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NI2

Clauses of RESULT, REASON, CONTRAST & PURPOSE Expressing RESULT and REASON

We normally use because or so. But we can also use: Since/ As SO+ adjective+ that

As/Since Tom hadnt slept the night before he fell asleep in the theatre. It was so hot that we couldnt leave the hotel room. I was so tired that I went to sleep She is so pretty that everyone stops to look at her.

SUCH + (adjective+) noun+ that

He is such an idiot that nobody would hire him. It was such a hot day that we couldnt leave the hotel room. NOTICE that you can omit that He is so intelligent I dont know what to talk about. She is such a genius nobody doubts about her. They are such good people
Other ways to express result: Too+ adjective Not enough/ too little, too many + noun Not+ adjective+ enough+ infinitive+ to

He is not old enough to walk to school (= He is too young to walk to school)


As a result, in the end, eventually

home -----They waited for the bus for a long time and in the end they took a taxi ALSO So many -so much -such a lot of There were so may people we could not see the stage There was such a lot of rain it flooded

It snowed all nigh. As a result, we could not go out. It started to rain while we were having our picnic, and eventually we decided to go

Expressing CONTRAST
In spite of, despite and although are all used to show a contrast but there are differences in the structures used with them. After in spite of and despite we use a noun, a pronoun or a verb in -ing.

In spite of the rain we enjoyed our holiday. (=we enjoyed our holiday in spite of the rain) Despite the pain in his leg he completed the marathon. Despite having all the necessary qualifications, they didnt offer her the job.

NOTICE: The only difference between in spite of and despite is the of.

NI2

Clauses of RESULT, REASON, CONTRAST & PURPOSE

Despite of the bad weather, there was a large crowd at the match.

After although we use a subject and a verb.


We enjoyed our camping holiday although it rained every day. Although he worked very hard, he didnt manage to pass the exam.

We can use in spite of and despite with a subject and verb if we include the expression the fact that.

Despite/ In spite of the fact that he worked very hard, he didnt manage to pass the exam. Even though is a slightly stronger form of although. We decided to buy the house even though we didnt really have enough money.

NOTICE: We use though in speech or informal writing, sometimes at the end of the sentence. Although Mara was ill, she went to school = Mara went to school. She was ill, though. Other words to express contrast: But, Yet, However, nevertheless, on the other hand, while, whereas John is so polite while Bob is incredibly rude.

Expressing PURPOSE To / so as to / in order to We use to / so as to / in order to , to express


purpose. Example: A: Why did she call him? B: She called him in order to / so as to / to invite him. She studied hard to/ so as to /in order to get the best results

The negatives are not to / in order not to / so as not to


Example: She called him not to congratulate him , but to invite him. I took my shoes off so as not to make a noise. Dulce Rosales NI2 at EOI