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THE UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

Kawanishi Aircraft Co.


(Kawanishi Kokuki Kabusbiki Kaisha)

CORPORATION REPORT
(Air frames)

No.

Ill

AIRCRAFT DIVISION
April 1947

THE UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

Kawanishi Aircraft Co.


(Kawanishi Kokuki Kabushiki Kaisha)

CORPORATION REPORT
(Air frames)

No.

Ill

AIRCRAFT DIVISION
Dates of Survey:
17 October-25

November 1945

Date of Publication:
April 1947

:AL3

JUL 25

1947

This report was written priinaiily for the use of the United States Strategic in the preparation of further reports of a more compreliensive nature. Any conclusions or opinions expressed in this report must be considered as limited to the specific mateiial covered and as subject to fin-thei' interpretation in the light of further studies conducted by the Survey.

Bombing Survey

"V

11

FOREWORD
Tlic United SLatcs Strategic Bombing Survey was estahlished by the Secretary of War on 3 November 1944, pursuant to a directive from the Its mission was to late President Roosevelt. conduct an impartial and expert study of theeffects of our aerial attack on Germany, to be used in connection with air attacks on Japan and to establish a basis for evaluating the importance and potentialities of air power as an instrument of

military segment of the oi-ganization

was drawn

military strategy for planning th^ future develop-

ment

of the United States armed forces and for determining future economic policies with respect

A summary report and to the national defense. some 200 supporting reports containing the fimlings of the Survey in Germany have been published. On 15 August 1945, President Truman requested that the Survey conduct a similar study of the effects of all types of air attack in the war against
Japan, submitting reports in duplicate to the Secretary of War and to the Secretary of the

from tiie Ai-my to the extent of GO percent and from the Navy to the extent of 40 peieenl. Both the Army and the Navy gave the Survey all possibles assistance in furnishing men, supplies, ti-ansport, and information. The Survey operated from headquarters established in Tokyo early in September 1945, with subheadtjuarters in Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima, and Nagasaki, and with mobile teams operating in other parts of Japan, the islands of the Pacific, and the Asiatic mainland. It was possible to reconstruct much of wartime Japanese military planning and execution, engage-

ment l)y engagement, and campaign by campaign, and to secure reasonably accurate statistics on Japan's economy and war production, plant by plant, and industry liy industry. In addition,
studies were conducted on Japan's over-all strategic plans

and the l)ackground

of her entry into

Navy.

The

officers

of

the

Survey during

its

the war, the internal discussions anil negotiations

Japanese phase were:


Franklin D'Olier, Chairman. Paid H. Nitze, Henry C. Alexander, Vice Chairmen.
J.

leading to her acceptance of unconditional surrender, the course of health

and morale among


tiie

the civilian population, the effectiveness of the

Japanese
effects

civilian

defense

organization, and

Harry L. Bowman, Kenneth Galbraith,


Rensis Likert,
Jr.,

of the

atomic bombs.

Separate reports

will

be issued covering each phase of the study.


Sui'vey interrogated

The
ficials.

more than 700 Jap-

Frank A. McNamee,

anese military, Goverimaent, and industrial ofIt also recovered and translated many documents which not only have been useful to the Survey but also will furnish data valuable for other studies. Arrangements have been made to

Fred Searls, Jr., Monroe' E. Spaght, Dr. Lewis R. Thompson, Theodore P. Wright, Directors. Walter Wilds, Secretary.

turn over the Survey's

files

to the Central Intelli-

The Survey's complement provided for 300 civilians, 350 officers, and 500 enlisted men. The

gence Group, through which they will be available


for further

examination and distribution.

Ill

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

The Corporation and

Its

Importance in the Aircraft Industry.

Air Attacks Production Statistics Evaluation of Pre- attack Intelligence Appendix A Chart of employment Appendix B Dispersal Map B-1 Dispersal of aircraft manufacture Appendix C Production of combat-type aircraft Appendix D Aircraft production by type and years Appendix E Actual airplane protluction Appendix F MIS estimate of production, 1941-45

4
5

G 9

10
11

12
13 13

15 17

Naruo Plant KoxAN Plant

(Plant report No. III-l)

(Plant report No. III-2)

HiMEji Plant (Plant report No. III-3) Takarazuka Plant (Plant report No. III-4)

45 63 75

THE CORPORATION AND

ITS

IMPORTANCE

IN

THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY


Kawazoe Iron Works
in

Till' Kawauislii Aircraft Co. (Ivawaiiishi Kokiiki Knbushiki Kaisha) was the tenth hirgest producer of all typos of aircraft in the Japanese aircraft During the period 1941-45 it acindustry. counted for 3 percent of all the aircraft produced by the industry, increasing from 1.1 percent in 1942 to 4 percent in 1944 and 5 percent in 1945. The company protluced' 5 percent of all fighters built by the Japanese aircraft industry. Kawanishi produced air frames only and its The entire output went to the Japanese Navy. products were used for George (NlKl-J principal and N1K2-J), a single-engine fighter, and Frances (P1Y2-S), a twin-engine fighter. Other important types of air frames were for Mavis and Emily, four-engine flying boats, and various types of naval observation planes and trainers (USSBS, Aircraft Division reports Nos. III-l and III-2). In November 1928 the Kawanishi Aircraft Co. was established with a capital of 5,000,000 yen,

In Decend)er 1939 the

was purchased. This company produced machine tools and was later a branch of the Takarazuka plant. At the request of the -Japanese Naval Ministry, the aircraft-engine department was dissolved in November 1940 and the engine-accessories department and machinegun parts department were established. The capital was increased by 15,000,000 yen in October 1941. Thus the total authorized capital became 30,000,000 yen, which was paid up in full in April 1943. At the request of the Japanese Navy, the Takarazuka plant was established in December 1941 and started production of machined parts for aircraft, engme accessories, and power-driven, machine-gun turrets. In February 1942 the Konan plant was established to produce large flying boats, and in July of the same year the Himeji plant was established to produce
the city of Fuse
fighter planes.

assumed the assets and operations of the Kawanishi Engineering Works at Kobe and continued Kawanishi Engineeringproducing airplanes.

In September 1943 the capital was increased by

Works started producing seaplanes in 1921 for the Nippon Airplane Co. (Nippon Hikoki K K),
an
air transportation firm.

making the total authorized The Government-owned Naruo airport was first utilized by the company in October 1943. In January 1944 the firm was designated a munitions company by the Munitions
30,000,000
yen,
capital 60,000,000 yen.

the founding of the Nipi)on Aircraft Transportation Co. (Nippon Koku Yuso K), the Nippon Airplane Co., which monopolized all civilian air transportation throughout Japan, had to

Upon

Company
Ministry.

Act.
in

Production of large flying boats

was stopped

March 1945 by

order of the Naval

In April 1945 the company started

In December 1928, since Kawanishi Aircraft Co. had no market for its products, it started to manufacture observation seaplanes and trainers for the Navy, as a naval-designated plant. In December 1930 the company moved to Naruo
be dissolved.
village

to establish new facilities at Fukuchiyama, in Kyoto prefecture, Honshu, and in Oe County, in Tokushima prefecture, Shikoku, as dispersal units of the Naruo plant.

By an
July

1945,

order of the Minister of Munitions in the entire firm became the Second

and established a new plant. In cooperation with Short Bros. Co. of England,
During August

the Kawanishi Co., in January, started to build


all-metal, trimotor flying boats.

1934 an aircraft-engine department was established

Munitions Arsenal. The company remained as a mei'e holding company. At the end of the war, in August 1945, all production stopped and the Minister of Munitions ordered the munitions arsenals to be dissolved and all assets and personnel
returned to the original companies. Sis members of the Kawanishi family owned 731,780 shares, or 61 percent, of the total 1,200,000 shares of capital stock of the Kawanishi Aircraft

which experimented with liut produced only two engines and then dropped the experiment. The capitalization was increased by 10,000,000 yen in September 1938, and, fully paid, to 15,000,000 yen by November 1939.

Co.

There were four principal plants


Aircraft
Co.,
all

cif

the

Kaw anish

in

the

Osaka-Kobe area and

within a 40-niiIe area of each other.

Three of them, the Nanio, Konan, and Himeji plants, were aircraft-assembly units, antl the remaining one, the Takarazuka plant, produced air frame machined parts, gun turrets, and aircraft accessories
(fig.

Himeji plant produced only George (NlKl-J) and N1K2-J, a shigle-engine fighter (USSBS, Aircraft Division Reports Nos. III-2 and III-3). From December 1928 through the end of the war, the Kawanishi Aircraft Co.'s entire production went to the Japanese Na\^.

Government

financial aid to the

company
covered

came,
direct,

1).
^

under three categories.


plant produced George

The

first

The Naruo
and
its

modification,

(NlKl-J) N1K2-J, a smgle-engine,

land-i)ased Navy fighter, Emily (H8K 1-2-3), a four-engine flying boat, ami various trainers and seaplanes (USSBS. Aircraft Division Report No.

loans of U)0, 000,000 yen from August 1941 to July 1943; 40,000,000 yen from August 1943 to December 1944, and 71,000,000 yen from May 1944 to May 1945. The second was a loan of

iri-i).

Konan
(H8K2).

])lant

produced

Fj-ances
fighter,

twLn-engine,
a

land-based
four-engine

(P1Y2-S), a and P]mily


while
the

and equipment, valued at Government-furnished buildings and establishments valued at 81,000,000 yen, including an airport and
3,621
tools
24,0(i9,()00 y(.n.

machine

Th(> third consisted of

flving

boat,

maintenance shops valued at 25,300,000 yen.

In

MAP OF PRINCIPAL PLANT LOCATIONS

HONSHU
HIMEJI PLANT

TAKARAZUKA PLANT
KOBE

KONAN PLANT NARUO PLANT

US-STRATEGIC BOMBING SUWFi

KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT
FIGURE

CO
I

AIRFRAME PLANTS


.luly 1945, l)y
tlic
oi'tlci-

of Uic Minister oT
nil

entire

firm

unci

Munitions, employees eanie luulei

anil

seven otiiers
percent
1.

in wliii'h

it

owned
1).

I'lDni

percent

to 21

ol

the slocU (tal)le


affiliated

direct'

su|)ervisi()n

of

the Goveniniciit iuul

was
Tahle
Subsidiary mid

called the

Second Mnnitions Arsenal.

companies of

the

Kawanishi Aircraft Co.

Organization and Operation


Th(!
follows:
Prcsidciil ---

kc}'

oflicers

oi'

the

corporation were as

Name

Ryuzo

Kawanislii.

Vice president
Maiiagiiifi:

Ivenji Macl)ai'a.
Sliiro Takaliashi.

director

Chief onf^ineer

Yosliio Hasliiuelii.

Manager Manager Manager Manager

of Nariio plant
of Talvaraznlca plant

Masakiyo Nakainura.
Meishin Sailo. Sakae Haniada. Mitsuo Snehisa.

of

Konan plant

of Hinieji plant

The

four plants were directly under the admin-

istrative section of the

company.
Corporation

Figure 2
Organizational Chart- of Kawanishi
President

Ryuzo Kawanishi.
-

Vice i)resident

Managing

director

Chief engineer

Kenji Maehara. Shiro Takahashi. Yoshio Hashignchi.


sect ion

Administrative

Administrative department. De.signing department. Material and supply department.

Personnel department. Finance department. Medical department,

Nanio plant
Administrative department. Production department. Inspection department. Personnel department.

Machining, forging, and casting department. Dispersed plants.

Takarazuka plant

Gun turrets department. Administrative department. A/C machined parts department. Personnel depart ment. Aircraft accessories department. Machine tool department.
Konan
Administrative department. Production department. Inspection department.
plant

Personnel department. Material section.

Himcji plant
Administrative department. Production department. Inspection department.

Personnel department. Dispersed plants (Uzurano plant).

the

Each of the three aircraft assembly plants of company made wing, tail, and fuselage sul)(USSBS,
Aircraft

asseml)lies in addition to complete aircraft assemblies

Division

Report

No.

III-l).

The Kawanishi Aircraft Co. had five subsidiary companies which it owned outright, three companies in which it held over a quarter interest,


(USSBS. Aircraft Division Report No. III-2), the Himeji plant (USSBS, Aircraft Division Report No. III-3). and the Takarazuiva plant (USSBS, Aircraft Division Report No. III-4) was invesEvery type of plant was dispersing its same time, overloading the transportation system and hindering each other's production. For example, when component parts could not be provided by the plant's own shop, due to the fact that the shop was moving to
plans.

activity at the

tigated.

Dispersal
Dispersal of aircraft production began in Oc-

another location, such accessories could not, in many cases, be provided by a subcontractor, as
the latter also was dispersing at the

tober 1944 in the


Aircraft Co.

Naruo plant and


policy

in the early

same

time.

part of 194.5 for the other plants of the Kawanishi

The corporation

was

AIR ATTACKS
The Naruo
Tune

to dis-

perse production of each plant inider the various

plant sustained one direct and two

departments in the plant. The Naval Construction Corps assisted in building up dispersed plant sites and in many cases supplied all the labor and material necessary in digging underground plants and constructing buildings. Every type of contunnels, semiundergrounil struction was utilized schools, basements of department stores, buildings, space under elevated railroads, converted woolen mills, tile shops, and space in various factories.

The direct attack occurred 9 durmg which 328 high-explosive bombs struck, causing heavy damage. The first indirect attack occurred on 19 July 1945, when
indirect attacks.

1945,

110 high-explosive bombs, part of those aimed at

The

principal bottleneck in dispersion

was lack
Railroads

Nippon oil refinery, struck the plant and caused moderately heavy damage. On 6 August 1945, 385 incendiary bombs dropped in the Nishinomiya urlian area attack struck the experimental section of the final assembly and
the nearby

of sufficient

transportation

facilities.

were overburdened because all types of plants were dispersmg at the same time and there were not sufficient facilities to handle the tremendous Due to the magnitude of the undertaking, load. there were not enough automotive trucks to compensate for the deficiency in rail transpoi'tation.

caused medium damage to the plant. In addition to these two indirect attacks, two other area attacks afl:"ected the plant. During
one, a few

bombs fell on the nearby dormitories, and during the other, a few fell on the Naruo airfield, near the plant. The plant itself was not
The Konan
11

struck.

Provision of living quarters,

iu

isolated

plant suft'ered one direct attack,

areas, for the workei-s

and

their families,

was

probh'm which in some cases retarded production. At the end of the war, Kawanishi had dispersed, or planned to disperse, the facilities of its 4 major

high-explosive bonds hit and caused the greatest amount of damage to the There were two area attacks the Kobe plant. url>an area attack of 5 June and the Nishinomiya
1945,

May

when 146

main sites. Tlie Naruo plant had eight dispersal areas, all but one of which were located on Honshu Island six in the Osaka-Kobe area and one at Fukuchiyama, in Kyoto prefecture. The eighth, the Shikoku final-assembly plant, was in Oe County, a few miles west of Tokushima, on Shikoku
plants to 32
Island.

fi August, a few incendiary bombs dropon the plant and dormitories. Damage was negligible in each of these cases.

attack of
jjing

The one
of

direct attack, on 22 June, leveled

most
229

the Himeji plant.

During

this

attack,

high-explosive

bombs

struck the plant area.

Two

fighter swee])s,

on 24 and 30 July, caused some

There were 5 Konan plant dispersals, all in the Himeji plant dispersals, Osaka-Kobe area, and while Takarazuka had a total of 13, most of which were inland from Kobe and Himeji (appendix B). It wa6 estimated l)y company officials that dispersals accounted for an over-all loss of 20 ])ercent in production, although the f)rogram was only
(i

and fragmentation bombs. During the 23 July du'ect attack on the Takarazuka ])lant, the 458 high-explosive bombs which

damage by

strafing

struck destroyed 80 percent of the plant.

An

area attack on 15 June 1945 burned 30 percent


of tlie dormitories

by incendiary

action.

Of a

total of

13,221,747 square feet of floor


the four plants, 4,765,476

about 50 percent completed.


types of Japanese industiy contributed greatly to the failure of the aircraft builders to meet production

space divided

among
square

The

dispersal of

all

square feet were severely damaged or destroyed

at

the

same

time,

and

8,456,271

feet

received

superficial

damage

as a result of

all

air attacks (table 2).


"ahIjK 2.

Air nlUick lUuiiagc

EVALUATION OF PREATTACK
INTELLIGENCE
cstiiiiatcs of f()inbat-tyi)o aircraft

(G-2) production for 1944 aiul 1945 were 27 percent over the actual (appendix F). In estimating total aircraft proDcpartiiu'iit

War

Military Intelligcncp

duction from 1941 to 1945, Intelligence exceeded the actual output by 18 percent. Intelligence infornmtion was correct concerning the type of
|

aircraft

produced by the company and the location

of

of the

and type of operation at the four largest plants Kawanishi Aircraft Co.

PRODUCTION OF COMBAT TYPE AIRCRAFT

iij

0-

u
CD

ASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJASONDJFMAMJJA
1942

1943

1944

1945

U.SSTRATEGICBOMBSURVEY
KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT CO. FIGURE 3

1000

1 o

10

Appendix B-1.
Date

Kawanishi Aircraft Co, Dispersal of aircraft


disiJersal

manufacture

Location

began

Distance rrom plant


(in miles)

Types

of iiroduclion [jlaruicd

.\rea (square feet)

l'erc<'nt of

eorn[(letion

Nai'iioplHiil:

Kukucliiyama-sliikoku (Oi' roiinly)


Scliodls

--

October 1944... do
in

Final assembly

247,712
'

do
On'tce. engineering ;ind

59,71(i

and
area.

l)uil(iint;s

Osaka-

December

1944

wan-houses
1

Kobe

Sakasonawa Mukiipiwa
KoyiH-n

Not started.

..

Machine

parts.

il.7:i3

Kohc
store,

....do

Fuselage assemblySheet metal


194.'j-

2,637
27,341
70.
KKI.

...do
.January
-.

iiarts

Oshima-Shokukin
Kansaifiakuin
IConaii plant:

Oecember

1944.

Machine shop ...do

22,7Rr)

1.^1.

\'acinns locations near

November
April 1945

1944

Raw

material and maebini' tools


.

UKI.
.

Tatotsii Airport (Osaka)

Final assembly

..
I

ll.i>2.^i

100. 100.

Ifnioda

braiicli.

department

May

1945

.Machine parts
Sheet metal parts
Fitting shop
-

15.070

Osaka. Yania Ashiya


Kiu'ak uen
(

April 1945.

31,211i.

2.5.

iinderKround)

do

....

223.892

25.

Himeji plant:

Dangc

..
-

March
-

194.5.
- -

Uzurano Kasamatsu
-

April 1945-

K ishiro -IIojo

June 1945---do

(Taka village)-. Fuknzaki Unit:


l^eno

March

1945.

Final assembly ..Engine run and flight Wing assembly Fuselage assembly Machine shop
11

-.
.

m.^lti
-1

ion of building.
.1

hangai

SOofrunway.
50.

16.275,

.1 -'
.!

2S,74n
Iii7.ii40

40. 30.

Sheet-metal shoP-do.

Funazu
Tatsumo__
-Takarazuka plant: Kobayashi

..-

--.

14

Planned

construction

Tawai'a village..

17 25

do-do-

not started.

-..
.__.

February

1945.

Namaze
SandaKashiea Kasbio
__
;

March

1945

3
11

-_ .....do February

Gun-turret parts Gun-turret hydraulic parts Gun-turret parts


Jig

100.

100.

100.

1945..

and cutting

tools

io6.

June

1945

Sheet-metal parts and

fuel-injection

80.

pump.
Sasayama Sakasegawa Nakatakamatsu NikawaFebruary June 1945
:.

1945..

22
I

Parts
Jigs

for fuel pumps Pumps assembly

100.
100.

April 1945

_.

June 1945
----do
April 19452
-

and tools Machine shop


Air-frame part?
-do.
-do.

99.
100.

Umeda branch department


Osaka.

store,

100.

Okadayama (school) Okadayama (underground)


Hojo (underground)

100.

June

1945.

2
31

50. 50.

-do-

7190.33

47-

11

Appendix C.
XI Kl
Year
Capacity

Kawanishi Aircraft Co. Production of cotnbat-type


NlKl-J
C?Py^<^-|ordered Actual

aircraft
Total

N1K2-J
Capacity

P1Y2-S
Capacity

Ordered Actual

Ordered Actual

Ordered Actual

Capacity

Ordered

January
February...

March
.\pril

May
June
July.-.

August September. October

November.
December..
Total1943:

January
February...

15

March
April

May..
June
July.
.August

September. October Xovember.,

December
Total1944:

84

January
February...

65
85
120
135

29 48 63
93

17

90
110

40 05 93
17

March
.^pril

145 140 150 166 178 188

May.June
.luly

145 155 165 !7S


175

115 135 140 145


100

71

90

.August

92
106 100

September. October

200
205

165
155 145

120
120 120

November.
December.
Total
29

82
51

205 215

1,685

190

.January.

130

120

65
140
150

60 90
120
97
120
150

215
217 217

February.

65
45

120
100

March
April

40
40
-

40
40

155 155
70

217 220 85

May
JUII'-

July
.August

70 70

160

86 85

210

Total
Qranfl total.
330
128 97 590

Appendix

E.

Kniraiiinhi

Appendix
Plant

F.

Kawanishi Aircraft Co. MIS estimate of production,

1941~46

NARUO PLANT REPORT


(Air Frames)

NO.

III-l

Dates of Survey: 19 October 1945-3

November 1945

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

The Plant and Attack Data

its

Function in the Aircraft Industry


1
'.

17
21

Effects of Bombing Intelligence Check Vulnerability

21

29 29

Data Relevant to Other Division Studies General Impression of Plant Inspection and Interrogation, Reference Item_.
Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix
lers

A Naruo

B Planned and actual expansion program C Schematic flow chart E Number of man-hours worked F Airplane production by types before

plant layout

29 29 29 Facing page 30
31
(1)
(2)

D Employment chart
G Planned
I

l.

Facing page 32 Facing page 32 Facing page 32

(3)

1939

33
(1)

Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix damage Appendix


causes

Aircraft repairs Facing page 36 J Bomb plots Facing page 3G K-1 Damage plots raid 9 June 1945 K-2 ^Damage plots raid 19 July 1945 Facing page 36 L Number man-hours because of raid M Number man-hours required to repair because of N Number of man-hours raids
.__ of
lost
air

Facing page 34 and actual production Monthly production and acceptances of propelFacing page 34

(2)

35
(1)
(2) (3)

alerts^

37 38
39 40
41

of

air-raid

lost

air

^all

Appendix O-Monthly consumption Appendix P Dispersion plan

of electric

power

KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT COMPANY NARUO PLANT


THE PLANT AND ITS FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY
Imroduction

Kawanishi Aircraft Co. (Kawanishi Kokuki Kabushiki Kaisha). Subassembly and final assemblies of air frames were conducted in 90 buildings
comprising a total floor area of 6,350,760 square ^^^^ ^ combination of steel, concrete, brick, and ^qq,, buildings were constructed, over a continuqus period of time, to meet the firm's expanding Extensive facilities operations (appendix A). were available to conduct the complete assembly

The TV^aruo

-,,

/XT o . s plant (^aruo Seisakusho) was lo1

Naruo (Daito, Naruo-mura, Mukogun, Hyogo-ken), 8 miles west of Osaka.


cated in the village of

These properties were constructed

in

1930 and

represented the largest of four major plants of the

17

processes

among

the plant propoities.

Projected

Volunteers,
tions.

including

students,

were pressed

expansion programs were generally the 1944 year end (appendix B).

fulfilled

up

to

into service to assist in the manufacturing opera-

The Kawanishi
of

was an outgrow the Kawanishi Engineering Works, formed


Aircraft Co.

tii

in

1921 for the production of commercial aircraft.

The company commenced


the Na\-y in 1930 at the

prothicing airplanes for

started in late 1942 and peak at the 1943 year end. Tliis group of employees was very small in relation to the plant's total number of workers and evidently liad no appreciable eft'ect on production.

The program
its

reached

Naruo

plant.

In 1933

Under the Naruo

plant's schedule of ])laniicd

and 1934, experiments with 500-horsepower waterOnly two engines cooled engines were attempted. were completed and a few others repaired. Mass
production was never inaugurated. The company confined its activities to the production of uii'
frames.

(>mployment, a total of 36,000 workers were proThis goal was almost jected by March 1944.

reached in
the |5ay

May

roll.

The

1944 wlien 35,100 people were on foiu'th employment plan con-

Government aid to the Kawanishi Aircraft Co. trom August 1941 to May 1944 amounted to 211,000,000 yen for eciuipment and airport facilities. The funds received by the Naruo plant were allocated as follows:
Facility
>'"

templated a total force of 37,000 by March 1945,' but was never attained. In fact, employment declined steadily from May 1944 until rapid deterioration set in toward the close of the war.

Man-hours reached a peak in May 1944. Inauguration of the dispersal program, shortly thereafter, was i-esponsiljle for the gradual decline that
set in (appendbc E).

Xariio Airport

24, 000.
1,

Maintenance -shop at airportsMachine tools at Xarno plant __


Total
-

000 300, 000 400, 000


700, 000

2.j,

Plant Organization and Operation

Excepting for the months of July and August which period two shifts were conducted, operations were conducted on a one-shift During the one-shift operation, employees basis. worked (excluding overtime) the following sched1944, during
ules:

The

plant was

managed by

the following key

persoimel:
.Masakiyo XaUarnura
Hiro.shi

Kono

Masokiyo Nakainnra.,
Masauori Konishi Shigeru Furukawa

General manager. Chief, planning departnienl. C'liief, i)rodnction department.


Chief, inspection. Chief,

Direct labor (male) Direct labor (female)

Stndents
Staff
Office personnel

0730 0730 0800 0730 0800

to

1S()(

to ISOi to 1701
to IMii

to ISdi

Labor Depari

uien(

Women

and

sttidents did not

work overtime
tlic

Manufacturmg
functional
basis

processes were conducted on a

through

various

departments
used
excluafter

The two shifts, during Government and later

1944, were ordered l)y

discontinued.

Men

on!}

(appendLx C).
Production-line

techniques
iti

were

sively until the first attack

June 1945,

which job-shop jiractices were adopted. Material was processed through the plant on an established schematic production-flow basis. Manufacturing space appears to Inivc liceii utilized with liltlc
waste.

worked the night shift, and tluy were very few in number: only 2 percent of the total direct-laboi workers, or 400 men. Compulsory service in the war industrv started August 11, 1941.
involved system of compensation was in and carried with it many variations. Tiic elTect employees of the plant were paid on an average of 180 to 200 yen per month, working almost 300 hours per month. The base pay after the beginning of the war was 2 yen 80 sen for a 10-hour day. For the 2-hour compulsory overtime period, Id-percent increase for each hour was allowed.
;i

An

Total employment

in tiic

Naruo

plant increased

from 7,850 in December 1939 to 35,100 employees From June 1944, as an at the peak in May 1944. increasing number of workers were called into tiie military service, and es])(>cially after February 1945, when the dispersal i)rogram got under way, employment at Naruo dropped rapidly iititii tlicic were only 17,900 employees in August 1945
(appendix D).

For the next

3 to 6 hours, 15 percent of base pay,

and after 6 hours, 20 percent of base

pay per

hoiii

was given. In addition to base and overtime pay, each employee was allotted an additiomil bonus,
based tipon age, as follows:

18

Percevl

20 years of age.
21 to 25 years...
2f) 1
-

10

rudders,

elevators and

wing

tips,

but had not

(o 30 years

31 aiul

over
llic

20 30 40
^(Mirral
lioiiuscs

icceived e.\tensi\'e utilization.

Production

Statistics

Siipplomcnliiiij;

nixivc,

of

The Naruo
J),

plant

constructed a total of 903

60 pcic'ont of base ])ay lor dircct-liil^or employees, and 50 percent of base pay for indirect-labor employees were paid.

interceptor fighters, George (NlKl-.I an<l

NlK2-

during the last year and a half of the war. From January 1939 to August 1945, Ifi different types of flying boats and land-based planes wei'c

Supply of Material and Components

produced, as follows:

When
aircraft

the

Government
it

oich'ied planes

from the
necessary
Japanese designation

companies,

allocated

the

major ])arts, engines, metal, instrnments, radios, and other accessories. The smaller parts used in air-frame construction were contracted for ])y the individual companies. A committee in Tokyo, called the Shizai liiikai, composed of members from the major aircraft companies, helped the Government to allocate major parts to the
industiy.

tiou

Technical supervision of production and inspecof the products were carried out by the

Na\y's Bureau

of Aviation, and the First Naval Air Arsenal at Yokosuka. Supervision of pro-

duction in general was a function of the Ministry

N avy inspectors were stationed at the plant, one serving as munitions officer. Wings, fuselage, tails, and ailerons were subassembled at the Naruo plant, for its owii use as well as for production in the Konan and Himeji
of Munitions.

Subassembly operations were conducted plant and its dispersed units. The same was true at the Himeji plant, from 1942
plants.

at the

Konan

through 1945.
Substitution of certain critical materials started
in the fall of 1943.

Chrome molybdenum
During 1943,
silicon

steel

was substituted

for nickel

because of the acute

shortage of nickel.

manga-

nese steel was substituted for nickel chrome steel.

was substituted for the manganese steels. During 1945, a lower grade carbon steel was substituted for nickel chrome steel. Steel was used for engine mountmgs, wmg joints, spar fittings, wing fittuigs on fuselages and in their applicaIn
1944,

carbon

steel

nickel

chrome

and

silicon

tions.

Plastics were substituted for light alloys pulleys,


fittings,

control

and

accessories.

were never used in structural parts. Light alloys were employed as a substitute for brass or other copper alloys in fitthigs. Wood
Plastics

was substituted
nonstructural

for light

alloys in fittmgs
floors.

and
for

parts,

including

Experi-

ments were made with substitutes

of

wood

Prior

to

Fobruaiv

1944,

the

polic,y

of

tlu'

Government was ainvortliy by the


ishi

to accept all planes stated to be

company. The KawanAircraft Co.'s policy was to test fly the airaircraft

planes before delivery.


figures prior to

Therefore,

all

protluction

53 type interceptor fighter .Jimpu interceptor fighter (J 6 1).

Shiden Shiden Shiden Shiden Shiden

21 type interceptor fighter 31 type interceptor fighter

32 type interceptor fighter 42 type interceptor fighter

(N (N (N (N

1 1

1 1

K K K

2-J). 3-J).
4-J).

K 4-A). (NIK .5~J).


X
1

February 1944 represent actual production delivered to the Government. After February 1944, due to poor engine and air-frame workmanship, the Government's policy was to accept aircraft only after they had been test-flown and accepted by Navy registered pilots. For this i-eason, figures of production after Februrry 1944 are bioken tlown to show both production and acceptance by the Government. Monthly orders by the Government, as distinct from yearly orders, began in April 1944. Six types of wooden propellers were made at the Naruo plant in addition to engine test clubs from January 1939 to April 1945. A few were used l)y Kawanishi Aircraft Co., but most were sold to the Government. From 1939 to the end of 1944,

Solvu transport flying l)oat (a modification of

l-.J

Oeorge) (H 11

1).

N1K2-J On 31 December 1943, the initial experimental plane N 1 K 2-J made its first flight at Nai'uo Airport. The second to eighth experimental planes
were completed between January and June 1944.

During

this period, test flights

and modifications
in th(>

resulting from the test flights were carried out.

These numerous modifications were applied


production of successive types of aircraft.

N1K3-J
In order to overcome the backward tendency of
the center of gravity in the

2-J,

it

was

when

propeller production ended, 3,133


for

wooden

planned to move the engine and pi'opeller forward approximately 150 millimi^ters. This type was called N 1 K 3-J but was never constructed.

propellers

small

trainers

and

observation

planes were produced (appendix H). Actual production exceetled planned output as
set l)y the

N1K4-J
This was a modification of

2-J.

The

Government.

main

differences follow:
of engine elianged:

Type

Rebuilding and Repair of Airplanes

(Installed injection

pumps

instead of carburetors.)
tlie

13-millimeter machine guns added in


a

fuselage.

From January
aircraft

to

October 1944

total of 393

.\rrangcment of armament in wings modified.

were repaired at the Naruo plant.

In

The

first to third

experimental planes were com-

1939, 21 aircraft were repaired, increasing to 95

])lctcd

in

1944.

Numerous

modifications

were

98 in 1941, chopping to but 17 in 1942, and reaching a peak of 137 in 1943. This work tapered ofl" in 1944, during which year only 25 we're repaired, and came to a stop by the end of
in 1940,

made
The
end

after test flights

and applied to

later plaiK^s

as well as to the above three experim(>ntal planes.

fourth plane was 95 percent completed at the


of the war.

that year.

No

airplanes were repaired in

945.

Repairs of diverse character were made for various contractors, including the Government and private builders (appendix I).
Experimental Aircraft

N1K4-A
This was a modification of N1K4-J, for use on
aircraft
carriers.

Two
The

planes

of

the

N1K2-J

model were reconstructed


of this experiment.

in 1944 for the


first

purpose experimental plane

Early in 1939, only one experimental threeseatcr observation seaplane, Jake, was produced. In 1940, one large experimental flying boat was produced which never got into production. Also in 1940, 12 primary training seaplanes were produced and from October 1942 to February 1944, only 15 observation seaplanes, Noi-m 11, were subject to experiment. The following experimental airplanes were produced in 1944 and 1945, chiefly in the design department and final-assembly shop of the Naruo
plant:

was completed on 20 September 1944, and the second plane about half a month later.

N1K5-J
This was also a modification of N1K2-J for performance improvement. The type of engine was elianged from the Homare to the Kasei and the
airframe strengthened. Plans were started at the beginning of 1945, ami design drawings were nearly completed. Just
before the construction

work was started

in the

Himeji plant, everything was destroyed by the air attack on the Naruo plant.

20

J6K1
This was
a

new type

liigh-altiliidc inlcrccptoi-.

Number Number
I

in

plant area, 385. 6

August 1945.
101.

of liuildiug hits, final assembly. of

The

first

ex|)('riinciital

plane

was

planned

.Number

i:XH, Uuildiiig No.

for

When the desi<;n tlie end of 1944. drawings were nearly completed, all the plans had to he ahandoned at the retpiest of the (iovernment.
completion at

EFFECTS OF
Direct Air Attacks

BOMBING
i)lant:
to 0905.

There were three attacks on the Xaruo


1.

June 1945 August 1945

0832

HllKl
This represented a new type of transport flying wooden construction members. This aircraft was planned in conjunction with J()Kl, and was stopped at the same time. Design drawings were nearly completed and preparation
boat, with
for

2. 3.

19 July 1945
(I

1120 to 1200.

0050 to 0202.

production was started.

Approximately

''0

percent of a half-size model plane, for structuial tests, was completed at the end of the war.

SUICIDE PLANE

modification of

a larger

bomb

load.

NlKl-J George From the end

11, to carry

of 1944 to

January 1945, four George ll's were reconstructed, employing 200 employees, including the designing department. These employees, worked exclusively on the modification of George 11. Experiments in wind tunnel and experimental tanks, flight tests, structural tests and experiments in production methods were carried out at
the

same time.

Experimental planes were assembled in the final assembly shop, utilizing from 250 to 300 employees. Upon completion of the final assembh' of the plane, officers in charge of the First Aviation Arsenal inspected, the aircraft. Test flights were carried out in cooperation with officers in charge of the test-flight section. First Aviation Arsenal, and the company's test pilots.

In addition to the above three attacks, tlierc were two area attacks which affected the Naruo plant. On 15 June 1945, from 0850 to 1050, the plant area was not struck, but dormitories some distance away were damaged. On 10 July 1945, from 1030 to 1040, 31 bombs struck the Naruo Bomb plots (apairfield, 29 hitting the runway. I)endix J) show the three attacks on the plant. Damage caused by the first 2 attacks are revealed During the attack in appendi.xes K-1 and K-2. of 6 August 1945, only incendiaries were dropped. All fell on one part of the final assembly buUding, building number 101, causing very little structural damage and burning seven assembled airplanes. A number of the least essential buildmgs were dismantled before the attacks, as precaution against fire. During the first attack, the subassembly shops for wings and tail units were severely damaged, therefore, the subassembly of these parts were subcontracted. Final assembly was consolidated from three different buildings to

two

buildings.
total floor area before air attacks

The

to 6,350,760 square feet.

Superficial

amounted damage to

5,000,000 square feet w'as sustained and 600,000 square feet of floor space was entirely destroyed

ATTACK DATA
The attack data may be summarized
Intelligence (lain:

as follows:
.July 194.5,

Date and hour of attack, 9 June 194.5, 19 August 1945. Duration, 0832 to 0905, 1120 to 1200. 0050 Attacking unit. Twentieth Air Force.
Altitude, 20.500.

to 0202.

Number

of aircraft over target, 44.

HE Number, weight, and type, 263.5 tons HE Fuzing, 1/1000 nose, N. D.


tail.

M65GP's.

On-lhe-ground findings:

attempt was made to repair its damaged the damage; everything was left state to give the appearance of inactivity and Temporary wooden roofs mider severe damage. the damaged original roof were erected over sections of the wing and tail assembly line to protect the material and workers from the weather and to camouflage their activity. The air attacks caused extensive physical damJiluch of the age. (See photographs 1 to 10.) debris shown in the photographs was caused by A copy of the tidal wave of 17 September 1945.
all air

attacks.

No

[Number

in

plant area, 328, 9 June 1945; 110, 6

a report of the
of 9

damage

attributed to the air attack

P'

August 1945.

HE

Number

of building hits, 213, 9

June 1945;

23,

6 August 1945.

Jime 1945, as made to the Japanese Government by Naruo plant officials, is incorporated in
the reference material.

Number

of

UXB,

1,

9 June 1945.

21

Photo No.

1.

Building

west,

No. 602, lay-out shop. showing damage of a direct hit.

View

Photo No.

2. Building No. 601, sheet metal works. View northeast. Because of marshy ground, the floor was concrete reinforced with steel. Bombs exploded on strong floor and did not cause too much struc-

tural

damage.

22

si-

Photo No. 3. Buildings 701,704,716, machine shops and sheet metal works. View northeast, showing
slight

damage

to concrete buildings.

H I
wm

i *

'I
t

IP

y~

^BSTviT?:^

'

Photo No. 4. Buildings 701, 704, 7X6, machine shops and sheet metal works. View north, showing bomb damage of direct hits and near-misses to a steelreinforced concrete building.

23

Photo No.
west

assembly. Building 401, roof damage over assembly


5.

final

View

line.

Photo No. 6. Building 201, final assembly. View east, showing four bomb hits on the roof.

24

Photo No. 7. Building 101,


assembly.
superficial

View
damage.

east

slight

final

Photo No.

8. Buildings 201 and 202, wing assembly. View northeast superficial damage.

25

Photo No. 9. Building 201, wing


assembly.
ficial

View north superNote temporary


line.

damage.

roof over wing assembly

Photo No.

0. Build-

ing 703, assembly of wings and spars. View northwest

-^-

structural

damage.

26

Icr tlic first attiu'k,

most of

tlic inacliiiic

tools

T.\BLE

3.

Casualties for each raid

removed from
us locations.
1

tlie plants and dispersed to Only the heaviest maeliinery

icfaft renniined in the plant.

few machine tools essential to the assembly Before the air

ks, there were a total of 4 Hi


his

amount, 69 machine
repair.
1

tools

machine tools. were superfi-

damaf^ed but repairable and 65 were dam-

beyond
le

accom])anying tables

and

2 list the e.xtent

amag'e suffered by jment facilities.


ible 3

tlio

machine-tool

and
It

reveals the casualties for each raid.

be seen that the 9 June 1945 attack was the


.

one with major


1.

effect.

|,E

List

nf


Acting head.
Assistant.

Fire defense part v. Relief party. Antigas party. Engineering party. Transport party. Office defense party. Shop defense party.

average of 2 or 3 hours were lost duiiug each The employees would run to their shelters outside the plant, hut were very slow in returning to their work.
raid.

Au

Interruptions to Production

Direct air attacks cm the plant caused a great George, the only type uf aircraft heing produced in 1945. The accom(ho]) in the ])roduetion of

panying tahle 4 presents actual production and Government-plamied production for 1945.
Table
4.

Production of George

21-Nl K^-J

Month

(1945)

Trans])ortiitioii
s

was the principal


all

hottleiicck,

DATA RELEVANT TO OTHER DIVISION


STUDIES
Railway transportation didiculties started in June 1944, and continually becanu' worse. The Naruo plant hud diniculty getting raw materials and component parts to its works, ;iiul in sending material to subcontractors and receiving linisiied The greatest difficulty was exparts in return. perienced with the Hokuiiku Railroad Line.
Starting in the latter part of 1944, deliveiT of airplanes was held up due to a shortage of hydrauparts. Instruments, and electrical equipmejit which were for the main part manufactured in Tokyo and were not arriving at the aircraft comlic

the ilispersioii of

types of iiuiustry took

)lac(>

simultaneously.

Kai)i(l dispersion of ein|)loyees


I

was delayed by

shortage of l)illets, food, etc., anil especially )ecause of the difficulties involved in transferring aniilies and household goods of (he employees to he disj)ersed locations. The Naruo plant estimated that from 30 to 40 :lj)ercent of production was lost during May 1945
lue solely to dispersion.

At the Naruo plant proper, production droppetl

om

a planned total of 190 to 120.

INTELLIGENCE CHECK
In the type
luced,

panies because of ti-ansportation difficulties

The

and quantity

of certain planes pro-

information was accurate, information on the production George, was inf the most important plane, ccurate in that it was estimated that 1,280 Ijxeorges were produced while only 903 planes
intelligence

various aircraft companies used special couriers to carry the vital parts from Tokyo to the aircraft

^he intelligence

companies on regular passenger trains-. Durmg September and October of 1944, the Japanese Government ordered the railroad companies to
provide
couriers
special

coaches

for

aircraft

company

produced over the same period, 'his was 377 planes or 30 percent less than had een estimated. In the production of Mavis, he estimated production was 156 planes while ctual production amounted to 186 planes from 940 to 1943. This amounted to an underestiere

actually

between Tokyo and Kobe,

to eliminate

the shortage of necessary parts and assist in the


delivery of completed aircraft.

GENERAL IMPRESSIONS OF PLANT INSPECTION AND INTERROGATION


buildings were

late of 30 large 4-engine patrol

bombers or 16

ercent less than were produced at this plant.

The Naruo plant was well constructed and the The plant all of modern design.
and with
could
utilization of its productive capacity

VULNERABILITY
The Xaruo
1

lay-out was suitable for mass production


full

plant was vulnerable to air attack

that

all

the activities of the plant were centered

Subasseml)ly of component parts assembly of air frames were caiTied on bordering each other in much the 1 buildings ame way as they are in the United States. The let that the plant was situated on the shore at he mouth of a river, which coukl be used as a
1

a small area.
final

nd

have produced more aircraft than it actually did. With its two wind tunnels and one water basin, a greater e.xperimental program could have been undertaken. The plant site was not too well chosen ui that tidal waves flooded the entire plant each year, and no precautionaiy measures were undertaken to remedy (i. e., flood walls)
this condition.

mdmark, increased its vulnerability. N^o empt was made to camouflage the plant.

at-

All

he buildings were concentrated in a small area. i.fter the first 6 months of the war, the labor

REFERENCE ITEM
The following reference item is filed with the records of the Aircraft Division, United States Strategic Bombing Survey, in the office of The
Adjutant General, D. C.

was not very enthusiastic about war proluction. During the last few years of the war,
orce

bsenteeism always increased during the spring summer months, because many of the emiloyees worked in their gardens and on their arms. From the beginning of 1945, ever in,nd

War Department, Washington,


1.

Reference Item

Sample of Report
ment.

to

Gorernto

Teasing
heir

numbers of employees stayed away from work to evacuate their families and homes
cities,

Report on Damages due

rom, the

in order to safeguard their lives

Air

Jiaid of

Naruo

PlaiH.

(The

1st report)

,nd possessions

from

air attacks.

June 9th 1945.

29

MO
I

fUHCTlON

rtPL
I

COMSritUCTlOW

NO FUNCTION
BOILERS
!

TTfE

COHTRUCTIOM

WAREHOUSES
I

STDRV WOOD
I

STOAT I ftRCHITECTS OFFICE STORT WOOD 3 UNKNOWN


I

WOOD
I

4 APPRENTICE SCHOOL Z BTORT MOOD STORY WOOD STORkOE sTonv wood a UNKNOWN T WMEHOUSCS ISTOHYW/MEIZ PLOOH WOOD STORV WOOD riMEKCCPCR STOtTY WOOO 9 CASTINO a FORfllNS STORASC eiUNASIUM STORT WOOO 10 STORT WOOCi II OARAOE OATEHOUSE Z STORV WOOO IE
I

I 3

STORT STEEL C0MPRES5CRS WATER PLANT STONY W/aASE WOOO 4 STORT WOOO PNESS ft MEAT TREAT. STORT STEEL KITCHEN EXPERIMENT SHOP Z STORT WOOO OFFICE Z STORT WOOO SHEET METAL SHOP STORT W/BaSC STECL LAYOUT SHOf STORY W/MEI2 BASE STEEL QARASE STORT WOOO OSS i STORY WOOO
i
I I I
I I I

STORT WOOD STOUT WOOO APPRENTICE SHOPS 9T0T WOOD IB PLTWOOO STORES STORT BRICK l BASOLrHE a OIL STORES T TEMP. MACH SHOP TRANSPORT OFFICE STORT WOOD |T UNKNOWN Z STORT WOOD
13 14 Jie

STORES

UNKNOWN
DORMITORY

WOOO
I

',

la

PLASTIC SHAPIHS 2 STORT WOOD WOOO STORASE t STORY WOOO STorr irick to GARDioE sTORaec STORY WOOD ei UNKNOWN EZ STORE STORY WOOO STORY WOOO 3 3 CARPENDER SHOP (4 aiCTCLE/^ACKS
I I

'

Z STORY WOOD STORT WOOO STORY BRICK STORY STEEL STom CONCRETE STOR' W/MEZ7 STEEL kR ASSEMBLY WATER PLANT STORY WOOD LOCKER STORY STEEL STORASE OOV'T FURNISHED PART8 STORV STEEL MODEL SHOPS Z STORY WOOD SMALL WIND TUNNEL STORY WATER TEST BASIN STORY STEEL INO TUNNEL CONCRETE e STORY STRUCTURE LAB. STORY STEEL WIND TUNNEL Z STORY CONCRETE PRODUCTION OFFICE Z STORY WOOO :N0WN STORT WOOD WAIN OFFICE 3 STORT CONCRETE FINAL ASSEMBLY STORY STEEL EXPERIMENTAL SHOP UNKNOWN STORY BRICK PRODUCTION OFFICE Z STORT CONCRETE FOUNORT STORT STEEL STORT CONCRETE OIL sroRAQE a STOUT concrete ENGINE TEST CELL Z STORY STEEL FOHOINa ft STEEL HEAT TREAT STORf STEEL MATERIAL TCSTINS SHOP STORT WOOO TAIL UNIT ASSEWBLT STON/ STEEL CRATINQ ft PACKINa STORT STEEL UNKNOWN STORT CONCRETE SHOP STONV STEEL STORT STEEL PAINT SHOP PROPELLER SHOP Z STORT STEEL STORY STEEL FINAL ASSEUBLY WIND ASSEMBLY STORT STEEL UNKNOWN 2 STORT STEEL ANODIC TREATMENT SHOP STORY STEEL FUSELAGE ASSEHBLT STORY STEEL EXPERMENTAL SHOP UNKNOWN STORY BRICK

UNKNOWN

lOWN SHOP

t 1

'

1
I

'

>

THREE WOOOEN BUILDINGS INTENDED FOR SHEET METAL SHOPS Dismantled in aprilHAT 1943 operations mostly within TNIE PLANT balance to dispersed plants
. ,

NARUO PLANT LAYOUT


AS OF MAY 1945

SCALE

in

feet

us STRATEGIC BOMB SURVEY


KAWANISHI

AIRCRAFT COMPANY NARUO PLANT


APPENDIX
719033
A

0-47

(Face

p. 30)

SCHEMATIC FLOW CHART MAY 1945


RAILWAY SIDING FROM

NISH INONUYA

STA.

TRU CKS FROM OUT SIDE

WARE

HOUSE

L.

WARE

HOUSE

WARE HOUSE SHEET METAL SHOP

_J

MACHINE SHOP

-JIG 8

Fl

TTING

SPAR ASSEMBLY

FINAL ASSEMBLY
TAIL UNIT

ASSEMBLY

-rr

TO AIRPORT

NUMBER OF MANHOURS WORKED


FROM APRIL 1939 TO AUGUST 1949

o o o
o*

o X z < z

MAMJJASOND
(949

U.S.STWATE8ICB0UBW6 SURVEY

KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT CO.

NARUO PLANT
APPENDIX
71B033

O-

47 (Face

p.

33} No. 3

Appendix

F.

Airplane production by types before 1939,

Kawanishi

PLANNED AND ACTUAL PRODUCTION


SHIDEN
II

NIKIJ

AND NIK2J

TYPE INTERCEPTER FIGHTER -

NIKI

J-GEOREM
-DEC- 194 3 DROP

A. OCT.

IN

PROOUCTION DUE TO DEL AYS

IN

PREPARING PRODUCTION

FIGS (ESPICALLY ASSEMBLING FIGS)


B.

MAY-AUG.I944 DROP
NIKIJ

C.

IN PRODUCTION DUE TO UODIFICATIONB BY WAR EXPERIENCES ETC SEP 1944- DECREASE OF PLANNED PRODUCTION BY CHANBE IN TYPE OF PRODUCTS FROM

TO NIKE J

GOVERNMENT PLANNED PROOUCTION


LINE

V
t
*-

z s

-.

kio

a o

<n

o
>IT

< Z <

o
s

'X

Ai'r'KNUix

I.

Aircnifl
Number
of air-

it/xiir.i,

Kdiriniishi Airniifl Co.

Niinio

/ihint

Total

numT>l'

ber of air[ilnnos to 1)1


repaired

planes repaired

Defective parts

Sourcc

J)uiu;ir\
Fi't>ru;ir.v

KllKl

Naval Air Arsenal.


Hull...
...do.

March
April

HBKl
KlIKl

Do. Do.
fuel

.May
.Itltlc

July
Auf:iisl

H6KI H6K1 KllKl

Hull and Hull .


.

system
of

Changing type

engine fmotorZirapu

r>

type)

Seiiloinhcr

October

November
neceniher
10:
.

H6K1.. H6K1.. E13K1.

Hull and equipment

...do...
Modification

Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do.

January February

H6K1 H6K1
H6K1. H6K1. H6K1.

Modification to transporting flying boat.

Wing
Hull... Repainting Hull do
..

Naval .\ir Do. Do.

Ar.senal.

of

bottom

of hull.

.March
April ...

H6K2 H6K2
-

-do.
of

Do. Do. Do. Naval Aviation Bureau.

May.
June
July

--

H6K2
H6K2. E7K2. H6K2. H5Y1. H6K2. H6K2. H6K2. H6K2.

Repainting

bottom

of hull.

Tail-plane and elevator

Wing
Modification
of hull

Naval .\ir Do. Do.

.\rsenal.

AUL'USI

and equipment-

September
October
.

do... Hull

Nippon Air-Ways Co. Hiro Naval Arsenal.


Naval Air .\rsenal. Do. Do. Nippon .\ir-Ways Co. Naval .\viation Bureau. Naval .^ir .\rsenal. Do. Nippon .\ir-Ways Co.
Naval
.\ir .\rsenal.

Wing
Hull

. -

November
December.

...do
Modification.

H6KI
H6K2.

Overhaul

H6K2
H6K2.
January. February

...do
do
Hull.

H6K2

March
April..

May
June
July

H6K2. H6K2H6K2. H6K2.


. -

Modification of hull Modification...

Hull Modification

of hull

and repairing.

Naval .\viation Bureau. Do. Naval Air Arsenal. Naval .Aviation Bureau.
Tia.

August September
October.,.

H6K2. H6K2. H6K2.


H6K2..

Modification of hull and repairing..

do do
Repairing
of

November. December.
12:

bottom

of hull

Do. Do. Naval Air

,\rsenal.

Januar>'
Fettruary

March
April

H6K2. H8K1. H8K1.

Modification
....do...

of hull.
-

Repairing of hull

Naval Aviation Bureau. Naval Air Arsenal. Do.

May
June
Jnly
Augu.st
. .

H8K1.

Repairing of huU.

Do.

September
October
.

Kovember. Doeember.

H8K1.

Repairing of hull.

Do.

35

Appendix

I.

Aircraft re-pairs,

Kawanishi Aircraft

Co.

Naruo plant Continued

Year

TKBEt WOODCN UILCNOSINTINOEI ^H[(r HETAL SHlDS (HSMINTLEO MT 1949 OPER*tiON8 MOSnt PlIKT Bi.*NCE TO Oi&PtKlEO
.

eOMe LEGEND

UKCTI OH
I

TtPC

COWITHUcnOM

HO FUNCTION

TYPE

COWBTRUCTIOH

E 3 gNKNOwra i 4 PPBENrice
I

STORT WOOD MtREHOUIES STORT MOOD tnCMIIECTS OFFICf


> I

. SHED OILERS t STORT

stodi wood SCHOJL 2 STORY WOOO STORT WOOD STORAGE STORT WOOD 5 UNKNOWN WARENOUStS 'STORY W/MCZZ FLOOH WOOD T STORY WOOD TIMCKEEPER STORY WOOO 9 CASTING FOR8IN0 5T0UW STORT WOOO SVMNASIUM 10 STORY WOOt M GADAQE STORY WOOD GATEHOUSE Z li STORY WOOO 13 JIG STORES SHOPS STORT WOOD 14 APPRENTICE STOP! WOOO 15 PLYWOOD STORES
I

t
)

T I

9 a
I

CONPRESSCRS WATER PLANT STORT W/BA9E KITCHEN STORT WOOO PRESS S HEAT TREAT. STORY STEEL KITCHEN EX.'ERIMENT SHOP 2 STORY WOOO OFFICE STORY WOOD Z SHEET METAL SHOP STORT W/BASE STEEL LAYOUT SHOT STORY W/MEIZ S BASE STEEL GARAGE STORT WOOD RED CROSS 2 STORT WOOO
I

'

WOOD
t

QASOLtHE A OIL IT TEMP UACH SHOP STORY


l
1 I

STORM
,

STORY aRICN TRANSPORT OPFICC


I

I >

ITA
la 19

UNNNOWM
PLASTIC

STORY WOOD

CO
Zl

ZZ

Zi (4
Zfi

SHAPING 1 STORY WOOO WOOO STORASE t STORY WOOD STORY BRICK CARIIOE STORASe UNKNOWN STORT WOOD STORE STORY WOOO SHOP CARPEHOER STORY WOOO aiCYCLE RACKS STORI WOOD STORE 2 STORY WOOO
I
I

> J
I

Z STORY WOOD STORT WOOO STORY BRICK STORY STEEL JIO SHOP 3 STORY CONCRETE STORY WfMEZZ SPAR ASSEMBLY WATER PLANT 9T0RY WOOO PAINT LOCKER STORY STEEL

UNKNOWH

>

.NOWN

UNKNOWN

STORAOE GOV'T FURNISHED PARTS


I
I

i I

STORY STEti

J S T

26 UNKNOWN

STORY WOOD STORY WOOO Z7 UNKNOWN tt NERAL WAREHOUSE S STORY CONCRETE SHOP 3 STORY CONCRETE E
2
I

MODEL SHOPS Z STORT WOOD STORY WOOD SVALL WIND TUNNEL STORY STEEL WATER TEST BASIN WIND TUNNEL t STORY CONCRETE STORY STEEL STRUCTURE LAB STORT CONCRETE TUNNEL WIND t lUCTION OFFICE 2 STORY WOOO STORY WOOD IKNOWN OFFICE J STORY CONCRETE L ASSEUBLT STORT STEEL
I I
I

RIMEHTAL SHOP STORY BRICK OFFICE 1 STORY CONCRETE STORY STEEL 5 FOUNDRY e WAREHOUSES 2 STORT CONCRETE STORY CONCRETE 2 STORT STEEL STORT STEEL > FOROINO B STEEL HUT TREAT STORY WOOD 9 MATERIAL TESTING SHOP STORT STEEL TAIL UNIT ASSEMBLY STORY STEIL t CRATING B PACKINB STORY CONCRETE 3 UNKNOWN STORY STEEL D BLASTiNO SHOP PAINT SHOP STORT STEEL PROPELLER SHOP 1 STORT BTEEL FIHAL ASSEMBLY STORT STEEL STORY STEEL WING ASSEMBLY Z STORY STEEL TREATMENT SHOP STORT STEEL FUSELAGE ASSEMBLY STORT STEEL Z EXPERMENTAL SHOP STORT BRICK 3 UNKNOWN
lOWN
I

PRODUCTION
I

>

I '

719033

O-

47 (Face

p. 36}

No. 2

HO
I

FUNC Tl OM

TYgj
I

COWSTBUCtlOW
)

UNCTIOW

TYRE

COWBTBUCriOW

STORV MOOO WAREHOUSES STOUT MOOD OfFICE t CMIICCTS STOR'r WOOD 3 UNKNOWN a APPRENTICE SCHOOL Z 9T0RT WOOO storv wooo s (CHAP SToRAoe wOOO STORV e UNaNOMN STWn W/MEZZ FLOOR WOOD T WiREMOUSES STORY WOOD TINeHEEPCR STORY WOOO 3 CASTina FOReiRtt STORAU STORY WOOD 0VWfUSIUM lO STORY WOOl. n OANACE
I

COAL SHED iOILERS 1 STORY STCCL

<

(
)

COMPRESS CRS WATER PLANT STORY KITCHEN STORY


I I
<

W/IASE
I

WOOD

WOOD

PRESS HEAT TREAT. STORY STCCL KITCHEN EXPERIMENT SHOP I STORY WOOD OFFICE I STORY STEEL STOUT W/UlSE i SHEET MCTAL SHOP STEEL LAYOUT SMOr STORY W/MCtZ tASI
I t
I I 1

le

MTCMOUSE
JI8

( STORV
I >

MOOD

IS 14

STORY WOOD STORES STORY WOOD ARMEMTICE SHOPS STORY WOOD PLYWOOD STORES
I I

3
t

OARAGE STORY WOOO RED CROSS Z STORY WOOO UNKNOWN WOOO DORMITORY i STORY WOOO UNKNOWN STORY WOOO
I I

STORY SRICK 15 OASOLIME K OIL STORES TRANSPORT OFFICC IT TEMP. lUCH SHOF
, I

IM
II la tt

STORY WOOD UHKHOWH E STORY WOOD


SKAPINt
t 2
I

'

STEEL t STORY SHOP 3 STORY CONCRETE STORY WfMEZZ SPAR ASSCMRLY


JIO
I

;N0N INOWN

STORY

RRICK

STEEL
STORY STCCL

PLASTIC

WOOD 9T0RACC
> I

to CARIIDE

CTORAeC

STORY WOOD STORY WOOD STORY BRICK

3
I

WATER PLANT PAINT LOCKER

I
'

STORY WOOO STORY STEEL


i

UHKNOMM STORY STORY WOOD tt STORE STORY t) CARPENOER SNO<'


i

t )

tTORAM aOV'T FURNISHED MRTt MODEL SHOPS I STORY WOOD STORY WOOD SMALL WIND TUNNEL
I
i

f4
Ifl

J
27

tt iS MACHINE SHOP

WOOD STORY WOOD tlCYCLE RACKS STORE Z STORY WOOD UNKNOWN I STORY WOOD STORY WOOD UHRNOWN SCHERAL WAREHOUSE SSTORY CONCIICTC
I I

S S T I

STORY

CONCRETE
1

TEST BASIN STORY STEEL TUNNEL t STORY COHCRCTE STORY STEEL STRUCTURE LAB WIND TUNNEL t STORY CONCRETE PRODUCTION OFFICE t STORY WOOO STORY WOOD MAIN OFFICE 1 STORY CONCRETE FINAL ASSEMBLY STORY STEEL

WATER
WIND

CIPERiMENTf
I

STORY BRICK UNKNOWN 4 PRODUCTION OFFICE Z STORY STORY STtCL 9 FOUNDRY


S
I

CONCRCTI

B
)

S r ) )

a
I

STORY CONCRETE STORY CONCRETC EN6INC TEST CELL Z STORY STtEL STORY STE FORBINQ B STEEL NEAT TREATSTORY MATERIAL TESTING SHOP STORY STEEL TAIL UNIT ASSEMBLY CRATINS B PACKINB I STORY STCCL STORY CONCRETE INOWN STORY STEEL SAND BLASTING SHOP STElL PROPELLER SHOP E STORY STEEL STORY STEEL FINAL ASSEMBLY STORY STEEL WING ASSEMBLY UNKNOWN 2 STORY STEEL ANODIC TRCATMCNT SHOP STORY STEEL FUSELAGE ASSEMBLY STORY STCCL

REHOUSES

t 2

iRAQE

>

CXPERWENTAL SHOP UNKNOWN STORY BRICK


I

us STRATEGIC BOMB SURVEY


KAWANISHI

AIRCRAFT COMPANY NARUO PLANT

UJ

<

< a:

UJ en

f
E
CO

S
JC

^
l_ in

If)

Z <

o
IT

UJ

m 2 z

37

2
LU

UJ(5

3
3
I

(n cr

o X <

APPENDIX

Dispersion Plan, Kawanishi Aircraft Co.


Dispersion
often,

Naruo

Plant
l)iiil(liiif;s

of

Naruo
to

])laiit

was startod

in
b(^

1.

Heinoval of small wooden


Thiiiiiiiiff

aud

fixtures.

October 1944 in the following order, but had to


iiltered

2.
3.

due

air

raids.

The program

A.

with precautionary measures against fire then against small bombs, and finally complete dispersion of production to other lostarted

out wooden Ijuildint^s. Dispersion of machines, tools and shop equipment. Dispersion of main components for (jeortje 21

(MK2J).
5.

bombs,

Dispersion

of

assembling;

shops

for

(Jeorne

21

cations.

6.

(N1K2J). Complete removal

of

wooden

l)iiililinf;s.

1-A.

-Design Department, Kansai-Gakuin, grounds and buildings (planned)

Niinie of shop

Ground and Buildings (planned)

N'ame

of

shops

Employees (planned)
StalT

Principal machines (planned)

KONAN PLANT REPORT


(Air Frames)

NO.

III-2

Dates of Survey, 22-24 October 1945

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

The Plant and Attack Data

Its

Function in the Aircraft Industry

4.5

47

Effects of Bombing 47 Intelligence Check 51 Appendix A Organization chart 52 Appendix B Plant layout Facing page 52 Appendix C Number of employees 53 Appendix D Number of man-hours worked _ _ , 54 Appendix E Planned and actual production 55 Appendix F Bomb plot, 11 May 1945 Facing page 56 (1) Appendix G Bomb damage, 11 May 1945 Facing page 56 (2) Appendix H Bomb damage, 5 June and 6 August 1945. Facing page 56 (3) Appendix I Man-hours lost because of damage caused by air

attack Appendix J Man-hours lost from raid alerts Appendix K^Number of man-hours lost by air raids
.

57
i
.

air

58 59

Appendix Appendix Appendix

M Dispersion of factories and warehouses


N Dispersal of production

L Electric

power production

60
61

62

THE PLANT AND


troduction

ITS

FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY


machined air-frame
l>er

parts,

was acquired

in

Decem-

The Konan or Fukae plant (Konan Seisakua),


i

1943.

Aircraft Co.

one of the four largest plants of the Kawani(Kawanishi Kokuki Kal)ushiki

lisha),
st of

was located

at

Honjo

village,

15 miles

Osaka. The plant consisted of 40 build;s and over 30 dormitories. Total l)uilding 'a of the Konan plant was 1,994,785 square t, of which 1,070,000 square feet was devoted direct production and 924,785 square feet was
Jized

This plant was one of three, belonging to the Kawanishi Aircraft Co., which assembled planes. The Kawanishi Au'craft Co. was founded in 1928 as a producer of seaplanes. The company grew and moved to Naruo village in 1930 to build air
large,

frames for various types of seaplanes, including four-engine transport planes. (For detailed history, see Aircraft Division Corporation

for in

indirect

labor.

The

plant,

con-

ucted

February

1942,

comprised
in

ildings of
lido

modern

structural steel design.

main The
which

Seiki

Industrial

Co.

Kol)e,

Report No. Ill of the Kawanishi Ah-craft Co.) In February 1942, at the request of the Japanese Navy, the Konan plant was established to build large seaplanes. In June 1944 the Konan plant

45

started

prod Uft ion


homl)er.
aiti

of

Frances,

two-onglnp

2,050,000 for

March

1945.

This was never a

medium

Government
following foi-m:
Facility:

to the

Kenan

plant took the

tained as actual man-hours worked totaled oa Planned scheduli 1,425,000 for that month.

i'"

were never approached from August (appendix D).


Production
Statistics

1942

Biiildings

22,400,000
1, fiO(),

231 presses, furnaces, transformers, sheetmetal machine, etc


.^2

machine
Total

tools

000 229, 000


of

All production

was
12,

for the

Navy.

Productii

24, 235,

000

Plant Organization and Operation.

The Kawanishi
Ryuzo Kawanishi
Kenji Maeliara Shiro Takahashi Yoshio Hashiguchi

Aircraft Co.

was managed by

a four-engine flying bo started in February 1943 when 03 air f ram were produced. Durhig 1944, 77 air frames we built, and in 1945, when production of this ty ceased, only 10 air frames were manufactured.

H8K2, Emily

the following officers:


President.

^ice president.

Managing

director.

Pakae

Hamada

Chief engineer. Plant manager


plant.

of

Konan

Plant responsibilities weie delegated key persotmel (appendix A).

to other

Production of H8K2-L, Emily 32, a four-engi flymg boat which was a modification of Emily started in November 1943 diu'ing which year fi air frames were manufactured. During 1944 were produced. Smce production of this type aircraft was discontinued, only five airfran were built during 1945. Manufactm'e of both the above types of a
craft
11,

was discontimied

in favor of

P1Y2S, Fran^

The Konan

plant, designed for production of

large four-engine seaplanes,

was located

at the

a twin-cngme bomber, which started into p duction in June 1944. The Government plan

edge of a bay, and had two large slipways, but no All lantl-basetl planes were ferried airfield nearliy.

production for 1944 was 162 aircraft, but the ph protluced only 28 because of the difficidty

by

bargi' 3 miles across the

bay

to the airfield at

the Naruo plant of the Kawanishi Aircraft Co. The Konan plant was ideally orgaiuzed for mass

production (appendix B). The general arrangement of the plant made for efficient use of floor
space.

Total employment showed a consistent rising At the end of 1942 it was 2,000, growing trend. At the peak, in to 5,050 at the 1943 year end.

November
The
total

1944,

creasing to 7,500 as the

employment totaled 7,900, dewar ended (appendix C).


of

changing over from one- type to another. 1 Ciovernment plan for 1944 to the end of the \ called for 605; the total aircraft produced v only 94. During 1945, only 66 aircraft were p duced while the Government plan was 4 Production was gradually increasing until the attack of 11 May 1945, which arrested manuf luring. It continued to drop after the 5 Ji 1945 attack imtil onl}' one aircraft was produi during August. The following is a list of planes produced si
1942:

men engaged in direct labor bulk of the employees. Men accounted for the workers aggregated 2,000 at the 1942 year end, increasing to 4,000 a year later, and remainmg
number
.

.lapiinese

code No.

Allied code

To

name

Type

of aircraft

nuir prod

above the 4,500


Students

level until the end.


H8K3.-. H8K2.-. H8K2L..
P1V2.,..
Total air-rrame

began working at the Konan when 232 were employed. plant in volunteer workers first were employed in Girl February 1944, when 354 were hired. Very few militaiy i)ersomiel were employed at Konan, the first few bemg employed in June 1945. One 10-hour shift worked until February 1944, when a second 8-hour shift was added. In December 1944 the plant went back to one lO-hoiafirst

May

1944,

Emily Emily Emily

22.
12..

4-engine flying boat.

32..

do do
2-engine

--

Frances...

medium bomber.

production.

shift.

Go\(innicnt-planned production was net reached for the PlY2 or Frances 11. A totaH 77 ])lanes was projected for March 1945 but of
11

Total

maximum man-hours

were projected at

were produced (appendix E).

"

46

AIR

DATA

Photo

No

-Building 4, wing assembly shop.

View

interior,

looking west in

subassembly building.

Slight roof

damage.

Photo No.

2.

Building
southeast,

3,

fuselage and
slight

wing assembly
superficial

building,

View

showing

damage.

48

.."**SiJi.

iSilBSi.ii
S
t'f

WJ

li'!

^^SfSS^SPP^

Photo No.

3. Building 3, wing and fuselage assembly building. north end looking west, showing slight superficial damage.

View

Photo No.

4.

Building

1, final

assembly building. ficial damage.

View

north,

showing super-

49

Photo No.

5.

Building

1,

final aibciubl)

\'it\v interior, looking northwebt, building. slight roof and glass damage.

showing assembly

linfi

and

in

the

plant,

the Osaka naval garrison,

police

Electric-power consumption was close to capa^


ity

station, military police, fire station, public-address

from August 1943, when 1,040 Idlowatts we:

and radio room was constantly manned. A total of 266 eniplo.yees was used in the air attack precaution and defense system.
sj^stem,

used, with a capacity of 1,300 kilowatts, to


1944.

Ma

After

May
Due

1944,

kilowatt

consumptic

dropped (appendi.x L).


Interruptions
to Suppliers

Interruption

Due

to Alerts

total of 370,902

of air-raid alerts of the

man-hours was lost because from Xoveniber 1944 to the end


and
Area

In the production of Emily, a shortage of rubbi


sheeting for bulletproof fuel tanks, supplied
t'
e:

war

(appendi.x J).

Fujimura
Attack

Inilustries

(Fujinnna Kogj^o), was

Interruptions

Due
.'i,

to

Direct

pcrienced in the middle of 1943.

During

194

Attacks

There were 10.3, 300 man-lmuis lost because of air raids from November 1944 to August 1945 (appendix K). The greatest loss was in May
1945 as a result of the direct attack on the
[)lant.

Konan

there was a shortage of waterproof paint from tl Toa refinery (Toa Seiren). During 1944 a shortage existed in springs su] plietl by Taisei Spring Co. (Taisei Hatsujyo), ruhlicr parts from Nichirin Rubber Co. (Nichir:
:

Ciomu), and in small aircraft parts supplied

1:

50


ihir

plants

of

the

Kinvjinislii
in rnaniifact

Aircraft
iiriiiji'

Co.
a

final

assend)ly

was delayed

in ordr'r to find

suitable

'hrsc |)arts
I)in'in<i:

Were used
in

Frances.

locations.

194'),

llic

ptoduct ion of Kmily,


(Seiki
Koivii),

Kulaiic existed in l)ond)-l)ay doors suiJ[)lied by


I'lki

Ailfi-oin

Industries

Co.

cnijine
suj)-

lleds
ied

Takata

Aiiuniniini

Co.,

o.xy^'en

by the. Ini])eriai ().\yi;('n Co. (Teikokn anso), and many small uir-franie parts sui>plied
y

many

]>ro(hi('ers.

was divided into raw mateiials, machine tools, and ji<;s to various schools and shojjs; final assembly to buildinii-s of the Matsushita Aircraft Co. near the Tatetsu Airport; machine sh(p to part of the second floor and basement of the Haiikyu Building, Osaka; sheet-metal shop to Yama Ashiya; fittin<i: shop to buildinirs and tundispersal of production
fiv(^

The

])liases.

Disperssd

of

ispersal

nels in the hills near

Kurakuen (appendixes

Dispersion was started in


lovina;

December 1944 by

and N).

ihools

raw material and com])onent parts to and other l)iiildin<;s near the Konaii plant, he dispersion of component parts assembly and
T.\BLE
1.

was estimated that a production loss of 20 percent was caused by dispersion alone. Table 1 presents the productiou-dispeisal program
It

of the Koiian ])lanl.

Dinfirrsnl of airnnft iiKiiiiifactiirr

Typo

nf

work

o to z 5

uj

Q:

o
N

PLANT

LAYOUT

^
KEY
NAME O F
B UILDING

TO BUILDINGS
HS>.

FINAL ASSEMBLY SHOP

HANGAR FUSELAGE ASSEMBLY SHOP WING ASSEMBLY SHOP PAINT SHOP STORE(GOVERNMENT FURNISHED
PARTS)

NAME OF BUILDING APPRENTICE SHOP APPRENTICE SHOP APPRENTICE SCHOOL


AIR AIR

COMPRESSOR ROOM COMPRESSOR ROOM

STOREIGOVERNMENT FURNiSHEff
PARTS)

TOOL SHOP WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WAREHOUSE WEIGHING ROOM PAINT a MEDICINE STORE GARAGE FOR TRACTOR OIL HEATING ROOM AIRPORT CONTROLLING ROOM
PILOTS OFFICE

JETTY JETTY GARAGE FOR TRUCK GARAGE FOR FIRE ENGINE HEAT TREATMENT SHOP INFIRMARY TELEPHONE EXCHANGE ROOM TIME KEEPER CARPENTER SHOP SCRAP STORAGE
REPAIR

SHOP

PROVISION STORE PROVISION STORE KITCHEN a BOILER ROOM

MESS ROOM
KITCHEN BOILER ROOM

WINCH HOUSE
SLIP WAY SLIP WAY

TEMPORARY BOILER ROOM sue STATION

MESS ROOM MESS ROOM FIRST DORMITORY SECOND DORMITORY


THIRD DORMITORY FOURTH DORMITORY
FIFTH DORMITORY SIXTH DOlMITORY

WATER PLANT MESS ROOM MESS ROOM MESS ROOM


MAIN OFFICE ELECTRIC SHOP

SEVENTH DORMITORY EIGHTH DORMITORY


NINTH DORMITORY TENTH DORMITORY ELEVENTH DORMITORY

PROPELLER ASSEMBLY SHOP GARAGE GUARD OFFICE GATE HOUSE GATE HOUSE APPRENTICE SHOP

KITCHEN STORE

PULLED DOWN FOR DISPERSION

U S

STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY


CO.

KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT
SCALE
IN

FEET

KONAN PLANT
APPENDIX719033 O-*"! (Fice
p.

53)

53

NUMBER OF MAN-HOURS WORKED


2.2
.0

2.000,

00

1.600,

000

1.000,

000

600,

000

MAN HOURS

55

719033

0-47

{Face

p.

56) No.

71S033

O-

47 (Face

p. 56)

No. 3

(0

..

Pf

-o

a.

" o. o o X g ,

5-5 i?5

C 2 < <
S 5

I.

ih
:

< <

si

(?tf;
:
S.i

i*
<

0>
1

*8 i
3 X a
>.

*i i'
JS 8. ii 1=

P
O
Ik

t-

IH

if

Ml
~3

li

;i

ni
i

V)

e>
::>

'I

Q:
(0

o
It

CO

CD

% ^

Mi
IP'

p.

57

NUMBER FROM

OF
AIR
TOTAL-

MAN-HOURS
RAID
370,902 MAN HOURS

LOST ALERTS

KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT 00

KONAN PLANT

"1033 -47

59

KWH
350,000
-

ELECTRIC

POWER

PRODUCTION

soc^ooo

LEGEND
f~l

ELECTRICITY

CONSUMED

IN

KWH
IN

MAXIMUM ELECTRIC POWER CONSUMED

KW

isopoo1300

PEAK LOAD BY CONTRACT

KW

ILIMITED ELECTRIC

POWER

~J]Z

3(^000-

mj
3
9

s J

Lilis

ST>TE6IC BONSrwG SUR,

JFM&MJJASOND JFMAMJ
1941

1 JASONDjJFMAMJJASOND
1943

KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT C

A. JFMAMJ JASOND JFMAMJJA50N0


1944
1945

KONAN

PLANT

*PPtNOIK-L

1942

60

i I i
s

5
1^

CO

61

APPENDIX N
DISPERSAL OF PRODUCTION
DispiM'sion staitcil in DccenilHT 1944 Vjy

moving

raw

and i)urclias('d parts to scliools and other buildmgs near the Konan ])hint, whicli dispersal was finished by May 1945. Dis])ersi()n of assembly and of component shops was dela_vi'd in order to find suitable locations, but by May 1945 dispersion was carried out as shown
niatciiiils

below.
OrieiDal location

HIMEJT

PLANT REPORT NO
(Air Frames)

III-3

Dates of survey, 27-29 October 1945

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

The Plant and

Its

Function

ix

the Aircraft Ixdcstrv


1

Attack Data.. Effects of Bombing


Intelligence Check Appendix A Chart of new ciniiloymcMit first Appendix B Chart of cmplovinciit Appendix C Number of man-liouis worked

Appendix D Production charts Appendix E Boml) and <huiiage plots


_

of each

month

63 65 65 66 67 68 69 70
71
I'l

Appendix Appendix Appendix

F Man-hours lost due to air-raid alerts G Electric-power consumption chart H Plan of dispersal
ITS

73

74

THE PLANT AND


reduction

FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY


and wood buiklings, which comprised the nucleus of th." plant, were originally a woolen

The

bi-ick

The Hinieji plant (Himeji Seisakusho) of the wanishi Aircraft Co. (Kawanishi Kokuki Kabuki Kaisha) was located about 45 miles west of 'be and about 15 miles from the Inland Sea.
e

mill,

purchased

in

July

1942.

The

three

new-

buildings of

modern

construction,

built

shortly

plant

itself

was

in

the

city of Himeji,

thereafter, w-ere used as a final-assembly shop, a sheet-metal shop, and the third for storage of
spares.

dium-sized, semi-industrial city.


'&.

The

building
feet,

of

the factory

was 1,431,722 square

A
in

ich consisted of 572,690 square feet of produc-

totaled 168.000 square feet in area. branch plant of this organization was established It was adjacent to the April 1945 at Uzurano.

They

and 859,032 s((uai'e feet of wai-eThere uses, service facilities, and office space. re 32 buildings, 29 of brick and wood construcn, and 3 modein steel-frame structures. The Hinieji plant was one of three final-assembly iits of the Kawanishi Aircraft Co., and funce floor area,

airport, 10 miles northeast of the

main plant

site.

This i)ranch plant consisted of 104,680 square feet and was originally intended as a flight-preparation
shop.

ned in that category until 9 July 1945, when Kawanishi properties were taken over by the Janese Navy. At that time it became the irth plant of the Second Munitions Arsenal. -U'ing the naval regime no change was made in plant's management. At the end of the war properties were returned to the company.

Himeji produced only George fighters (NlKl-J and N1K2-J), with the Homare model 20 and model 21 engine, rated at 1,970 horsepower takeoft'. All work at the plant w-as done on this Navy
plane.

Organization and Operation

General

manager

of

this

organization
to

was

Mitsuo Suehisa. reporting directly

the presi-

63

1
dout of the company, who was located at Nanio. The almost complete destniction of the plant
the indirect-labor workers were 1,400 girl volu
teers and students. The students divided a 9-h4 day about e(|ually between academic stud' and apprentice work in the plant. Although tl

made

it to judge methods. However, with converted facilities and only 9,000 workers, it was able to attain an aveiage production of 25 air frames per month. Conventional organization methods prevailed in the production of aircraft (fig. 1).

impossilile

its

production

plant
its

felt

seasonal surges of absenteeism throu

3-year history, the worst occiu'red in May 19 when there was an almost wholesale desertion
the retinii to
plant
All
tlie farms. Throughout the war worked one 10-hour shift (appendix B).
i

Figure

1.

Himeji Plant

Organization

chart,

July 19J,5

told,

there

were

Himeji plant, iissemhly of aircraft; plant manager Mitsuo


Suehi.sa.

worked at the Himeji sented by 930,000 during


in 1944;

plant.

32,050,000 man-hoi This was rep

1942,

when

the plant
to the

fi

General affairs

started operations; 5,820,000 in


part.'i

1943; 17,530,(
ti

Management, Masumi.
Material supply, Utsumi.
Inspection, Sasaki.

Component
Sugihara.

a.ssenibly

of the

and only 7,770,000 in 1945 up bombing attack (appendix C).

Scrap utilizini;, Utsumi. Labor, Aoyama. Financial, Umetani. Medical, Ota.


Private school, Saito.
Hospital, Ota.

Rigging shop, Kakiuchi. Final-assembly shop, Tak ahashi. Jig shop,

Materia! and

Components

Matsumoto. Carpenter shop, Katsumura. Heat-treatment shop, Nakajima.

stoclv, as well

Shortages of ahuninuin extrusions and sh as shortages of forgings and ca

ings,

Steel forgings

were experienced throughout 1944 and 19 were also in short supply.


in

Uzurano

plant, Hirata.

Paint and sewing shop,

Na-

Component

shop, Kubo.

kajima.

Machine shop, Matsumoto.

Apprentice school, Nakata.

Employment The Himeji


])endent
for

During May 1944 a shortage of Momare engi from the Eleventh Naval Arsenal at Hiro cause temporary sag in deliveries for the month. She ages of magnetos, fuel pumps, and piston hei
w(M'e, in turn, responsible for the

He.

plant, although located in a

dium-sized, semi-.industrial city,


its

mewas largely de-

engine shorta

During the early months of 1945, the Kayi


Co. of

labor on the rural population.

Tokyo

failed in

making

deliveries of la

Absenteeism reached 30 percent during the spring and fall months of 1944. Discharges and sickness
during
1944, when the plant was reaching its production peak, averaged about 10 percent. Plant officials said that their organization started with only 5 percent trained labor, taken from the Naruo plant. They stated that it took

ing-gear assemblies, accentuating the product

drop during this period. There is no record of the use of substitute rials at this plant. In August 1945, however a dispersion measure, the Himeji organizat

m m

ffl

was in the process company.


Production
planes,
Statistics

of acquiring a large piywi

year to recruit a minimum labor force, and train them into even a semblance of a production or1

ganization.
ees

The

first

large

was engaged in May In January 1944, 1,090 additional persons hired. were employed in expectation of a mass producThe peak of new emtion of George XlKl-J. April 1944, when 1,290 ployment was reached in new apprentices were engaged. The last large

new employ1943 when 1,000 were


group
of

During the war the plant produced 510 fighi Georges NlKl-J and N1K2-J. Government-planned production from the beg
"J

ning of operations at the Himeji plant to the This of the war was projected at 683 planes.
173 planes, or 25 percent,
(hiction (appenchx D).

<

more than actual


production

p
k

The

company's

first

peak

group of new employees entered the Himeji plant in January 1945, when 1,180 persons were cmployed in anticipation of mass production of the improved George X1K2-J (appendix A). Women constituted one-third of the plant's total employment, a slight majority being used in direct-labor
activities.

reached in April 1944 with the delivery of This was followed by a d: Georges, NiKl-J. Tl in May, due to modification of the plane.
of the

production started to climb again, and by Aug same year protluction iiad been boosted Production continued 51 planes per month.
this rate,

after a

temporary drop

in

Septemt

Tlie plant's
2 to
1
,

employment broke down


workers over indirect.

to al)out

(Hrect laljor

Among

In January' 1945 p chiction dropped to 24 aircraft, recovered sligh


until the entl of that year.

64

.'^0

iiiicnift for Fp})rii!irv Jind

Miircli, iind,

ii

cliiiniicovcr lo nil iiupi'oxod


.Iuih>

duo model NlKl-.l,

Himeji
ie\cli'd.

plant

itself, which Recuperation of

was almost
pi-oduction

entirely

at

fiis-

)pppd stcjidily until


this iiiodci slopj)cd.

1945 wlicn pioductinti


ordered extensive
incorporatiiii;-

persed sites to 65 percent of liie [)eak might liavo been p()ssil)li' within 6 to 9 months.

n Januni'v
idifieation
!

li)4r)

tlie

Navy

ol'

the Georii-e

fifihter.

wounded by
llinicji.

Casualties included 72 persons killed and 150 the 22 June 1945 <laylight raid on

tiie wing which re[ed production to 24 planes for the month, e new model got into production in FVbruary March and reached its ])eak in May when 20 craft were produced. In June, however, the nt went into its final i)roduction tailspin, due, previously mentioned, to labor difliculties.

foriiier

undeishnii;-

eaiinou

into

Two

persons

were

killed

uctures.

This

recjuired

retoohn<;,

wounded by

the 30 July 1945 raid on the

and one Uzurano

l)rancli plant.

Counter-Measures

ATTACK DATA
tligcncf (laid:

and

liour of attack

ration

acking unit tude

22 June 1945. 0930 to 1030. Twentieth Air Force. 15,200 feet.

mber

of aircraft over target-

52.

(number, weight and type). 1403, 500-pound GP.


the-gronnil findings:

mber in plant area mber of Ijuilding hits (number of UXB)

229.
183.
3.

EFFECTS OF
:ect

BOMBING

Attacks

The 22 June 1945 precision bombing attack on s plant carried out during daylight, and lasting

No buildings had been placed undei'ground noihad any attempt lieen made to camouflage existing structures. The air-raid warning system consisted of a control station eciuipped with radio and telephone communication .systems, located in a bombproof dugout near the main office. The control station was notified by radio or telephone of approaching aircraft and the entire plant was alerted by siren, loud speaker system, telephone, and flags. One observation post was situated on the roof of the plant. The plant manager, acting as head of the air-defense system, ordered the evacuation of the plant when an air attack was threatened. The order in which the employees left the plant was students first, women ne.xt, and men emj)loyees who were not members of the air-defense system last. The fire-defense system consisted of 60 regular firemen assisted by a group of auxiliary firemen and 3 fire engines. In addition to fire hydrants, water casks and static water tanks were situated
at various locations throughout the plant.

wood buildings the plant and seriously damaged the 3 steel dern-type structures. Bombs were of the 500ind HE type. There were 229 bombs dropped
lour, leveled the

29 brick and

There were air-raid shelters (dugouts) for 1,800 employees within the plant and shelters for 8,000 employees outside the plant.
Interruptions

.bin

the plant enclosure, only 3 of which were

Due

to Alerts
loss

LB's (appcndi.x E).

The
of the

first

man-hour

due

to air-raid alerts

The 22 June 1945 raid on the Himeji plant

maged 100 percent


cent

machine

tools

74

occurred in the latter part of


5,000 man-hours were
lost.

November 1944 when


For
all

of 1944, only

superficially

damaged and 26 percent

maged beyond
3il

repair.

raids, which consisted of and rocket attacks, started against the urano Airport plant, an aircraft final-assembly it of the Himeji plant. Subsequently, this lilt was harrassecl by strafing raids which did tie damage, but discouraged procUiction. On 30 ly, however, considerable damage was done to B facilities and completed aircraft by a strafing d fragmentation bomb raid. Plant officials planned no recuperation at the

28

March 1945

10,300 man-hours were lost because of air-raid alerts. The loss increased very greatly in 1945,

afing

with 32.200 man-hours lost in January and 35,100 in February. At the height of air alerts, June The total for 1945, 62,100 man-hours were lost. 1945 amounted to 164,000, making a total in both years of 174,700 man-hoin-s lost because of air-raid
alerts

(appendix F).

Interruptions I>ue to Area Attacks

The area air attacks did not aft'ect electric-power production in this district and there was no inter-

65

In ruption of the plant's electric ])o\ver supply. 1943, when the plant started production of air
frames, the electric-power consumption increased steadily. The rate of increase continued until the

Dispersal

The Himeji ])lant |)lanned six dispersed l)ut none of them had l)een in pi'oduction.

unit

Tl

construction of the plants in the dispersal progr

peak of power consumption in December 1944, when 310,000 kilowatt hours were consumed. Then, in the early part of 1945, due to the dispersal program, the rate of power consumption decreased shai-ply and stopped completely at the time of the air attack on the plant in June 1945 (appendix G).
plant reached
its
Distance from

was under the direction of the Naval ConstructI Corps, which furnished labor and material. B
fore

the

air

attack

machine

tools

on the Himeji plant, 2i had been dispersed to the Ho

unit (a|)pen(lix I).

The
pattern

dispersion

program assumed the foUowi:


^

Location

Date
started

Type

of

production planned

Area (square

Himeji
Miles

feet) or of buildings

number

Percent of completl

Dange
ITzurano

Mar.
.\pr.

1015

16

Final assembly

90,570..

100, of building; 8C

runw ay.
I'JtS

17 14
Ifi

Kasamatsu
Kishiro

June 1945
...-do

Engine run and flight. Wing assembly Fuselage assembly


.

hangar

0.

16,275...

50,

28,740...
107,fi40-

40
30,

Hojn (Taka village). Fukuzaki unit:


Uciio---.

Mar. 1946

18

Machine

shoi*

11

,^heet -metal

shop.

Funazu--

14
.

Tawara village. Tatsumo

17

do do

Converted
ti(Hi

tile

shops: opera-

not started.

25

do...

There was no ])roduction loss because of disall work on dis])ersed locations was performed \>y the \avid Construction Cor])s and the Himeji i)laiit did i\n[ fui'iiish any men or
persion, tjccause

However, the estimated production


229
Georges,
while
actual

for 1944 v
for
t
ei

production

period was 354 aircraft, or 35 i)ereent over

material.

INTELLIGENCE CHECK
The War Department, Military
tion at the

Intelligence

mated production. In 1945 the estimated p duction was 300 aircraft, while only 156 W" Thus, for 1945 it was es actually produced. mated that 48 pcrc(>nt more aircraft were pi duced than were actually made. The estimal total production for both years was 529 aircra
while 510 were actually produced, or a 4-perc(
overestimate.

Service (Ci-2), estimate of total aircraft produc-

Himeji plant was essentially correct.

66

* 3

saaAOidNj io dsannN

68

2.600,000
2,400,000

2,200,000

2,000,000
1.800.000

1,600.000

1 X i

1,400,000
1,200,000

1,000.000

800,000

600,000

400.000
200,000

PRODUCTION CHARTS
80 GEOF
70

60
50

40
30
20
10

71

o o

TAKARAZUKA PLANT REPORT NO.


(Components)
Dates of Survey, 23-25 October 1945

111-4

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

The Plant and Attack Data

Its Function in the Aiucraft Industry^.

75 78

Effects of BbMBiNG 79 Intelligence Check 83 Vulnerability 83 Facing page 84 Appendix A General arrangement of plant Appendix B. Organization chart 85 Appendix C Number of man-hours worked 86 Appendix D Employment chart 87 Appendix E Critical shortages 88 Appendix F Bomb plots Facing page 88 (1) Facing page 88 (2) Appendix G Bomb damage plan Appendix H Man-hours expended in repair of air-raid damage. 89 Appendix I Production man-hours lost as a result of air attack 89 90 Appendix J Man-hours lost because of air-raid alerts Appendix K Man-hours lost due to air-raid attack 91 Appendix L Chart of electric-power consumption 92 93 Appendix Dispersal map

'

THE PLANT AND


oduction

ITS

FUNCTION IN THE AIRCRAFT INDUSTRY


There were foiu- production departments in the Takarazuka jjlant. The first one, the aircraftmachine-parts department, was constructed in June 1942. The material-treating department (casting, forging, heat treating, and galvanizing) was constructed in August 1942; the aero-engineaccessories department in September 1942; and the machine-gun-mounting department in February 1943.

he Takarazuka plant (Takarazuka Seisakusho)

Kawanishi Aircraft Co. (Kawanishi Kokuki was located 20 miles northwest saka, near the village of Takarazuka. It was blished in the fall of 1942 to machine aircraft s for the various Kawanishi assembly plants, r to this it was a machine shop producing gun ets and various types of pumps; it also did e machining of aircraft parts. The total floor
le

ushiki Kaishi)

was 3,392,000 scpiare feet, hich 1,802,000 square feet was productive area. The general arrangement plan of the
before air attack,
|t

On 1 November 1943, the Takarazuka plant acquired the Teikoku Electric Co. as its only subThis unit built electric parts, mainly for sidiary. the gun-mounting department.
The Japanese Government loaned
Aircraft Co. a total of 211,000.000

(Appendix A) gives the area of each building, type of work performed, date and type of
ruction.

ment

and

facilities.

The

the Kawanishi yen for equipTakarazuka plant

TlflO.'iS

17-

75

received
follows
Faeilitv:

about one-fourth of

this

amount,

as

in

March

1944,

when two 10-hour


lost,

shifts

wen

started.
Yen

Man-hours

due

to

absentecisn

2,896 machine tools

21,053,000
1, 181, 000 33,300,000

422 presses, furnaces, transformers, sheetmetal machines


Buildings

Total

55, 534,

000

were quite low in 1942 4,000 per month but in creased very sharply, reaching 45,500 in Maicl 1945 and finally 125,000 in August 1945. The increased absenteeism was caused by ai attacks on the cities and towns. After suci attacks many employees did not work reguhulj evacuating their families and personal belonging
to safer places.

Organization and Operation

The names and


low:

functions of key persomiel

fol-

Allien
craft

Takarazuka started
a

in

1942 as an

ai

plant,

Hyuzo Kawanishi,

President.

ferred

munber of employees were tran from the Naruo plant of the Kawanis

Kenji Maebara, Vice president. Shiro Takahashi, Managing director. Yoshio Hashiguchi, Chief engineer. Meishin Saito, .Manager of Takarazuka plant.

Aircraft Co. Another large group of employe was transferred from Naruo in November 194

and yet another

in April 1944.
of.

The number
after.

employees reached a peak

Organization of the Takarazuka plant followed


the general pattern for the industry (appendix B).

16,600 in August 1944, declining steadily thci

Plant officials furnished an outline of the plant

by departments, date the sections began operation, the type of aircraft for which the parts were made, where the products were shipped, and the percent of production sent to the various com-

noted that there was a vc workers in the plant Veiy few military person) 1,100 at the peak. were employed at the plant only 150 duri 1945 (appendix D).
It shoidd be

small

number

of

women

pumps originally were made at the Naruo and gun turrets plant of the Kawanishi Aircraft Co. (USSBS Airpanies
(fig.

1).

It should

be noted that

Material and

Components The Takarazuka plant

fabricated gun

tiu-re

macliine guns, various types of pumps, macliin.


steel

Report No. III-l), but prowas transferred to the Takarazuka plant duction
craft Division Plant

1943 to facilitate more efficient utilization of the separate plant properties.

parts for aircraft, castings, and forgiii Of the above products, 80 percent of the turrets were produced for other plants and on 20 percent were used by the Kawanishi Airci
Co.; 90 percent of the

pumps were produced

Employment
1944 to the termination of the war, plant had two shifts, working 10 hours each the day. Approximately two-thirds of the employees

outside plants; and


jjarts,

From March

castings,

of the machined airci and forgings were produced


all

the various aircraft-assembly plants of the


nishi Aircraft Co.
(fig.

Ka

1).

worked the day

shift.

Girl
shifts.

students and

vol-

unteers worked 9-hour

Due to the difficulties in assembling mach guns until December 1943, there were no sh
ages of raw materials for this activity.

employees increased gradually its maxinuim in August 1944 when a total of 16,600 workers were employed. As the war situation changed, students (boys and girls), whether they had graduated or
of

The number

dining the war, reaching

The most important


tcrial that existed in

critical

shortages of

1944 and 1945 were oxy) for welding, small electric motors, and ammo used in metal plating (appendix E).

not, entered the plant as a patriotic-service corps,

by labor-mobilization ortlers of the Boy students worked 10-hour shifts and younger school boys worked 8-hour shifts. The greatest number of man-hours worked was
organized

Production

Statistics

Goverinnent.

in

The Takarazuka ])lant first started protluci March 1941 witii the manufacture of
In
April

tiu'rets.

1941

the

nuimifacture

in

recorded (appendix C).

October 1944, when 183,000 man-liours were The great increase began

pumps

started and

by April 1942 the manufact

of air frames macliined parts began.

76

a:

<
5
LJ

The

ooniplete

list

of products inamifactiired at

the Takarazuka pkint follows:

Department

EFFECTS OF
Tlio Takaraziika plant
-il

BOMBING

was struck twice. The lOOn hoiir-s on 15 Juno 1945, was attack, at iuoa attack. Tlic danmf^c was confined almost lusively to the destruction of about 30 percent
Hviiifj;

Tlu' day following the attack, only production. about 40 percent of he usuid niiin-liours were
I

woi-ke<l.

No

repairs were underlnken following the second

iittack of 24 July.

About 58

pei-C(>nt of

the total

the iiouses in the workinen's


dixes

area (ap-

F and

G).

he second attack, which was directed at the nt, occurred at 0930 hours on 24 July 1945. I this, 458 tons of 1- and 2- thousand pound imbs were dropped. Two hundred two tons 3 uck the plant area, 88 tons striking buildings. The few ^lne of the buildings was repaired.
iuctural steel
buildings
also

man-hours alri-ady were divc^rted towards disl)crsal and this attack stopped production; oidy 7,300 man-hours out of the normal 29,000 manhoui-s was worked the day aftei' the attack.
Counter-Measures
Prior
to

the

machine

tools

air attacks, 95 percent of the were either dispersed or lented to

subcontractors.

The

least essential

wooden

buildfire.

sustained

heavy

ings were dismantled as a precaution against

dtnage (photos 1-5).

The
groups.

air-raid-precaution
of

system at the plant


organized
in

During the
I

first

attack, 181,094 square feet, or

consisted

600

people,

various

[icrcent, of the

dormitories and kitchens wer(!


the destruction of ])ower
of

lined in addition to
I

s,

causing

50-percent loss

productive

The chief of the organization sounded the alarm by loudspeaker system throughout the plant. Alarm in the plant was given by loud-

u-hours.

speaker system or siren.


]3al

When

this

system did

second attack, 100 percent of the i-turret department, 99 percent of the aircraft(ssories department, 78 percent of machinedIs department, 30 percent of the heat-treating, "ling, and forging department, boiler and airpressor room, 67 percent of the office, and percent of the dormitory and mess room were Utroyed. The damaged shops were not repaired.
during
tlie
>

not function, messengers stationed at each princi-

shop gave the alarm by

flag or siren diu'ing

the daytime, and

by

siren or light signal at night.

The heads

of the

various departments ordered

the workers to go to the air-raid shelters in the


following order: students of the primary schools,

111

II

other students, apprentices and regular workmen, and finally members of the air-raid-precaution
gi'oup.

ring the second air attack, 108

employees were

:ed and 51 wounded.


Interruption
it
I

Due

to Alerts

the outset of 1945, before the attacks, 95


all

[,j^,

ii,-l>

machines were dispersed to various i-Ditions within a few miles of the Takarazuka nt. Some were loaned to subcontractors and ers were installed in dispersed plants. After dispersal, there were 47 machine tools at the
cent of
ff'

A
l)er

total of 795,581 man-liours

was

lost

because

of air-raid alerts.

The

alerts started in

Novem-

36,800 man-hours were

1944 and during the remainder of the year In 1945, 758,781 lost.
lost,

ciin

the attack of 24 July 1945, were damaged superficially but tairable and 39 were destroyed beyond repair. J machine tools were replaced at the plant.
plant.
iiachine tools

Durmg

of the area attack

with June 1945, the month on the plant, having the greatest number of lost man-hours (181,200) due to airI'aid alerts (appendix J)

man-hours were

Interruption

Due

to

Area Attacks

h'ing various
(3ed

area attacks,
tools

many

of

the dis-

total of 585,500

man-hours was
loss

lost

because

machine
the

were damaged and destroyed.

of area

attacks.

The

started in February

attack of 15 June, 14,200 n-hours were e.xpended to repair damage (ap^dix H). A total of 126,140 productive manifter

first

air

1945, the greatest occurring in

182,000 man-hours were


the area (appendix
resulting from
alerts.
Iv),

lost
in

June 1945, when due to air attacks in

addition to the loss

rs

tely
I).

were lost as a direct result, rerpiiring approx1 week to recuperate to normalcy (appen-

During

this

same

period,

about 27,000

The peak loatl of electric i)ower under contract was 2,500 kilowatts. Throughout the productive

n-hours per day, or a total of 189,000 manrs, were lost due to dispersal factors, indicating
(

mum
May

period at the plant, from 1942 to 1945, the maxiconsumption was from February 1944 to
1945,

it

dispersal

was a great factor

in

keeping

down

when 2,170 kilowatts were consumed. 79

Photo 1. Building

1,

machine shop.

View southwest, showing

structural

damage.

S^^as^l^^

-.-.,.^-

Photo 2.-Building

59, sheet-metal shop.

View, southwest, showing structural damage.

80 I

photo

3.

Building

159, sheet-metal shop view

interior looking west.

Heavy bomb damage.

Photo

4.

Building

159, sheet-metal shop.

View

interior, southwest,

showing bomb

crater at base of column.

81

PhoK

liuildmg

38,

machine shop.

View northwest.

Power
1945,
liad

coiisiunptioii
(iue

fell

oil'

at

the l)oginiuag of

Dispersal

to dispersion, to
1,4.30

until,

by June 1945,
After

it

Each
persed

division
its

of

the

Takarazuka plant

cirop])(Hl
it

kilowatts.

the

own

production.

The

macliine-g

attacks

(h-opped to zero in August 1945 (ap-

mounting department
locations:

dispersi'd

to the follow

pendix L).

Planned
Location

Percent dispers

Type

of

work

DispiTSEil

began

Number
tools

of

machine

Number of
employees

Machine
tools

Emplc

Kobayashi.

Structural parts

February

1945.
_

124

300

100
100 100 100

Namaze... Sanda
Koshicn... Kashio

Hydraulic parts
Parts
Jig

March

1945..

206
52

470 400
220 750

.March 1945...
tools

and cutting

Fi'hruary 1945

:07 237

Sheet-metal parts and assembly

June

1945

80

The

chief bottleneck in

tiie

disperal

program of

per montli.

Capacity after disperal was 150

ijr

the machine-gun-mounting department was transportation. The cni)acity of llie plant to piwluce
iiiacliiiii'-gun indiiiit iiigs, tiefore dispersal,

month,

17 pei'cent loss.
j

The

aero-engine-accessories

department

was ISO

persed to the following locations:

82

Planned
Loc'utii)li

Percent disperscil

Typ.

J)ispiTsal

h('j:ari

Number
tools

of

machine

Number

of

Machine
tools

Emplnyees

employees

:a.vainn

Parts,

fiu'l piiini)

Ffiiruary 1945,

304

1.

ion

1(
I

idsoBawii
shin

Assoinhly
Jigs

pumps

Fiu'I-inJection punij)

June 1945_ Tune 1945


April 1945

357
185
ir,n

I, 50() 1, 21 Kl

(XI

70
70

ion

kaiakamatsu-.
.

;awa.--

and tools.Machine shop

350
150

99
100

99

June 1945

123

M
and
in

Transportation was the chief bottleneck, but a


ortage of labor and electrical parts hindered the
iistruction

Fukuchiyama

district

(underground

and installation of mnchinory at (he


loss of pro-

ispersal locations.

earth-covered buildings): This unit of 154 machines and 500 workmen was under the direction of the Naruo plant, and was planned (o produce

idction caj^acity
I'

The engine-accessories department and potential due


estimated as follows:

to dispersal

machined parts for George. Transportation of machines was finished on 10 July 1945 but operation did not begin because of lack of power.

IS

Maximum
possible
I

Maximum
jKissiblc profluflioii

>i'Sfripl

i()?i i)i

proilucts

I)rodut'tioii

before dispersion

after

Hojo district (underground unit): This unit planned to produce machined ptiits for Frances and George, with 309 machines, and 1,200
However, to the termination of the war, only 261 machines were transported to this unit, which was never in operation.
workers.
Dispersal stopped operation of the aircraftmachine-parts department and all of the machined parts for CJeorge and Frances had to be supi)lied

dispersion

l-injection

h-pressure

oil

pump (complete set)pump

750 1,200 400 700

5,50

1,000

motor for variable-piteh propelleriium pump -_


)IT

300 000
31

valve for flap


-

400
12,

nozzle

000 900 350

III. IIOII

Ihanol-injeetion
)rieant-oil

pump
for starting

Klin

pump

300

by subcontractors. The casting, forging,

heat-treating,

aiu!

gal-

was planned that the aircraft-parts machining partment be dispersed in four districts under the |ntrol of each plant in each district. Only two nits, Osaka and Okadayama, were already dis]Tsed and in operation at the end of the war. In her dispersed units, machines were all on hand
It
lit

vanizing department of the Takarazuka plant was to be dispersed near the plant in (lie hills of the

Koyoen Park, but


M)".

this

was never done

(a])])eiidi.\

INTELLIGENCE CHECK
The prc-attack-intelligcnce information as to the type of manufacture engaged in at the Takarazuka plant and the photo interpretation after the air attack reporting the damage sustained were
essentially correct.

were not

in

operation.

Plant dispersal assumed the following pattern:

(Hankyu department store in meda bombproof building) This unit belonged the Konan plant and produced machined parts
district

Osaka

Ir

Frances with 139 machine tools and 350 worken. It began to operate on the 15th of June
45.

VULNERABILITY
The Takarazuka
plant

able to air attacks in that


district
:

was particularly vulnerall the buildings were

Koyoen

Okadayama

unit (in the

Kobe

completely of wooden construction, except four


large shops, which were of structural steel and

id's college)

lielonged to the

loduced machined parts for


(

Xaruo plant and George with 54 maThis unit

ine tools

70 school-girl workers. gan production on 10 April 1945.


1

and

Koyoen unit (underground and


lildings)
'

in

earth-covered

wooden roof and walls. This light construction was particularly vulnerable to incendiaries. No attempt was made to camouflage the plant. The morale of the employees was none too high,
starting with

Planned to produce parts for George th 123 machine tools and 500 workers. All the ichine tools were transported to this unit by 30 ne 1945, but were not in operation, due to lack power and homes for employees.
:

the end of 1944 and continuing through 1945, during whicli time air attacks on nearby cities, as well as on the plant itself, made many of them homeless and caused others to evacuate tlieii' personal belongings and families.

83

BL66.

NO

ORGANIZATION

EMPLOYMENT CHART

APPENDIX
LIST

OF SHORTAGES OF

RAW MATERIALS AND PARTS FOR THE ENGINE-ACCESSORIES DEPARTMENT


.

19U

leLfiA.;

NO,
I

eUlLONG

NAME

MACHINE SHOP

4
5

6
7

BOMB PLOTS
JULY 24 Ih. ATTACK

9
10
II

ROUGH MACHINE SHOP


I
I

IS

WORKSHOP

13 14
IS

SHEET METAL SHOP JIG SHOP CARPENTER SHOP 18 19 GALVANIZING SHOP 20 HEAT TREATMENT SHOP CASTING SHOP 21 22 FORGING SHOP 23! 24 26 SCRAP PRESSING SHOP 26 AIR COMPRESSOR 27
16
17
' ; ! I !

281 TESTING
29
I

TRANSFORMER
I

30
31

BOILER
PAINT STORE
OIL
I

32
33

STORE
I

34
35
37 38 39
41

SWITCHBOARD
CENTRAL
OFFICE
DINING HALL

36 HOSPITAL
OFFICE

40 SCHOOL
PATTERN SHOP
KITCHEN

42 43
4^4

STORE GARAGE ___ _^

45
J*6

47 48

SCALE

IN

FEET

US STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY


KAWANISHI

AIRCRAFT COMPANY

TAKARA2UKA

PLANT
<^fpewpix
f

1$

719033

O- 47 <Face

p.

88) No. 1

iMoa

I3_-

'fi^ 'i*>

KEY

'"MAO
>S YJOL

R^'"^--'

88
gs

in

.v)XT
"1 1

'4- u]

!*'

Z2

en

se

to

ccS

D Oo
<

O O D
Q O q:

0)
>-

to Icc

MAN-HOURS LOST DUE TO

AIR RAID

ATTACKS

PLANT RAIoeO a WORKMEN HOMES IN OSAKA BURNED


94,000

PART OF THE PLANT RAIDED a AMAGASAKI DISTRICT


t.

76,000-

APR.
1945

MAY

US.

STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVE Y

KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT CO.

TAKARAZUKA PLANT
APPENDIX K

71903347-

91

FUKUCHIYAMA

DISPERSAL
M
G.

MAP
AIRCRAFT

MOUNTINGS DEPT.

MACHINE PARTS DEPT


(g)
(E)

UNIT NAMAZE UNIT SANDA UNIT KOSHIEN UNIT KASHO UNIT

KOBAYASHI

(g)

(3)

OKADAYAMA UNIT KOYOEN UNIT FUKUCHIYAMA UNIT

(D

HOJO UNIT UMEDA UNIT

AERO ENGINE ACCESSORIES DEPT. SASAYAMA UNIT SAKASEGAWA UNIT

KASHO UNIT
NAKATAKAMATSU UNIT NIGAWA UNIT

U. S.

STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY

KAWANISHI AIRCRAFT COMPANY

TAKARAZUKA PLANT
APPENDIX
-

93

UNITED STATES STRATEGIC BOMBING SURVEY


LIST OF
The following is a bibliography of reports resulting from the Survey's studies of the European and Pacific wars. Those reports marked with an asterislc (*) may be purchased from lie Superintendent of Documents at the Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C.
I

REPORTS
21

Vereinigte Deutsche Mctallwerke, Hildesheim, G(

22 23 24 25

Aluminiumwerk G

G m b H, Leipzig, Germai m b H, Plant No. 2, Bitterfe Germany Gebrueder Giulini G m b H, Ludwigshafen. Germa Luftschiffbau, Zepellin G m b H, Friedrichshaf
Metallgussgesell.schaft

many

European War

OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN


*1

26 27 28

on Bodensee, Germany Wieland Werke A G, I'lm, Germany Rudolph Rautenbach Leichmctallgiessercien, Sol
gen,

Germany

*2

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Sumniarv Report (European War) The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Overall

Lippewerke Vereinigte Aluminiumwerke

A G,

Lvuv

Germany
29
30
Vereinigte"

Deutsche

Metallwerke,

Heddernhei

Report (European War)


Effects of Strategic

Germany
Duerener Kletallwerke & Waren, Germany

*3

The

Bombing on

the

German

G, Duren Wittenau-Bei

War Economy

AREA STUDIES DIVISION


AIRCRAFT DIVISION
(By Division and Branch)
*4
5

*31 32

Aircraft Division Industry Report Inspection Visits to Various Targets (Special Rejjort)

33
34

Airframes Branch
35

Junkers Aircraft and Aero Elngine Works, Dessau,


7

8 9 10
1

G m b H, Heiterblick, German A T G Maschinenbau, G m b H, Leipzig (Mockau),


Erla Maschinenwerke

German V

36 37 38 39

Germany
Gothaer Waggonfabrik, A G, Gotha, Germany Focke Wulf Aircraft Plant, Bremen, Germany
Mcsserschmitt A G, Augsburg, Germany
I

Area Studies Division A Detailed Study of on Hamburg A Detailed Study of on Wuppertal A Detailed Study of on Dusseldorf A Detailed Study of on Solingen A Detailed Study of on Remscheid A Detailed Study of on Darmstadt A Detailed Study of on Lubeck

Report
the Effects of Area
the Effects of Area

Bomb
Bomb
Bomk
BomI BomI
Boml Bomt

the Effects of Area the Effects of Area the Effects of Area


the Effects of Area

the Effects of Area

J
|

Over-all Rejjort Part A Part B

Brief Stiidy of the Effects of Area Bombing,] Berlin. Augsburg, Bochum. Leipzig, Hagen,

mund, Oberhausen, Schweinfurt. and Bremen

12 13 14

(Appendices I, II, 111 Dornier Works, Friedrichshafen & Munich, (lerniany

Kassel, Germany Gerhard Fieseler Werke Wiener Neustaedter Flugzeugwerke, Wiener Xcustadt, Austria

GmbH,

CIVILIAN DEFENSE DIVISION


*40
41
Final Report Civilian Defense Division Cologne Field Report Bonn Field Re|)ort Hanover Field Report Hamburg Field Report Vol. I, Text; Vol. II, Exhi Bad Oldesloe Field Report Augsburg Field Report

Aero Engines Branch


15
10 17

Bussing

NAG

Flugmotorenwerke
fl

ni

il,

I(r\uis-

wick, Germany Mittel-Deutsche" .Motorcnwerke

1)

H, Taucha,
.t

42 43 44 45 46 47

Reception Areas

in

Bavaria,

Germany

Germany
Bavarian Motor Works
Inc.,

Eisenach

Durrerhof,
.Municli.

Germany
18
19

EQUIPMENT DIVISION
Electrical

Bayerische

Motoreiiwerke

A G (BMW)

Branch
j

Germany
Hcnscliel Flugmoloren werke, Kassel,

Germany

*48 49

German Electrical I^quipment Industry Report Brown Boveri et Cie, Mannheim Kafertal, GerniiJ
Optical

Light Metal Branch

and Precision Instrument Branch

'

20

Light Metals Industry (Part


of

Germany

tl'art

.Muminum II, Magnesium


I,

*50

Optical and Precision Instrument Industry Rejri

94

Abrasives liranch

Submarine liranch
'

The KTinaii Abrasive Indus! ry Mayer aiui Sehiniflt, Offeiibacli


(

^r; liii,

(lerinanv

02
'Xi

German
burg,

Sidiujarine Industry Report Maschinenfal)rik Augsburg-Xurnberg


<

A G, Augs-

Anti-Friction Brancli
.:;

ieririany

!)4

'I'lic

(ieriuaii Aiifi-Friiiion

Bearings

Iriciiistry

95 9G
i)7

Blohm and Voss Shipyards, Hamburg, Germany Deutschewerke A. G. 'Kiel, Germany Deutsche Schiff und Maschinenbau', Bremen Ger-

Macliine Tools Branch


I

many

'

Friedrich

Krupp Gcrnumiawcrft,

Kiel,

"i

(i

Machine Tools & Maeliiuery as Capital I';c|uii)iiieiil Maeliiiie Tool Industry in Germany Herman Kolb Co., Colof^ne, Oermany ( ollet and Kngelliard, OfTeidjach, (ierniany
Xaxos Union, Frankfort on Main, (Germany

98 99 UJO

Germany

Hiiwaldtswerke \. G, Hamburg, Germany Submarine Assembly Shelter, Farge, (iermany Bremer ^'\lIkan, Vegesack, Germany

Ordnance Branch
*101 102
103 104 105 106 107 108
Friedrich

MILITARY ANALYSIS DIVISION


'.I

The Defeat

(I

of the lierman Air P'orce \'-\\'eapons (Crossbow) Campaign Air Force Rate of Operation

Ordnance Industry Report Krupp Grusonwerke A G, Magdeburg

Weather Factors in Combat Bombardment Operations in the European Theatre


Ikmibiiif!;

Germany Bochumer Verein fuer Gusstahlfabrikation A Bochum, Germany


Henschel

(',
'

'i

Accviracv,
in

Bombers
Iji

the

Description of

USAAF Heavv ETO RAF Bombing

anrl

Medium

Sohn, Kassel, German\Rheinmetall-Borsig, Dusseidorf, (iermany Hermann Goering Werke, Braunscliweig, Hallendorf, (iermany Hannoyerische Maschinenbau, Hanover, Germany Ciusstahlfabrik Friedrich Krupp, Essen, Germany

&

ta

The Impact
gistics

of the Allied Air Effort

on German lo-

MORALE DIVISION
lb

The

Effects of Strategic (Vol. I and Vol. ID

Bombing on German Morale


*109 *110
*111

OIL DIVISION
Oil Division, Final Report Oil Division, Final Report,

Medical Brancli

The
in

effect of

Bombing on Health and Medical Care Germany


112

Appendix Powder, Explosives, Special Rockets and Jet Propellants. War Gases and Smoke .Acid (Ministerial Report $1)

MUNITIONS DIVISION
Heavy Industry Branch The Coking Industry Report on Germany
Coking Plant Report No. 1, Sections A,"B, C, & D Gutehoffiningshuette, Oberhausen, Germany Friedrich-Alfred Huette, Rheinhausen, CJermany Neunkirchen Eisenwerke A G, Neunkirchen, Ger1

Underground and Dispersal Plants

in

many
13

(ireater Ger-

The German
78

Oil Industry, Ministerial

Report

Team

114

Ministerial Report on Chemicals

Oil
ll.T

Branch

many

Amrnoniakwerke Merseburg

Reichswerke Hermann

Goering
.-V

G,

Hallendorf
116

Germany
Hamborn, Germany Krupp A G, Borbeck Plant, E.ssen, Germany Dortmund Hoerder Iluettenverein, A (!, Dortmund, Germany Hoesch A G, Dortmund, Germany Bochumer Verein fuer Gusstah'lfabrikation A C!, Bochum, Germany
G,
Friedrich

August Thyssen Huette

G m b H, Leuna, Germany 2 Appendices Braimkohle Benzin A G, Zeitz and Bohlen, Germany

Wintershall
117

G, Leutzkendorf,
of
I

Germany

Ludwigshafen-Oppau Works

118
119

Farbenindustrie (1, Ludwigshafen, Germany Ruhroel Hydrogenaf ion Plant," Bottrop-Boy, Ger-

many, Vol. I, \'ol. II Rhenania Ossag Mineraloelwerke A G, Harburg


Refinery,

Hamburg, Germany

120
121

Motor Vehicles and Tanks Branch German Motor \'ehicies Industry Report Tank Industry Report Daimler Benz A G, Unterturkheim, Germany Renault Motor Vehicles Plant, Billancourt, Paris

A G, Grasbrook Hamburg, Germany Rhenania Ossag M ineraloelwerke AG, Wilhelmsburg Refinery, Hamburg, (iermany
Rlienania Ossag Mineraloelwerke
Refinery,

122
123 124
125

Gewerkschaft
Vol.
I

&

Victor, Vol. II

Castrop-Rauxel,

Germany

Europaeische Tanklager und Transport

G,

Ham-

Adam

Opel, Russelheim, (iermany

Daimler Benz-Gaggenan Works, Gaggenau, Germany Maschinenfabrik .\ugsburg-Nurnberg, Nurnberg,

Germany
Auto Union A G, Chemnitz and Zwickau, Germany Henschel & Sohn, Kas.sel, Germany Maybach Motor Works, Friedriclishafen, Germany Voigtlander, Maschinenfabrik A G, Plaiien, Germany Volkswagenwerke, Fallersleben, Germany Bussing XA(j, Brunswick, Germany Muehlenbau Industrie A G (.Miag)" Brunswick, Ger-

burg, Germany Ebano Asphalt Werke .A G, Harljurg Refinery. Hamburg, Germany Meerbeck Rheinpreu.s.sen Synthetic Oil Plant
Vol.
I

&

Vol. IT

Rubber Branch
126 127 128 129

Deutsche Dunlop

Gummi

Co.,

Germany

Hanau on Main,

many

Friedrich

Krupp Grusonwerke, Magdeburg, Germany

Continental Gummiwerke, Hanover, Germany Huels Synthetic Rubber Plant Ministerial Report on German Rubber Industry

95

Propellants Branch

130 131

132

Elektrochoiuisehewerkc, Munich, Germany SchoenebecR Explosive Plant, Lignose Sprengstoff Werke G m b H, Bad Salzemen, Germany Plants of Dvnamit A G, Vormal. Alfred Xobel & Co., Troisdorf, Clausthal. Drummel and Duneberg,

182 183 184 185 186 187 188

Ship Yards Howaldtswerkc, Hamburg, Germany Blohm and Voss Shipyards, Hamburg, Germany

A G, Mannheim, Ciermany Synthetic Oil Plant, Meerbeck-Hamburg, Cierman Ciewerkschaft Victor, Castrop-Rauxel, Germany Klockner Humboldt Deutz, Ulm, Ciermany Ruhroel Hydrogenation Plant, Bottrop-Boy, Ge
Daimler-Benz

Germany
133

Deutsche Sprengchemie

(!

1)

tr. H, Kraiburg. Ger,,

many

189 190
191 192 193

OVER-ALL ECONOMIC EFFECTS DIVISION


134

[Special papers which together comprise the Hermann Goering Works above report I Food and Agriculture 134a Industrial Sales Output and Productivity
Gross National Product
Kriegseilberichte
J
)

Over-all

Economic

Effects Division Report

194
19.^)

Xeukirchen Eisenwerke A Ci, Xeukirchen, German Railwav Viaduct at Altenbecken, Germany RailwaV Viaduct at Arnsburg, Ciermany Deurag-Xerag Refineries, Misburg, Germany Fire Raids on German Cities Germany, V' I G Farbenindustrie, Ludwigshafen,

manv

Roundhouse
I Ci

PHYSICAL DAMAGE DIVISION


134b Phvsical Damage Division Report (ETO) 135 Villacoublav Airdrome, Paris, France Railroad Repair Yards, Malines, Belgium 13fj Railroad Repair Yards, Louvain, Belgium 137 138 Railroad Repair Yards, Hasselt, Belgium 139 Railroad Repair Yards, Xamur, Belgium 140 Submarine Pens, Brest, France Powder Plant, Angouleme, France 141 142 Powder Plant, Bergerac, France 143 Coking Plants, Montigny & Liege, Belgium 144 Fort St. Blaise Verdun Group, Metz, France 145 Gnome et Rhone, Limoges, France 146 Michelin Tire Factorv, Clermont-Ferrand, France 147 Gnome et Rhone Aero Engine Factory, Le Mans,

196 197 198 199

in Marshalling Yard, Llm, German Farbenindustrie, Leverkusen, Germany Chemische-Werke. Huels, Ciermany Ciremberg Marshalling Yard, Ciremberg, Germai Locomotive shops and Bridges at Hamm, Germai

&

Vol. II

TRANSPORTATION DIVISION
*200
201 202

The

Effects of Strategic

Bombing on Cierman

Trai

203 204

portation Rail Operations Over the Brenner Pass Effects of Bombing on Railroad Installations Regensburg, Xurnberg and Munich Divisions Cierman Locomotive Industry During the War Cierman Military Railroad Traffic

UTILITIES DIVISION
*205 206 207 208

Cierman Electric
I

Utilities

Industry Report

France
148

to 10 in Vol. I "Utilities Division Plant Repor Division Plant Repor I I to 20 in Vol. II "Utilities .^ 21 Rheinische-Westfalische Elektrizitaetswerk

Kugelfischer Bearing Ball Plant, Ebelsbach, Ger-

,-,

149 150
151 152 153 154

Louis Breguet Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France

manv

S N. C. A. S. E. Aircraft Plant, Toulou.se, France A. I. A. Aircraft Plant, Toulouse, France

War OFFICE OF THE CHAIRMAN


Pacific
*1

V Weapons

in

London
in

Suminarv Report
Xagasaki

(Pacific

War)
Hiroshima

Citv Area of Krefeld Public .\ir Raid Shelters


sack,

Germany
.

*2 *3

150 15G
157 158 159 160
161

Goklenberg Thermal Electric Power Station, Knap-

.Japan's Struggle To End The War The Effects of Atomic Bombs on

Germany

Brauweiler Transformer
weiler,

&

Switching Station, Brau-

CIVILIAN STUDIES
Civilian

Germany

Storage Depot, Xahbollenbach,

Germany
Germany

Defense Division

Railway and Road

Bridge, Bad Munster, RaihvaV Bridge, EUer, Germany

162 163 164 165 166

Gust loff- Werke Weimar, Weimar, Germany Henschell & Sohn G m b H, Kassel, Germany Area Survey at Pirmasens, Germany Hanomag, Hanover, Germany M A X Werke Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany Friedrich Krupp A G, Essen, Ciermany
lOrla

*6

Maschinenwerke

G m

b H, Heiterblick, Ger-

167 168 169 170


171

A T G'Maschincnbau G m Erla Maschinenwerke G m


Germany

H, Mockau, Germany b H, Mockau, Ciermany Baverische Motorenwerke, Durrerhof, Germany Taucha. .Miiicl-Deutsche Motorenwerke
1)

man v

GmbH,
,

*10
*11

Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Tokyo, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Nagasaki, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects. Kyoto, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Kobe, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Allied Subjects, Osaka, Japan Field Report Covering Air Raid Protection Xo. 1 \llied Subjects, Hiroshima, Japan Suminarv Report Covering Air Raid Protection

,x r. Submarine Pens Deutsche- Werft, Hamburg, Ger-

Final

172 173 174 175 176


177 178 179

C'ontinental

Germany Gummiwerke, Hanover, Germany Kassel Marshalling Yards, Kassel, Germany Ammoniawerke, Mcrseburg-Leuna, Germany Brown Boveri et Cie, Mannheim, Kafertal, GerMulti-Storied Structures, Hamburg,

many

Allied "Subjects in Japan Rejjort Covering Air .Mlied Subjects in Japan

Raid Protection

Medical Division
*12
*13

i
and .Me
al

The

Effects of Bombing on Health Services in Japan


F^tfects of Atomic Bombs on cal Services in Hiroshima and

The

inanv Adam Opel

Health and A Xagasaki

li

180 181

Daimler-Benz A G, Unterturkheim, Germany Valentin Submarine Assembly, Farge, Germany Volkswaggonwerke, Fallersleben, Germany Railway Viaduct at Bielefeld, Germany

G, Russelsheim,

Germany
*14

Morale Division

The

Effects

of

Strategic

Bombing on

.Tapi'is

Morale

96

ECONOMIC STUDIES
Aircraft Division
'I'ho

*33

Nissan Automobile Company Corporation Report No. Will (Nissan Jidoslia KK)
(Engines) Air Arsenal <fe Navy Air Depots Corporation Report No. XIX (Airframes and Engines) Underground I'ruduction of Japanese Report No.

Japanese AircrafI Itidustry

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. Corporation Rc/iorl No. I (Mitubislii Juliogyo KK) (Airframes it Engines) Nakajima Aircraft ("nnii)any, Ltd. Corporolioii Report No. II

*34

Army

*3.5

XX

.\ircraft

(Nakajima Hikoki
(Airframes

Kawanishi Aircraft

KK) & Engines) Company

Basic Materials Division

Corporation Report No. I/I

*36

Coal and Metals

in

Japan's

War Economy

(Kawanishi Kokuki Kabiisliiki Kaislui)

Kawasaki

(Airframes) Aircraft Lidustries Company, Inc. Corporation Report No. IV

Capital Goods,

Equipment and Construction Division

(Kawasaki Kokuki Kogyo Kabushiki

& Engines) Aichi Aircraft Company Corporation Report No. (Aichi Kokuki KK) (Airframes &. Engines) .Sumitomo Metal Industries, Propeller Division Corporation Report No. VI

Kaisha) (Airframes

*37 *38 *39

The Japanese Construction Industrv Japanese Electrical Equipment The Japanese Machine Building Industry
Electric

Power Division

*40
*41

The The

Electric Electric ports)

Power Industrv of .Japan Power Industry of Japan (Plant He-

(Sumitomo Kinzoku Kogyo KK, Puropera


Seizosho)
(Propellers)

Manpower, Food and


*42
LItilization of

Civilian Supplies Division


of

Hitachi Aircraft C^ompany Corporation Report A^o. VII (Hitachi Kokuki KK) (Airframes & Engines) Japan International Air Indu.stries, Ltd. Corporation Report No. VIII

The Japanese Wartime Standard

Living and

Manpower

Military Supplies Division

(Nippon Kokusai Koku Kogyo


(Airframes)

KK)

Japan Musical Instrument pany


(Propellers)

Manufacturing Com-

Corporation Report No. IX (Nippon Gakki Seizo KK)

*43 *44 45 *46 *47 *48

Japane.se

War

Production Industries

Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese Japanese

Naval Ordnance Army Ordnance Naval Shipbuilding

Motor Vehicle Industry Merchant Shipbuilding


Oil

Tachikawa Aircraft Company


Corporation Report No.
(Airframes) Fuji Airplane Company

X
KK)
49 50
51

and Chemical Division

(Tachikawa Hikoki
Corporation Report No.
(Fuji Hikoki

XI

KK)

52

Chemicals in Japan's War Chemicals in Japan's War Appendix Oil in Japan's War Oil in Japan's War Appendi.x

(Airframes) Showa Airplane Company Corporation Report No.

Over-all Economic Effects Division

XII (Showa Hikoki Kogyo KK)


Company,
Ltd.

*53

(Airframes) Ishikawajima Aircraft Industries Corporation Report No. XIII

The Effects od Strategic Bombing on Japan's War Economy (Including Appendix A: IT. S. Economic
Japan Analysis and Comparison: Appendix B: Gross National Product on Japan and Its Components; Appendix C: Statistical
Intelligence on

(Ishikawajima Kaisha)

Koku Kogyo

Kabushiki

Sources).

(Engines) Nippon Airplane Company Corporation Report A'o. XI^^

Transportation Division
''54

(Nippon Hikoki
(Airframes)

KK)

The War Against Japanese


1945

Tran.sportation, 1941-

Kyushu Airplane Company


Corporation Report No.
(Airframes)

XV
Urban Areas Division
*55 *56
Effects of Air Attack on Japane.se L^rban

(Kyushu Hikoki KK)


Shoda Engineering Company Corporation Report A'o. A'T/
(Shoda Seisakujo) (Components)

Economy

(Summary Report)
*57 *58 59 60

Mitaka Aircraft Industries


Corporation Report No.

XVII

(Mitaka Koku Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha) (Components)

L^ban Complex TokyoKawasaki- Yokohama Effects of Air Attack on the City of Nagoya Effects of Air .\ttack on Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto Effects of Air Attack on the City of Nagasaki Effects of Air Attack on the City of Hiroshima

Effects of Air Attack on

97

MILITARY STUDIES
Military Analysis Division
61

87

Report of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure I), Comments and Data on Effectiveness
of

88

Report

Air Forces Allied with the United States in the

War
89

Ammunition of Ships Bombardment Survey Party (Enclosure J), Comments and Data on Accuracy of
Firing
of Ships

62 63 64
65

Against Japan Japanese Air Power Japanese Air Weapons and Tactics The Effect of Air Action on Japanese Ground
Logistics
^

Reports

Army
Ti

closure K), Effects of Surface Japanese War Potential

Bombardment Survey Party (EnBombardments on

Employment

of Forces

-c Under the Southwest Pacihc

Physical

Damage
Cities)

Division

66

The

67 68 69 70
71

Strategic Air Operations of Very Heavy Bombardment in the War Against Japan (Twentieth \ir Force) World War Air Operations in China, Burma, India

Command

90
91

Effect of the Incendiary

Bomb

Attacks on Japan

{i

Report on Eight

The

Effects of

the Ten Thousand Pound Bomli


(a

oi

The

Air Transport

Command
,

in

the
.

War

Against
i I

The Thirteenth Air Force m the \\ ar Agamst Japan The Seventh and Eleventh Air Forces in the War
Against Japan

Japan

92 93 94

,,r

Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Hiroshima. Japan Effects of the Atomic Bomb on Nagasaki, Japan Effects of the Four Thousand Pound Bomb on Japa nese Targets (a Report on Five Incidents)

Japanese Targets

Report on Nine Incidents)

95

Effects of

Two Thousand, One Thousand, and Fiv Hundred Pound Bombs on Japanese Target.s
Report on Eight Incidents) Report on Physical Damage
Report)
in

The "Fifth Air Force

in the

War

Against Japan

96

Japan (Sumniar

Naval Analysis Division


*72

G-2
97 98

Division
Intelligence Intelligence
I,

*73 *74 *75 76


*77 78

The Interrogations of Japanese Officials (Vols, and II) Campaigns of the Pacific War The Reduction of Wake Island The Allied Campaign Against Rabaul The American Campaign Against \\ otje, Maloelaj Mille, and Jaluit (Vols. I, II, and III) The Reduction of Trulv The Offensive Mine Laying Campaign Against
Japan Report
eral
of Ships Bombardment Sur Foreword, Introduction, Conclu.sio-

Japanese Military and Naval


Evaluation of Photographic Japanese Homeland, Part
port

in

tl

Coniprehenswc R
.

99
100

Evaluation Japanese Evaluation Japanese


Plotting

of of

Photographic
Photographic

Intelligence Intelligence
III,

in in

Homeland, Part Homeland, Fart

II, Airfields
t

Computed
.

Bo\
^

101

79

ty
'en-

Evaluation of Photographic IiUelhgeiice m t Japanese Homeland, Part IV, Urban Ai

Summary
Bombardment
Sui
en(fc>n-

102 103 104


(

80
81

Report of Ships

82 83 84

closure A), Kamaishi Area Report of Ships Bombardment Sui >ey I arty closure B). Hamamatsu Area Report of Ships Bombardment ,_i. ,ey 1 arty closure C), Hitachi Area

I'-u-

105

Report of Ships Bombardment S'.rvey 1 arty (Enclosure D), Hakodate Area ey Party (EnReport of Ships Bombardment
closure E). Muroran Area Report of Ships Bomlmrdment closure F). Shimiz.u Area

Evaluation Japanese Evaluation Japanese Evaluation Japanese Evaluation Japanese


gence

Analiisis of
of of of

Photographic

Intelligence
,

in in

Homeland, Part

Camouflage
Intelligence --I

Photographic Photographic Photographic

Homeland, Part IV, Shipping Homeland, Part VII,


Intelligence in Electronirs Intelligence in
Inti

Homeland, Part VIII, Beach

*106 *107

85
86

Survey Party (En-

Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence ni Japanese Homeland, Part IX, Artillery Evaluation of Photographic Intelhgence m .fapanese Homeland, Part X, Roads and R
roads

Report

of Ships

Bombardment Survey Party (EnH), Shionomi-Saki and Nojima108

closures

G and

Saki Areas

Evaluation of Photographic Intelligence in Japanese Homeland, Part XI, Industrial Anal

U. S.

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE;

19<T

98