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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study: The book is one considered to be one of the most important kind of reading materials, and the most widespread too. But the place or role that comics play in the society cannot be easily disregarded. It is presumed that the Philippines national hero, Dr. Jose P. Rizal, was the very first Filipino to draw a cartoon strip that saw publication. He drew the strip in 1886 while visiting his friend Juan Luna, the painter of the famous Spolarium, in Europe. But the formal history of Philippine comics should start in 1926 when Antonio S. Velasquez, generally regarded as the Father of Filipino Komiks, first saw the potentials and possibilities of the illustrated medium. Aside from entertaining the Filipino reader, the Komiks contains items, which give practical tips and aids to him in their daily lives. There are articles in it about home craft, tips on health and cleanliness, spiritual advice and on current events and other human-interest stories.

But the most noteworthy thing about it is that all these things are communicated to the ordinary Filipino reader in native language, making it more accessible to their understanding. Things are explained in the simplest possible way thereby reaching the mind of the masses, unlike other magazines and the newspapers and books that are published in foreign language, thus alienating them from the thought of average Filipino reader.

FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry

The Komiks indeed appeals very much to the Filipino reader. But what is in it that makes the people patronize it, aside from being source of entertainment and knowledge?

It projects various aspects of Filipino realities. It is not far from the experience and situation of the Filipino reader. Take for an instance the characters portrayed in the Komiks. There is usually a mother, father, the children and other members of a typical Filipino family. Another aspect of Filipino reality is being hero-oriented. That is why superheroes appeal to the Filipino reader. The Filipino loves the character that is strong, who is almost perfect and one who defies all odds and dangers. This outlook regarding a mere hero in the Komiks helps in making the Filipino optimistic and develop their belief that everything will turn out right for them in spite of everything.

It is not only the characters in the Komiks, which draw the readers to it, but most importantly are the stories contained in it. The themes of the stories in the Komiks are the manifestation of the feelings, the thoughts and attitudes of the Filipino. The drama and the love story are favorites of the Filipino reader. These kinds of stories are patronized because a natural trait of Filipino is their being. In fact oftentimes Filipino feels that way through life with his heart (like other Asians).

Another favorite of Filipino reader is the fantasy type of story, wherein there are usually magical powers involved. This type of story most often than not is far detached from reality. The situations pictured are usually weird. But there is that common belief influencing and molding the whole being of the Filipino that good always triumphs over evil. And this aspect reality is contained in fantasies, where the hero always upholds goodness and trample evil. And why is this thing about magic not alien to the Filipino thought? If we were to trace it from our past up to present, the belief in magical powers such as anting-anting, dwarfs and miracles is deeply rooted in the Filipino. (Roxas
FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry

Cynthia, & Jouaquin Arevalo Jr. (1985). A History of Komiks of the Philippines and the other Countries(pp.2-5) Quezon City, Capitol Publishing House Inc.)

The Komiks industry continued to grow. Old publishers were closing but more new ones emerged in their place. Some Komiks changed ownerships but they continued to be issued.

By 1945, there were at least 20 or so Komiks titles that were being sold in the newstands. The Filipinos passion for Komiks had reached an unbelievable peak. Komiks reading became Filipinos national pastime. (Villegas, 2007)

Among the forms of print media, Komiks has the greatest influence on broading Philippine culture involving the masses in arts, religion education, politics and the other aspects of life, it similarly widened the existence of the term journalism. For it recognizes every tiny part of something worth writing about.

Komiks is closer to the human heartbeat because it ties up with events and people, unlike other media it makes no pretense to being objective, it provides the appetite of readers for better information about life through a natural style of storytelling combination of either fact or fiction.

It became so much of a medium of education and information, as it is an entertainment tool and an instrument in propaganda because it played a major part in propagation of ideas and values to strengthen the Filipino race.

In contrast to other print media, Komiks is not confined to facts, figures, statistics and issues. Rather, it is limited only by the extent of fertility of the imagination of its writers.

FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry

A Komik writer sees the world and life through a different light, perspective and dimension, its chief mission is to bring down truth to where people can understand it without getting embroiled in sophistry. True to form, the Komiks writer explores the deep level of interest that motivates people. (Roxas Cynthia, & Jouaquin Arevalo Jr. 1985).

Rationale: Publishing Comic magazines are more than just a lucrative business. It goes beyond merely surviving stiff competition of making sure the publication hits it big on the stands. Indeed, theres more to it than fame or big bucks. Terry Bagalso (p. 151, 2007)

Philippine Komiks were once considered to be the national book of the Philippines. It were a big part for most Filipinos, especially for those who were babies of it Golden Age which were on the years 1960s up to the 1980s. It is said to be that Komiks has the greatest influence on the growth of the Philippine culture involving arts, religion, education, politics and other aspects of life.

This study is conducted to appreciate what Komiks have done for us Filipinos, and to have better perception about Komiks as an entertainment, as an influence of life and as a way of communication. People who belong in the poor and middle classes buy Komiks for they could not afford different types of electronic gadgets. Komiks are also a great source of practical tips and aids readers in their daily lives. Komiks contains articles about home crafts, tips on health and cleanliness and other practical matters that one can encounter. Stories on Komiks project various aspects of Filipino realities. Usually, the characters portrayed are typical Filipino family, since Filipino is family-oriented, They easily identify themselves with the characters; they can easily see their situations as someone in the Komiks.

FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry

But now publications are closing down because it seems that no one is interested in Komiks anymore. But the impact of Komiks on Filipino culture was so strong that its still being felt today. There are a lot of TV programs that are inspired by Komik serials. We should bear in mind that these are not new stories; these are stories that have been produced at the height of the Komiks industry decades ago.

If the phenomenon of Komiks in the Philippines will be studied, it can be understood only if done in the light of Philippine situations or within the context of Philippine society and not apart from it because Komics are deeply interwoven with Filipino life.

Statement of the Problem:

General: Why is the Philippine Comic Industry dying?

Specific: How long has been the comics industry in the Philippines? Who are the readers of comics in the Philippines? How has the industry contributed in entertaining and educating readers? What problems have been encountered by the comics industry that contributed to its decline? Why was there a decline in the patronage of comics in the Philippines? What implications can be drawn from the study?

FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry

Objectives: To describe the origin of komiks so that the readers; To explain the importance of the komiks industry to the Filipino readers for them to appreciate its contribution; To identify the people who patronize komiks before and now; To identify the problems faced by the komiks industry to know where it went wrong; To suggest possible solutions to help uplift the komiks industry.

Significance of the Study

This study is structured to give assistance to Comic Artists, Comic Writers, Comic Fanatics, Comic Readers and Future Researchers as well. This research will aid the Artists, Writers to give them a deeper understanding on the Philippine Komik Industry, and how to improve their Communication strategies and make it more effective and also to learn to appreciate the beauty of Philippine Komiks. This research will aid Comic Readers and Comic Fanatics in gaining knowledge as to why the Industry of Komiks declined. The researchers aim to use this research study as an instrument to give Writers and Artists an idea on what went wrong in Philippine Komiks.

Comic Artists. This research study primarily aims to bring Artists back to the Komik Industry. This study seeks to give benefits to Comic Artists such showing them new approaches to their style in Komik making. Through the use of this research, Comic Artists may understand how then this would help them explore new ideas and new ways to communicate to their readers.
FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry

Comic Writers. The researchers intend to revive the writers and bring back their interest in writing stories and to re-kindle writers to pursue the Komiks Industry once more. This research study aims to give the writers the thought on where to improve in their writing and especially how to improve in their writing. Comic Fanatics. Through the use of this study, Comic Fanatics may find this research urging them to continue to patronize Philippine Komiks. This will also give them a deeper understanding on the why the Comic Industry is declining and how they can save the Industry of Komiks. Comic Readers. This study also aims to benefit casual Comic Readers to bring back their interest in reading Komiks and show them that by reading such Komiks, it will help save the Komik Industry. The researchers intend to bring back their passion in reading Philippine inspired Komiks. Future Researchers. This research study will be of a lot of help to future researchers who want to continue to study this kind of research on the Industry of Komiks in the Philippines, or formulate a new research concerning this. They would also benefit from the study because they now have the idea on where to start or continue their own research. This study can also be their reference or source in formulating new studies.

Scope and Limitations:

The study about the Philippine Komiks Industry will only tackle the context of the Philippines when it comes to Komiks, how Komiks really started to the phasing out from the markets. International comics, giving out solutions to the problem, and journal comics are not included in the study.

FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry

International based comics will not be included to our study because the researchers are focusing only on the Philippine Komiks industry. International Comics are a very wide conversation of topics. International Comics will not be the focus of the researchers for the study will be off track to the main focus which is the decline of Philipine Komiks. International comics have their own track and signature on making Comics, they have their own manga Comics, they have a strong sense of national identity and manga comics are part of their culture and history. The DC Comics & Marvel Comics represent the United States which is very successful and popular around the World. The researchers want to discuss more about the origins of Philippine Komiks because they want to give importance on how our very own Komiks was made. The researchers will focus on why the comics started phasing out from the market. This will give the readers ideas why the Philippine Komiks Iindustry, from its peak, began slowly declining. Instead of giving out some possible solutions on how to revive the Philippine Komiks Industry, the beneficiaries of the study can look on to the results of the study and they can formulate their solutions based from the results. The researchers will prioritize local published comics on the markets and how it did circulate in the market. They are not going to tackle foreign comics that are now being embraced by the people in the present age. This study will let the researchers know if there are still Philippine Komiks being published and sold around the Country and why people are slowly losing their interest in reading it. The researchers will limit its study to journal comics that you can see on the newspapers, web comics, or graphic novels. This study will only focus on the local Komik magazines that were made by local artists to be aware of what the said industry left for the Filipinos.

FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry

Bibliography: Roxas, C., & Arevalo Jr., J. (1985). A history of komiks of the philippines and other countries. Quezon City, PH Villegas, D. (2007). The Beginning of the Philippine Komiks Industry. KOMIKS: Sa paningin ng mga Tagakomiks, pg. 8 Bagalso, T. (2004). The Condition Of Comics in the Philippines, KOMIKS: Sa paningin ng mga Tagakomiks, p. 151

FAR EASTERN UNIVERISTY Department of Communication SY 2011 2012 The Problematique Analysis of the Philippine Komiks Industry