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Investment management
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Investment management is the professional management of various securities (shares, bonds and other securities) and assets (e.g., real estate) in order to meet specified investment goals for the benefit of the investors. Investors may be institutions (insurance companies, pension funds, corporations, charities, educational establishments etc.) or private investors (both directly via investment contracts and more commonly via collective investment schemes e.g. mutual funds or exchange-traded funds). The term asset management is often used to refer to the investment management of collective investments, while the more generic fund management may refer to all forms of institutional investment as well as investment management for private investors. Investment managers who specialize in advisory or discretionary management on behalf of (normally wealthy) private investors may often refer to their services as wealth management or portfolio management often within the context of so-called "private banking". The provision of 'investment management services' includes elements of financial statement analysis, asset selection, stock selection, plan implementation and ongoing monitoring of investments. Investment management is a large and important global industry in its own right responsible for caretaking of trillions of yuan, dollars, euro, pounds and yen. Coming under the remit of financial services many of the world's largest companies are at least in part investment managers and employ millions of staff and create billions in revenue. Fund manager (or investment adviser in the United States) refers to both a firm that provides investment management services and an individual who directs fund management decisions.

1 Industry scope

o o o

1.1 Process of investment management 1.2 Key problems of running such businesses 1.3 Representing the owners of shares

2 Size of the global fund management industry 3 Philosophy, process and people 4 Investment managers and portfolio structures

4.1 Approaches to investment decision making

o o o

4.1.1 Fundamental approach 4.1.2 Psychological approach 4.1.3 Academic Approach 4.1.4 Eclectic approach

4.2 Asset allocation 4.3 Long-term returns 4.4 Diversification

5 Investment styles 6 Performance measurement

6.1 Risk-adjusted performance measurement

7 Education or certification 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links



The business of investment has several facets, the employment of professional fund managers, research (of individual assets and asset classes), dealing, settlement, marketing, internal auditing, and the preparation of reports for clients. The largest financial fund managers are firms that exhibit all the complexity their size demands. Apart from the people who bring in the money (marketers) and the people who direct investment (the fund managers), there are compliance staff (to ensure accord with legislative and regulatory constraints), internal auditors of various kinds (to examine internal systems and controls), financial controllers (to account for the institutions' own money and costs), computer experts, and "back office" employees (to track and record transactions and fund valuations for up to thousands of clients per institution).


of investment management

Investment management also known as portfolio management is not a simple activity as it involves many complex steps: Specification of investment objectives & constraints Investment needs to be guided by a set of objectives. The main objectives taken into consideration by investors are capital appreciation, current income and safety of principal. The relative importance of each of these objectives needs to be determined. The main aspect that affects the

objectives is risk. Some investors are risk takers while others try to reduce risk to the minimum level possible. Identification of constrains arising out of liquidity, time horizon, tax and special situations need to be addressed. Choice of the asset mix In investment management the most important decision is with respect to the asset mix decision. It is to do with the proportion of equity shares or shares of equity oriented mutual funds i.e. stocks and proportion of bonds in the portfolio. The combination on the number of stocks and bonds depends upon the risk tolerance of the investor. This step also involves which classes of asset investments will be placed and also determines which securities should be purchased in a particular class. Formulation of portfolio strategy After the stock bond combination is chosen, it is important to formulate a suitable portfolio strategy. There are two types of portfolio strategies. The first is an active portfolio strategy which aims to earn greater risk adjusted returns depending on the market timing, sector rotation, security selection or a mix of these. The second strategy is the passive strategy which involves holding a well diversified portfolio and also maintaining a predecided level risk. Selection of securities Investors usually select stocks after a careful fundamental and technical analysis of the security they are interested in purchasing. In case of bonds credit ratings, liquidity, tax shelter, term of maturity and yield to maturity are factors that are considered. Portfolio Execution This step involves implementing the formulated portfolio strategy by buying or selling certain securities in specified amounts. This step is the one which actually affects investment results. Portfolio Revision Fluctuation in the prices of stocks and bonds lead to changes in the value of the portfolio and this calls for a rebalancing of the portfolio from time to time. This principally involves shifting from bonds to stocks or vice-versa. Sector rotation and security changes may also be needed. Performance Evaluation

The assessment of the performance of the portfolio should be done from time to time. It helps the investor to realize if the portfolio return is in proportion with its risk exposure. Along with this it is also necessary to have a benchmark for comparison with other portfolios that have a similar risk exposure.[1][2]


problems of running such businesses

Key problems include:

revenue is directly linked to market valuations, so a major fall in asset prices can cause a precipitous decline in revenues relative to costs;

above-average fund performance is difficult to sustain, and clients may not be patient during times of poor performance;

successful fund managers are expensive and may be headhunted by competitors;

above-average fund performance appears to be dependent on the unique skills of the fund manager; however, clients are loath to stake their investments on the ability of a few individuals- they would rather see firm-wide success, attributable to a single philosophy and internal discipline;

analysts who generate above-average returns often become sufficiently wealthy that they avoid corporate employment in favor of managing their personal portfolios.


the owners of

Institutions often control huge shareholdings. In most cases they are acting as fiduciary agents rather than principals (direct owners). The owners of shares theoretically have great power to alter

the companies via the voting rights the shares carry and the consequent ability to pressure managements, and if necessary out-vote them at annual and other meetings. In practice, the ultimate owners of shares often do not exercise the power they collectively hold (because the owners are many, each with small holdings); financial institutions (as agents) sometimes do. There is a general belief[by

that shareholders in this case, the

institutions acting as agentscould and should exercise more active influence over the companies in which they hold shares (e.g., to hold managers to account, to ensure Boards effective functioning). Such action would add a pressure group to those (the regulators and the Board) overseeing management. However there is the problem of how the institution should exercise this power. One way is for the institution to decide, the other is for the institution to poll its beneficiaries. Assuming that the institution polls, should it then: (i) Vote the entire holding as directed by the majority of votes cast? (ii) Split the vote (where this is allowed) according to the proportions of the vote? (iii) Or respect the abstainers and only vote the respondents' holdings? The price signals generated by large active managers holding or not holding the stock may contribute to management change. For example, this is the case when a large active manager sells his position in a company, leading to (possibly) a decline in the stock price, but more importantly a loss of confidence by the markets in the

management of the company, thus precipitating changes in the management team. Some institutions have been more vocal and active in pursuing such matters; for instance, some firms believe that there are investment advantages to accumulating substantial minority shareholdings (i.e. 10% or more) and putting pressure on management to implement significant changes in the business. In some cases, institutions with minority holdings work together to force management change. Perhaps more frequent is the sustained pressure that large institutions bring to bear on management teams through persuasive discourse and PR. On the other hand, some of the largest investment managerssuch as BlackRock and Vanguard advocate simply owning every company, reducing the incentive to influence management teams. A reason for this last strategy is that the investment manager prefers a closer, more open and honest relationship with a company's management team than would exist if they exercised control; allowing them to make a better investment decision. The national context in which shareholder representation considerations are set is variable and important. The USA is a litigious society and shareholders use the law as a lever to pressure management teams. In Japan it is traditional for shareholders to be low in the 'pecking order,' which often allows management and labor to ignore the rights of the ultimate owners. Whereas US firms generally cater to shareholders, Japanese businesses generally exhibit a stakeholder mentality, in which they seek consensus amongst all interested parties (against

a background of strong unions and labour legislation).


of the global fund management industry

Conventional assets under management of the global fund management industry increased by 10% in 2010, to $79.3 trillion. Pension assets accounted for $29.9 trillion of the total, with $24.7 trillion invested in mutual funds and $24.6 trillion in insurance funds. Together with alternative assets (sovereign wealth funds, hedge funds, private equity funds and exchange traded funds) and funds of wealthy individuals, assets of the global fund management industry totalled around $117 trillion. Growth in 2010 followed a 14% increase in the previous year and was due both to the recovery in equity markets during the year and an inflow of new funds. The US remained by far the biggest source of funds, accounting for around a half of conventional assets under management or some $36 trillion. The UK was the second largest centre in the world and by far the largest in Europe with around 8% of the global total.[3]


process and

The 3-P's (Philosophy, Process and People) are often used to describe the reasons why the manager is able to produce above average results.

Philosophy refers to the over-arching beliefs of the investment organization. For example: (i) Does the manager buy growth or value

shares, or a combination of the two (and why)? (ii) Do they believe in market timing (and on what evidence)? (iii) Do they rely on external research or do they employ a team of researchers? It is helpful if any and all of such fundamental beliefs are supported by proofstatements.

Process refers to the way in which the overall philosophy is implemented. For example: (i) Which universe of assets is explored before particular assets are chosen as suitable investments? (ii) How does the manager decide what to buy and when? (iii) How does the manager decide what to sell and when? (iv) Who takes the decisions and are they taken by committee? (v) What controls are in place to ensure that a rogue fund (one very different from others and from what is intended) cannot arise?

People refers to the staff, especially the fund managers. The questions are, Who are they? How are they selected? How old are they? Who reports to whom? How deep is the team (and do all the members understand the philosophy and process they are supposed to be using)? And most important of all, How long has the team been working together? This last question is vital because whatever performance record was presented at the outset of the relationship with the client may or may not relate to (have been produced by) a team that is still in place. If the team has changed greatly (high staff turnover or changes to the team), then arguably the

performance record is completely unrelated to the existing team (of fund managers).


managers and portfolio structures

At the heart of the investment management industry are the managers who invest and divest client investments. A certified company investment advisor should conduct an assessment of each client's individual needs and risk profile. The advisor then recommends appropriate investments.


to investment decision making

The stock market is thronged by investors pursuing diverse investment approaches which may be broadly divided into four categories as follows 1. 2. 3. 4. Fundamental approach Psychological approach Academic approach Eclectic approach

[edit]Fundamental approach
The basic belief of the fundamental approach and commonly used by the majority of investment expert are as follows We know that security has an intrinsic value and this intrinsic value depends upon the basic economic (fundamental) factors and it can be determined by an insightful analysis of the fundamental factors concerning to the company, industry and economy. In some cases, at some given period of time the current market value of a security will differ from the intrinsic value of the security. Over the period of time the

market price will fall in line with the intrinsic value. By buying under-valued securities (securities whose intrinsic value is more than its market value) and selling over-valued securities (securities whose intrinsic value is less than its market value) good amount of returns can be earned. a

[edit]Psychological approach
The psychological mood of an investor is believed to influence stock prices. The psychological approach is based on the belief that the stock market is not guided by reason but by emotions. Prices rise to great heights when greed and euphoria sweep the market, while when the market is surrounded with fear and despair, prices falls drastically. J.M.Keynes in his book The General Theory Of Employment, Interest And Money described this phenomenon in eloquent terms. He said:

A conventional valuation which is established as the outcome of the mass psychology of a large number of ignorant individuals is liable to change violently as the result of a sudden fluctuation of opinion due to factors which do not really make much difference to the prospective yield.
Since psychological value seems to be more

valued than the intrinsic value, the psychological approach therefore suggests that it is most important to analyze how investors tend to react as the market is swept by waves of optimism and pessimism. The castles-in-the-air theory by Burton G. Malkiel describes the psychological approach vividly. It is more of a technical analysis which involves study of internal market data, and also concerns building some trading rules.

By analyzing the market data one can recognize certain persistent and recurring patterns of price movement. A variety of tools are used in technical analysis such as moving average analysis, point and figure chart, bar chart, and breadth of market analysis.

[edit]Academic Approach
Over the last four- five decades, various aspects of capital structure are studied by the academic community particularly in the advanced countries by taking help of comparatively sophisticated methods of examination. There appears to be substantial support for the following belief despite numerous unsolved issues and controversies arising from the studies which are pointing out in different directions. Stock price reflect the intrinsic value fairly well as they are practically efficient in responding promptly and reasonably to the flow of information. This means that Current market price = Intrinsic value We can say that stock price behaviour is like a random walk in the park that means past price behaviour cannot be used to determine or predict future price behaviour as the successive price changes are independent. The expected return from the security is linearly associated to its systematic risk (market risk or non-diversifiable risk) because in a capital market there is a positive relationship between risk and return.

[edit]Eclectic approach
It is the combination of all the three approaches discussed above, the basic belief of eclectic approach are as follows.

Total dependency on fundamental analysis is not appreciated as there are some uncertainties associated with it but fundamental analysis is helpful in forming a basic standard and benchmark. Fundamental analysis should be viewed with caution because of excessive refinement and complexity associated with it.

Technical analysis is usefully in gauging the current mood of investors and comparative strength of supply and demand forces. Total dependency on technical indicators can result in to a situation which is very dangerous and one might not be able to control it, as the mood of the investors is very unpredictable. Complicated fundamental system habitually represents figments of imagination to a certain extent than tool of proven usefulness therefore it should ordinarily be regarded as the suspect.

The market is neither as speculative as the psychological approach indicates nor as well planned as academic approach recommends. Eclectic approach does have some inefficiency and it is not perfect but it does react rationally and quite efficiently to the flow of information. There are some instances that the securities are mispriced but still there appears to be quite strong association between risk and return.

The operational implications of the eclectic approach are as follows

Certain value Anchors are established by conducting fundamental analysis.

The state of market psychology is assessed by technical analysis.

Which securities are worth buying, worth selling or worth disposing is determined by the combine result of fundamental and technical analysis.[4][5][6]



The different asset class definitions are widely debated, but four common divisions are stocks, bonds, realestate and commodities. The exercise of allocating funds among these assets (and among individual securities within each asset class) is what investment management firms are paid for. Asset classes exhibit different market dynamics, and different interaction effects; thus, the allocation of money among asset classes will have a significant effect on the performance of the fund. Some research suggests that allocation among asset classes has more predictive power than the choice of individual holdings in determining portfolio return. Arguably, the skill of a successful investment manager resides in constructing the asset allocation, and separately the individual holdings, so as to outperform certain benchmarks (e.g., the peer group of competing funds, bond and stock indices).



It is important to look at the evidence on the long-term returns to different assets, and to holding period returns (the returns that accrue

on average over different lengths of investment). For example, over very long holding periods (e.g. 10+ years) in most countries, equities have generated higher returns than bonds, and bonds have generated higher returns than cash. According to financial theory, this is because equities are riskier (more volatile) than bonds which are themselves more risky than cash.

Against the background of the asset allocation, fund managers consider the degree of diversification that makes sense for a given client (given its risk preferences) and construct a list of planned holdings accordingly. The list will indicate what percentage of the fund should be invested in each particular stock or bond. The theory of portfolio diversification was originated by Markowitz (and many others) and effective diversification requires management of the correlation between the asset returns and the liability returns, issues internal to the portfolio (individual holdings volatility), and crosscorrelations between the returns.



There are a range of different styles of fund management that the institution can implement. For example, growth, value, growth at a reasonable price (GARP), market neutral, small capitalisation, indexed, etc. Each of these approaches has its distinctive features, adherents and, in any particular financial environment, distinctive risk

characteristics. For example, there is evidence that growth styles (buying rapidly growing earnings) are especially effective when the companies able to generate such growth are scarce; conversely, when such growth is plentiful, then there is evidence that value styles tend to outperform the indices particularly successfully.


Fund performance is often thought to be the acid test of fund management, and in the institutional context, accurate measurement is a necessity. For that purpose, institutions measure the performance of each fund (and usually for internal purposes components of each fund) under their management, and performance is also measured by external firms that specialize in performance measurement. The leading performance measurement firms (e.g. Frank Russell in the USA or BI-SAM [1] in Europe) compile aggregate industry data, e.g., showing how funds in general performed against given indices and peer groups over various time periods. In a typical case (let us say an equity fund), then the calculation would be made (as far as the client is concerned) every quarter and would show a percentage change compared with the prior quarter (e.g., +4.6% total return in US dollars). This figure would be compared with other similar funds managed within the institution (for purposes of monitoring internal

controls), with performance data for peer group funds, and with relevant indices (where available) or tailor-made performance benchmarks where appropriate. The specialist performance measurement firms calculate quartile and decile data and close attention would be paid to the (percentile) ranking of any fund. Generally speaking, it is probably appropriate for an investment firm to persuade its clients to assess performance over longer periods (e.g., 3 to 5 years) to smooth out very short term fluctuations in performance and the influence of the business cycle. This can be difficult however and, industry wide, there is a serious preoccupation with short-term numbers and the effect on the relationship with clients (and resultant business risks for the institutions). An enduring problem is whether to measure before-tax or after-tax performance. After-tax measurement represents the benefit to the investor, but investors' tax positions may vary. Before-tax measurement can be misleading, especially in regimens that tax realised capital gains (and not unrealised). It is thus possible that successful active managers (measured before tax) may produce miserable after-tax results. One possible solution is to report the after-tax position of some standard taxpayer.



Performance measurement should not be reduced to the evaluation of fund returns

alone, but must also integrate other fund elements that would be of interest to investors, such as the measure of risk taken. Several other aspects are also part of performance measurement: evaluating if managers have succeeded in reaching their objective, i.e. if their return was sufficiently high to reward the risks taken; how they compare to their peers; and finally whether the portfolio management results were due to luck or the managers skill. The need to answer all these questions has led to the development of more sophisticated performance measures, many of which originate in modern portfolio theory. Modern portfolio theory established the quantitative link that exists between portfolio risk and return. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) developed by Sharpe (1964) highlighted the notion of rewarding risk and produced the first performance indicators, be they risk-adjusted ratios (Sharpe ratio, information ratio) or differential returns compared to benchmarks (alphas). The Sharpe ratio is the simplest and best known performance measure. It measures the return of a portfolio in excess of the risk-free rate, compared to the total risk of the portfolio. This measure is said to be absolute, as it does not refer to any benchmark, avoiding drawbacks related to a poor choice of benchmark. Meanwhile, it does not allow the separation of the performance of the market in which the portfolio is invested from that of the manager. The information ratio is a more general form of the Sharpe ratio in which the risk-free asset

is replaced by a benchmark portfolio. This measure is relative, as it evaluates portfolio performance in reference to a benchmark, making the result strongly dependent on this benchmark choice. Portfolio alpha is obtained by measuring the difference between the return of the portfolio and that of a benchmark portfolio. This measure appears to be the only reliable performance measure to evaluate active management. In fact, we have to distinguish between normal returns, provided by the fair reward for portfolio exposure to different risks, and obtained through passive management, from abnormal performance (or outperformance) due to the managers skill (or luck), whether through market timing, stock picking, or good fortune. The first component is related to allocation and style investment choices, which may not be under the sole control of the manager, and depends on the economic context, while the second component is an evaluation of the success of the managers decisions. Only the latter, measured by alpha, allows the evaluation of the managers true performance (but then, only if you assume that any outperformance is due to skill and not luck). Portfolio return may be evaluated using factor models. The first model, proposed by Jensen (1968), relies on the CAPM and explains portfolio returns with the market index as the only factor. It quickly becomes clear, however, that one factor is not enough to explain the returns very well and that other factors have

to be considered. Multi-factor models were developed as an alternative to the CAPM, allowing a better description of portfolio risks and a more accurate evaluation of a portfolio's performance. For example, Fama and French (1993) have highlighted two important factors that characterize a company's risk in addition to market risk. These factors are the book-to-market ratio and the company's size as measured by its market capitalization. Fama and French therefore proposed three-factor model to describe portfolio normal returns (FamaFrench three-factor model). Carhart (1997) proposed to add momentum as a fourth factor to allow the short-term persistence of returns to be taken into account. Also of interest for performance measurement is Sharpes (1992) style analysis model, in which factors are style indices. This model allows a custom benchmark for each portfolio to be developed, using the linear combination of style indices that best replicate portfolio style allocation, and leads to an accurate evaluation of portfolio alpha


or certification

Increasingly, international business schools are incorporating the subject into their course outlines and some have formulated the title of 'Investment Management' or 'Asset Management' conferred as specialist bachelor's degrees (e.g. Cass Business School, London). Due to global cross-recognition agreements with the 2 major accrediting

agencies AACSB and ACBSP which accredit over 560 of the best business school programs, the Certification of MFP Master Financial Planner Professional from the American Academy of Financial Management is available to AACSB and ACBSP business school graduates with finance or financial services-related concentrations. For people with aspirations to become an investment manager, further education may be needed beyond a bachelors in business, finance, or economics. Designations, such as the CIM in Canada, are required for practitioners in the investment management industry. A graduate degree or an investment qualification such as the Chartered Financial Analyst designation (CFA) may help in having a career in investment management.[citation needed] There is no evidence that any particular qualification enhances the most desirable characteristic of an investment manager, that is the ability to select investments that result in an above average (risk weighted) long-term performance[citation needed]. The industry has a tradition of seeking out, employing and generously rewarding such people without reference to any formal qualifications.[citation



Active management Alpha capture system Corporate governance Exchange fund

Investment List of asset management firms Passive management Exchange-traded fund Pension fund Portfolio Separately managed account Transition Management Securities lending

[edit]References This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011)


^ Prasanna, Chandra (2008). Investment analysis and portfolio management.. [S.l.]: Tata Mcgraw-Hill. pp. 13 14.ISBN 9780070249073.


^ Investment Analysis, University of Exeter


^ Fund Management:. [TheCityUK]. 2011-10-05. Retrieved 2008-14-14.


^ Chandra, Prasanna (2008). Investment analysis and portfolio management.. [S.l.]: Tata Mcgraw-Hill. pp. 14 16.ISBN 9780070249073.


^ Investment decision making: Approaches


^ Approaches to investment Decision Making



David Swensen, "Pioneering Portfolio Management: An Unconventional Approach to Institutional Investment," New York, NY: The Free Press, May 2000.

Rex A. Sinquefeld and Roger G. Ibbotson, Annual Yearbooks dealing with Stocks, Bonds, Bills and Inflation (relevant to long term returns to US financial assets).

Harry Markowitz, Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of Investments, New Haven: Yale University Press

S.N. Levine, The Investment Managers Handbook, Irwin Professional Publishing (May 1980), ISBN 0-87094-207-7.

V. Le Sourd, 2007, Performance Measurement for Traditional Investment Literature Survey, EDHEC Publication.

D. Broby, "A Guide to Fund Management", Risk Books, (Aug 2010), ISBN 1906348189.

C. D. Ellis, A New Paradigm: The Evolution of Investment Management. Financial Analysts Journal, vol. 48, no. 2 (March/April 1992):1618.

Markowitz, H.M. (2009). Harry Markowitz: Selected Works. World Scientific-Nobel Laureate Series: Vol. 1. World Scientific. pp. 716.ISBN 978-981-283-364-8.

Elton, Edwin J & Gruber, Martin J (2010). Investments and Portfolio Performance. World Scientific. pp. 416. ISBN 978-981-4335-39-3.



Investment Company Institute US industry body

Investment Management Association UK industry body


Investment management

General areas of finance


Financial risk and financial risk managemen

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