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TALLINN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Department of Machinery

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Master’s Thesis

Supervisor:

Petri Varsta, Professor

Instructors:

Jaan Metsaveer, Professor Emeritus Martin Eerme, Doctor of Philosophy

Tallinn 2003

AUTHOR’S DECLARATION

I assure that this master’s thesis is a result of my personal work and that no other than the indicated aids have been used for its completion. Furthermore I assure that all quotations and statements that have been inferred literally or in a general manner from published or unpublished writings are marked as such. Beyond this I assure that the work has not been used, neither completely nor in parts, for the passing of any previous examinations.

Tallinn, February 7, 2003

Kristjan Tabri

TALLINN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY

ABSTRACT

Title:

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Author:

Kristjan Tabri

Place:

Tallinn

Date:

07.02.2003

Number of pages:

68

Number of figures:

47

Supervisor:

Petri Varsta, Professor

Instructors:

Jaan Metsaveer, Professor Emeritus; Martin Eerme, PhD.

Keywords:

Sandwich panels, impact load, bending energy, membrane energy, laboratory experiments, FE simulations, Cowper-Symonds model,

The purpose of the study is to understand the behaviour of I-core steel sandwich panel subjected to a lateral impact load. Furthermore, the aim is to derive an analytical model describing panel’s behaviour and the consequences of impact. Due to the impact, faceplate of the panel is deformed in high velocity. It means that dynamic behaviour of materials should be considered. To verify proposed analytical model data is obtained by laboratory experiments and by finite element calculations.

The behaviour of sandwich panels is studied in a series of laboratory tests, where sandwich panels with four different configurations are tested. General structure of tested panels remains unchanged during the tests and the only changing parameter is the thickness of the faceplate. The effect of core material is investigated by filling some of the panels with urethane foam. In the laboratory tests panels are hit by an impact head, which has some predetermined mass and velocity. The most important results of the laboratory experiments are plastic energy absorption of the panel and the extent of deformation.

In addition to the laboratory experiments, impacts are simulated by finite element method using program LS-Dyna. FE simulations provide a possibility to determine what happens in a sandwich panel during the impact. The FE simulations are used to obtain information about the velocity of the faceplate and core displacements. This analysis gives the transversal velocity profile, which can be approximated by linear line. The decrease of the velocity is shown to be slightly non-linear. Plastic energy absorption and the extent of the deformation are determined also in FE simulations. Several assumptions made in derivation of the analytical formulation are verified by the FE calculations.

Derived analytical model assumes that all the energy is absorbed by the faceplate of the panel, as displacements at steel core are small compared to the displacements of the faceplate and can thus be neglected. Furthermore, it is assumed that the panel has infinite length and the global bending of the faceplate does not occur. The maximum extent of the deformation is assumed to be equal to the span of inner supports. Formulations for energy absorption are derived separately for membrane and bending energy. Both elastic and plastic deformation energies are considered. The effect of filling material is taken into account by using Winkler’s foundation.

Comparison with laboratory experiments and FE simulations support the purposed analytical model as scatter between the results obtained by different methods is small. In the case of plastic deformation energy the scatter is at worst 10%. Scatter is slightly larger in the case of total deformation energy. In that case the analytical model overestimates the deformation energy in lower deformation values. The reason for that is the methodology of calculation of the elastic energy. An improved solution is suggested for further research. Guidelines how to describe the behaviour of sandwich panel more precisely and thus how to limit the number of assumptions are also suggested.

TALLINNA TEHNIKAÜLIKOOL

RESÜMEE

Pealkiri:

“Sandwich” paneelide lokaalne tugevus löökkoormuste korral

Autor:

Kristjan Tabri

Koht:

Tallinn

Kuupäev:

07.02.2003

Lehekülgede arv:

68

Jooniste arv:

47

Järelvaataja:

Professor Petri Varsta

Juhendajad:

Emeriitprofessor Jaan Metsaveer, vanemteadur Martin Eerme

Võtmesõnad:

“Sandwich” paneelid, löökkoormus, paindeenergia, membraanenergia, lõplike elementide meetod, Cowper-Symond’i mudel,

Käesoleva töö eesmärgiks on tutvuda “sandwich” paneelide käitumisega löökkoormuste korral. Paneeli käitumise ja löökkoormuse mõjul tekkinud tagajärgede kirjeldamiseks on tuletatud analüütilised valemid. Löökkoormuse tulemusena deformeerub paneeli ülemine plaat suurel kiirusel, mis eeldab dünaamiliste materjaliomaduste kasutamist. Analüütilise mudeli õigsust on kontrollitud laborikatsetest ja lõplike elementide meetodil tehtud arvutustest saadud informatiooni kasutades.

“Sandwich” paneelide käitumist uuriti laborikatsete abil, kus testiti nelja erineva konfiguratsiooniga paneeli. Paneelid erinesid plaadistuse paksuse ja täiteaine poolest. Testitud paneelidest kolm ei sisaldanud täiteainet ja üks oli täidetud uretaanvahuga. Laborikatsetes lasti paneelile kukkuda ümaral kehal, millel oli kindlaksmääratud mass ja kiirus. Laborikatsetest saadud tähtsamad suurused olid plastne deformatsioonienergia ja vigastuse ulatus.

Laborikatsetele lisaks simuleeriti kuuli ja paneeli kokkupõrget lõplike elementide meetodil kasutades programmi LS-Dyna. Lõplike elementide simulatsioonid annavad võimaluse jälgida paneeli käitumist kokkupõrke ajal. Simulatsioonide abil on võimalik saada informatsiooni paneelis aset leidvate kiiruste ja siirete kohta. Analüüs osutas, et paneeli ülemise plaadi deformeerumiskiiruse põik- ja pikisuunalist jaotust saab aproksimeerida lineaarsete sirgete abil. Samuti ilmnes, et kiiruse vähenemise kirjeldamiseks ei piisa vaid lineaarsest aproksimatsioonist. Sarnaselt laborikatsetele arvutati ka lõplike elementide meetodil tehtud simulatsioonide abil plastne deformatsioonienergia ja vigastuse ulatus. Mitmete analüütiliste valemite tuletamisel tehtud oletuste õigsust on kontrollitud simulatsioonidest saadud informatsiooni abil.

Tuletatud analüütiline mudel oletab, et kogu löögist saadud energia neeldub paneeli ülemises plaadis kuna paneeli jäigastajates aset leidvad siirded on väikesed võrreldes plaadi siiretega. Samuti on oletatud, et paneel on lõpmatu pikkusega ja löökkoormus ei tekita ülemises plaadis laiaulatuslikku läbipainet. Vigastuse maksimaalseks ulatuseks põiksuunas on võetud paneeli sisemiste jäigastajate vahekaugus. Valemid nii elastse kui ka plastse deformatsioonienergia arvutamiseks on tuletatud eraldi painde- ja membraanenergia jaoks. Uretaanvahu mõju on võetud arvesse kasutades Winkler’i teooriat.

Laborikatsete, lõplike elementide meetodil tehtud arvutuste ja analüütilise mudeliga saadud tulemuste kokkulangevust võib lugeda heaks kuna erinevused eri tulemuste vahel on väikesed. Plastse deformatisoonienergia korral erinevus on halvimal juhul 10%. Erinevused on suuremad koguenergia korral, mil analüütiline mudel ülehindab neeldunud eneriat väikeste vigastuste puhul. Erinevuse tekib elastse deformatioonienergia arvutamisel kasutatud metoodika. Edasiseks uurimiseks on välja pakutud parandatud mudel elastse energia täpsemaks kirjeldamiseks. Samuti on antud soovitusi tuletatud mudeli parandamiseks ja tehtud oletuste mõju vähendamiseks.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

PREFACE

This work is done for the EU-project entitled: Advanced Composite Sandwich Steel Structures. This project started on 1.04.2000 and its duration is three years. The SANDWICH project will develop products utilising sophisticated lightweight steel sandwich panels for primary load carrying structures. The Ship Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) participates in the project as a partner.

I am grateful to supervisor, Professor Petri Varsta, and to the instructors Professor Emeritus Jaan Metsaveer and Ph.D. Martin Eerme for valuable and essential guidance and encouragement they gave me throughout the study.

I would like to express my gratitude to Dr.Tech. Pentti Kujala and Lic.Tech. Hendrik Naar for giving me vital instructions in many fields. I also wish to thank the personnel both in HUT and in Tallinn Technical University for pleasant and versatile contribution. Last but not least, I would like to thank Hannele for the support she gave me throughout the study.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

CONTENTS

ABSTRACT

1

KOKKUVÕTE

2

PREFACE

3

CONTENTS

4

NOTATIONS

6

1 INTRODUCTION

8

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

8

1.2 RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

8

1.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

11

2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

13

2.1 TESTED STRUCTURES AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES

13

2.2 TEST EQUIPMENT, DATA ACQUISITION AND STORAGE

16

2.3 MEASURED / CALCULATED QUANTITIES

18

2.3.1 Velocity of the impact head before the impact

19

2.3.2 Permanent deflection of the faceplate

20

2.3.3 Deformation energy of the panel

20

2.4

RESULTS OF THE LABORATORY TESTS

21

3 FINITE ELEMENT

ANALYSIS

26

3.1 GEOMETRY OF THE FE MODEL AND THE SIMULATION PROCEDURE

26

3.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE MODEL

29

3.3 RESULTS OF THE FE ANALYSIS

30

4 ANALYTICAL FORMULATIONS

35

4.1 BACKGROUND AND MAIN ASSUMPTIONS

35

4.2 ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE DEFORMATION SHAPE

37

4.3 STRAIN RATE

39

4.4 ENERGY ABSORPTION OF THE PANEL

42

4.4.1 Elastic energy absorbed by bending

42

4.4.2 Elastic energy absorbed by membrane mechanism

46

4.4.3 Plastic energy absorbed by bending

47

4.4.4 Plastic energy absorbed by membrane mechanism

49

4.4.5 Energy absorbed by core filling

49

4.4.6 Approximate solution for membrane energy

50

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

4.5 SOLUTION PROCEDURE

54

5 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE LABORATORY TESTS, FE CALCULATIONS AND THE

ANALYTICAL FORMULATIONS

58

6

CONCLUSIONS

64

REFERENCES

67

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

NOTATIONS

a,

b, c, d

constants

B

breath

c V

ratio between initial and average velocity

C 1 , C 2

constants determining the shape of deformation

CS

coefficient used to scale yield stress

D

constant describing dynamic behaviour of material

E

Young’s modulus, energy

F

force

G

shear modulus of steel material

k

foundation constant

K

constant describing material properties

L

length

m

mass

M

P

plastic moment

p F

support reaction

q

constant describing dynamic behaviour of material

r

radius

R

width of deformation

t

plate thickness

v

velocity

V

volume

w

deflection

maximum deflection

angle

S

angle of deformation

V

angle of velocity profile

strain

strain rate

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

distributed load

Poisson's ratio of steel material

F

compressive strength of filling material

Y

static yield stress

D

Y

dynamic yield stress

Subscripts

0

initial

A

average

B

bending

EF

 

effective

F

filling

I

impact body

M

membrane

Superscripts

*

simplified equation

E

elastic

P

plastic

D

dynamic

Abbreviations

FE Finite Element

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the study

The weight of structures has significant importance in ships and in other forms of transportation. Decreased structural weight allows vessel to transport larger amount of goods and passengers with a lower expenses. In luxurious cruise ships more and more attractions should be added to ship in order to keep customers satisfied. All additional recreational alternatives increase the lightweight of the and in order to keep the buoyancy in same level, the weight of structures should be increased. The importance of ship buoyancy can be hardly overestimated as it has straight impact to the resistance and thus also to the energy consumption of vessel.

Though the weight is one of the most important parameters in design, there are still a lot of other requirements and demands for structures, which should be satisfied. Especially in marine structures attention should be paid to strength, noise, vibrations, safety, manufacturing and installation of structures. Large amount of requirements have made it almost impossible to satisfy all the demands just by improving conventional structures.

Increasing demand for the lighter and more efficient structures has challenged the engineers to invent new solutions to improve the structures and satisfy the demands.

1.2 Research problems and the purpose of the study

The weight of structures can be decreased using lighter materials, new constructions or combining them. In nowadays industry sandwich structures are used to overcome the increased demands. General drawing of the sandwich panel is given in Figure 1. Two outer layers, skins

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

or faceplates, are made of material that gives enough strength and stiffness, abrasive and corrosive resistance, noise isolation and easy production. In order to increase the thickness of the panel, and thus to increase the stiffness, without using heavy materials in the skins, a light core material is placed between the plates. Several criteria should be considered when selecting the core material. Density, mechanical properties, bond properties, fire isolation are just few examples.

bond properties, fire isolation are just few examples. Figure 1. I-core steel sandwich panel. Combination of

Figure 1.

I-core steel sandwich panel.

Combination of high stiffness and low weight was first used in aircrafts during the Second World War. Combination of balsa in core and veneer in skins was used because of the lack of high strength materials. Nowadays sandwich panels are used even in space research industry where beside the other properties also high impact resistance is appreciated.

Improved welding techniques, especially laser welding, have made it possible to connect very thin sheets to each other and so to manufacture panels where thin faceplates are welded to steel core structure. In marine industry the combination of new welding possibilities, material and strength properties of sandwich panels have made them to be good substitution for conventional structures. Good examples are balconies, decks and bulkheads where sandwich panels replace conventional stiffened plating. Figure 2 presents some possible uses for sandwich panels.

Sandwich panels are efficient in means of global response as panel’s thickness and sectional modulus are bigger compared to conventional stiffened plating. Moment caused by bending is carried by the faceplates while light and low-strength core sustains shear forces. Core contributes to the global response also in other ways. It makes it possible to increase the span of the faceplates without loosing local stiffness. Core also supports the faceplates and distributes stresses to larger area and so prevents the global bending of the faceplate. In other hand the contribution allows to reduce the thickness of the faceplates and to decrease weight.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

conventional ship structure

Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri conventional ship structure ship structure with sandwich panel teak coated sandwich

ship structure with sandwich panel

ship structure ship structure with sandwich panel teak coated sandwich panel Figure 2. Usage of the
ship structure ship structure with sandwich panel teak coated sandwich panel Figure 2. Usage of the

teak coated sandwich panel

Figure 2.

Usage of the sandwich panels in contemporary ship structures.

Weight reduction by using thinner skins introduces a new problem. Though the required global bending resistance can be achieved by using very thin faceplates, still it can be weakened even when relatively small body strikes the panel and causes permanent damage. Local deflection in the faceplate of the panel can decrease the bending resistance significantly. Again core is one possibility to prevent the local deflections, but also the use of some faceplate coatings or new steel core structures can be effective to prevent the serious consequences caused by any kind of impacts on sandwich panels. It should be noted that impact not only causes local deflections to the faceplate, but may also cause widespread global bending of the faceplate. The global bending of the faceplate already has crucial effect to the bending resistance and the whole structure can be close to the collapse. Figure 3 shows the typical local damage of sandwich panel as a result of strike by a spherical object.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 3. Local deflection in sandwich panel. Above

Figure 3.

Local deflection in sandwich panel.

Above described phenomena indicate that together the global behaviour also the local behaviour of sandwich panels should be considered. The purpose of the study is to investigate the local behaviour of the sandwich panels subjected to lateral impact load and to derive analytical formulations describing the behaviour. More precisely the purpose includes the following matters:

learn about the local impact behaviour of sandwich panels,

study the influence of the faceplate thickness and material properties,

study the effect of core material.

In one hand formulations are to be simple and easy to use, but still they have to take into account all the major phenomena concerning the impact event. Attention should be paid to the strain-rate sensitive behaviour of materials; elastic deformation energy of a panel can be quite high in a dynamic process and cannot be neglected; the shape of deflection caused by impact load is different from deflection, which is caused by static load etc. To verify the results of the analytical formulations, series of laboratory experiment and finite element (FE) simulations are carried out.

1.3 Limitations of the study

The number of different designs of sandwich panels is large and it is obvious that single study cannot embrace all of them. This study includes only one design, where material properties and the thickness of the faceplate are changed. The effect of filling material is studied by urethane foam. Lateral impact load is caused by spherical impact head, which is used to strike the

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

panels. Several impacts are simulated using FE program LS-Dyna, but as numerical simulations are time consuming, number of FE simulations is smaller compared to the laboratory experiments.

Analytical formulations are derived assuming infinite panel dimensions and limited extent of deformation. Tearing and global bending of the faceplate are not considered in analytical model. Strain-rate behaviour of the materials is considered by using Cowper-Symonds constitutive equation.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

In order to obtain data to verify the analytical formulations series of laboratory experiments are carried out. This chapter gives an overview of tested structures and the equipment and methods used to conduct the laboratory experiments. Also the results of the laboratory experiments are presented.

2.1 Tested structures and material properties

Altogether 96 impact tests are made for different sandwich panels. General structure of tested panels remains unchanged throughout the tests and is given in Figure 4. The only changing parameter is the thickness of the faceplate, which can be 1 to 3 mm with 1 mm spacing.

thickness of the faceplate, which can be 1 to 3 mm with 1 mm spacing. Figure

Figure 4.

General drawing of the sandwich panel.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Panels have 4 mm thick I-profiles with 120 mm span as steel core. Material properties of the steel plates are determined by carrying out tensile tests for specimens cut from the faceplates. Tensile tests are carried out for the following specimens:

(i)

three specimens cut from 1 mm plates,

(ii)

one specimen cut from 2 mm plate,

(iii)

three specimen cut from 3 mm plate.

Information obtained from the tensile tests is gathered into Table 1.

Table 1.

Results of the tensile tests.

Name of the panel

Breath of the specimen

Thickness

0.2

Ultimate

Ultimate

strength

strain

 

[mm]

[mm]

[N/mm 2 ]

[N/mm 2 ]

A 5 , %

5a-6

24.95

3.03

385

485

33.5

I03

24.95

3.08

388

541

33.5

5a-6

25

3.03

370

482

36

N6

12.5

2.02

428

520

28

5a-13

10.98

1.00

159

288

60

5a-17

10.96

1.00

157

291

64

5a-5

12.4

1.00

179

290

47

Tensile test show that 1 mm thick steel plates are made of material, which yield stress is significantly lower compared to materials used in 2 and 3 mm plates. For brevity, in following discussions just low and high yield is used instead of exact values. Obtained yield stress values are used to predict the strain-rate sensitive behaviour of materials. This behaviour is considered by using Cowper-Symonds (Jones, 1989) equation, which uses constants D and q to describe the behaviour. For mild or low yield steel, those constants can easily be found from the literature. For high strength steels the information about the strain-rate behaviour is scarce and difficult to get. Some investigations carried out in automotive industry have revealed that high strain-rate increases the yield stress of high strength steels approximately 20%. According to that material constants are also calculated for high-yield materials and gathered into Table 2. More detailed description of Cowper-Symonds model is given in Chapter 4.3.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Table 2.

Strain rate properties of used steels.

Panel

Material

Y [MPa]

D

q

t=1 [mm]

Mild steel

179

40.4

5

t=2 [mm]

High-yield steel

428

300000

6

t=3 [mm]

High-yield steel

379

300000

6

The effect of core material is investigated by filling some of the panels with 2 mm faceplates with urethane foam. Mechanical properties of the urethane filling are obtained according to the measured density from literature (Kolsters; Romanoff, 2000) and a graph given in Figure 5, which presents the relation between the density and the compressive strength of the urethane foam /see reference 29/.

and the compressive strength of the urethane foam /see reference 29/. Figure 5. Properties of the

Figure 5.

Properties of the urethane foam.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Properties of urethane foam are gathered into Table 3.

Table 3.

Properties of the urethane foam.

 

Density

Compressive strength F

Shear modulus

Young’s

G

modulus E

[kg/m 3 ]

[MPa]

[MPa]

[MPa]

72

0.62

4.8

21

Good overview about the laboratory tests can be given by test matrix, which is presented in

Figure 6.

Core type I-core Faceplate 1 2 3 thickness [mm] Yield stress Low High High Filling
Core type
I-core
Faceplate
1
2
3
thickness [mm]
Yield stress
Low
High
High
Filling
Void
Void
Void
Foam

Figure 6.

Test matrix.

2.2 Test equipment, data acquisition and storage

The test equipment mainly consists of a test stand and of a data acquisition system. A

schematic picture of the test stand can be seen in Figure 7. The impact system includes a bar,

supported vertically by rollers to allow sliding movement, a replaceable extra mass, a

replaceable nozzle and three sensors. Impact head with conical nozzle is presented in Figure 8.

The impact head, having some predetermined mass, is dropped on the panel and data is

gathered into a computer and saved as a text file. The energy of the impact head is changed

altering its mass and dropping height. Tested panels are hit by a spherical impact nozzle, which

is made of 25-millimeter bearing ball and is shown in Figure 9.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 7. Test system. The parameters of the

Figure 7.

Test system.

The parameters of the impact system are the following:

(i)

mass from 4.5 to about 37 kg

(ii)

dropping height up to 1250 mm

(iii)

velocity at the moment of impact up to 5 m/s,

(iv)

potential energy from 2 up to 450 J.

of impact up to 5 m/s, (iv) potential energy from 2 up to 450 J. Figure

Figure 8.

Impact head with conical nozzle.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 9. Spherical impact nozzle. During the impact

Figure 9.

Spherical impact nozzle.

During the impact three quantities as a function of time are measured:

(i)

force acting between the impact head and the panel,

(ii)

acceleration of the impact system,

(iii)

displacement of the impact system.

The test system uses one sensor for each quantity. General information about the sensors is gathered into Table 4. Data acquisition system uses one channel per sensor. During the impact, the system reads a value from one channel and switches to another channel in 7.5 s intervals.

Due to that information from one channel is registered in 22.5 s intervals. This equals to a sampling rate of a little over 44 kHz.

Table 4.

Sensors used in the impact system.

Quantity

Manufacturer

Model

Range

Type

Force

HBM

U9B

50 kN

Strain cage

Acceleration

B&K

3073

2000 G

Piezo electric

Displacement

Midori

CPP-45

-----

Potentiometer

2.3 Measured / calculated quantities

In the tests, the following information is registered:

(i)

dropped mass,

(ii)

dropping height,

(iii)

displacement, acceleration and force signals,

(iv)

bouncing height of the impact head,

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

(v)

permanent deflection at the faceplate,

(vi)

impact duration,

(vii)

impact coordinates.

According to the registered data the following quantities are calculated:

(i)

velocity of the impact head before the impact,

(ii)

kinetic energy of the impact head before the impact,

(iii)

plastic deformation energy of the panel.

In following sections some of the main calculations are explained.

2.3.1 Velocity of the impact head before the impact

Velocity of the impact head before the impact head is calculated from the dropping height using the energy principle. The kinetic energy of the head just before the impact is certain amount smaller than the potential energy of the impact head before the drop, since some of the potential energy goes to the revolving motion of the rollers. If all four of the rollers would follow the movements of the impact head, the rollers would eventually give back their kinetic energy, but because of the clearance between the rollers and the sliding bar it is assumed that only two of the rollers follow the bar. The velocity before the impact could also be calculated by the time-derivative of the registered displacement, but mentioned energy principle calculations give more accurate results because of the scatter in the displacement measurement. The calculation is verified by taking the time-derivative of the displacement signal from repeated trials. The resulting average velocity was then compared to the value obtained by the energy principle.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

2.3.2 Permanent deflection of the faceplate

The permanent deflection of the faceplate or shortly dent depth is measured manually with a digital dial indicator. The indicator is set to zero at the assumed drop point before every test. As only the first hit is under consideration, the impact head is stopped after the first hit to prevent repetition.

2.3.3 Deformation energy of the panel

Computer programme uses three different methods to calculate the plastic deformation energy of the panel:

(i)

difference in potential energies between the dropping and bouncing heights,

(ii)

numerical integration of displacement-force curve. Displacement and force are calculated from the signal received from the acceleration sensor,

(iii)

numerical integration of displacement-force curve. Displacement and force are calculated from the signals received from the acceleration sensor and the force transducer.

In the first method, it is simply assumed that the elastic deformation energy of the panel returns to the kinetic energy of the impact head. Due to that impact head bounces from the panel and the bouncing height is measured. According to the bouncing height elastic deformation energy can be calculated.

Other two methods employ the similar principle. Since the velocity of the impact head just before the impact and the acceleration as a function of time are known, the motion of the impact head during the impact can be calculated. On the other hand also the force acting between the impact head and the panel is known, which means that the deformation energy can be calculated by integrating force-displacement curve. Force-displacement curve is shown in Figure 10 where the plastic deformation energy is the area under the curve. Since also the displacement sensor is employed the deformation energy could be calculated using the signal from the displacement sensor, but because of the resolution and the mechanical construction of the displacement sensor this is considered to be inaccurate.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Force-displacement curve 3 Plas tic deformation energy 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 0.2 0.25
Force-displacement curve
3
Plas
tic deformation
energy
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.2
0.25
0.3
0.35
0.4
0.45
0.5
Displacement [cm]
Force [kN]

Figure 10. Force-displacement curve.

In case of the first method the bouncing height is determined by the signal from the displacement sensor. As the accuracy of the displacement sensor is low the first calculation method is considered to give imprecise results. In case of the second method where the acceleration signal is integrated, the electronic filtering of the signal distorts the signal and causes some error to the calculated value. Electronic filtering is used to smoothen the signal, which is affected by the high frequency vibrations induced to the impact system due to the collision. Considering these facts the third method is considered to be the most accurate. The plastic deformation energy presented in Chapter 2.4 is calculated by using the signals received from the acceleration sensor and from the force transducer

2.4 Results of the laboratory tests

In laboratory experiments panels are hit to the centre of two middlemost compartments, as can be seen in Figure 11 and in Figure 12. During the impact panel is lying in the floor, which can be assumed as infinitely rigid compared to the panels.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 11. Permanent deformations. Investigation of the tested
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 11. Permanent deformations. Investigation of the tested

Figure 11. Permanent deformations.

Investigation of the tested panels revealed that the width of the deformation in the faceplate is limited by the span of the inner supports as can be seen from Figure 11 and Figure 12. Left picture in Figure 12 presents the panel where the faceplate of the section subjected to the impact load is very close to global bending, but plating of the adjacent sections remains undamaged and no deformations can be observed. Bending of the faceplate is considered to be global when length of the deformation is large compared to the width of the deformation. Right picture of the same figure also reveals that width of the deformation does not exceed the span of the supports. Deformation has circular shape until the faceplate bends globally and the circular shape is stretched to oval.

bends globally and the circular shape is stretched to oval. Figure 12. The extent of the

Figure 12. The extent of the deformation.

stretched to oval. Figure 12. The extent of the deformation. Laboratory tests also showed that the

Laboratory tests also showed that the impact does not cause noticeable permanent deformations in inner supports even when the global bending of the faceplate occurs as depicted in Figure 13.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 13. Global bending of the faceplate. Results

Figure 13. Global bending of the faceplate.

Results of the laboratory experiments are presented in Figure 14 to Figure 17. In the figures,

single test is marked with rhomb. In addition, to get a better picture of the panel’s behaviour

also trendlines are presented for every panel type. Initial energy of the impact head or in other

words the total deformation energy of the panel as a function of permanent deflection is

presented by red rhombi and by red solid line, while blue colour presents the plastic

deformation energy. Global bending of the faceplate is marked by a red rectangular. Results for

the panels with 1 mm faceplates are presented in Figure 14. Big scatter of the test results may

be due to the dispersion of material properties as can be seen from Table 1.

of material properties as can be seen from Table 1. Figure 14. Initial energy of the

Figure 14. Initial energy of the impact head and the plastic deformation energy in case of the panels with 1 mm plating.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 15. Initial energy of the impact head

Figure 15. Initial energy of the impact head and the plastic deformation energy in case of the panels with 2 mm plating.

Dispersion of the test results is much smaller in case of the panels with 2 mm faceplates and

single tests shows good agreement with the trendline. Both energy levels are significantly

higher compared to the panels with 1 mm faceplates and also the global bending of the

faceplate occurs later.

and also the global bending of the faceplate occurs later. Figure 16. Initial energy of the

Figure 16. Initial energy of the impact head and the plastic deformation energy in case the panels with 2 mm plating and the urethane foam filling.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

When the sandwich panel with 2 mm faces is filled with urethane foam the global bending of

the faceplate is prevented and the energy level increases a little, see Figure 16. Shape of the

deformation is similar to one is case of the unfilled panels.

is similar to one is case of the unfilled panels. Figure 17. Initial energy of the

Figure 17. Initial energy of the impact head and the plastic deformation energy in case of the panels with 3 mm plating.

Results of the tests made on panels with 3 mm plates also agree well with the trendline and the

dispersion of the results is small. In case of the panels with 3 mm plating, global bending of the

faceplate was not observed during the laboratory tests.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

3 Finite element analysis

Though the laboratory tests provide the verification data, they do not give any information about the inner mechanics of the sandwich panel during the impact. Finite element simulations allow to follow the impact process and to obtain the information about the behaviour of the sandwich panel during the impact. Main purpose of the FE simulations is to verify the assumptions made in the derivation of the analytical formulations.

For the FE analysis four different sandwich panels are modelled. For modelling and three- dimensional meshing pre-processor LS-Ingrid is used. LS-Ingrid is also used as a translator to convert a text file into input file for the finite element program LS-Dyna950d. The main solution method in LS-Dyna bases on explicit time integration. Explicit solution method exploits the idea that equilibrium equation is always satisfied. At the beginning of the time-step every node has initial coordinate, velocity and force applied to the system. By the equilibrium acceleration is found for every node. As the acceleration is known the new velocity and the displacement of the node can be calculated by using kinematics. New equilibrium force is calculated by the nodal displacements. Calculated values are used as new initial values for the next calculation step.

3.1 Geometry of the FE model and the simulation procedure

Though the configuration of the panels is quite simple, it is still not reliable to model the whole panel as the size of the model also affects the calculation time. Missing part of the panel can be compensated by boundary conditions.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 18. Geometry and dimensions of the modelled

Figure 18. Geometry and dimensions of the modelled panel.

Lets now consider Figure 18 to understand the use of boundary conditions. In order to determine which parts of the sandwich panel should be modelled and where the boundary conditions can be used, several simulations are carried out with different models. Calculations give that using boundary conditions on sides AB and CD, which are transverse to the inner supports, causes some overestimation of panel’s stiffness. To prevent the use of the boundary conditions on transversal sides panel is modelled on its full length. Also the inner supports are not fixed at the ends. Lower plate of the panel is not modelled as it does not contribute to the energy absorption but only supports the inner members. As the supporting of the inner members can easily be described by the fixed boundary conditions on lines E F and G H, the modelling of the lower plate is unnecessary. Simulations also showed that the breath of the modelled faceplate should be at least two times bigger than the span of the inner supports. Too narrow faceplate causes some overestimation of the panel’s stiffness. Remaining part of the panel is compensated by fixing edges A-C and B-D. Furthermore, it is assumed that laser welds on lines E*F* and G*H* are rigid and do not deform during the impact. It means that the weld is modelled just by connecting nodes of the faceplate and inner supporting member along the lines E*F* and G*H*.

When the panel with the urethane filling is under consideration, compressible low-density foam is modelled inside the panel. To reduce the calculation time only the middle section of the panel is filled with the foam. As the foam in the other sections prevents the movements of the inner supports, fixed boundary conditions are used on surfaces E E* F* F and G G* H* H. Bottom of the foam is fixed to compensate the absence of the lower plate. Information about the boundary conditions is gathered into Table 5.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Table 5.

Boundary conditions of the modelled panels.

STRUCTURAL

     

ELEMENT

SIDE/SURFACE

EMPTY PANEL

FILLED PANEL

Faceplate

A-B

free

free

 

C-D

free

free

 

A-C

all dof.* fixed

all dof. fixed

 

C-D

all dof. fixed

all dof. fixed

Support inner

E-E'

free

free

 

G-G'

free

free

 

F-F'

free

free

 

H-H'

free

free

 

E-F

all dof. fixed

all dof. fixed

 

G-H

all dof. fixed

all dof. fixed

Urethane filling

E-E'-F'-F

 

- all dof. fixed

 

G-G'-H'-H

 

- all dof. fixed

 

E-F-H-G

 

- all dof. fixed

*dof.- degree of freedom

 

Density of the element mesh depends on the location. Near to the impact zone element dimensions are the smallest- 1x1 mm. The biggest element dimensions are 4x4 mm. Figure 19 gives a better picture about the mesh and the element sizes. Steel plates are modelled by using two-dimensional four node shell elements with thickness- known as Belytschko-Tsay elements. This element type is one of the most commonly used elements in numerical analysis of crash mechanics of thin-walled structures.

commonly used elements in numerical analysis of crash mechanics of thin-walled structures. Figure 19. Element mesh.

Figure 19. Element mesh.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Element mesh and size of the urethane filling coincides with the mesh of the faceplate, see Figure 20. Urethane filling is connected to the metal sheets by connecting the nodes, which have the same coordinates. Urethane filling is modelled by using eight node hexahedron solid elements.

is modelled by using eight node hexahedron solid elements. Figure 20. Modelled panel with urethane filling.

Figure 20. Modelled panel with urethane filling.

To simulate an impact event, spherical impact head similar to one depicted in Figure 9 is modelled. Impact head is modelled as a non-deformable rigid body. Energy of the striking body is given by its mass and by the velocity at the moment of impact.

3.2 Material properties of the model

Steel plates of the sandwich panel are modelled by using LS-Dyna material model no 24 (Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity). This material model is chosen as it works both in elastic and in plastic region, capable to use non-linear material properties and can consider strain-rate sensitive behaviour of the material. In elastic region material behaviour is determined by Young’s modulus and by Poisson’s constant. Material behaviour in plastic region is determined from the tensile tests. For a purely plastic response without fracture or plastic localization, it is straightforward to determine the plastic parameters straight from the tensile tests. Figure 21 presents the results of the tensile test and approximated true stress-strain curve for LS-Dyna in case of the 3 mm specimens.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 21. Tensile test and approximated true stress-strain

Figure 21. Tensile test and approximated true stress-strain curve for LS-Dyna.

Though the tearing of the faceplate did not occur during the laboratory tests, the possibility of the tearing is still foreseen in FE calculations. The initiation and propagation of fracture in the structure can be modelled in LS-Dyna by deleting elements from the system once plastic strain has reached a certain level. To determine that certain level, an equivalent fracture criterion for the prevailing element is calculated. For the calculation a specimen is modelled and several tensile tests with different failure criteria are carried out in LS-Dyna. The failure criterion is evaluated by comparing the real and calculated stress-strain curves. When those two curves coincide the correct failure criterion is found.

Urethane foam filling is modelled by using material no 14 (Soil and Crushable Foam with Failure). That material model is selected as it provides a simple model for foams whose properties are not well characterized. Necessary input variables for the selected material model were given in Table 3.

3.3 Results of the FE analysis

Finite element simulations provide a possibility to obtain information that is hard to get from laboratory experiments. Addition to deformation energies, the following characteristics are determined by FE simulations:

(i)

velocity profile,

(ii)

velocity of the faceplate as a function of time,

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

(iii)

shape of the deformation,

(iv)

displacements at the core.

Following discussion bases on simulation where the sandwich panel with 2 mm faceplates is hit by the sphere with mass of 20 kg and velocity at the moment of contact is 3.13 m/s. Velocity profile obtained by the finite element simulations is shown in Figure 22 by blue line and the shape of the deformation by red line. Profiles in Figure 22 are drawn assuming that initial contact between the impact body and the panel takes place at the origin.

the impact body and the panel takes place at the origin. Figure 22. Shape of the

Figure 22. Shape of the deformation and velocity profile.

Velocity profile is evaluated by analysing velocity time histories for every node between the nodes FP-1 and FP-4, see Figure 24. Profile presents the average velocity values and is made dimensionless by dividing it with the average velocity of the middle node FP-1. Figure 22 shows that the velocity profile can be approximated by linear line without a significant decrease in preciseness.

by linear line without a significant decrease in preciseness. Figure 23. Velocity of a node FP-1

Figure 23. Velocity of a node FP-1 as a function of time.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Velocity as a function of time is presented in Figure 23. Red solid line presents the velocity of the node FP-1 and red dashed line shows the calculated average velocity. It should be noted that the same average velocity is used to turn velocity profile into dimensionless mode. Figure 23 also reveals that at the beginning of the impact node FP-1 obtains the same velocity with the impact head. Velocity starts to decrease but the decrease is not exactly linear, but little smoother at the beginning and slightly sharper at the end of the impact. Linear approximation is presented by blue dashed line. Simple operation shows, that ratio between the initial and the calculated average velocity is approximately 1.5. The same value is later used in analytical calculations to describe the change of velocity.

analytical calculations to describe the change of velocity. Figure 24. Nodes at the cross-section of the

Figure 24. Nodes at the cross-section of the panel.

It is obvious that most of the impact energy is absorbed by the faceplate, but the significance of the steel core displacements should still be investigated. For that the transversal displacements of the steel core are compared with the displacements of the faceplate. Comparison is done by carrying out the impact simulation for the panel with 3 mm faces. Panel with 3 mm faceplates is selected for the investigation as thicker faceplate causes greater displacements of the inner supporters. Described panel is hit by the sphere with velocity of 3.13 m/s and mass of 30 kg. Results are presented in Figure 25 and the nodes used in comparison were depicted in Figure

24.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 25. Displacements of the faceplate and core.

Figure 25. Displacements of the faceplate and core.

In Figure 25 red lines present the transversal displacements of the faceplate nodes and blue line

presents the displacements at the core multiplied by 100. Figure 25 shows that core

displacements are more than hundred times smaller compared to the displacements of the

faceplate and therefore can be ignored.

Initial and plastic energy as a function of permanent deflection are shown in Figure 26 for

panels with 1 and 3 mm plates. Figure 27 presents the results of FE simulations for the

sandwich panels with 2 mm faces.

(a)

FE simulations for the sandwich panels with 2 mm faces. (a) (b) Figure 26. Results of

(b)

simulations for the sandwich panels with 2 mm faces. (a) (b) Figure 26. Results of FE

Figure 26. Results of FE simulations. Initial energy of the impact head and plastic deformation energy as a function of permanent deflection in case of the empty panels with 1 mm (a) and 3 mm (b) faceplates.

e

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

(a)

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri (a) (b) Figure 27. Results of FE simulations.

(b)

Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri (a) (b) Figure 27. Results of FE simulations. Initial

Figure 27. Results of FE simulations. Initial energy of the impact head and plastic deformation energy as a function of permanent deflection in case of the empty panels with 2 mm plating (a) and the urethane filled panels with 3 mm faceplates (b).

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

4 Analytical formulations

Aim of the analytical formulations is to provide a possibility to calculate deformations in the panel when the properties of the striking body are known. Extent of the deformation can be evaluated by equalizing the kinetic energy of the impact body with the deformation energy of the panel. As it is easy to calculate the kinetic energy of the striking body the main task is to describe the energy absorption of the sandwich panel.

4.1 Background and main assumptions

As a result of impact, faceplate of the sandwich panel stretches in all possible in-plane directions to resist impact loads and can attain large permanent deflections. When plate starts to deform under lateral load, bending plays a major role for small deformations. With an increase in transversal deformation, the importance of bending diminishes and the membrane force quickly develops. At sufficient large deformations, the membrane force dominates the behaviour. This is known as string response.

Furthermore, impact energy is absorbed not only by the faceplate, but also by the inner supports, lower plate and by the filling if there is any. To consider all the deformation mechanisms by analytical single model is complicated and even not necessary. The most of the impact energy is absorbed by the mechanisms where it is done in most efficient way. To simplify the model several assumptions should be made and verified.

One of the main assumptions is about the displacements of steel core. When inner supports of the panel are much stiffer compared to the plates and there is no filling inside, most of the energy is absorbed by the faceplate. Considering the dimensions of the tested panels and the test matrix given in Figure 6, it becomes obvious that longitudinal bending stiffness of the I-

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

profile supports is much higher compared to the faceplate. It introduces the first assumption- inner structure of the tested panels can be considered as rigid and deformation energy is absorbed only by the faceplate and by the filling. Convenient way to verify that assumption is to measure core displacements in FE simulations. Measurements showed that displacements at the core are more than hundreds of times smaller compared to the displacements at the faceplate.

Second assumption considers the extent of the deformation. As laboratory experiments and FE calculations have shown the maximum extent of the deformation is equal to the span of the inner supports. The minimum extent is not limited and should be determined by minimizing the energy. Furthermore, it is also assumed that the length of the panel is infinite. Assumption agrees well with the actual use of sandwich panels where one dimension of the panel is often much larger compared to the others. Importance of the mentioned assumption is that global bending of the faceplate as can be seen in laboratory tests does not occur and the shape of the deformation is assumed to be circular. In reality, some global bending of the faceplate occurs also in the case of infinitely long panels, but the extent of the global bending is small compared to the panel length. Global bending of the infinitely long panels reveals in deformation shape, which takes more oval form.

Conclusively the main assumptions are:

(i)

majority of the impact energy is absorbed by bending and membrane stresses at the faceplate as deformations at inner supports and lower plating are small and can be neglected,

(ii)

the maximum width of the deformation is equal to the span of the inner supports,

(iii)

length of the panel is infinite, which allows to use circular shape to describe deformation.

Before proceeding to the derivation of energy absorption formulations, analytical description of the deformation shape is given in Chapter 4.2. Formulations connected to the calculation of strain rate are given in Chapter 4.3.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

4.2 Analytical description of the deformation shape

In order to be able to calculate the energy absorbed by the different deformation mechanisms,

shape of the deformation should be known. Circular shape of the deformation is described by

two coordinates. Coordinate r is pointed to radial direction and w to the direction of deflection.

The laboratory tests and the finite element simulations presented that it is convenient to divide

the deformation of the faceplate into two parts as shown in Figure 28:

(i)

Linear line B-C

(ii)

Curve A-B, which can be described by polynomial

(ii) Curve A-B, which can be described by polynomial Figure 28. Deformation shape. Extent of the

Figure 28. Deformation shape.

Extent of the linear line is determined by two constants C 1 and C 2 . C 1 determines the extent of

the linear line in w direction and C 2 is used to determine the extent of deformation in r-

direction. The linear part is

w

C

1

1

r

R

C

2

R

r

R

.

Polynomial part is described by third-order polynomial given and is valid for

w ( r

)

a r

3

b r

2

c r d

.

0

r C

2

(1)

R

(2)

:

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Constants a, b, c and d are determined by the following boundary conditions:

w

w

r

0

r

0

0

d

c

0

w

r

C

w

r

2

C

R

2

C

1

(1

R

C

1

C

.

R

2

,

,

)

,

(3)

After evaluating constants a and b, shape of the deformation can be written as

w ( r )

where

a

3

r

C

1

1

b

r

2

r

R

if

if

C

0

2

R

r

r

C

2

R

R

,

a

b

C

1

C

2

2

C

1

2

   

C

3

R

3

 

 

2

2

C

1

C

2

3

C

1

3

 

C

2

R

2

2

.

(4)

(5)

Inclination of the deformation shape is determined by taking the first derivative of Eq. (4)

S

(

r

)

3 C

a

1

R

r

2

if

2

b

C

2

r

R

if

r

0

R

r

.

C

2

R

(6)

Later, when deriving equations for the energy absorption, also the change in inclination is

needed. It is evaluated by taking the second derivative of Eq. (4)

d

S

(

r

)

dr

6

0

a

if

r

2

C

2

b

R

if

r

0

R

r

.

C

2

R

(7)

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

To calculate the energy absorbed by the core filling, compressed volume of the filling material should be evaluated by using expression

V

0

r w

2

dw

.

(8)

As it is laborious to derive the relation where radius r is given as a function of coordinate w by using polynomial, two linear lines are used instead and the shape of the deformation can be written as

(

r w

)

1

w

C

C

2

1

R

R

if

(

C

2

w

)

1

1

C

1

!

0

if

w

1

1

C

C

2

2

C

C

1

1

R

R

w

.

(9)

By substituting Eq. (9) into Eq. (8) and carrying out the integration, compressed volume of the filling material can be calculated by

V

3

R

2

C

1

C

2

2

C

1

C

2

2

.

(10)

4.3 Strain rate

As a result of the impact, the panel is deformed in relatively high velocity and possible effect of the high strain rate to the material behaviour should be considered. The strain rate sensitivity of the materials is considered by using Cowper-Symonds constitutive equation (Jones, 1989)

by

considering strain rate and predetermined material constants q and D.

given by Eq. (11). Cowper-Symods model simply scales the static yield stress value

Y

D

Y

'
%

Y %
&

1

D

1

q

$
"

"
#

.

(11)

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

To obtain the formulation for the strain rate, velocity profile over the cross-section of the panel should be known. The FE simulations gave that it is sufficient to approximate the transversal velocity profile by linear line, see Figure 29.

transversal velocity profile by linear line, see Figure 29. Figure 29. Approximated velocity profile. Inclination of

Figure 29. Approximated velocity profile.

Inclination of the velocity profile is

V

v

R

.

(12)

Consider cross sectional element of the faceplate (Figure 30) to derive formulations for the strain rate. Non-deformed length of the element is dr. As the result of the impact the plate deforms and obtains the deflection that can be calculated as S dr. The engineering strain in the element is calculated from

r

dr

2

 

dr

2

S

dr

dr

.

(13)

By expanding Eq. (13) to series and neglecting high order terms, equation takes a following form:

S

dr

2

2

dr

2

.

(14)

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 30. Deformed plate element Strain rate is

Figure 30. Deformed plate element

Strain rate is obtained by taking time derivative of Eq.(14). It should be remembered, that S dr

describes the deflection of the plate and the time derivative of S dr is the deformation velocity of the plate. Deformation velocity at any point inside the deformed area can be calculated by using the maximum velocity value at the point of first contact and the inclination of the velocity profile. The dimensionless strain rate can be written as

2

S

dr

V

dr

 

2

dr

2

 

S

V

.

(15)

Note that S and V should be used as a dimensionless shape functions and the actual values

for the deflection and the velocity are given by the amplitudes and V 0 . V 0 is the velocity of the impact body at the beginning of the impact. Velocity time dependence is described by a single constant c V , which is used to divide the initial velocity to get average velocity

v

A

v

0

c

V

.

(16)

By substituting Eq. (12) into Eq. (15) the strain rate can be described as

( )

S

r

v

0

c

V

R

.

(17)

In Eq. (17) denotes the final permanent deflection of the faceplate.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

4.4 Energy absorption of the panel

As stated above, it can be assumed that the steel core and the lower plate do not contribute to the energy absorption and all the energy is turned into the deformation energy by the faceplate and by the filling material. Formulation are derived both for the absorption of elastic energy as well as for the plastic energy. Energy absorption in both cases is divided into two parts:

(i)

energy absorbed by bending,

(ii)

energy absorbed by membrane deformations.

In case of the filled panels also the energy absorbed by the filling is added to the plastic energy.

In analytical calculations it is assumed that the material behaves as elastic, perfectly plastic material as given in Figure 31. Effect of the high strain rate is considered only in case of the membrane mechanism.

rate is considered only in case of the membrane mechanism. Figure 31. Elastic, perfectly plastic material.

Figure 31. Elastic, perfectly plastic material.

4.4.1 Elastic energy absorbed by bending

To derive the formulations for elastic energy absorbed by bending, it is assumed that deformation has circular shape with radius R and deflection w at the middle of the panel (Figure 32). It is obvious that the bending moment obtains its maximum value at the yield line where r=R.

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels Kristjan Tabri Figure 32. Deformed panel. Amount of the elastic

Figure 32. Deformed panel.

Amount of the elastic energy is evaluated by equalizing the bending moment at the yield line by plastic moment M P of the panel:

M P

Y

t

2

4

.

(18)

Corresponding force or so-called collapse load

in the middle of the

plate can be evaluated by using plate theory (Ikonen, 1990). Elastic energy can be calculated by using relation

E

F

B

and deflection

w

E

B

E

E

F

B

w

E

B

2

.

(19)

Deflection of the circular plate subjected to a lateral distributed load can be written as

w

C

1

C

2

r

2

1

K

dr

r

'

%

&

dr

r

r

(

r dr

)

$

"

#

rdr

,

where K describes the material and is equal to

K

E

t

3

12 (1

(

2

)

.

(20)

(21)

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

Distributed load is handled by introducing the concept of the effective radius r EF . Using the effective radius distributed load can be used as a constant and relation between the force F and distributed load becomes

F

2

EF

r

.

(22)

Using Eq. (22) first integral in Eq. (20) can be evaluated as

r

(

r ) dr

r

EF

2

0

rdr

2

r

EF

F

2

EF

r

F

2

2

EF

r

2

.

(23)

Remaining three integrals are evaluated as follows:

1

F

r

2

dr

2

F

ln( )

r

,

F

2

ln( )

r

F

1

1

2

r

2

r

1

F

2

1

4

2

2

r

2

1 2

,

rdr

2

ln( r )

r

ln( )

r

dr

1 F

8

4

r

r

2

ln( )

r

1

.

Deflection of the plate takes a form

w ( r )

C

1

C

2

r

1 F

8

r

2

ln( )

r

1

.

(24)

(25)

(26)

(27)

Constants C 1 and C 2 should be solved by using boundary conditions for clamped circular plate:

i

( )

(

ii

)

w ( r

d

dr

)

r

R

(

w r

)

0,

r

R

0.

(28)

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

From the second boundary condition C 2 can be solved and can be written as

C

2

1

r

2

2 ln(

R

)

1

F

16

K

.

(29)

By substituting Eq. (29) into the first boundary condition, C 1 becomes

C 1

1 F

16 K

R

2

.

Final form for the deflection is defined as

w

(

r

)

1

F

16 K

)

R

2

2 ln( r )

2 ln(

R

)

1

!

r

2

*

.

(30)

(31)

Bending moment of the circular plates is given by

M

(

r

)

K

w d dr

2

2

dw

r

dr

.

Derivatives in Eq. (32) are

dw

dr

1

F

r

4

K

ln

R

d

2

w

1

F

dr

2

4

K

ln( )

r

1

ln( r )!

ln

R !

,

.

(32)

(33)

(34)

Bending moment at the yield line is obtained by substituting Eq. (33) and (34) to Eq. (32)

M

(

r

)

r

R

1 F

4

.

Now the collapse load

E can be calculated as

F

B

(35)

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

E

F

B

4 M

P

.

(36)

Corresponding deflection at the middle of the plate (r=0) when subjected to load

obtained by replacing Eq. (36) to Eq. (31):

E

w B

E

F

B

16

K

R

2

.

(37)

E

F

B

is

Elastic energy absorbed by the bending can now be calculated by using Eq. (19) and is obtained from

E

E B

2

y

t

4

32 K

R

2

.

(38)

4.4.2 Elastic energy absorbed by membrane mechanism

To calculate the amount of the elastic energy absorbed by membrane deformation, the same idea is employed as in case of the elastic bending energy. Stresses in every element inside the assumed deformed area are equalized by the yield stress of the material. In case of membrane stress dynamic behaviour of the material plays important role in high strain rates. Due to that

D

the dynamic yield stress should be used. When stress in every point of the panel is known

Y

the deformation energy can be obtained from

E

P

M

t

A

' D

Y

dA

.

(39)

Assuming that Hooke’s law holds and the relation between the stress and the strain in elastic region can be expressed as

Y

E

.

(40)

Considering Hooke’s law in Eq. (39) the elastic energy absorbed by the membrane mechanism is given by

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

E

E

M

2

t

E

R

0

D

Y

2

r dr

.

4.4.3 Plastic energy absorbed by bending

(41)

Concept of plastic hinges is introduced to derive the formulations for plastic energy absorbed by the bending mechanism. Figure 33 presents a rectangular plate with breath B and thickness t subjected to a lateral load F.

with breath B and thickness t subjected to a lateral load F. Figure 33. Plastic hinge.

Figure 33. Plastic hinge.

Due to the load, the panel is deformed and plastic hinge is formed at the point A. Deformation energy absorbed in forming that plastic hinge can be evaluated from

E

P

B

L M

P

,

(42)

where is the angle and L is the length of plastic hinge. Deformation angle as a function of r is given by Eq. (6). As work is done only in forming the plastic hinge, plastic energy can be evaluated by using the change of the angle, given by Eq. (7). Absorbed energy is found by integrating the change over the radius r

E

P

B

2

M

P

d ( r ) dr
d
(
r
)
dr

r

2

S

r

1

r dr

,

(43)

Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels

Kristjan Tabri

where absolute value of

d ( r ) S dr
d
(
r
)
S
dr

should be used as the energy absorption does not depend on

the direction of deformation angle. Derivation of Eq. (43) is convenient to carry out in two parts:

(i)

energy absorption when 0 < r < C 2 R by using Eq. (43),

(ii)

Energy absorption when C 2 R < r < Rby using Eq. (42).

When the first part is considered Eq. (43) takes a form

P

E B

2

M

P

C

2

R '

r 0

6

a

r

2

b

r dr

(44)

with constants a and b as given by Eq. (5). By carrying out the integration, Eq. (44) becomes

E M

B

P

2

P

'

%

&

(1

C

1

)

2

27

d

3

c

2

where

c

d

C C

1

2

2 2 C

1

2 C C

1

2

3 3 C .

1

$

"

#

,