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Balunkeswar Nayak et al 2011 Measured antioxidant activity using a biologically relevant assay from in vivo and chemical assays

of extrusion processed purple potato and pea flours. A cellular antioxidant activity assay could provide biologically relevant information on bioactive compounds in raw as well as processed food products.. The free fraction of extracts contributed 68, 64, and 88% to total phenolics, total antioxidantactivity (ORAC value), and total flavonoids, respectively, in purple potato flour (PPF). The amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in purple potato flour and the antioxidant activity of PPF and DPF were comparable to published data. However, a higher amount in the total flavonoids and lower in the total phenolics of DPF were observed. The extruded products had significantly higher (p < 0.05) content of total phenolics, ORAC antioxidant activity, and flavonoids, compared to the raw formulations. Extrusion processing increased the cellular antioxidant activity of the extrudates prepared from 35:65 and 50:50 PPF/DPF (w/w) of ingredients compared with control raw formulations in a dose-dependent manner. Increase of PPF significantly increased (p < 0.05) the cellular antioxidant activity of 35_50% PPF formulations. Andrew P. Neilson et al 2006 studied the sensory and nutritional quality of dehydrated potato flakes packaged in 10 cans held at ambient temperatures up to 30 . Thirteen samples of dehydrated potato flakes were obtained from donors. A consumer panel evaluated reconstituted product for appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and overall acceptability using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptability hedonic scores ranged from 3.7 to 6.6 and declined significantly over time. Sensory shelf-life, based on a cutoff of 80% of initial overall acceptability, was 16 y. Vitamin C levels remained constant over storage time. Headspace hexanal concentrations ranged from 0 to 2.09 g/g. There was no significant correlation between headspace hexanal of dry flakes and hedonic scores of reconstituted product. Dehydrated potato flakes appear to retain sufficient quality over time to warrant consideration for long-term storage purposes. A. Ramesh Yadav et al 2006 determined Gel consistency, pasting behaviour, sedimentation volume and swelling and solubility of potato flour, prepared by two different drying methods. The functional properties of flour were changed markedly in drum drying due to severe molecular degradation whereby its digestibility was also increased compared to native and hot air dried flour. Amylose content of drum dried flour increased and its soluble amylose was doubled as a result of processing. Processing further effected agglomeration of starch granules with altered morphological features. B-type X-ray diffraction pattern was obtained for the native starch whereas V-type patterns were observed for the processed samples. Crystallinity index of drum dried flour was much lower and indicated the loss of granular surface and crystallinity. The reduction in peak intensities of starch of processed samples was observed in 13C NMR though the basic molecular structure remained unaffected. From these results an optimum amount of processed potato flour is expected to be used to achieve desirable properties for product development. J. A. Grabowski, V.D. Truong, and C. R. Daubert 2005 studied Spray-drying of sweetpotato. They determine the effects of viscosity reduction of sweetpotato puree with alphaamylase, maltodextrin (MD) addition, and inlet air temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of spray-dried sweetpotato powder. A face-centered cube design was used to evaluate the effects of amylase level (0,3.75, and 7.5mL/kg puree),MDconcentration (0%,10%,and20%), and inlet air temperature (150 C, 190 C and 220 C) on powder

characteristics. Model-fitting using response surface methodlogy was performed to examine the effects of independent variables on the moisture content, color, water absorption, solubility, particle size, bulk density, and glass transition temperature. The data were fit to a full second order polynomial equation. However, only the linear and quadratic terms proved to be significant for most dried powder attributes. MD significantly increased powder solubility, altered the hue value, and raised the glass transition temperature of the powder. Pre-treatment with alpha-amylase resulted in a lower glass transition temperature and a decrease in particle size. Overall, results show that good quality sweetpotato powders can be produced using this drying method, with potential applications in food and nutraceutical products. L. Hassini, S. Azzouz and A. Belghith 2004 evaluated the moisture diffusion coefficient of potato during convective drying. Two models of diffusion had been performed to evaluate that coefficient. The first one based on Ficks law, when a model fitting procedure was applied to experimental drying data. The diffusion coefficient was found to vary with air temperature and also increase with the thickness of slab at a constant air temperature level. The second model consisted of solving numerically the equation of conservation of mass of both solid and liquid phase. The shrinkage phenomenon was taken into account as a fundamental part of the drying operation by the introduction of the velocity of the dry solid. The diffusion coefficient was identified by the minimization of the gap between the simulated drying kinetics curves and those obtained experimentally in the same experimental conditions G.A Redmond et al 2003 examined the effect of freeze-chilling on the quality of mashed potato from three potato cultivars (Rooster, Golden Wonder and Maris Piper). Four process treatments were used; fresh, chilled, freeze-chilled and frozen and the mashed potato was tested for firmness, colour, centrifugal drip loss, vitamin C content, total viable count and taste panel acceptability. Rooster had a significantly higher vitamin C content than Golden Wonder or Maris Piper. A significant difference (P<0.001) in vitamin C content was also found between treatments. Fresh mashed potato had the highest vitamin C content and chilled and freeze-chilled samples the lowest. Rooster produced a darker and firmer mash than Golden Wonder or Maris Piper whilst Maris Piper mash had the highest drip loss. Freezechilled and frozen mash was the least firm and had higher drip loss than mash from the other process treatments. No difference was found between process treatments in taste panel acceptability for Golden Wonder and Maris Piper mash. For Rooster, the chilled and freezechilled samples had lower acceptability scores than the fresh or frozen mash. Overall, in the long-term trial, freeze-chilling led to a potato mash with a firmer texture, lower vitamin C content, higher TVC value, higher L/b value and lower taste panel acceptability than freezing. No significant difference was found in drip or adhesiveness between freeze-chilled and frozen potato mash in the long-term trial. Length of time in frozen storage had no effect on drip loss, firmness/adhesiveness, vitamin C content, TVC, or sensory score for freeze-chilled and frozen mashed potato. Marcel Bogers 2002 discussed the use of drum dryer as a part of a potato flake line. The author reported that potato flakes are the dehydrated mashed potatoes made by applying cooked, mashed potato to the surface of a single drum dryer fitted with applicator rolls, drying the deposited layer of potato solids rapidly to the desired moisture content and breaking the sheet of sheet of the dehydrated potato solids into a suitable size for packaging.

L. Hassini et al 2002 studied the convective drying of spunta varietyof potato. The first objective of this study consisted in presenting data on the shrinkage of the product as a 3-D variable, for different values of moisture content and drying temperature. The second objective consisted in determining the evolution of the average water content of a thin layer of the product and the temperature profiles inside one sample in function of the constraints of drying. They concluded that it is possible to control the performance of the drying unit in order to optimise its operation and reduce its energy cost. M. D. Alvarez and W. Canet 1999 studied the rheological behaviour of mashed potatoes made from dehydrated potato flakes using helical ribbon geometry. Mashed potatoes were also frozen in order to determine the changes that occurred in the cell structure. Response surface analysis was used to establish the empirical models for expressing the effects of significant ingredients on rheological properties. Results showed that both dynamic moduli (G, and G") were significantly influenced by potato flake concentration (<0.01) and the butter concentration (<0.05 for G and a<0.10 for G), while the salt concentration had a significant quadratic effect (<0.05) on the storage modulus (G). Significant interactions occurred between potato flakes and milk concentrations, and potato flakes and salt concentrations, and these were detected by the dynamic moduli. Breakdown of the cell wall by freezing decreased G, G and * values, showing that the frozen/thawed mashed potatoes consisted of dilute dispersions of swollen and disrupted intracellular starch granules.