 issueof Athensthat even approaches this percentage is the Antonian Zeus/Dionysos issue 144, which dates a year before the Battle of Actium to 32 B.C. The one specimen of 144 (froma privatecollection)that has been metallurgically analyzedprovedto have a lead content of 22.73 percentand a 3.61:1 lead:tinratio7that is essentially identicalto the one obtainedfor the blank.Eighteenslightlyworn hoard specimensof 144 (TableIV) close to the 6.48-g. averageof the eight gave an averageweight of 6.33 g., which again is remarkably blanks. complete It would be helpful to analyze more PeriodIV coins for comparison.Towardsthis end several specimens of each Period IVB-D issue were selected in 1991 for nondestructiveanalysis.Until the resultsof this project are available,the blanksand rod fragmentfound in 1953 are to be connected with variety 144 and dated with it to 32 B.C. Group 2 (1959). The second group consistsof eight pieces that were found in 1959 "embedded in the ancient floor in one of the rooms of the SW block."8Six others are illustratedon Plate 32:e: B 1242 (5.33 g.), B 1243 (5.32 g.), B 1237 (7.70 g.), B 1238 (broken, 1.85 g.), B 1239 (end of rod, 6.94 g.), B 1244 (7.60 g.). There is no reason to disassociatethese chronologicallyfrom the pieces found in 1953. Diameters and weights are similar. The two blanks,B 1068a (7.02 g.)and b (6.58 g.),on Plate 32:e are also contemporary. Both were found in 1952 in the same area as the 1953 blanksbut at a higher level. The one blankfrom within the mint that may be slightly earlier,or, less likely,later, than the rest is B 1245, which is wider (diam. 15 mm.) and heavier (8.96 g.). Its relation to the other blanks and its place in the IVB or IVB-E coinage (it is too light for Period IVA)should become clear when it is analyzed for its lead content along with the coins mentioned above and with a numberof other blanks.In additionto the foregoing blanks excavatedwithin the mint, ten similarblanks randomly turned up in the 1950's in digging in the generalvicinity,mostly in Roman Imperialand later contexts. Group 3 (1978). The 1978 excavationsrecovered 144 blanks, rod ends, and pieces of bronze scrap. Most come from pits in the floor of the building and are in such a corroded condition that little of the originalmetal remains.Consistingalmost entirelyof corrosionproducts,they could not be cleaned. A full listing with weights will be published once samples have been analyzed. Here, however,it should be mentioned that three sizes are represented.In diameterand weight the larger pieces are similarto the better-preserved (reducedAE 1) Group 1 and 2 blanksfound in the 1950's.
Weightsof the eight: 7.58, 7.14, 6.78 (2), 6.50, 6.03, 5.93, 5.10. E. R. Caley and W. H. Deebel, "The Chemical Dating of Bronze Coin Blanks from the Athenian Agora," The Ohio 44, Journal Science 1955, pp. 44-46. Cf. Thompson 1954 (note 1 above, p. 292), p. 47, note 21. of 7 VNew Stle, p. 640. 8 Thompson 1960 (note 1 above, p. 292), p. 343.



The intermediateblanks are of reduced AE 2 size (ca.2.25-4.00 g.); a few smaller ones are AE 4 (1.50-2.00 g.). At the time of excavation,it was assumed from the sizes of the blanks that most of them belong to the 3rd and 2nd centuriesB.C.9 But a date in the AntonianPeriodIVB (42/1-32 B.C.) is just as suitable for the three denominationsand is to be preferredin light of the more closely studiedblanksfrom the earlierexcavations. Whateverpurposethe buildingservedbeforethe middle of the 1st centuryB.C., presentevidence suggests that it was probably not converted to use as a mint until after the Battle of Philippi in 42 B.C. Metallurgicalanalysesof more blanksshould clarifywhether minting continued here only to the end of Period IVB in 31 B.C.or whether some of the blanksbelong as late as the Augustan Period IVC-E coinage, in which case the buildingwill have functionedas a mint well into the last quarter of the 1st century B.C. A new mint was clearly establishedat some other location when coining resumed in the 2nd century after Christ (Period V), for in the course of that century the site of the structurein the southeast corner of the Agora was largely built over by the Southeast Temple and the Nymphaeum.10 II All or nearly all the blanks from the Period IV mint in the southeast corner of the Agora are unfinished. Very thick and having rough, faceted surfaces, they are stil chopped segments of a bronze rod. Before being struckbetween coin dies they had to be heated and hammered to give them the necessary smoothness and disk shape of the twenty-fivefinished coin blanks illustrated on Plate 32:f. Size, weight, and fabricindicatethat these finishedblanksdate too from PeriodIVB or B-E, and so they were very likelypreparedin the mint at the southeastcorner of the Agora. They were found, however,in 1933 in the opposite, southwestcorner of the Agora square, between the Tholos and the Middle Stoa, in a pocket of gravellyfill beside the Great Drain (Deposit H 12:4); discardedin the the latestcoins date the fill to the middleof the 3rd centuryafterChrist.Presumably second half of the 1st centuryB.C., the blankswere probablytransportedfrom their originalplace of depositionin old, redug earth. The sharp,unworn edges of the pieces make it clear that these are unstruckcoin blanksfrom a mint and not heavily circulatedPeriod IV coins like those picturedon Plate 34 that had lost their typesthroughwear.There are two sizes.The twenty-tworeducedAE 1 pieces11measure 16-18 mm. in diameter and weigh 5.44 to 8.55 g.; the mean weight is 6.95 g. The three smallerpieces12have 13-mm. diameters and weigh 2.7 to 2.9 g. Several specimenswill be analyzed for lead content to assistidentificationwith specificissuesof the PeriodIV coinage. III PeriodVB or C ofthe Hadrianic-Antonine The one Agora blankthat survivesfromthe manufacture is the stray B 1641 (P1.33:a; 22 mm., 8.51 g.). Associationwith the 2nd-centuryimperial coinage coinage is shown instantlyby the shallow cavity punched on one side.13The beveled edge of the blank is furtherproof that the blank had been manufacturedby casting.Found during excavation
9 Camp,p. 129;Guide4, 162. p. 10 W. B. Dinsmoor, "Anchoring Floating Two Hesperia 1982 (pp. 410-452), p. 411, fig. 1, and 51, Temples," Jr., The 432-433, forthe dateof the templein thefirsthalfof the 2ndcentury. Nymphaem is Antonine. pp. 11Theseblanksstill theiroriginal inventory numbers: coin Z-2076,2077, 3,2084,2086, 2088,2089,2091, carry 2093-2095,2101,2104,2105, 2109,2111,2113,2116,2118,2121,2131, 2140.
12 Z-2079, 2100, 2117. 13 Pp. 113-114, 115 above.



of the northernpart of the Stoa of Attalosin mixed fill, it had apparentlycirculatedas a coin, since it has been stamped with a countermarkof an open right hand in an incuse oval. This particular of countermarkhas not been found on otherAgora coins, althoughfor the countermark an open left see 1037n. hand,

The Athenian mint of the 2nd centuryafterChristapparentlylay outsidethe excavatedarea. In the middle of the 3rd century,however,mintingreturnedto the south side of the Agora square,although this time in the venerable old building at the opposite, southwestcorner, the building labeled on Plate 36 the RectangularPeribolos.14 Originallybuilt in the 6th century B.C.as a governmentalor it was heavilydamagedby Sulla'sforcesin 86 B.C. was subsequentlyoccupied and religiousstructure, for most of the Roman period by various industrialestablishments.In the 1st and 2nd centuries 15 afterChrist,occupantsincludedpottersand marbleworkers. Remainsof bronzeworkinghave also been found and were assigned to a reuse of the site after the Herulians destroyedthe building in A.D.267.16 But this evidence will have to be reexamined since at least some of it datesjust before the destruction, ca. A.D.264-267, when the building served as the mint for Athens' last coinage, the PeriodVI imperials. In 1961 thirty-eightunstruckflans of sawn, Period VI type (Inv.B 1254) and four broken or misstruckPeriodVI coins (K-1641-1644) were found together in a pit in the floor of the building's southwestperistyle(DepositI 1:3;P1.33:b).Likethe four coins, most of the blanksare rejects.Six of the blankswere sawnfrom a bar at an angle and are not completelycircular. large air bubblein the A bar from which fifteen of the other blanks were sawn was responsiblefor the holes in them. The burial of this refuse in a pit implies that it had been swept together in a clean-up, possibly while the mint was still in operation. It is doubtful, of course, whether this building was ever formally called a mint since coins were never struckhere for more than a few years. As with the building in the southeastcorner of the Agora, we again have to do with a structure that was temporarily taken over for the manufactureof bronze coins long afterits use in other capacities.17
XIV pp. 62-65, identifying the building as the Heliaia. Camp (pp. 46-47, 108) calls it probably a See Agora lawcourt.Now R. S. Stroud("The Sanctuaryof Aiakosin the AthenianAgora" Pecture,New Orleans 1992], abstractin AJA97, 1993, pp. 308-309) identifiesit as the Aiakeion. 15 Guide,pp. 168 = Guide4, 180-181; Agora XI, p. 186. pp. 16 Guid2, p. 106: "The final destructioncame with the Herulian sack of AD.267 after which a colony of bronze workerssettled for a time among the ruins." 17 Unstruck coin blanks have been found at a number of other Greek sites: Eretria (G. F Hill, "AncientMethods of Coining," NC, ser. 5, 2, 1922, p. 11, pl. 1:6); Olynthos (Olynthus XIV, pp. 403-406, pl. 173:23-25); Halieis J. A. 'The Mint of Ancient Halieis" pecture,Washington,D.C. 1975], abstractin Summaries Papers Presentedthe at Dengate, ofthe 77thGeneralMeeting Archaeological the Institute December New York1975, p. 4);Argos (H. Consolaki 28-30, 1975, of ofAmerica, and T. Hackens, "Un atelier monetaire dans un temple argien?,"ttudes argiennes [BCH Supplement 4], Paris 1980, Chalkis(ibid.,p. 289, fig. 14 [silver]); TauricChersonesos(if these blanksare indeed Classical pp. 279-284, figs. 10-13); and not Byzantine, see ibid., p. 286, note 16); and Pella, where the Hellenistic mint has been recently excavated at the edge of the agora (publicationby Dr. Mando Oikonomidou,forthcoming).

A. OUTSIDE THE AGORA Summarizedhere is the evidence from the Olynthos, Kerameikos,and Pnyx excavationsthat has a special
relevance for the chronology of Athenian and related bronze coinages in the 4th century B.C. The other

accumulationsof coins found outside the Agora and cited in this volume are the hoards listed under item 6 below.

1. OLYNTHOS At a colloquium on ancient Olynthos held in Boston in December 1989, the two principleparticipants confirmedthe conclusionsof the excavator, M. Robinson,thatthe excavated D. portionof the citywas destroyed and abandonedin 348 B.C. except for the NorthwestQuarter,whose housescontinuedto be inhabiteduntilthe in the of historicalreconstruction foundingof Kassandreia 316.1 SusanRotroffinferred correctness Robinson's from independent ceramic comparanda.2Nicholas Cahill, who has studied the excavationnotebooks and
wrote his doctoral dissertation (University of California at Berkeley 1991) on Olynthos, emphasized, as Robinson had earlier, that nearly all the Macedonian regal coins from the excavation that date after 348
B.C. were concentratedin the pre-316 B.C. Northwesthouses;the few,randomexceptionsare to be understood

as stray pieces that scavengersdropped while plunderingthe ruins for stone and other building material.3
The proposal of some of Robinson's critics to downdate the abandonment of all the Olynthos houses to 316 or later4 can no longer be regarded as tenable. Even so, one still has to be cautious in citing Olynthos for numismatic chronology. Every coin should be checked for its findspot and the coins found with it to ensure that it does come from a house destroyed

or abandoned in 348. In most cases the provenienceconcordancesat the back of Olynthus and XIV are IX sufficient for this kind of checking. More detailed information, including the level at which each coin was found, is recorded in the unpublishednotebooks. I am gratefulto Dr. Cahill for generouslyproviding such unpublished information for the catalogue notes on the coins of Lemnian Myrina (455) and Attic Salamis (640).
1 Onthus IX, pp. 368-370. 2 S. I. and Other

Berlin firklassischeArchiologie: 1988, Mainz 1990 (pp. 175-178), pp. 174-176.

Boston 1989),abstract AJA94, 1990, in Rotroff,"Olynthos Deposits-The Pottery" (lecture, 315-316.Idem, 'Athenian Hellenistic a Towards Firmer Acten XIII.Internationalen des pp. Pottery: Chronology," Kongresses 3 The abstract Cahill's of "Social Spatial and at published paper, 94, Organization Olynthos,"AJA 1990,pp.314-315, does not includehis prefatory observations the coinsand on the destruction on On chronology. the latercoinsfrom theNorthwest see as after348 at thesite,seeW.Hoepfner Quarter, under497 above.On stonerobbing a major activity

Reconsidered," Journal 73, ofEgyptian Archaeology 1987, pp. 234-236.

D. Raymond, of eds., St. Louis 1953(pp. 180-186),pp. 184-185. M. Rose,"AReconsideration the CoinsFoundat Cincinnati1983),abstract AJA88, 1984,p. 258; idem, in "Coinsand the Historyof Olynthus" Olynthus" (lecture, Boston1989), in abstract AJA 1990,p. 315. J. Dengate, "TheAbandonment Olynthos 316:A Solution (lecture, of in 94, to theProblem Early of Hellenistic 350-260"(unpublished followed W.D. E. Coulson, Chronology, lecture), by "Chatby

and E.-L. Schwandner,HausundStadt klassischen im Munich 1986, p. 29, with note 67. Griechenland, 4 A. R. PresentedDavidMoore to Robinson G. E. Mylonas and Bellinger,"Notes on Coins from Olynthus,"in Studies II,




In the last quarterof the 4th century,the superstructure this largebuildingjustinside the SacredGate5 of and covered inter an unusuallylarge numberof coins scatteredon the floor.Among them was alia collapsed a tetradrachmof Alexander IH from the mint of Amphipolis6and datable, through the latest Amphipolis issues in the Demanhur hoard, to ca. 320-317 B.C.7 The remaining coins, summarizedhere through the Dr. generosityof the excavator, Ursula Knigge, are bronze: 1 Eleusis Athens Pigleton staff(38) 1 AeE Pigleton staff(39) 33 Double-bodied (41-43) owl 10Twoowls,no symbol (46) 4 Twoowls,details (44-47) illegible 4 Eleusis Wreathed piglet,shortethnicaboveor below(48, 49) Salamis 2 Nymph/Shield (640) 1 Twodolphins Megara (643) 1 Twodolphins Aigina (662) 1 Apollo/Musselshell [Aeolis-Lesbos], Grynion (Cop pl. 5:202-207). The destructionof the buildingoccurredbetweenthe ca.320-317 issueofthe Alexandertetradrachm and the circulationof Athens' Owl-leftbronze (50), which is absentfrom the deposit but which must have been in circulationby 304 B.C.(see item 3, next)and probablybegan in 307/6 (p. 33 above).Dr. Knigge has attributed the destructionto a naturalcatastrophe, But possiblyan earthquake.8 since thereis no contemporaryevidence elsewherein Athensfor such an event, a respectable was alternative case can be madet thate structure hastily demolishedto facilitatethe extensive307-304 B.C.renovationof the adjacentcity walls.9

During excavationsof the Dipylon gate in the 1960's,GottfriedGrubenrecovereda small but important sequence of bronze coins from the successive4th-centurylevels of the road that ran through the gate.l0 In advance of the final excavationreport,we are able, throughthe kindnessof Drs. Gruben, PeterFranke,and significantLevelsIII throughIV Judith Binder,to list the coins from the numismatically 1 Eleusis Athens Found RoadLevelIIIb on Pigleton staff(38) Salamis 1 Nymph/Shield (640) in Salamis 1 Nymph/Shield embedded RoadLevelIIIb (640) in Athens 1 Eleusis embedded RoadLevelIIIc Pigleton staff(38) in Salamis 1 Nymph/Shield embedded RoadLevelIV (640) owl Athens 3 Double-bodied (42, 43) 1 OwlI.(50) Road Level IX which gives the earliest datable context for the Athenian Owl-left variety, was laid of immediatelyafterthe rebuilding the Dipylon that tookplace betweenthe publicationof IG II2 463 in 307/6
5 U. n Fiiur Knigge, DerKerameikos Athen, ofBMCAlxander 129.

6 U. 1980(pp. 246-265),p. 265, note 13, withfig. 12. Variety 1978,"AA Tatigkeitsbericht Knigge,"Kerameikos: 7 BMCA.4xander, fromPhacous," ASMN 9, 1960 Hoard Ptolemaic ("An pp.52,86, 101, 102.Cf.G.K.Jenkins Early For hoardof ca.318 B.C., seriesca.318-316 B.C. the Demanhur [pp. 17-37], pp. 19, 27),who datesthisAmphipolis see IGCH1664.
8 Knigge (note 5 above),p. 93. 9 Forthe renovation,ibid.,pp. 55, 64. 10 G. AA Gruben, "Die Ausgrabenim Kerameikos," 1964 (pp. 384-419), pp. 409-410.

durch Ausgrabgn undGesic,

Athens 1988, pp. 88-94.



(cf. line 53) and Kassandros' siege of Athens in 304." Road Level IIIb goes back probably to around 350 and ought not in any case be later than ca. 325 (according toJudith Binder, who was assigned the pottery

from Gruben'sinvestigations). The Athenian bronze coin that was found in a joint of the Dipylon masonry and that originallyled Gruben to date the gate complex to the early 3rd century12has now been cleaned and found to be of the Double-bodiedowl varietyof the thirdquarterof the 4th century. 4. KERAMEIKOS WELL B-l DIPYLON Two corroded lumps of bronze coins from the bottom of this well in the courtyardof the Dipylon13 representtwo pursesthat were droppeddown the well earlyin its use. The coins, illustrated Karin Braun14 by and assignedfactorsof wear in EABC,pp. 140-142, are A Purse Athens 12Twoowlsoverplemochoe (45) 4 Eleusis Wreathed above(48) piglet,EAEY PurseB 1 AR triobol Athens (19) 1 Twoowlsoverplemochoe (45) 6 Twoowls,no symbol (46) 8 Owl1.(50) 2 Eleusis Wreathed below(51). piglet,EAEYII was apparentlyin use alreadyby the time that Kassandroswas besiegingAthens in 304. ChristianHabicht attributesthe lead curse tablet from the bottom of the well to the year of this siege.15 The tablet, which cursesKassandros,two of his generals,and Demetrios of Phaleron,could hardlyhave been buriedin a tomb outside the city walls before being dumped down the well16if the cursing was performed while the siege was in progress. The tablet would, rather,have been intentionallythrown into the well immediately after inscribing,like the lead defixiones deposited in wells and springsin Roman times.17Deposition in a well may have been exceptionalas earlyas the 4th centuryB.C.; with enemy forcesoccupyingthe cemeteryoutside but the Dipylon, it would have been impossibleto activate the curse by the preferredprocedure of burying it in a grave. The latest pottery from the bottom fill of the well has been independentlyestimatedto date from
around 300 B.C.or a little later.18 The well was constructed sometime after 307/6, since it was dug through the Dipylon Road Level IV and


The constructiondate of the Third Periodof the AssemblyPlace is disputed.The excavatorsoriginally believedit to be Hadrianic.19 Laterworkand reflectionled Homer Thompson to arguefor the thirdquarterof 1 G. Gruben, "DerDipylon-Brunnen LageundBefund. des AM B1: Datierung Dipylon," 85, 1970(pp. 114-128), 125-127.Cf. Knigge(note5 above, 298),pp. 70-72. pp. p. 12 Gruben1964 (note10 above, 298),pp. 409-410;Gruben1970(note11 above), 125. p. p. 13 Gruben1970(note 11above), 114-124. pp. 14 K. "DerDipylon-Brunnen Die Funde," 85, 1970(pp. 129-269),pp. 138-139,pl. 78. AM Braun, B1: 16 SoD. R.Jordan, "Two Inscribed Tablets Lead from Well theAthenian a in AM Kerameikos," 95, 1980,pp.225-239. 17 See D. R. froma Wellnearthe Southwestern Cornerof the Athenian Jordan,"Defixiones 54, Agora," Hesperia 1985(pp.205-255),pp. 207-210.W.S. Fox,"Submerged Tabellae Defixionum," 33, 1912,pp. 301-330.R. S. O. AJP
15 C. Habicht, Pausanias' Guide Ancient to Greece, Berkeley1985, pp. 81-82.

(note above),p. XXII, Agora p. 111,andRotroff1984,pp. 352-353,nos.9 and 12. 19 K. Kouroniotes H. A. Thompson, and "ThePnyxin Athens," Hesperia 1932(pp.90-217),pp. 181-189. 1,

Sulis:Roman Inscribed Tablets Trm Leadfirm Sard Spring Bath,Oxford 1988. and the at Tomlin, Tabelae of 18 Braun1970 (note 14 above), citedby Gruben 11 pp. 194, 196;J. Binder, 233; cf.



the 4th century B.C., in particular the 340's and 330's.20 Recently, Mogens H. Hansen writes that the original attribution to the time of Hadrian was right all along.21 The eight bronze coins excavated in 1931 from the fill22 fall into two tight chronological groups, one of approximately the third quarter of the 4th century B.C., the other of the Early Imperial period: (a) Athens Salamis Peparethos (b) Athens 1 Double-bodiedowl (4143) 4 Nymph/Shield (640) 1 Dionysos/Kantharos(Cop [Thessay]359, 360) 1 Parthenos/Owl on prow (152) 1 Parthenos/Sphinx(153).

The six 4th-century coins go with the great mass of material from the fill that dates from the third quarter of the 4th century and earlier. The two Augustan coins of the second group are the kind that remained in circulation throughout the 1st century into the 2nd century after Christ. They indicate either that the final construction of the Assembly Place was indeed Roman or, if the construction happened to be earlier, that its fill was heavily disturbed by some kind of Roman repair work. Others will want to discuss these two possibilities further. Here it needs only be observed that the fill, or at least the main 4th-century part of the fill, provides another important context before the last quarter or third of the century for coins ofSalamis. CITED 6. HOARDS IGCH 32 46 47 89 99 127 134 159 187 193 229 233 237 249 269 271 274 275 276 277 279 280 281 282 283 Athens (Ilissosriver)1929 Peiraeus(not "Eleusis") 1902 Peiraeus 1882 Agios Ioannis Rentis,Attica, 1962 Attica, 1951 Aspropyrgos, Peiraeus 1956 Thorikos 1969 Phyattosca. 1956 Corinth 1938 Thebes 1935 Kopais 1908 Thebes 1965 1968 Larissa-Sitichoro Tambouria,Peiraeus,1938 Attica 1949 Agrinion 1959 Attica (Pnyx) 1937 Athens (Plaka)ca. 1942 Athens 1955 Keratea,Attica, 1954 PortoRaphti, Attica, 1967 Attica 1906 Attica 1927 Attica 1937 Attica ca. 1951 p. 283 above pp. 7-8 above note 52 above, p. 257 note 25 above, p. 8 note 31 above, p. 215 note 66 above, p. 49 p. 10 above note 47 above, p. 12 p. 13 above pp. 10-11 above pp. 204-205 above pp. 204-205 above p. 13 above p. 66 above p. 66 above p. 205 above note 109 above,p. 67 note 109 above, p. 67 p. 66 above p. 67 above p. 67 above note 109 above, p. 67 note 109 above, p. 67 note 109 above,p. 67 note 109 above,p. 67

H. A. Thompson and R. L. Scranton, "Stoas and City Walls on the Pnyx," Hesperia 1943 (pp. 269-383), 12, in Presened Egn to and History Topogwpy pp. 298-299. H. A. Thompson, "The Pnyx in Models,"Studies AtticEigr Vanderpool Supplement 19), Princeton 1982 (pp. 133-147), pp. 144-145. (Hesperia 21 M. H. Hansen, TheAhenian The Eccsia, II, A Collction ofArtics 1983-89, Copenhagen 1989, p. 141; idem, Athenian in the ofDemosthes,Oxford/Cambridge,Mass. 1989, pp. 4, 128. Age Democracy 22 Kouroniotesand Thompson (note 19 above,p. 299), pp. 211-212, nos. 1-3, 5-9.


DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS 297 316 322 324 340 341 342 343 347 352 1664 2117 2119 2121 CH 1, 1975 38 95 CH 3, 1977 22 73 75 95 Noe 380 Delos (ES) 1912 Peiraeus 1926 Delos 1910 Delos 1968 AkropolisNorth Slope 1936 Agia Varvara,Attica, 1932 Chaidari,Attica, 1929 Attica 1927 Delos (A) 1905 Hierapytna 1933? Demanhur 1905 Leontini 1957 Contessa 1888 Manfria 1948 Babylon 1973 Athens 1969 Babylon 1973 Peiraeus 1973 Attica before 1940 EasternAttica 1975 Eleusis 1902 note 144 above, p. 81 note 111 above, p. 67; p. 68 note 141 above,p. 81; Table VI, p. 329 below note 105 above,pp. 65-66 note 141 above, p. 81 pp. 80-81 above pp. 80-81 above note 141 above,p. 81 note 144 above, p. 81 p. 97 above p. 298 above note 25 above, p. 8 note 25 above, p. 8 note 25 above,p. 8 note 29 above, p. 9 note 109 above, p. 67 note 29 above,p. 9 note 111 above, p. 67 note 112 above,p. 67 p. 117 above p. 117 above


B. AGORA DEPOSITS These are the more importantAgora deposits for Greek numismaticchronology.Each deposit is identified by its letter and number coordinateson the Agora grid (Pls. 35 and 36) and the number assigned to the deposit within this grid square.Since most of the depositsare summarizedor discussedin other publications, the following notices rarely go beyond bibliographyand a listing of the coins. In the case of deposits that have been variouslydated, asterisksdenote the most current or informativecitation or citations. Boldface in varietynumbersare used to referencecoins that are not cataloguedindividually this volume. Coin numbers in roman type cite the coins that are individuallycatalogued. Factorsof wear (wl-6, see p. 2 above) are given when potentiallyuseful. Eight of the depositsare hoards,that is, groupsof coins that were intentionally collected before being buried or lost together.The remainingdeposits are accumulationsof discardedand randomlylost material. A 14:2 Cistern (middle fill) Walker1980, pp. 49, 123, no. 2.
Athens Deultum AlexandriaTroas Kyme Chios Roman 6 pre-imperial(PeriodIV and earlier) 1 PeriodVC imperial(279), w5 1J. Mamea, A.D. 222-235 (438),w2 1 Volusian,A.D.251-253 (885),wl 1 Tranquillina, A.D. 238-244 (900), w3 1 3-assaria(948a),w3 1 FaustinaII, sestertius,rev.illegible,w5 Well 2 Two owls (44-47) 1 Two owls, AOH (47b) 1 Demetrios Poliorketes (504f) into early 3rd century B.C.
ca. A.D. 250

A 17:3
Rotroff 1983, p. 262. Athens Macedon



A 18:8

Hoard in botto,s of die-lined shft

mid- or late 260's B.C.

See pp. 35, 168 above. Fullpublicationof coins, with coefficientsof relativewear,in EABC,pp. 139-142, 150-154, pl. 17. Thompson 1942, pp. 223-224, note 32. IGCH 157. Fourlead tokensfound with the coins:
AgoraX, p. 36, with Kroll 1977, pp. 141-146. Athens 1 Double-bodiedowl (41-43) 8 Two owls, no symbol(46, includingl-p) 3 Owl 1.(50, including1,m) 3 Owl r., AeH (52f-h) 15 Owl in wheat wreath(53, includingi-n)

Thrace Macedon Larissa Lokris Phokis Chalkis Megara Aigina Illegible

6 Owlin olivewreath including b) (54, 19 Eleusis Wreathed c) piglet(55, including or Wreathed unwreathed 2 Eleusis piglet(38, 48, 49, 51, 55) 1 Twoowls(56d) 3 Owlwithsymbol (57b,c; [57-60]a) 5 Owlr.(52-54, 57-60) AR 1 Lysimachos drachm (462) 1 Poliorketes:AR hemidrachm 2 Demetrios (502b) 1 Poseidon/Prow (505) 1 Nymph/Horse (529a) 1. 2 Athena/Grapes (581c,584d) 4 Athena/OQ (588c-f) 1 Hera/Eagle (616k) 8 Twodolphins (643j-q) and 8 Tripod dolphins (644a,i-o) 1 Twodolphins (662a) 9

to 86 B.C. Fill in Great Drain A-B 19-20:1 Kleiner 1976, pp. 15-19, 32, observing that the deposit is essentiallyof the third quarter of the 2nd District IV but Agora X, XII, *XXII. R. S. Young,'An Industrial centuryB.C. with slight,latercontamination. of AncientAthens,"Hesperia 1951 (pp. 135-288), pp. 262-263. 20, owl 28 Double-bodied (41-43) Athens 18Twoowls(44-47)
11 Owl 1.(50)

1 Owlr.,AH (52) 12 Owlin wheatwreath (53) 1 Owlin olivewreath (54d) and Wreathed unwreathed 12Eleusis piglet(38, 48, 49, 51, 55) 2 Twoowls(56) 10 Owlwithsymbol (57-60) Polias 1 Zeus/Athena (66) 1 Owlon thunderbolt (67q) 4 Owlthree-quarters amphora r., (69) 2 Owlon rudder (71) 1 Owlon thunderbolt (81)
2 FulminatingZeus, eagle, wheat ear (83)

1 Cicada/Amphora (85) 1 Demeter/Piglet (86) 1 Apollo/Owlwithlyre(87) 2 Twoowlson thunderbolt (99) 1 Apollo/Plemochoe (103b)

HOARDS INCLUDING DEPOSITS, Macedon Zeus/Twobirds(469) 1 Aphytis: 1 Alexander Head/Horse(489d) m: Poliorketes:Head/Prow 1 2 Demetrios (504) 1 Helmet/Shield (506) 1 Athena/Qfl(588b) 2 Head/Shield(640-642) 11Twodolphins (643) and 13Tripod dolphins (644) 1 Twodolphins (662f) 5 Pegasos/Trident (667) 1 Doveflying/I:in olivewreath (723) 1 Demeter/Tripod (760b) 1 Bearded Dionysos/Kantharos (822) of 1 Bearded head/Forepart dog(83lb) 1 Eurydike/Tripod (932)
CimLein, lower dlhmped fill


Phokis Salamis Megara Aigina Corinth Sikyon Messene Andros Keos Smyrna
B 13:1

late 3rd century B.C.

V, Agora VII Athens Myrina or Myrina Hephaistia B 17:1

1 Owl1.(50c) 1 Owlthree-quarters amphora r., (69),unworn 1 Athena/Owl(455g) 1 Athena/Owl(455Ad) Three hoards from the "South House" destroyedby fire A.D. 267

Kroll 1973, pp. 318-320, with references to AgoraII for the Roman coins. Walker 1980, pp. 53-54, 126,

no. 12. H. A. Thompson, "The Excavationof the Athenian Agora, Twelfth Season: 1947," Hesperia 17, in 1948 (pp. 149-196), pp. 178, 192; idem, "Excavations the AthenianAgora: 1948," 18, 1949 (pp. 211-229), pp. 217-218.
Hoarda, a savings hoard that probably had been hidden in a wall or upper superstructure of the house in the 250's, before the striking of Athens Period VI imperials began. The coins were found together on the

floor of the "Room of the Two Marble Busts". 1 Parthenos/Athena Athens advancing (151),w6 4 Period imperials VB (169-185 [2], 195-196 [2]),w6 4 Period VB/C imperial fractions (204, 211),w5-6 4 Period imperials VC (248 [3], 256),w5 Chios 1 Sphinx/Apollo Dionysos and w2 (949), 1 Serapis/Isis w4/5 (Lydia) Tripolis (969b), Roman to Decius(A.D. 249-251),sestertii, 42 Trajan Trajan w2-623 ?1 Gallienus,antoninianus,A.D. 260-268, w2
If the hoard was secreted before ca. 260, this last coin could not belong. It would have to be a stray piece that had separately come to rest on the floor with the hoard coins at the time of the destruction of

the house. Hoard the contents of a purse that had been droppedon the floor of the kitchen. b, Athens VB 8 Period imperials (172, 178a,185, 186 [2], 195, 197, 167-185), w6 3 Period VB/C imperial fractions (204, 216, 213-247) 14 Period imperials VC (248 [2], 250, 254, 256 [2], 257 [2], 264a,267, 270, 280b, 283,248-283), w4-6 15 Period imperials VI (284 [3, including 284g],286, 318 [2], 328, 333 [2], 343, wl-2 352a,375,388,401,405),

Fourof these sestertiiare illustratedin GRC, 32: Maximinus,Philip I, Otacilia Severa, and TrajanDecius. fig.


DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS Hoardc, another "dropped purse" on the house floor. I PeriodVB imperial(182) Athens 2 PeriodVC imperials(252, 256) 11 PeriodVI imperials(284 [2], 318 [2], 333, 352, 355, 360,386, 392,402)

B 20:9

Fill in Great Drain South

to ca. 86 B.c.

Kleiner 1976, pp. 19-21, 32. AgoraX, p. 135. 1 EleusisPiglet on staff(38) Athens 3 Double-bodiedowl (41-43) 1 Owl 1.(50) 1 EleusisWreathedpiglet (55) 1 Owl on rudder(71) 1 Plemochoe/Eleusisring (75) 4 FulminatingZeus: 1 eagle, wheat ear (80) 1 eagle, cornucopia,plemochoe (91) 1 thyrsos(96) 1 mysticstaffor thyrsos(95 or 96) 2 Athena/Amphora (98) 23 Two owls on thunderbolt(99) 2 Cicada/Owl on thunderbolt(100) 64 Cicada/Amphora (85 and 108) 1 Femalehead/Hermes (452a) Imbros 1 Athena/Trophy (593a) Boiotian League 1 Veiledhead/Lyre (606) Thespiai 1 Femalehead/Bull butting(614c) Euboian League 1 Hera/Eagle flying,serpent(616-618) Chalkis 1 Tripodand dolphins(644) Megara 2 Dove flying1. /(?) in olive wreath(723, 725, or 726) Sikyon 1 Rhodos head/Rose (965b) Rhodes

C 9:2 Athens

C ]imteAn, dwimped fill

3 Double-bodiedowl (41-43) 1 YoungDionysos/Amphora (82 la)

mid4th into 3rd century B.C.

AgoraXII (under C 8:5).

Susan I. Rotroff (personal communication) states that most of the pottery dates from the third quarter of the 4th century.

Cistern D 4:1 (Group G) Price 1964, pp. 32- -33, deposit V *Kroll 1973, p. 325, no. 6. Walker 1980, pp. 62, 113, 115, no. 34.

IV, Agora V VII.

Layer II Athens second quarter 1st century after Christ fill Dumped 2 Double-bodiedowl (41-43) 1 Apollo/Amphora (105) 1 Parthenos/Owl on amphora,no symbol ( 15a) 1 Parthenos/ApolloDelios (143) 1 Parthenos/Illegible 1 Demeter/Poppy and wheat ear (150) 1 Triptolemos/Mysticstaffand wheat ear (154) 1 LysimachosposthumousAR tetradrachm(463) 1 Zeus/Horse (520c) 1 Two dolphins(643)

Thrace Gyrton Aigina

HOARDS INCLUDING DEPOSITS, Antioch Roman LayerIII Athens Zeus(995) 1 Zeus/Seated A.D. 1 Tiberius, II, denarius, 27-37 (Agora no. 18),w2/3


time of Hadrian Dumpedfill 1 Eleusis Wreathed piglet(55) on 1 Parthenos/Owl prow(152),w6 1 Period reduced 1, wornillegible, IV AE countermarked A andamphora with P1. (p. 110above, 15 [115-158]a),w6 1 VAimperial, Athena/Owl(163),wl a small, completejug (Agora G 182). This last coin was found inside V, to mid-1st centuryafterChrist D 11:1 Well, iumped fill IV *V *VII. Kroll 1973, p. 324, no. 1. Walker1980, p. 63, no. 36, Agora Athens 1 Owlthree-quarters amphora r., (69) 1 Fulminating Zeus,plemochoe, cornucopia w5 (91), 1 Parthenos/Owl prow(152),w4 on 1 Parthenos/Sphinx (153),w6 2 Parthenos/Owl amphora, on cicada(158),w5 D 15:3 Cistern, dimped fill second into fourthquarterof 4th centuryB.C.
AgoraXII: "ca. 375-330 B.C.",P. E. Corbett, "Attic Pottery of the Later Fifth Century from the Athenian

18, Agora,"Hesperia 1949 (pp. 298-351), p. 343, no. 140. 3 Double-bodied no symbol Athens owl, (42) Salamis 3 Nymph/Shield (640h-j) According to the unpublishednotes of Susan I. Rotroff, most of the pottery belongs to the mid- and
third quarter of the 4th century, but one pot (P 5364) is later, probably of the last quarter.

D 17:5


AgoraIV, *XXII. Young 1951 (under A-B 19-20:1 above), p. 182; D. B. Thompson, "Three Centuries of Hellenistic Terracottas: V The Mid-Second Century B.C., VI Late Second Century B.C. to 86 B.C.,"

34, Hesperia 1965 (pp. 34-71), p. 50 (PapposilenosCistern). fill Upper Athens 2 Cicada/Amphora (85) 1 Twodolphins Megara (643) Lower fill Histiaia 1 Maenad/Tripod (633)
D-E 8-9:1

third quarter2nd centuryB.C. second quarter2nd centuryB.C.

Cistern system (dumped fill) into early 3rd century B.C. *XXII. P. E. Corbett, "Palmette Stamps from an Attic Black-Glaze Workshop," Hesperia24, AgoraXX, 1955 (pp. 172-186), p. 178, no. 2.


1 Eleusis Pigleton staff(38) 1 Double-bodied (41-43) owl 1 Twoowls,Eleusis (44) ring 1 Twoowls,no symbol (46) 1 Twoowls,variety? (44-47) 1 Wreathed above(48) piglet,EAEY 1 Wreathed EAEY below(49) piglet, Well

E 14:2

Kroll 1973, pp. 325-327, no. 7. Walker 1980, pp. 69, 113-115, no. 49. AgoraIV, V, dating Level II to the late Ist century after Christ. But unless the three early Period V Athenian imperial fractions from near the top of this fill filtered down from Level III, it is probable that Level II continued into the 2nd century.

306 Level I: Lowerusefill Athens

DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS to mid- 1st century after Christ 2 Gorgoneion/Athena (139) 1 Dionysos/Athena (140) 3 Zeus/Dionysos (144) 1 Parthenos/Nike(147) 4 Parthenos/Athenaadvancing(149, 151) 2 Parthenos/Owl on Prow (152) 1 Parthenos/Sphinx(153) 1 Parthenos/Owl on amphora,cicada (158) probably early 2nd century after Christ 1 Parthenos/Owl on amphora,caduceus(124) 1 Zeus/Dionysos (144) 1 Parthenos/Nike(147) 4 Parthenos/Athenaadvancing(149, 151) 2 PeriodIV AE 1 worn illegible 2 VA imperial:Athena/Owl (163), 1 unworn, 1 heavilycorroded 1 VA (or B) imperialfractionno longer availablefor study 3rd century after Christ 1 Parthenos/Owl on amphora,wheat ear (122) 1 Parthenos/Athenaadvancing(149, 151) 1 PeriodIV AE 1 worn illegible 1 Hadrian/Temple (856)

Level II: Upperusefill Athens

Level III: Dumped fill Athens


Drawshaft (m;ddle fill) E 14:3 early 70's B.C. Kroll 1973, p. 89, note 6. AgoraIV, *XXII. D. B. See Table VI, p. 329 below. Price 1964, pp. 32-33. Thompson, "Three Centuries of Hellenistic Terracottas: VII The Early First Century B.C., B. The Mask Cistern; VIII The Late First Century B.C.," Hesperia35, 1966 (pp. 252-267), pp. 252-259; Dlos XXVII, p. 391. 1 Owl three-quarters amphora(69) Athens r., 1 Demeter/Piglet (86) 1 Zeus/FulminatingAthena (89) 5 FulminatingZeus: 1 eagle, cornucopia(91) 1 two pilei (94) 2 starand crescents(97) 1 issue? 1 Two owls on thunderbolt(99) 1 Cicada/Owl on thunderbolt(100) 1 Apollo/Amphora (101 or 105) 5 Owl on amphora:3 no symbol (115) 1 poppy and wheat ears (118d) 1 issue? (115, 118-126) 1 Kore/Iakchos ( 17a) 2 Demeter/Triptolemos(127, 128) 3 Apollo/Cicada (131, includingg) 1 Apollo/Poppy and wheat ears (133a) 5 Apollo/Two wheat ears (135g-k) [1 Triptolemos/Mysticstaffand wheat ear (154f)24] 1 Athena/Horse (478a) Thessalonike
24 Worn and clearly intrusivecontaminationfrom the upper fill, as is also a fragment of Western Arretine ware

(P 20494), of the second or thirddecade afterChrist.

DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS Macedon Thebes Euboian League Troizen Bithynia E 15:3 1 Antigonos Gonatas: Athena/Pan (507) 1 Herakles/Thyrsos-club(605c) I Bull/Grapes (613a) 1 Poseidon/Trident(799) 1 ProusiasII (862)


to near end of 1st century B.C. Cistern IV; *XXII, but coins not so late as there stated. The five Period IVD-E coins show little wear. Agora 1 Parthenos/Tripod(138) Athens 1 Demeter/Poppy between wheat ears (150g) 2 Parthenos/Owl on prow (152) 2 Parthenos/Owl on amphora,cicada (158), one cut in half

A.D. 267 Hoard at Innwer corner of late wall F 10:2 Kroll 1973, p. 317, note 23, hoard a. Walker 1980, p. 72, no. 58. Athens 13 PeriodVI imperials,wl-2 (284f, 290, 301,318, 336, 348, 375b, 378, 380a, 382,

401 [2], 403)

F 11:1 into early 2nd century after Christ Well, dlnmped fill Kroll 1973, p. 324, no. 4. Walker 1980, pp. 72, 117, no. 59. AgoraV VII. 1 Dolphin-trident/Plemochoe(129c),w3 Athens 1 Parthenos/Athenaadvancing,owl (149), w5 2 Parthenos/Illegible,PeriodIV AE I, w6 Roman 1 Trajan,plated denarius,A.D. 112-117 (Agora no. 51), w3 II, Well ca. late 290's B.C. fill containing much ceramic debris from damage to the Tholos around the turn of the 4th Dumped to the 3rd century B..: H. A. Thompson, "The American Excavations in the Athenian Agora, Eleventh 6, Report: Buildings on the West Side of the Agora," Hesperia 1937 (pp. 1-226), pp. 165-167; dem, The Tholos andIts Predecessors Princeton 1940, pp. 98-101, 134-135. AgoraIV, XII. Susan ofAthens (Hesperia Supplement 4), I. Rotroff (*1984, pp. 343-346) associates the damage with a presumed civil disturbance either during the stasisof Lachares in March of 295 or during Demetrios Poliorketes' siege of Athens in 295/4. In either case the debris would have been cleaned up and discarded after Athens' capitulation in the spring of 294. Athens 1 AR tetradrachm(8h) 3 Double-bodiedowl (41-43) 1 Two owls on Eleusisring (44) 2 Two owls, no details (44-47) 1 Owl 1.(50), w2 2 EleusisHeavy wreathedpiglet (51), wl and 3 1 EleusisWreathedor unwreathedpiglet (38, 48, 49, 51, 55) F 19:6 Well IV X, *XXII. D6losXXVII, p. 391. Agora Chios 1 Sphinx/Amphora (944c) Cislei (sealed lower fill) to mid-lst century B.C. F 11:2

G 6:2 (Group C)

to early second quarter of 2nd century B.C. AgoraIV; XII; XXII, pp. 101, 109. H. A. Thompson, "Two Centuries of Hellenistic Pottery" Hesperia 3, 1934(pp. 309-476), pp. 345-369; *Rotroff 1983, pp. 276-278. Athens 2 Owl r. in wreath (50-54) 1 Two piglets/Mystic staff(62f)


DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS 1 Athena/Triobol owl (64f) 1 Owl three-quarters amphora(69) r.,

H 6:9


(lower fill)

260's B.C.

See p. 35 above. *Pounder(note 52 above, p. 35), pp. 243-244; Rotroff 1983, pp. 258-276, 283-294. IV Agora X, XII, XXII. 1 Owlwithwreath Athens (57g) H 12:1 Fill in Great Drain into thirdor fourthquarter
of 2nd century B.C.

Kleiner 1976,pp. 11-15,32. AgoraIV, XXII. H. A. Thompson 1940(underF 11:2above),pp. 119-121. X, 2 Pigleton staff(39) Athens 7 Double-bodied (41-43) owl
7 Two owls (44-47) 3 Owl 1.(50) 1 Owl r., AOH (52) 12 Owl in wheat wreath(53) 1 Owl with cornucopia(59) 8 Owl r. (52-54, 57-60) 1 Two owls (65b) 2 Owl on thunderbolt(67j and r) r.: 2 Owl three-quarters 1 amphora(69) 1 symbol? (69, 70) 3 Demeter/Plemochoe (72-74) 7 Plemochoe/Eleusisring (75) 1 Zeus/Amphora (76g) 3 StandingZeus: 1 owl (78) 1 prow (79) 1 symbol? (78-80) 3 Owl on thunderbolt(81) 10 FulminatingZeus, eagle: 1 star(82) 1 wheat ear (83) 3 cornucopia(84) 5 symbol? (82-84) 2 FulminatingZeus, illegible(82-84) 4 Cicada/Amphora (85) 1 Demeter/Piglet (86e) 1 Zeus/Plemochoe (102g) 1 Apollo/Plemochoe (103e) 2 Athena/Owl (455) 3 AntigonosGonatas:2 Athena/Pan (507) 1 Herakles/Horseman(509) 1 Shield/Trident (592) 1 Demeter/Poseidon (595) 1 Apollo/Lyre (828h) 1 Apollo/Prow (954) to A.D.267

Myrina Macedon Boiotian League Delos Knidos

H 12:4 Gravelly pocket beside Great Drain See p. 294 above, with Plate 32:f (the 25 unstruck coin blanks). Walker 1980, p. 78, no. 72. 1 Double-bodiedowl, Eleusisring (43) Athens 1 Owl on thunderbolt(81)

DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS 1 Apollo/Owl with lyre (87) 1 Two owls on thunderbolt(99) 2 Parthenos/Owl on amphora,issue? (115, 118, etc.) 22 UnstruckPeriod V,reducedAE 1 blanks 3 UnstruckPeriodIV reducedAE 2 or 3 blanks 8+ PeriodVB-C imperials(177, 197, 204, 220, 226, 3+ unclassifiable) 3 PeriodVI imperials(297, 318-333, 409) AugustaTraiana Korkyra Megara Sikyon Troizen



1 Herakles/Forepart galley (57le) of 1 Two Dolphins (643) 1 Dove feeding/Tripod (724) 1 Commodus/Theseus (800)

H 16:3 (Group B) to ca. 240 B.C. Cisterns IV; Agora XII; XXI; *XXII, pp. 102, 108. H. A. Thompson 1934 (under G 6:2 above), pp. 330-345. V R. Grace, "Revisions EarlyHellenisticChronology"(witha "Numismatic in Appendix"byJ. H. Kroll),AM
89, 1974, pp. 196-197, 202-203.


1 Eleusis Wreathed piglet(48, 49, 51, 55), worn worn 1 Owlin wheatwreath (53),heavily

H 16:4 (Group D) Pithos third quarter2nd centuryB.C. IV; Agora XII; XXI; *XXII, pp. 102, 109-110. H. A. Thompson 1934 (underG 6:2 above),pp. 369-392; *Grace 1985, p. 37. Athens 1 Double-bodied (4143) owl 1 Owlwithcornucopia (59) 1 Cicada/Amphora (85)
Eretria H-I 14:1 1 Bull head/Octopus (627) to ca. 140 B.C. Fill near northwest corner of the Rectangular Peribolos Kleiner 1975, pp. 311-312, 329, deposit III. Athens 1 EleusisPiglet on staff(38) 3 Doubled-bodiedowl (41-43) 1 Two owls (44-47) 1 Owl with symbol (57-60) 1 Owl r. (52-54, 57-60) 1 Owl three-quarters amphora(69) r., 1 Owl on rudder(71) 2 Owl on thunderbolt(81, includingh) 1 Zeus/FulminatingAthena ([88-89]a) Thessalian League 1 Apollo/Athena Itonia (540g) 1 Two dolphins(643) Megara Middle Stoa binlding fill

H-K 12-14

to ca. 183 B.C.

See note 70 above, p. 50 and Kleiner 1975, pp. 304-313, 329, deposits I (constructionfill under floor of west end of the stoa)and II (fillbetween stoa and RectangularPeribolosto south).Kleiner 1976, pp. 29, 32. IV; Agora XII; XIV, pp. 66-68; *XXII. Dilos XXVII, pp. 317-319. *Grace 1985, pp. 11-54. S. I. Rotroff, "The Long-PetalBowl from the Pithos SettlingBasin,"Hesperia 1988, pp. 87-93. 57, Athens 1 AR triobol (19c) 4 Eleusis Pigleton staff(38) 14 Double-bodied (41-43, including and [41-43]h) owl 43m


DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS 36 Two owls (44-47, including44f, 46a, 46f) 15 Owl 1.(50, includingf and g) 2 Owl r., AeH (52, includingc) 8 Owl in wheat wreath(53, includingc) 13 EleusisWreathedpiglet (48, 49, 51, 55) 3 Two owls (56, includingg) 9 Owl with symbol (57-60) 13 Owl r. (52-54, 57-60) 1 Two piglets/Mystic staff(62e) 1 Two owls (65f) 1 Zeus/Athena Polias(66e) 1 Owl on thunderbolt(67h) 1 Artemis/Athena Polias(68d) 6 Owl three-quarters 3 amphora(69, includingj, k) r.: 1 plemochoe (70c) 2 symbol? (69, 70) 1 Owl on rudder(71, includingh) 4 Demeter/Plemochoe (72-74) 3 Plemochoe/Eleusisring (75, includinge, g) 6 StandingZeus: 3 prow (79, includingb) 3 symbol? (78-80) 1 Owl on thunderbolt(81h) 12 FulminatingZeus, eagle: 4 star (82, includingf) 4 wheat ear (83, includingg) 4 cornucopia(84, includingf, g) 4 Cicada/Amphora (85, includingi) 2 Athena/Owl (455) 1 AV AlexanderIII (487) 1 Demetrios Poliorketes: Head/Prow (504) 2 AntigonosGonatas:Athena/Pan (507) 1 Athena/Horse (541c) 1 Athena/<lf (588a) 1 Shield/Trident (592) 2 Demeter/Poseidon (595) 1 Bull/Grapes (613g) 1 Hera/Eagle (616-618) 1 Nymph/Shield (640-642) 3 Two dolphins(643) 6 Tripod,dolphins(644) 1 Apollo/Lyre (646b) 1 Two dolphins(662e) 1 Prow/Ram's head (663a) 1 Bull/4 (721c) 1 Hera/Athena (782a) 1 Zeus/Grapes (848b) 1 Herakles/Club and bow in case (916) 1 Herakles/Bow case and club (958a)

Myrina Macedon

ThessalianLeague Phokis Boiotian League Euboian League Chalkis Salamis Megara

Aigina Phlious Argos Tenos ?Erythrai Kos

I 1:3 Pit in southwest corner of the Rectangular Peribolos See p. 295 above and Plate 33:b. Walker 1980, pp. 83, 127-128, no. 85. 4 misstruck Athens PeriodVI imperials,of which 2 are fragments 38 unstruckblanksfor PeriodVI imperials


DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS J 5:2 Crossroads Sanctuary Enclosure Layer of 420's


See note 72 above, p. 17. 1 Plated tetradrachm Athens (9a) K 9-10:1 late 1st (or early 2nd?) century afterChrist Kroll 1973, p. 324, no. 2. Walker 1980, pp. 65, 118, no. 89. Agora VI, VII, X. H. A. Thompson, in "Excavations the AthenianAgora: 1952,"Hesperia 1953 (pp. 25-56), p. 42. With only a few exceptions, 22, the Athenian PeriodIV coins are heavilyworn (w5-6). Athens 1 Twoowls(44-47) 1 Owlin wheatwreath (53) 3 Fulminating Zeus:1 eagle,star(82) 1 starandcrescents (97) 1 uncertain symbol 2 Cicada/Amphora 108) (85, 1 Apollo/Cicada (131) 1 Parthenos/Fulminating (137) Zeus 1 Parthenos/Tripod (138) 2 Gorgoneion/Athena (139) 1 Parthenos/Apollo Delios(143) 2 Zeus/Dionysos (144) 2 Parthenos/Athena (149, 151) advancing 1 Parthenos/Owl prow(152) on 1 Parthenos/Owl amphora, on snake(157) 4 Parthenos/Illegible VC [1 Period imperial (279),intrusive] Abdera 1 Griffin/Apollo (435) Corinth 1 Nero/Bellerophon w3 (691b), 1 Ptolemy I-IV (1009c) Egypt
Roman 1 Augustus/Illegible,w6 [1 Valeninian I, intrusive] [1 ConstansII, intrusive]

Red fill west of Odeion

K 18:2 Cistern into early 2nd centuryB.C. handles to ca. 200 B.C.:V R. Grace, "The CanaaniteJar,"in TheAegean theNear and Stamped amphora Studies Presented HettyGoldman, S. Weinberg;ed., Locust Valley,NY. 1956 (pp. 80-109), pp. 95, to S. East, 107-108. Athens 3 Double-bodied (41-43) owl 1 Twoowls,plemochoe (45) 1 Owlin wheatwreath (53) 2 Owlr.(42-54,57-60) 1 Artemis/Athena Polias (68) 1 Owlthree-quarters amphora r., (69) 1 Standing Zeus,prow(79g)
Myrina L 17:7 AgoraXII, XXII Athens 2 Athena/Owl (455) Cisteis 1 Archaicowl obol (7) 1 Owl r. (52-54, 57-60) second half 3rd century B.C.

312 L 19:2 AgoraXXII. Cistern



1 Eleusis Pigleton staff(38c) 1 Double-bodied (41-43) owl 2 Twoowls(44-47) 2nd 1 Artemis/Athena Polias B.C.) (68h)(inlowerfill,of late3rd/early century 1 Standing Zeus,symbol? (78-80)
2 or 3 Owl on thunderbolt(81)

1st to 6th century after Christ M 17:1 (Group M) Well, use fills Kroll 1973, pp. 325-326, no. 8, gives a synopsis of the coins recorded from the lowest three levels, representing the mid-ist to late 2nd centuries after Christ. It would be pointless to list these coins again since most of them have disintegrated or were discarded as being insufficiently legible after preliminary, and usually very vague, identifications were made at time of excavation in 1937. The interesting coin is an Athenian imperial Period VB fraction with Theseus or Herakles sacrificing reverse (199) recovered from Level I of the 1st century after Christ, apparently with another Period VB fraction that is now unavailable for examination. Coming from a continuous-use accumulation, these two 2nd-century coins were doubtless intrusions from a higher level in the well. Walker 1980, pp. 88, 114, 119, 130, no. 95. AgoraV VII. M 18:10 late 3rd to first quarter of 2nd century B.C. XXII. D. B. Thompson, "Three Centuries of Hellenistic Terracottas, The Second Century B.C. *Agora Part I, The Early Second Century," Hesperia 1963 (pp. 301-317), p. 317; idem1965 (under D 17:5 above), 32, Well, homogeneous fill

p. 50.

Athens Macedon Methymna

1 Owlr.in wreath (52-54) Athena/Pan Gonatas: 1 Antigonos (507) 1 Athena/Kantharos (901)

to 180's B.C. fill M 21:1 Cistern, homogeneous See p. 213 above. AgoraIV V XII, *XXII. H. A. Thompson 1948 (under B 17:1 above), pp. 160-161; G. R. Edwards, "Panathenaics of Hellenistic and Roman Times," Hesperia26, 1957 (pp. 320-349), pp. 345346; D. B. Thompson, "Three Centuries of Hellenistic Terracottas, Part III, The Late Third Century B.C.," 32, 1963 (pp. 276-292), pp. 276-291 (Komos Cistern). Dilos XXVII, p. 391. Hesperia 3 Two owls (44-47) Athens

Histiaia Egypt

2 Owlr.(52-54,57-60) owl 1 Athena/Triobol (64g) 1 2 Demeter/Plemochoe:owl(74b) 1 symbol? (72-74) 2 Fulminating Zeus,eagle,symbol? (78-80) therelater) inserted fromthe topof thefill,apparently 8 AR tetrobols (hoard (632a-h) worn I-IV (1009a), 1 Ptolemy extremely

to ca. 140 B.C. fill South Stoa II constrluctin M-N 15 1 VII (South Stoa I destruction debris), and VIII Kleiner 1975, pp. 318-325, deposits VI (construction fill), (South Stoa I latest floor fills). Kleiner 1976, pp. 29, 32. AgoraXII; XIV p. 68; *XXII. D. B. Thompson 1963 (under M 18:10 above), p. 317. DJlosXXVII, p. 392. 2 EleusisPiglet on staff(38) Athens 1 Piglet on staff(39) 7 Double-bodiedowl (41-43)

9 Twoowls(44-47, including 46h)

K7einer 2 Owl r., AeH (52) correcting

DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS 8 Owl in wheat wreath(53) 3 Owl r. (52-54) 2 EleusisWreathedPiglet (48, 49, 51, 55) 1 Two owls (56) 9 Owl with symbol (57-60) 2 Zeus/Athena Polias(66, includinga) 2 Owl on thunderbolt(67d, g) 1 Owl on rudder(7li) 4 Demeter/Plemochoe: 1 aplustre(73e) 3 symbol? (72-74) 3 Plemochoe/Eleusis ring (75) 1 Owl 1.with amphora(77b) 2 StandingZeus: 1 prow (79) 1 symbol? (78-80) 1 Owl on thunderbolt(81) 20 FulminatingZeus, eagle: 4 star(82, includingi) 3 wheat ear (83) 5 cornucopia(84, includingi) 8 symbol? (82-84) 2 Cicada/Amphora (85, includingf) 1 Zeus/FulminatingAthena (88c) 1 Apollo/Amphora (10 le) 1 Athena/Owl (455) 1 AR tetrobol(632k) 1 Hera/Eagle (616-618) 1 Nymph/Shield (640-642) 1 Obelisk,dolphins(645Ae) 1 Pegasus/Trident(667m) 1 Zeus/Wreath (752b) 1 Apollo/Lyre (828i) 1 Athena/Coiled snake (872a) 1 Athena/Pomegranate(979b)


Myrina Histiaia Chalkis Salamis Megara Corinth Elis Delos Pergamon Side N 18:3

Cistern fill into early 2nd century B.C. *XXII. D. B. Thompson, "Three Centuries of Hellenistic Terracottas, II C. The AgoraIV, X, XII, XII, Satyr Cistern," Hesperia31, 1962 (pp. 244-262), p. 246, note 10. Athens 1 AR Triobol (19b) 1 Piglet/Mystic staff(63) 1 StandingZeus, prow (79h) 1 Athena/Owl (455h) Myrina Boiotian League 1 Demeter/Poseidon (595e) Chios 1 Sphinx/Amphora, MENEE (943)

N 19:1 (Group F) Cistern Price 1964, pp. 32-33, deposit III. AgoraIV, V, VII, *XXII. D. B. Thompson 1965 (under D 17:5 above), pp. 66-68 (Kybele Cistern). Dilos XXVII, p. 391. to end of 1st century B.C. fill Upper Athens 1 FulminatingZeus, star and crescents(97) 1 Two owls on thunderbolt(99) 1 Apollo/Lyre (I lla) 1 Parthenos/Tripod(138) 1 Parthenos/ApolloDelios (143) 1 Parthenos/Nike (147)


DEPOSITS, INCLUDING HOARDS 1 Parthenos/Athenaadvancing,snake (151) 1 Parthenos/Owl on prow (152) 1 Parthenos/Owl on amphora(157 or 158) Middlefill Athens Sullan destruction debris 1 Owl three-quarters amphora(69) r., 1 FulminatingZeus, two pilei (94) 2 FulminatingZeus, star and crescents(97) 1 Two owls on thunderbolt(99) 2 Cicada/Owl (100) 1 Apollo/Cicada (131) 1 Demeter/Torch (792b)


soon after 86 B.C. N 20:4 Cistern See Table VI, p. 329 below. Price 1964, pp. 32-33, deposit I. Kleiner 1973, pp. 183-189. AgoraIV, V, *XXII. D. B. Thompson 1966 (under E 14:3 above), pp. 252-259. Dlos XXVII, p. 391. Athens 1 Two owls (44-47) 1 EleusisWreathedpiglet (48, 49,51, 55) 2 Zeus/FulminatingAthena (1 89; 1 88, 89) 16 FulminatingZeus: 1 two pilei (94) 13 starand crescents(97) 2 symbol? 2 Two owls on thunderbolt(99) 1 Cicada/Amphora (108) 1 Owl on amphora,no symbol (115) 1 Demeter/Triptolemos(127, 128) 1 PtolemyI-IV (1009h) Cistern Athens 1 Owl 1.(50) 1 StandingZeus, owl (78b) to early 2nd century B.C.

Egypt N 20:6

XXII. Agora

N 21:4

Cistern D. B. Thompson 1962 (under N 18:3 above), pp. 244-262 (Satyr Cistern). AgoraIV XII,*XXII. 1st century after Christ Uppr fill 1 FulminatingZeus, starand crescents(97) Athens 1 Head/Bee (1033),worn Cyrenaica Middlefill Athens first quarter 2nd century star(82), 1 FulminatingZeus, eagle, 1 FulminatingZeus, symbol? [1 Parthenos/Owl on prow (152), probablyfrom upper fill] 1 Hera/Eagle (618) last quarter 3rd century 2 Double-bodiedowl (41-43) 1 Two owls (44-47) 4 Owl 1.or r. (50,52-54,57-60) 1 Athena/Owl (455Ac)

Chalkis Lowerfill Athens


Myrina or Hephaistia

HOARDS INCLUDING DEPOSITS, 0 17:1 Cistern, dumped fill

315 into last quarter 1st century afterChrist

Kroll 1973, p. 324, no. 3. Agora VII. All coins extremelyworn. V 2 Parthenos/Owl amphora on Athens (115, 118-126) Delios(143) 1 Parthenos/Apollo 1 Parthenos/Sphinx (153) 1 Parthenos/Illegible fill O-R 7-10 early 3rd centuryB.C. Square Peristyle bllHwAing it in the teens and 20's of the 4th century (Agora Earlierdiscussionsof the building placed XIYV 61; p. FacesAdversity," 50, EABC, 146-147; H. A. Thompson, "Athens Hesperia 1981 [pp. 343-355], p. 350), but pp. not Sparksand Talcottbelievedthat the constructi