TALLINN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Department of Machinery
Kristjan Tabri
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Master’s Thesis
Supervisor: 
Petri Varsta, Professor 
Instructors: 
Jaan Metsaveer, Professor Emeritus Martin Eerme, Doctor of Philosophy 
Tallinn 2003
AUTHOR’S DECLARATION
I assure that this master’s thesis is a result of my personal work and that no other than the indicated aids have been used for its completion. Furthermore I assure that all quotations and statements that have been inferred literally or in a general manner from published or unpublished writings are marked as such. Beyond this I assure that the work has not been used, neither completely nor in parts, for the passing of any previous examinations.
Tallinn, February 7, 2003
Kristjan Tabri
TALLINN TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
ABSTRACT
Title: 
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels 
Author: 
Kristjan Tabri 
Place: 
Tallinn 
Date: 
07.02.2003 
Number of pages: 
68 
Number of figures: 
47 
Supervisor: 
Petri Varsta, Professor 
Instructors: 
Jaan Metsaveer, Professor Emeritus; Martin Eerme, PhD. 
Keywords: 
Sandwich panels, impact load, bending energy, membrane energy, laboratory experiments, FE simulations, CowperSymonds model, 
The purpose of the study is to understand the behaviour of Icore steel sandwich panel subjected to a lateral impact load. Furthermore, the aim is to derive an analytical model describing panel’s behaviour and the consequences of impact. Due to the impact, faceplate of the panel is deformed in high velocity. It means that dynamic behaviour of materials should be considered. To verify proposed analytical model data is obtained by laboratory experiments and by finite element calculations. 

The behaviour of sandwich panels is studied in a series of laboratory tests, where sandwich panels with four different configurations are tested. General structure of tested panels remains unchanged during the tests and the only changing parameter is the thickness of the faceplate. The effect of core material is investigated by filling some of the panels with urethane foam. In the laboratory tests panels are hit by an impact head, which has some predetermined mass and velocity. The most important results of the laboratory experiments are plastic energy absorption of the panel and the extent of deformation. 

In addition to the laboratory experiments, impacts are simulated by finite element method using program LSDyna. FE simulations provide a possibility to determine what happens in a sandwich panel during the impact. The FE simulations are used to obtain information about the velocity of the faceplate and core displacements. This analysis gives the transversal velocity profile, which can be approximated by linear line. The decrease of the velocity is shown to be slightly nonlinear. Plastic energy absorption and the extent of the deformation are determined also in FE simulations. Several assumptions made in derivation of the analytical formulation are verified by the FE calculations. 

Derived analytical model assumes that all the energy is absorbed by the faceplate of the panel, as displacements at steel core are small compared to the displacements of the faceplate and can thus be neglected. Furthermore, it is assumed that the panel has infinite length and the global bending of the faceplate does not occur. The maximum extent of the deformation is assumed to be equal to the span of inner supports. Formulations for energy absorption are derived separately for membrane and bending energy. Both elastic and plastic deformation energies are considered. The effect of filling material is taken into account by using Winkler’s foundation. 

Comparison with laboratory experiments and FE simulations support the purposed analytical model as scatter between the results obtained by different methods is small. In the case of plastic deformation energy the scatter is at worst 10%. Scatter is slightly larger in the case of total deformation energy. In that case the analytical model overestimates the deformation energy in lower deformation values. The reason for that is the methodology of calculation of the elastic energy. An improved solution is suggested for further research. Guidelines how to describe the behaviour of sandwich panel more precisely and thus how to limit the number of assumptions are also suggested. 
TALLINNA TEHNIKAÜLIKOOL
RESÜMEE
Pealkiri: 
“Sandwich” paneelide lokaalne tugevus löökkoormuste korral 
Autor: 
Kristjan Tabri 
Koht: 
Tallinn 
Kuupäev: 
07.02.2003 
Lehekülgede arv: 
68 
Jooniste arv: 
47 
Järelvaataja: 
Professor Petri Varsta 
Juhendajad: 
Emeriitprofessor Jaan Metsaveer, vanemteadur Martin Eerme 
Võtmesõnad: 
“Sandwich” paneelid, löökkoormus, paindeenergia, membraanenergia, lõplike elementide meetod, CowperSymond’i mudel, 
Käesoleva töö eesmärgiks on tutvuda “sandwich” paneelide käitumisega löökkoormuste korral. Paneeli käitumise ja löökkoormuse mõjul tekkinud tagajärgede kirjeldamiseks on tuletatud analüütilised valemid. Löökkoormuse tulemusena deformeerub paneeli ülemine plaat suurel kiirusel, mis eeldab dünaamiliste materjaliomaduste kasutamist. Analüütilise mudeli õigsust on kontrollitud laborikatsetest ja lõplike elementide meetodil tehtud arvutustest saadud informatiooni kasutades. 

“Sandwich” paneelide käitumist uuriti laborikatsete abil, kus testiti nelja erineva konfiguratsiooniga paneeli. Paneelid erinesid plaadistuse paksuse ja täiteaine poolest. Testitud paneelidest kolm ei sisaldanud täiteainet ja üks oli täidetud uretaanvahuga. Laborikatsetes lasti paneelile kukkuda ümaral kehal, millel oli kindlaksmääratud mass ja kiirus. Laborikatsetest saadud tähtsamad suurused olid plastne deformatsioonienergia ja vigastuse ulatus. 

Laborikatsetele lisaks simuleeriti kuuli ja paneeli kokkupõrget lõplike elementide meetodil kasutades programmi LSDyna. Lõplike elementide simulatsioonid annavad võimaluse jälgida paneeli käitumist kokkupõrke ajal. Simulatsioonide abil on võimalik saada informatsiooni paneelis aset leidvate kiiruste ja siirete kohta. Analüüs osutas, et paneeli ülemise plaadi deformeerumiskiiruse põik ja pikisuunalist jaotust saab aproksimeerida lineaarsete sirgete abil. Samuti ilmnes, et kiiruse vähenemise kirjeldamiseks ei piisa vaid lineaarsest aproksimatsioonist. Sarnaselt laborikatsetele arvutati ka lõplike elementide meetodil tehtud simulatsioonide abil plastne deformatsioonienergia ja vigastuse ulatus. Mitmete analüütiliste valemite tuletamisel tehtud oletuste õigsust on kontrollitud simulatsioonidest saadud informatsiooni abil. 

Tuletatud analüütiline mudel oletab, et kogu löögist saadud energia neeldub paneeli ülemises plaadis kuna paneeli jäigastajates aset leidvad siirded on väikesed võrreldes plaadi siiretega. Samuti on oletatud, et paneel on lõpmatu pikkusega ja löökkoormus ei tekita ülemises plaadis laiaulatuslikku läbipainet. Vigastuse maksimaalseks ulatuseks põiksuunas on võetud paneeli sisemiste jäigastajate vahekaugus. Valemid nii elastse kui ka plastse deformatsioonienergia arvutamiseks on tuletatud eraldi painde ja membraanenergia jaoks. Uretaanvahu mõju on võetud arvesse kasutades Winkler’i teooriat. 

Laborikatsete, lõplike elementide meetodil tehtud arvutuste ja analüütilise mudeliga saadud tulemuste kokkulangevust võib lugeda heaks kuna erinevused eri tulemuste vahel on väikesed. Plastse deformatisoonienergia korral erinevus on halvimal juhul 10%. Erinevused on suuremad koguenergia korral, mil analüütiline mudel ülehindab neeldunud eneriat väikeste vigastuste puhul. Erinevuse tekib elastse deformatioonienergia arvutamisel kasutatud metoodika. Edasiseks uurimiseks on välja pakutud parandatud mudel elastse energia täpsemaks kirjeldamiseks. Samuti on antud soovitusi tuletatud mudeli parandamiseks ja tehtud oletuste mõju vähendamiseks. 
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
PREFACE
This work is done for the EUproject entitled: Advanced Composite Sandwich Steel Structures. This project started on 1.04.2000 and its duration is three years. The SANDWICH project will develop products utilising sophisticated lightweight steel sandwich panels for primary load carrying structures. The Ship Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) participates in the project as a partner.
I am grateful to supervisor, Professor Petri Varsta, and to the instructors Professor Emeritus Jaan Metsaveer and Ph.D. Martin Eerme for valuable and essential guidance and encouragement they gave me throughout the study.
I would like to express my gratitude to Dr.Tech. Pentti Kujala and Lic.Tech. Hendrik Naar for giving me vital instructions in many fields. I also wish to thank the personnel both in HUT and in Tallinn Technical University for pleasant and versatile contribution. Last but not least, I would like to thank Hannele for the support she gave me throughout the study.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT 
1 

KOKKUVÕTE 
2 

PREFACE 
3 

CONTENTS 
4 

NOTATIONS 
6 

1 INTRODUCTION 
8 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 
8 

_{1}_{.}_{2} _{R}_{E}_{S}_{E}_{A}_{R}_{C}_{H} PROBLEMS AND THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 
8 

1.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 
11 

2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP 
13 

2.1 TESTED STRUCTURES AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES 
13 

_{2}_{.}_{2} _{T}_{E}_{S}_{T} EQUIPMENT, DATA ACQUISITION AND STORAGE 
16 

2.3 MEASURED / CALCULATED QUANTITIES 
18 

2.3.1 Velocity of the impact head before the impact 
19 

2.3.2 Permanent deflection of the faceplate 
20 

2.3.3 Deformation energy of the panel 
20 

2.4 RESULTS OF THE LABORATORY TESTS 
21 

3 FINITE ELEMENT 
ANALYSIS 
26 
_{3}_{.}_{1} _{G}_{E}_{O}_{M}_{E}_{T}_{R}_{Y} OF THE FE MODEL AND THE SIMULATION PROCEDURE 
26 

3.2 MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF THE MODEL 
29 

3.3 RESULTS OF THE FE ANALYSIS 
30 

4 ANALYTICAL FORMULATIONS 
35 

4.1 BACKGROUND AND MAIN ASSUMPTIONS 
35 

4.2 ANALYTICAL DESCRIPTION OF THE DEFORMATION SHAPE 
37 

4.3 STRAIN RATE 
39 

4.4 ENERGY ABSORPTION OF THE PANEL 
42 

4.4.1 Elastic energy absorbed by bending 
42 

4.4.2 Elastic energy absorbed by membrane mechanism 
46 

4.4.3 Plastic energy absorbed by bending 
47 

4.4.4 Plastic energy absorbed by membrane mechanism 
49 

4.4.5 Energy absorbed by core filling 
49 

4.4.6 Approximate solution for membrane energy 
50 
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
4.5 SOLUTION PROCEDURE
54
5 COMPARISON BETWEEN THE LABORATORY TESTS, FE CALCULATIONS AND THE
ANALYTICAL FORMULATIONS 
58 

6 
CONCLUSIONS 
64 
REFERENCES 
67 
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
NOTATIONS
a, 
b, c, d 
constants 
B 
breath 

c _{V} 
ratio between initial and average velocity 
C _{1} , C _{2}
constants determining the shape of deformation
CS 
coefficient used to scale yield stress 

D 
constant describing dynamic behaviour of material 

E 
Young’s modulus, energy 

F 
force 

G 
shear modulus of steel material 

k 
foundation constant 

K 
constant describing material properties 

L 
length 

m 
mass 

M 
_{P} 
plastic moment 
p _{F} 
support reaction 

q 
constant describing dynamic behaviour of material 

r 
radius 

R 
width of deformation 

t 
plate thickness 

v 
velocity 

V 
volume 

w 
deflection 


maximum deflection 


angle 


_{S} 
angle of deformation 

_{V} 
angle of velocity profile 
_{} 
strain 

_{}_{} 
strain rate 
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri

distributed load 


Poisson's ratio of steel material 


F 
compressive strength of filling material 


Y 
static yield stress 

D 


Y 
dynamic yield stress 

Subscripts 

0 
initial 

A 
average 

B 
bending 

EF 
effective 

F 
filling 

I 
impact body 

M 
membrane 

Superscripts 

* 
simplified equation 

E 
elastic 

P 
plastic 

D 
dynamic 
Abbreviations
FE Finite Element
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
The weight of structures has significant importance in ships and in other forms of transportation. Decreased structural weight allows vessel to transport larger amount of goods and passengers with a lower expenses. In luxurious cruise ships more and more attractions should be added to ship in order to keep customers satisfied. All additional recreational alternatives increase the lightweight of the and in order to keep the buoyancy in same level, the weight of structures should be increased. The importance of ship buoyancy can be hardly overestimated as it has straight impact to the resistance and thus also to the energy consumption of vessel.
Though the weight is one of the most important parameters in design, there are still a lot of other requirements and demands for structures, which should be satisfied. Especially in marine structures attention should be paid to strength, noise, vibrations, safety, manufacturing and installation of structures. Large amount of requirements have made it almost impossible to satisfy all the demands just by improving conventional structures.
Increasing demand for the lighter and more efficient structures has challenged the engineers to invent new solutions to improve the structures and satisfy the demands.
1.2 Research problems and the purpose of the study
The weight of structures can be decreased using lighter materials, new constructions or combining them. In nowadays industry sandwich structures are used to overcome the increased demands. General drawing of the sandwich panel is given in Figure 1. Two outer layers, skins
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
or faceplates, are made of material that gives enough strength and stiffness, abrasive and corrosive resistance, noise isolation and easy production. In order to increase the thickness of the panel, and thus to increase the stiffness, without using heavy materials in the skins, a light core material is placed between the plates. Several criteria should be considered when selecting the core material. Density, mechanical properties, bond properties, fire isolation are just few examples.
Figure 1.
Icore steel sandwich panel.
Combination of high stiffness and low weight was first used in aircrafts during the Second World War. Combination of balsa in core and veneer in skins was used because of the lack of high strength materials. Nowadays sandwich panels are used even in space research industry where beside the other properties also high impact resistance is appreciated.
Improved welding techniques, especially laser welding, have made it possible to connect very thin sheets to each other and so to manufacture panels where thin faceplates are welded to steel core structure. In marine industry the combination of new welding possibilities, material and strength properties of sandwich panels have made them to be good substitution for conventional structures. Good examples are balconies, decks and bulkheads where sandwich panels replace conventional stiffened plating. Figure 2 presents some possible uses for sandwich panels.
Sandwich panels are efficient in means of global response as panel’s thickness and sectional modulus are bigger compared to conventional stiffened plating. Moment caused by bending is carried by the faceplates while light and lowstrength core sustains shear forces. Core contributes to the global response also in other ways. It makes it possible to increase the span of the faceplates without loosing local stiffness. Core also supports the faceplates and distributes stresses to larger area and so prevents the global bending of the faceplate. In other hand the contribution allows to reduce the thickness of the faceplates and to decrease weight.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
conventional ship structure
ship structure with sandwich panel
teak coated sandwich panel
Figure 2.
Usage of the sandwich panels in contemporary ship structures.
Weight reduction by using thinner skins introduces a new problem. Though the required global bending resistance can be achieved by using very thin faceplates, still it can be weakened even when relatively small body strikes the panel and causes permanent damage. Local deflection in the faceplate of the panel can decrease the bending resistance significantly. Again core is one possibility to prevent the local deflections, but also the use of some faceplate coatings or new steel core structures can be effective to prevent the serious consequences caused by any kind of impacts on sandwich panels. It should be noted that impact not only causes local deflections to the faceplate, but may also cause widespread global bending of the faceplate. The global bending of the faceplate already has crucial effect to the bending resistance and the whole structure can be close to the collapse. Figure 3 shows the typical local damage of sandwich panel as a result of strike by a spherical object.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 3.
Local deflection in sandwich panel.
Above described phenomena indicate that together the global behaviour also the local behaviour of sandwich panels should be considered. The purpose of the study is to investigate the local behaviour of the sandwich panels subjected to lateral impact load and to derive analytical formulations describing the behaviour. More precisely the purpose includes the following matters:

learn about the local impact behaviour of sandwich panels, 

study the influence of the faceplate thickness and material properties, 

study the effect of core material. 
In one hand formulations are to be simple and easy to use, but still they have to take into account all the major phenomena concerning the impact event. Attention should be paid to the strainrate sensitive behaviour of materials; elastic deformation energy of a panel can be quite high in a dynamic process and cannot be neglected; the shape of deflection caused by impact load is different from deflection, which is caused by static load etc. To verify the results of the analytical formulations, series of laboratory experiment and finite element (FE) simulations are carried out.
1.3 Limitations of the study
The number of different designs of sandwich panels is large and it is obvious that single study cannot embrace all of them. This study includes only one design, where material properties and the thickness of the faceplate are changed. The effect of filling material is studied by urethane foam. Lateral impact load is caused by spherical impact head, which is used to strike the
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
panels. Several impacts are simulated using FE program LSDyna, but as numerical simulations are time consuming, number of FE simulations is smaller compared to the laboratory experiments.
Analytical formulations are derived assuming infinite panel dimensions and limited extent of deformation. Tearing and global bending of the faceplate are not considered in analytical model. Strainrate behaviour of the materials is considered by using CowperSymonds constitutive equation.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
2 EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
In order to obtain data to verify the analytical formulations series of laboratory experiments are carried out. This chapter gives an overview of tested structures and the equipment and methods used to conduct the laboratory experiments. Also the results of the laboratory experiments are presented.
2.1 Tested structures and material properties
Altogether 96 impact tests are made for different sandwich panels. General structure of tested panels remains unchanged throughout the tests and is given in Figure 4. The only changing parameter is the thickness of the faceplate, which can be 1 to 3 mm with 1 mm spacing.
Figure 4.
General drawing of the sandwich panel.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Panels have 4 mm thick Iprofiles with 120 mm span as steel core. Material properties of the steel plates are determined by carrying out tensile tests for specimens cut from the faceplates. Tensile tests are carried out for the following specimens:
(i) 
three specimens cut from 1 mm plates, 
(ii) 
one specimen cut from 2 mm plate, 
(iii) 
three specimen cut from 3 mm plate. 
Information obtained from the tensile tests is gathered into Table 1.
Table 1.
Results of the tensile tests.
Name of the panel 
Breath of the specimen 
Thickness 
0.2 
Ultimate 
Ultimate 
strength 
strain 

[mm] 
[mm] 
[N/mm ^{2} ] 
[N/mm ^{2} ] 
A _{5} , % 

5a6 
24.95 
3.03 
385 
485 
33.5 
I03 
24.95 
3.08 
388 
541 
33.5 
5a6 
25 
3.03 
370 
482 
36 
N6 
12.5 
2.02 
428 
520 
28 
5a13 
10.98 
1.00 
159 
288 
60 
5a17 
10.96 
1.00 
157 
291 
64 
5a5 
12.4 
1.00 
179 
290 
47 
Tensile test show that 1 mm thick steel plates are made of material, which yield stress is significantly lower compared to materials used in 2 and 3 mm plates. For brevity, in following discussions just low and high yield is used instead of exact values. Obtained yield stress values are used to predict the strainrate sensitive behaviour of materials. This behaviour is considered by using CowperSymonds (Jones, 1989) equation, which uses constants D and q to describe the behaviour. For mild or low yield steel, those constants can easily be found from the literature. For high strength steels the information about the strainrate behaviour is scarce and difficult to get. Some investigations carried out in automotive industry have revealed that high strainrate increases the yield stress of high strength steels approximately 20%. According to that material constants are also calculated for highyield materials and gathered into Table 2. More detailed description of CowperSymonds model is given in Chapter 4.3.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Table 2.
Strain rate properties of used steels.
Panel 
Material 
_{}_{}_{}_{} _{Y} [MPa] 
D 
q 
t=1 [mm] 
Mild steel 
179 
40.4 
5 
t=2 [mm] 
Highyield steel 
428 
300000 
6 
t=3 [mm] 
Highyield steel 
379 
300000 
6 
The effect of core material is investigated by filling some of the panels with 2 mm faceplates with urethane foam. Mechanical properties of the urethane filling are obtained according to the measured density from literature (Kolsters; Romanoff, 2000) and a graph given in Figure 5, which presents the relation between the density and the compressive strength of the urethane foam /see reference 29/.
Figure 5.
Properties of the urethane foam.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Properties of urethane foam are gathered into Table 3.
Table 3. 
Properties of the urethane foam. 

Density 
Compressive strength _{} _{F} 
Shear modulus 
Young’s 

G 
modulus E 

[kg/m ^{3} ] 
[MPa] 
[MPa] 
[MPa] 

72 
0.62 
4.8 
21 
Good overview about the laboratory tests can be given by test matrix, which is presented in
Figure 6.
Figure 6.
Test matrix.
2.2 Test equipment, data acquisition and storage
The test equipment mainly consists of a test stand and of a data acquisition system. A
schematic picture of the test stand can be seen in Figure 7. The impact system includes a bar,
supported vertically by rollers to allow sliding movement, a replaceable extra mass, a
replaceable nozzle and three sensors. Impact head with conical nozzle is presented in Figure 8.
The impact head, having some predetermined mass, is dropped on the panel and data is
gathered into a computer and saved as a text file. The energy of the impact head is changed
altering its mass and dropping height. Tested panels are hit by a spherical impact nozzle, which
is made of 25millimeter bearing ball and is shown in Figure 9.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 7.
Test system.
The parameters of the impact system are the following:
(i) 
mass from 4.5 to about 37 kg 
(ii) 
dropping height up to 1250 mm 
(iii) 
velocity at the moment of impact up to 5 m/s, 
(iv) 
potential energy from 2 up to 450 J. 
Figure 8.
Impact head with conical nozzle.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 9.
Spherical impact nozzle.
During the impact three quantities as a function of time are measured:
(i) 
force acting between the impact head and the panel, 
(ii) 
acceleration of the impact system, 
(iii) 
displacement of the impact system. 
The test system uses one sensor for each quantity. General information about the sensors is gathered into Table 4. Data acquisition system uses one channel per sensor. During the impact, the system reads a value from one channel and switches to another channel in 7.5 s intervals.
Due to that information from one channel is registered in 22.5 s intervals. This equals to a sampling rate of a little over 44 kHz.
Table 4.
Sensors used in the impact system.
Quantity 
Manufacturer 
Model 
Range 
Type 
Force 
HBM 
U9B 
50 kN 
Strain cage 
Acceleration 
B&K 
3073 
2000 G 
Piezo electric 
Displacement 
Midori 
CPP45 
 
Potentiometer 
2.3 Measured / calculated quantities
In the tests, the following information is registered:
(i) 
dropped mass, 
(ii) 
dropping height, 
(iii) 
displacement, acceleration and force signals, 
(iv) 
bouncing height of the impact head, 
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
(v) 
permanent deflection at the faceplate, 
(vi) 
impact duration, 
(vii) 
impact coordinates. 
According to the registered data the following quantities are calculated:
(i) 
velocity of the impact head before the impact, 
(ii) 
kinetic energy of the impact head before the impact, 
(iii) 
plastic deformation energy of the panel. 
In following sections some of the main calculations are explained.
2.3.1 Velocity of the impact head before the impact
Velocity of the impact head before the impact head is calculated from the dropping height using the energy principle. The kinetic energy of the head just before the impact is certain amount smaller than the potential energy of the impact head before the drop, since some of the potential energy goes to the revolving motion of the rollers. If all four of the rollers would follow the movements of the impact head, the rollers would eventually give back their kinetic energy, but because of the clearance between the rollers and the sliding bar it is assumed that only two of the rollers follow the bar. The velocity before the impact could also be calculated by the timederivative of the registered displacement, but mentioned energy principle calculations give more accurate results because of the scatter in the displacement measurement. The calculation is verified by taking the timederivative of the displacement signal from repeated trials. The resulting average velocity was then compared to the value obtained by the energy principle.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
2.3.2 Permanent deflection of the faceplate
The permanent deflection of the faceplate or shortly dent depth is measured manually with a digital dial indicator. The indicator is set to zero at the assumed drop point before every test. As only the first hit is under consideration, the impact head is stopped after the first hit to prevent repetition.
2.3.3 Deformation energy of the panel
Computer programme uses three different methods to calculate the plastic deformation energy of the panel:
(i) 
difference in potential energies between the dropping and bouncing heights, 
(ii) 
numerical integration of displacementforce curve. Displacement and force are calculated from the signal received from the acceleration sensor, 
(iii) 
numerical integration of displacementforce curve. Displacement and force are calculated from the signals received from the acceleration sensor and the force transducer. 
In the first method, it is simply assumed that the elastic deformation energy of the panel returns to the kinetic energy of the impact head. Due to that impact head bounces from the panel and the bouncing height is measured. According to the bouncing height elastic deformation energy can be calculated.
Other two methods employ the similar principle. Since the velocity of the impact head just before the impact and the acceleration as a function of time are known, the motion of the impact head during the impact can be calculated. On the other hand also the force acting between the impact head and the panel is known, which means that the deformation energy can be calculated by integrating forcedisplacement curve. Forcedisplacement curve is shown in Figure 10 where the plastic deformation energy is the area under the curve. Since also the displacement sensor is employed the deformation energy could be calculated using the signal from the displacement sensor, but because of the resolution and the mechanical construction of the displacement sensor this is considered to be inaccurate.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 10. Forcedisplacement curve.
In case of the first method the bouncing height is determined by the signal from the displacement sensor. As the accuracy of the displacement sensor is low the first calculation method is considered to give imprecise results. In case of the second method where the acceleration signal is integrated, the electronic filtering of the signal distorts the signal and causes some error to the calculated value. Electronic filtering is used to smoothen the signal, which is affected by the high frequency vibrations induced to the impact system due to the collision. Considering these facts the third method is considered to be the most accurate. The plastic deformation energy presented in Chapter 2.4 is calculated by using the signals received from the acceleration sensor and from the force transducer
2.4 Results of the laboratory tests
In laboratory experiments panels are hit to the centre of two middlemost compartments, as can be seen in Figure 11 and in Figure 12. During the impact panel is lying in the floor, which can be assumed as infinitely rigid compared to the panels.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 11. Permanent deformations.
Investigation of the tested panels revealed that the width of the deformation in the faceplate is limited by the span of the inner supports as can be seen from Figure 11 and Figure 12. Left picture in Figure 12 presents the panel where the faceplate of the section subjected to the impact load is very close to global bending, but plating of the adjacent sections remains undamaged and no deformations can be observed. Bending of the faceplate is considered to be global when length of the deformation is large compared to the width of the deformation. Right picture of the same figure also reveals that width of the deformation does not exceed the span of the supports. Deformation has circular shape until the faceplate bends globally and the circular shape is stretched to oval.
Figure 12. The extent of the deformation.
Laboratory tests also showed that the impact does not cause noticeable permanent deformations in inner supports even when the global bending of the faceplate occurs as depicted in Figure 13.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 13. Global bending of the faceplate.
Results of the laboratory experiments are presented in Figure 14 to Figure 17. In the figures,
single test is marked with rhomb. In addition, to get a better picture of the panel’s behaviour
also trendlines are presented for every panel type. Initial energy of the impact head or in other
words the total deformation energy of the panel as a function of permanent deflection is
presented by red rhombi and by red solid line, while blue colour presents the plastic
deformation energy. Global bending of the faceplate is marked by a red rectangular. Results for
the panels with 1 mm faceplates are presented in Figure 14. Big scatter of the test results may
be due to the dispersion of material properties as can be seen from Table 1.
Figure 14. Initial energy of the impact head and the plastic deformation energy in case of the panels with 1 mm plating.
23
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 15. Initial energy of the impact head and the plastic deformation energy in case of the panels with 2 mm plating.
Dispersion of the test results is much smaller in case of the panels with 2 mm faceplates and
single tests shows good agreement with the trendline. Both energy levels are significantly
higher compared to the panels with 1 mm faceplates and also the global bending of the
faceplate occurs later.
Figure 16. Initial energy of the impact head and the plastic deformation energy in case the panels with 2 mm plating and the urethane foam filling.
24
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
When the sandwich panel with 2 mm faces is filled with urethane foam the global bending of
the faceplate is prevented and the energy level increases a little, see Figure 16. Shape of the
deformation is similar to one is case of the unfilled panels.
Figure 17. Initial energy of the impact head and the plastic deformation energy in case of the panels with 3 mm plating.
Results of the tests made on panels with 3 mm plates also agree well with the trendline and the
dispersion of the results is small. In case of the panels with 3 mm plating, global bending of the
faceplate was not observed during the laboratory tests.
25
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
3 Finite element analysis
Though the laboratory tests provide the verification data, they do not give any information about the inner mechanics of the sandwich panel during the impact. Finite element simulations allow to follow the impact process and to obtain the information about the behaviour of the sandwich panel during the impact. Main purpose of the FE simulations is to verify the assumptions made in the derivation of the analytical formulations.
For the FE analysis four different sandwich panels are modelled. For modelling and three dimensional meshing preprocessor LSIngrid is used. LSIngrid is also used as a translator to convert a text file into input file for the finite element program LSDyna950d. The main solution method in LSDyna bases on explicit time integration. Explicit solution method exploits the idea that equilibrium equation is always satisfied. At the beginning of the timestep every node has initial coordinate, velocity and force applied to the system. By the equilibrium acceleration is found for every node. As the acceleration is known the new velocity and the displacement of the node can be calculated by using kinematics. New equilibrium force is calculated by the nodal displacements. Calculated values are used as new initial values for the next calculation step.
3.1 Geometry of the FE model and the simulation procedure
Though the configuration of the panels is quite simple, it is still not reliable to model the whole panel as the size of the model also affects the calculation time. Missing part of the panel can be compensated by boundary conditions.
26
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 18. Geometry and dimensions of the modelled panel.
Lets now consider Figure 18 to understand the use of boundary conditions. In order to determine which parts of the sandwich panel should be modelled and where the boundary conditions can be used, several simulations are carried out with different models. Calculations give that using boundary conditions on sides AB and CD, which are transverse to the inner supports, causes some overestimation of panel’s stiffness. To prevent the use of the boundary conditions on transversal sides panel is modelled on its full length. Also the inner supports are not fixed at the ends. Lower plate of the panel is not modelled as it does not contribute to the energy absorption but only supports the inner members. As the supporting of the inner members can easily be described by the fixed boundary conditions on lines E F and G H, the modelling of the lower plate is unnecessary. Simulations also showed that the breath of the modelled faceplate should be at least two times bigger than the span of the inner supports. Too narrow faceplate causes some overestimation of the panel’s stiffness. Remaining part of the panel is compensated by fixing edges AC and BD. Furthermore, it is assumed that laser welds on lines E*F* and G*H* are rigid and do not deform during the impact. It means that the weld is modelled just by connecting nodes of the faceplate and inner supporting member along the lines E*F* and G*H*.
When the panel with the urethane filling is under consideration, compressible lowdensity foam is modelled inside the panel. To reduce the calculation time only the middle section of the panel is filled with the foam. As the foam in the other sections prevents the movements of the inner supports, fixed boundary conditions are used on surfaces E E* F* F and G G* H* H. Bottom of the foam is fixed to compensate the absence of the lower plate. Information about the boundary conditions is gathered into Table 5.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Table 5.
Boundary conditions of the modelled panels.
STRUCTURAL 

ELEMENT 
SIDE/SURFACE 
EMPTY PANEL 
FILLED PANEL 
Faceplate 
AB 
free 
free 
CD 
free 
free 

AC 
all dof.* fixed 
all dof. fixed 

CD 
all dof. fixed 
all dof. fixed 

Support inner 
EE' 
free 
free 
GG' 
free 
free 

FF' 
free 
free 

HH' 
free 
free 

EF 
all dof. fixed 
all dof. fixed 

GH 
all dof. fixed 
all dof. fixed 

Urethane filling 
EE'F'F 
 all dof. fixed 

GG'H'H 
 all dof. fixed 

EFHG 
 all dof. fixed 

*dof. degree of freedom 
Density of the element mesh depends on the location. Near to the impact zone element dimensions are the smallest 1x1 mm. The biggest element dimensions are 4x4 mm. Figure 19 gives a better picture about the mesh and the element sizes. Steel plates are modelled by using twodimensional four node shell elements with thickness known as BelytschkoTsay elements. This element type is one of the most commonly used elements in numerical analysis of crash mechanics of thinwalled structures.
Figure 19. Element mesh.
28
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Element mesh and size of the urethane filling coincides with the mesh of the faceplate, see Figure 20. Urethane filling is connected to the metal sheets by connecting the nodes, which have the same coordinates. Urethane filling is modelled by using eight node hexahedron solid elements.
Figure 20. Modelled panel with urethane filling.
To simulate an impact event, spherical impact head similar to one depicted in Figure 9 is modelled. Impact head is modelled as a nondeformable rigid body. Energy of the striking body is given by its mass and by the velocity at the moment of impact.
3.2 Material properties of the model
Steel plates of the sandwich panel are modelled by using LSDyna material model no 24 (Piecewise Linear Isotropic Plasticity). This material model is chosen as it works both in elastic and in plastic region, capable to use nonlinear material properties and can consider strainrate sensitive behaviour of the material. In elastic region material behaviour is determined by Young’s modulus and by Poisson’s constant. Material behaviour in plastic region is determined from the tensile tests. For a purely plastic response without fracture or plastic localization, it is straightforward to determine the plastic parameters straight from the tensile tests. Figure 21 presents the results of the tensile test and approximated true stressstrain curve for LSDyna in case of the 3 mm specimens.
29
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 21. Tensile test and approximated true stressstrain curve for LSDyna.
Though the tearing of the faceplate did not occur during the laboratory tests, the possibility of the tearing is still foreseen in FE calculations. The initiation and propagation of fracture in the structure can be modelled in LSDyna by deleting elements from the system once plastic strain has reached a certain level. To determine that certain level, an equivalent fracture criterion for the prevailing element is calculated. For the calculation a specimen is modelled and several tensile tests with different failure criteria are carried out in LSDyna. The failure criterion is evaluated by comparing the real and calculated stressstrain curves. When those two curves coincide the correct failure criterion is found.
Urethane foam filling is modelled by using material no 14 (Soil and Crushable Foam with Failure). That material model is selected as it provides a simple model for foams whose properties are not well characterized. Necessary input variables for the selected material model were given in Table 3.
3.3 Results of the FE analysis
Finite element simulations provide a possibility to obtain information that is hard to get from laboratory experiments. Addition to deformation energies, the following characteristics are determined by FE simulations:
(i) 
velocity profile, 
(ii) 
velocity of the faceplate as a function of time, 
30
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
(iii) 
shape of the deformation, 
(iv) 
displacements at the core. 
Following discussion bases on simulation where the sandwich panel with 2 mm faceplates is hit by the sphere with mass of 20 kg and velocity at the moment of contact is 3.13 m/s. Velocity profile obtained by the finite element simulations is shown in Figure 22 by blue line and the shape of the deformation by red line. Profiles in Figure 22 are drawn assuming that initial contact between the impact body and the panel takes place at the origin.
Figure 22. Shape of the deformation and velocity profile.
Velocity profile is evaluated by analysing velocity time histories for every node between the nodes FP1 and FP4, see Figure 24. Profile presents the average velocity values and is made dimensionless by dividing it with the average velocity of the middle node FP1. Figure 22 shows that the velocity profile can be approximated by linear line without a significant decrease in preciseness.
Figure 23. Velocity of a node FP1 as a function of time.
31
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Velocity as a function of time is presented in Figure 23. Red solid line presents the velocity of the node FP1 and red dashed line shows the calculated average velocity. It should be noted that the same average velocity is used to turn velocity profile into dimensionless mode. Figure 23 also reveals that at the beginning of the impact node FP1 obtains the same velocity with the impact head. Velocity starts to decrease but the decrease is not exactly linear, but little smoother at the beginning and slightly sharper at the end of the impact. Linear approximation is presented by blue dashed line. Simple operation shows, that ratio between the initial and the calculated average velocity is approximately 1.5. The same value is later used in analytical calculations to describe the change of velocity.
Figure 24. Nodes at the crosssection of the panel.
It is obvious that most of the impact energy is absorbed by the faceplate, but the significance of the steel core displacements should still be investigated. For that the transversal displacements of the steel core are compared with the displacements of the faceplate. Comparison is done by carrying out the impact simulation for the panel with 3 mm faces. Panel with 3 mm faceplates is selected for the investigation as thicker faceplate causes greater displacements of the inner supporters. Described panel is hit by the sphere with velocity of 3.13 m/s and mass of 30 kg. Results are presented in Figure 25 and the nodes used in comparison were depicted in Figure
24.
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 25. Displacements of the faceplate and core.
In Figure 25 red lines present the transversal displacements of the faceplate nodes and blue line
presents the displacements at the core multiplied by 100. Figure 25 shows that core
displacements are more than hundred times smaller compared to the displacements of the
faceplate and therefore can be ignored.
Initial and plastic energy as a function of permanent deflection are shown in Figure 26 for
panels with 1 and 3 mm plates. Figure 27 presents the results of FE simulations for the
sandwich panels with 2 mm faces.
(a)
(b)
Figure 26. Results of FE simulations. Initial energy of the impact head and plastic deformation energy as a function of permanent deflection in case of the empty panels with 1 mm (a) and 3 mm (b) faceplates.
e
33
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
(a)
(b)
Figure 27. Results of FE simulations. Initial energy of the impact head and plastic deformation energy as a function of permanent deflection in case of the empty panels with 2 mm plating (a) and the urethane filled panels with 3 mm faceplates (b).
34
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
4 Analytical formulations
Aim of the analytical formulations is to provide a possibility to calculate deformations in the panel when the properties of the striking body are known. Extent of the deformation can be evaluated by equalizing the kinetic energy of the impact body with the deformation energy of the panel. As it is easy to calculate the kinetic energy of the striking body the main task is to describe the energy absorption of the sandwich panel.
4.1 Background and main assumptions
As a result of impact, faceplate of the sandwich panel stretches in all possible inplane directions to resist impact loads and can attain large permanent deflections. When plate starts to deform under lateral load, bending plays a major role for small deformations. With an increase in transversal deformation, the importance of bending diminishes and the membrane force quickly develops. At sufficient large deformations, the membrane force dominates the behaviour. This is known as string response.
Furthermore, impact energy is absorbed not only by the faceplate, but also by the inner supports, lower plate and by the filling if there is any. To consider all the deformation mechanisms by analytical single model is complicated and even not necessary. The most of the impact energy is absorbed by the mechanisms where it is done in most efficient way. To simplify the model several assumptions should be made and verified.
One of the main assumptions is about the displacements of steel core. When inner supports of the panel are much stiffer compared to the plates and there is no filling inside, most of the energy is absorbed by the faceplate. Considering the dimensions of the tested panels and the test matrix given in Figure 6, it becomes obvious that longitudinal bending stiffness of the I
35
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
profile supports is much higher compared to the faceplate. It introduces the first assumption inner structure of the tested panels can be considered as rigid and deformation energy is absorbed only by the faceplate and by the filling. Convenient way to verify that assumption is to measure core displacements in FE simulations. Measurements showed that displacements at the core are more than hundreds of times smaller compared to the displacements at the faceplate.
Second assumption considers the extent of the deformation. As laboratory experiments and FE calculations have shown the maximum extent of the deformation is equal to the span of the inner supports. The minimum extent is not limited and should be determined by minimizing the energy. Furthermore, it is also assumed that the length of the panel is infinite. Assumption agrees well with the actual use of sandwich panels where one dimension of the panel is often much larger compared to the others. Importance of the mentioned assumption is that global bending of the faceplate as can be seen in laboratory tests does not occur and the shape of the deformation is assumed to be circular. In reality, some global bending of the faceplate occurs also in the case of infinitely long panels, but the extent of the global bending is small compared to the panel length. Global bending of the infinitely long panels reveals in deformation shape, which takes more oval form.
Conclusively the main assumptions are:
(i) 
majority of the impact energy is absorbed by bending and membrane stresses at the faceplate as deformations at inner supports and lower plating are small and can be neglected, 
(ii) 
the maximum width of the deformation is equal to the span of the inner supports, 
(iii) 
length of the panel is infinite, which allows to use circular shape to describe deformation. 
Before proceeding to the derivation of energy absorption formulations, analytical description of the deformation shape is given in Chapter 4.2. Formulations connected to the calculation of strain rate are given in Chapter 4.3.
36
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
4.2 Analytical description of the deformation shape
In order to be able to calculate the energy absorbed by the different deformation mechanisms,
shape of the deformation should be known. Circular shape of the deformation is described by
two coordinates. Coordinate r is pointed to radial direction and w to the direction of deflection.
The laboratory tests and the finite element simulations presented that it is convenient to divide
the deformation of the faceplate into two parts as shown in Figure 28:
(i) 
Linear line BC 
(ii) 
Curve AB, which can be described by polynomial 
Figure 28. Deformation shape.
Extent of the linear line is determined by two constants C _{1} and C _{2} . C _{1} determines the extent of
the linear line in w direction and C _{2} is used to determine the extent of deformation in r
direction. The linear part is
w
C
1
1
r
R
C
2
R
r
R
.
Polynomial part is described by thirdorder polynomial given and is valid for
w ( r
)
a r
3
b r
2
c r d
.
0
r C
2
(1)
R
(2)
:
37
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Constants a, b, c and d are determined by the following boundary conditions:
w
w
r
0
r
_{0}
0
d
c
0
w
r
C
w
r
2
C
R
2
C
1
(1
R
C
1
C
.
R
2
,
,
)
,
(3)
After evaluating constants a and b, shape of the deformation can be written as
w ( r )
where
a
3
r
C
1
1
b
r
2
r
R
if
if
C
0
2
R
r
r
C
2
R
R
,
a
b
C 
1 

C 
2 

2 

C 
1 

2 

C 
3 
R 
3 



2 


2 
C 1 

C 
2 

3 

C 1 

3 
^{} 

C 
2 
R 
2 

2 
.
(4)
(5)
Inclination of the deformation shape is determined by taking the first derivative of Eq. (4)
S
(
r
)
3 C
a
1
R
r
2
if
2
b
C
2
r
R
if
r
0
R
r
.
C
2
R
(6)
Later, when deriving equations for the energy absorption, also the change in inclination is
needed. It is evaluated by taking the second derivative of Eq. (4)
d
S
(
r
)
dr
6
0
a
if
r
2
C
2
b
R
if
r
0
R
r
.
C
2
R
(7)
38
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
To calculate the energy absorbed by the core filling, compressed volume of the filling material should be evaluated by using expression
V
0
r w
2
dw
.
(8)
As it is laborious to derive the relation where radius r is given as a function of coordinate w by using polynomial, two linear lines are used instead and the shape of the deformation can be written as
(
r w
)
1
w
C
C
2
1
R
R
if
(
C
2
w
)
1
1
C
1
!
0
if
w
1
1
C
C
2
2
C
C
1
1
R
R
w
.
(9)
By substituting Eq. (9) into Eq. (8) and carrying out the integration, compressed volume of the filling material can be calculated by
V
3
R
2
C
1
C
2
2
C
1
C
2
2
^{.}
(10)
4.3 Strain rate
As a result of the impact, the panel is deformed in relatively high velocity and possible effect of the high strain rate to the material behaviour should be considered. The strain rate sensitivity of the materials is considered by using CowperSymonds constitutive equation (Jones, 1989)
by
considering strain rate _{}_{} and predetermined material constants q and D.
given by Eq. (11). CowperSymods model simply scales the static yield stress value
Y
D
Y
'
%
Y %
&
1
D
1
q
$
"
"
#
.
(11)
39
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
To obtain the formulation for the strain rate, velocity profile over the crosssection of the panel should be known. The FE simulations gave that it is sufficient to approximate the transversal velocity profile by linear line, see Figure 29.
Figure 29. Approximated velocity profile.
Inclination of the velocity profile is
V
v
R
_{.}
(12)
Consider cross sectional element of the faceplate (Figure 30) to derive formulations for the strain rate. Nondeformed length of the element is dr. As the result of the impact the plate deforms and obtains the deflection that can be calculated as _{S} dr. The engineering strain in the element is calculated from
r
dr 
2 

dr 

2 

S 

dr
dr
_{.}
(13)
By expanding Eq. (13) to series and neglecting high order terms, equation takes a following form:
S
dr
2
2
dr
2
_{.}
(14)
40
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 30. Deformed plate element
Strain rate is obtained by taking time derivative of Eq.(14). It should be remembered, that _{S} dr
describes the deflection of the plate and the time derivative of _{S} dr is the deformation velocity of the plate. Deformation velocity at any point inside the deformed area can be calculated by using the maximum velocity value at the point of first contact and the inclination of the velocity profile. The dimensionless strain rate can be written as

2 


S 

dr

V 

dr 


2 dr 2 
S
V
_{.}
(15)
Note that _{S} and _{V} should be used as a dimensionless shape functions and the actual values
for the deflection and the velocity are given by the amplitudes and V _{0} . V _{0} is the velocity of the impact body at the beginning of the impact. Velocity time dependence is described by a single constant c _{V} , which is used to divide the initial velocity to get average velocity
v
A
v
0
c
V
.
(16)
By substituting Eq. (12) into Eq. (15) the strain rate can be described as
( )
S
r
v
0
c
V
R
.
(17)
In Eq. (17) denotes the final permanent deflection of the faceplate.
41
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
4.4 Energy absorption of the panel
As stated above, it can be assumed that the steel core and the lower plate do not contribute to the energy absorption and all the energy is turned into the deformation energy by the faceplate and by the filling material. Formulation are derived both for the absorption of elastic energy as well as for the plastic energy. Energy absorption in both cases is divided into two parts:
(i) 
energy absorbed by bending, 
(ii) 
energy absorbed by membrane deformations. 
In case of the filled panels also the energy absorbed by the filling is added to the plastic energy.
In analytical calculations it is assumed that the material behaves as elastic, perfectly plastic material as given in Figure 31. Effect of the high strain rate is considered only in case of the membrane mechanism.
Figure 31. Elastic, perfectly plastic material.
4.4.1 Elastic energy absorbed by bending
To derive the formulations for elastic energy absorbed by bending, it is assumed that deformation has circular shape with radius R and deflection w at the middle of the panel (Figure 32). It is obvious that the bending moment obtains its maximum value at the yield line where r=R.
42
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Figure 32. Deformed panel.
Amount of the elastic energy is evaluated by equalizing the bending moment at the yield line by plastic moment M _{P} of the panel:
^{M} P
Y
_{}
t
2
4
.
(18)
Corresponding force or socalled collapse load
in the middle of the
plate can be evaluated by using plate theory (Ikonen, 1990). Elastic energy can be calculated by using relation
E
F
B
and deflection
w
E
B
E
E
F
B
w
E
B
2
.
(19)
Deflection of the circular plate subjected to a lateral distributed load can be written as
w
C
1
C
2
r
2
1
K
dr
r
'
%
&
dr
r
r
(
r dr
)
$
"
#
rdr
,
where K describes the material and is equal to
K
_{}
E
t
3
12 (1
(
2
)
.
(20)
(21)
43
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
Distributed load is handled by introducing the concept of the effective radius r _{E}_{F} . Using the effective radius distributed load can be used as a constant and relation between the force F and distributed load becomes
F
^{}
2
EF
r
^{.}
(22)
Using Eq. (22) first integral in Eq. (20) can be evaluated as
r
(
r ) dr
r
EF
2
0
rdr
2
r
EF
F
2
EF
r
F
2
2
EF
r
2
.
(23)
Remaining three integrals are evaluated as follows:
1
F
r
2
dr
2
F
ln( )
r
,
F
2
ln( )
r
F
1
1
2
r
2
r
1
F
2
1
4
2
2
r
2
1 2
,
rdr
2
ln( r )
r
ln( )
r
dr
1 F
8
4
r
r
2
ln( )
r
1
.
Deflection of the plate takes a form
w ( r )
C
1
C
2
r
1 F
8
r
2
ln( )
r
1
.
(24)
(25)
(26)
(27)
Constants C _{1} and C _{2} should be solved by using boundary conditions for clamped circular plate:
i
( )
(
ii
)
w ( r
d
dr
)
r
R
(
w r
)
0,
r
R
0.
(28)
44
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
From the second boundary condition C _{2} can be solved and can be written as
C
2
1
r
2
2 ln(
R
)
1
F
16
K
.
(29)
By substituting Eq. (29) into the first boundary condition, C _{1} becomes
C 1
1 F
16 K
R
2
.
Final form for the deflection is defined as
w
(
r
)
1
F
16 K
)
R
2
2 ln( r )
2 ln(
R
)
1
!
r
2
*
.
(30)
(31)
Bending moment of the circular plates is given by
M
(
r
)
K
w d dr
2
2
dw
r
dr
.
Derivatives in Eq. (32) are
dw
dr
1
F
r
4
K
ln
R
d
2
w
1
F
dr
2
4
K
ln( )
r
1
ln( r )!
ln
_{R} !
,
.
(32)
(33)
(34)
Bending moment at the yield line is obtained by substituting Eq. (33) and (34) to Eq. (32)
M
(
r
)
r
^{R}
1 F
4
.
Now the collapse load
E can be calculated as
F
B
(35)
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Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
E
F
B
4 M
P
.
(36)
Corresponding deflection at the middle of the plate (r=0) when subjected to load
obtained by replacing Eq. (36) to Eq. (31):
E
w B
E
F
B
16
K
R
2
.
(37)
E
F
B
is
Elastic energy absorbed by the bending can now be calculated by using Eq. (19) and is obtained from
E
E B
2
y
t
4
32 K
R
2
.
(38)
4.4.2 Elastic energy absorbed by membrane mechanism
To calculate the amount of the elastic energy absorbed by membrane deformation, the same idea is employed as in case of the elastic bending energy. Stresses in every element inside the assumed deformed area are equalized by the yield stress of the material. In case of membrane stress dynamic behaviour of the material plays important role in high strain rates. Due to that
D
the dynamic yield stress should be used. When stress in every point of the panel is known
Y
the deformation energy can be obtained from
E
P
M
t
A
' D
Y
dA
^{.}
(39)
Assuming that Hooke’s law holds and the relation between the stress and the strain in elastic region can be expressed as
Y
E
.
(40)
Considering Hooke’s law in Eq. (39) the elastic energy absorbed by the membrane mechanism is given by
46
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
E
E
M
2
t
E
R
0
D
Y
2
r dr
_{.}
4.4.3 Plastic energy absorbed by bending
(41)
Concept of plastic hinges is introduced to derive the formulations for plastic energy absorbed by the bending mechanism. Figure 33 presents a rectangular plate with breath B and thickness t subjected to a lateral load F.
Figure 33. Plastic hinge.
Due to the load, the panel is deformed and plastic hinge is formed at the point A. Deformation energy absorbed in forming that plastic hinge can be evaluated from
E
P
B
L M
P
_{,}
(42)
where is the angle and L is the length of plastic hinge. Deformation angle as a function of r is given by Eq. (6). As work is done only in forming the plastic hinge, plastic energy can be evaluated by using the change of the angle, given by Eq. (7). Absorbed energy is found by integrating the change over the radius r
E
P
B
2
M
P
r
2
S
r
1
r dr
,
(43)
47
Local Impact Strength of Sandwich Panels
Kristjan Tabri
where absolute value of
should be used as the energy absorption does not depend on
the direction of deformation angle. Derivation of Eq. (43) is convenient to carry out in two parts:
(i) 
energy absorption when 0 < r < C _{2} R by using Eq. (43), 
(ii) 
Energy absorption when C _{2} R < r < Rby using Eq. (42). 
When the first part is considered Eq. (43) takes a form
P
E B
2
M
P
C
2
R '
r 0
6
a
r
2
b
r dr
(44)
with constants a and b as given by Eq. (5). By carrying out the integration, Eq. (44) becomes
E M
B
P
2
P
'
%
&
(1
C
1
)
2
27
d
3
c
2
where
c
d
C C
1
2
2 2 C
1
2 C C
1
2
3 3 C .
1
$
"
#
_{,}
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