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Introduction

LTE Air Interface Course

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Module Objectives

At the end of this module, you will be able to: Recall the LTE key aspects, benefits and applications Introduce LTE FDD and TDD commonalities and differences List the LTE/SAE main requirements Underline the LTE/SAE key features Review the LTE network architecture Review the LTE air interface key features Introduce the main 3GPP specifications

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Introduction
Overview Requirements
Delay & QoS Throughput & data rates Spectrum

LTE/ SAE key features


Network architecture LTE Air Interface Specification

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Schedule for 3GPP Releases


Specification
MBMS IMS HSDPA UMTS Rel 99/4 UMTS Rel 99/4 2000 UMTS Rel 5 UMTS Rel 5 2003 WLAN IW HSUPA UMTS Rel 6 UMTS Rel 6 2005 IMS Evolution LTE Studies iHSPA UMTS Rel 7 UMTS Rel 7 2007

Focus of this course is on Release 8 UMTS!

LTE

UMTS Rel 8 UMTS Rel 8 2008 2009 year

LTE HSUPA

Commercial

IMS HSDPA UMTS WCDMA

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The evolution of UMTS is termed Evolved Packet System (EPS). In more detail, the evolution of the 3GPP radio technology is being specified under the name Long Term Evolution (LTE). The Evolved Packet Core (EPC) describes the nonRAN aspects of the system. EPS = LTE + EPC EPS: Evolved Packet System (describes evolution of UMTS) LTE: Long Term Evolution (describes the new radio access technology) EPC: Evolved Packet Core LTE/EPC is the 3GPP system for the years 2010 to 2020 and beyond. LTE/EPC shall be ready for commercial launch around 2010. The motivation of LTE/EPC is mainly driven by the need to stay competitive. In order to be future-proof, UMTS shall be evolving towards a true mobile broadband packet access system. In many aspects it will be superior compared with existing 3G alternatives.

Summary of Capabilities & Benefits of LTE/EPC


Fully packet-oriented mobile broadband network providing:
Peak data rates of 150 Mbps (DL) Peak data rates of 50 Mbps (UL) Very low latency Seamless and lossless handover Sophisticated QoS to support important real time applications such as voice, video and interactive gaming Support for terminal speeds of 150-500 Km/h Cell ranges of up to 100 Km.

Maximised exploitation of frequency Resources


Supports flexible frequency bandwidths by means of OFDM, MIMO, HARQ etc. an outstanding spectrum efficiency can be achieved

Extended Interworking Functionality


seamless mobility with other 3GPP access systems (UMTS, GPRS), with 3GPP2/cdma2000

Reduced Terminal Complexity


Specific transmission schemes Minimize power consumption

Reduced cost per bit


Simplified Architecture All IP

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Fully packet-oriented mobile broadband network providing: - Peak data rates of 100 Mbps (DL) and 50 Mbps (UL) - Very low latency - Seamless and lossless handover - Sophisticated QoS to support important real time applications such as voice, video and interactive gaming - Support for terminal speeds of 150-500 Km/h and cell ranges of up to 100 Km. - Reduced cost per bit: LTE/EPC deploys a simplified architecture and open interfaces. It is full IP-based and uses IP transport. In this way it utilizes low-cost equipment and infrastructure. Additionally this contributes to reduction of operational costs. Further sophisticated features like selfconfiguration / self-optimization capabilities are beneficial in this context. - Maximized exploitation of frequency resources: LTE provides high throughput per cell and supports flexible frequency bandwidths and in particular allows for re-farming of existing and deployment of new frequency bands. Furthermore by means of OFDM, MIMO, HARQ etc. an outstanding spectrum efficiency can be achieved. - Extended interworking functionality: LTE/EPC provides seamless mobility with other 3GPP access systems (UMTS, GPRS), with 3GPP2/cdma2000 and where possible with non-3GPP (e.g. WLAN). - Reduced terminal complexity. Due to the specific transmission schemes the complexity of the terminals is kept reasonable. Also the power consumption shall be minimized. Both contributes to cost reduction and makes it attractive for mass market deployment.

LTE FDD and TDD Modes

Channel Bandwidth scalability 1,4, 3, 5, 10, 15 or 20 MHz = 1 component carrier 10 15


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1,4 3 5

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FDD and TDD modes (2/2)


FDD and TDD modes Harmonisation (commonalities) FDD and TDD mode included together in the same specification Same radio interface schemes for both uplink and downlink Same subframe formats Same network architecture Same air interface protocols Same physical channels procedures FDD and TDD modes differences FDD developed in the paired 3GPP spectrum TDD developed in the unpaired 3GPP spectrum Small differences in the physical channels design Different frame formats FDD mode has commonalities with 3G UMTS TDD mode has commonalities with TD-SCDMA (developed in China)

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In this course both FDD and TDD modes will be discussed

LTE FDD and TDD modes have been harmonized in the sense that both modes share the same underlaying framework including the radio access schemes (OFDM in DL and SCFDMA in UL for both), basic frame formats and protocols. As a clear indication of harmonisation the TDD mode is included together with the FDD mode in the same set of specifications . Protocols and procedures are kept the same for FDD and TDD and therefore it is expected a high level of commonalities for the implementation. This will make possibile to implement FDD and TDD in the same mobile terminal with a big potential for roaming between FDD and TDD and the other way arround. However the scenarios for coexistences still need to be further investigated. Another key feature of TDD mode is the commonality with TD-SCDMA. This is a big advantege since China is already having TD-SCDMA so the gloabal roaming will be possibile.

Introduction
Overview Requirements
Delay & QoS Throughput & data rates Spectrum

LTE/ SAE key features


Network architecture LTE Air Interface Specification

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Requirement Input for LTE/EPC


Requirements Input Demand for higher Demand for higher data rates data rates Demand for quality of Demand for quality of service, lower delay service, lower delay Requirements Excerpt significantly increased downlink bit rates (>150 Mbps); significantly increased uplink bit rates (>50 Mbps); increased cell edge bit rates; Expected new spectrum Expected new spectrum allocations allocations Request for flexible Request for flexible bandwidth usage bandwidth usage low delay; higher spectrum efficiency; scalable bandwidth per cell (operator choice); acceptable terminal complexity and costs (lower than WCDMA); optimization for low speed (0-15 km/h) but support for high and highest speed (up to 500 km/h); .

Demand for reduced Demand for reduced terminal complexity terminal complexity

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Generic: The requirements input list for LTE/EPC contains the following crucial elements: higher data rates: Obviously this is a general requirement requested from any new system. quality of service, lower delay: To enable true convergence between real-time and nonreal-time services quality of service awareness is of absolute importance. This must already be paid attention to during the design of the physical layer. So LTE/EPC will be QoS aware from the very beginning on and not have QoS as an add-on, which is usually not very efficient. expected new spectrum allocation: It is expected to get some new frequency bands assigned to 3G. LTE should be ready to use these bands. flexible bandwidth usage: LTE should be able to deal with frequency bands of different size. So a fixed bandwidth ultra-wideband system is not of big use. Rather LTE should be able to scale the frequency requirements dependent on the operators choice. reduced terminal complexity: 3G terminals are very complex and thus suffer often from poor performance due to hardware limitations and very often also software limitations (or bugs). LTE terminals should have essentially lower complexity. This would also offer the possibility to implement other performance enhancement techniques later on. These points result in a long list of requirements for LTE/EPC. So 3GPP/ETSI demand to have downlink bit rates of greater than 100 Mbps and uplink bit rates of 50 Mbps. Of high importance is also to increase the cell edge bit rates compared to HSPA.

Requirement: Latency and Signal Performance


User Plane Latency

cell Gateway < 5 ms (unloaded condition)

IP Network IP Network

Control Plane Latency ACTIVE IDLE (no resources) No resource Resource Allocated < 50 ms

< 100 ms

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The transition times between different levels of activity are also named C-plane latency. The one-way transit time can be seen as U-plane latency. Furthermore for the C-plane capacity targets are stated as number of active users: 200 (5 MHz) and at least 400 for wider bands. The UL/DL resource scheduling of course requires that the scheduler can handle and distinguish different quality of service classes.

Requirement: Spectrum Usage


LTE/SAE Targets
UL Peak Bit Rate (Mbps) Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz/s) Cell Edge Throughput (bps/Hz/s) > 50 2..3 times HSUPA DL > 150 3..4 times HSDPA

2..3 times HSUPA

2..3 times HSDPA

DOWNLINK UPLINK UPLINK

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Targets are defined related to the Rel. 6 baseline. TIP! Note, bit rates are defined for 20 MHz bandwidth and for smaller bands proportional scaling applies. 2 Tx antennas at the Node B and 2 Rx antennas at the UE are assumed for DL. For UL the targets are set considering a single Tx antenna at the UE and 2 Rx antennas at the eNB.

LTE UE Categories

All categories support 20 MHz 64QAM mandatory in downlink, but not in uplink (except Class 5) 2x2 MIMO mandatory in other classes except Class 1 Class 1 Peak rate DL/UL RF bandwidth Modulation DL Modulation UL Rx diversity BTS Tx diversity MIMO DL
10/5 Mbps 20 MHz 64QAM 16QAM Yes 1-4 Tx Optional

Class 2
50/25 Mbps 20 MHz 64QAM 16QAM Yes 1-4 Tx 2x2

Class 3
100/50 Mbps 20 MHz 64QAM 16QAM Yes 1-4 Tx 2x2

Class 4
150/50 Mbps 20 MHz 64QAM 16QAM Yes 1-4 Tx 2x2

Class 5
300/75 Mbps 20 MHz 64QAM 64QAM Yes 1-4 Tx 4x4

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Functionality: eNB obtains the UE radio capabilities via: - The S1AP initial setup request message - The X2AP in case of handover - The RRC in any other cases eNB sends the UE radio capabilities to: - The MME if it has been retrieved from RRC signalling - The neighbour eNB in case of handover UE category determines: - MIMO settings - PRB allocation and AMC limitation (e.g. 64QAM in UL) - ROHC (Robust Header Compression) profile - Inter RAT handover support

LTE Paired Frequency Bands in 3GPP (FDD)


!" # $ % & #" ' ( UMTS core US PCS 1800 US AWS US 850 Japan 800 2600 900 Japan 1700 Extended AWS* Japan 1500 US700 US700 US700 )
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)
*AWS = Advanced Wireless Spectrum , in Canada

UHF (TV)

LTE Unpaired Frequency Bands in 3GPP (TDD)


* * + * , -- . & # UMTS TDD1 UMTS TDD2 US 1900 UL US 1900 DL US 1900 2600 UMTS TDD 2300

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Frequency Deployment Possible Scenarios

Urban
2.6 GHz 2.1 GHz

or
2.6 GHz 2.1 GHz

Rural
900 MHz

or
900 MHz

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Introduction
Overview Requirements
Delay & QoS Throughput & data rates Spectrum

LTE/ SAE key features


Network architecture LTE Air Interface Specification

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LTE/EPC Key Features


EPS ( Evolved Packet System ) / SAE ( System Architecture Evolution ) / LTE ( Long Term Evolution ) EUTRAN EUTRAN (( Evolved UTRAN )) Evolved UTRAN EPC (( Evolved Packet Core )) EPC Evolved Packet Core IP Network IP Network IP Network IP Network

IP Network IP Network

OFDMA/SC-FDMA MIMO ( beam-forming/ spatial multiplexing) HARQ Scalable bandwidth


(1.4, 2.5, 5, 10, .. 20 MHz)

Evolved Node B / No RNC IP Transport Layer UL/DL resource scheduling QoS Aware Self Configuration PS Domain only, No CS Domain IP Transport Layer QoS Aware 3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) Prepared for Non-3GPP Access

Mobile IP version 6

(Was initially 1.25, 2., now 1.4 and 3 MHz bandwidths) to give a good match for both GSM and cdma2000 refarming cases)
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BASED ON THE REQUIREMENTS 3GPP AGREED UPON STANDARD FEATURES: OFDMA/SC-FDMA. MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) HARQ (Hybrid Automatic Retransmission on reQuest) Scalable bandwidth Evolved Node B IP transport layer UL/DL resource scheduling QoS awareness Self configuration Self optimization Packet Switched Domain only 3GPP (GTP) or IETF (MIPv6) option Non-3GPP access

Introduction
Overview Requirements
Delay & QoS Throughput & data rates Spectrum

LTE/ SAE key features


Network architecture LTE Air Interface Specification

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#$" ##   #$" $"!!!! $"       

 ''$ %&  $ %&  $ %&  $ &%%%%  '' % 6 2 53 4


LTE

       1 ) 2 0 (
I-HSPA

1 ) 2 0 (
Direct tunnel

SAE: System Architecture Evolution

SAE GW: Serving Gateway +PDN Gateway

#$" #$" #$" $"!!!! #                     72 0) 72 0) 72 0) 2 0 (((( 7 )
HSPA

 

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Network Architecture Evolution

Flat architecture: single network element in user plane in

radio network and core network

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Node B + RNC Functionality

Evolved Node B (eNB)

User plane Control Plane

Evolved Packet System (EPS) Architecture Subsystems


The EPS architecture goal is to optimize the system for packet data transfer. There are no circuit switched components. The EPS architecture is made up of: EPC: Evolved Packet Core, also referred as SAE FDD and TDD Architecture eUTRAN: Radio Access Network, also referred as LTE Harmonisation:
EPS Architecture
LTE or eUTRAN SAE or EPC

No difference between FDD and TDD mode regarding the network architecture!

EPC provides access to

external packet IP networks and performs a number of CN related functions (e.g. QoS, security, mobility and terminal context management) for idle and active terminals eUTRAN performs all radio interface related functions

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The LTE/EPC architecture is driven by the goal to optimize the system for packet data transfer. TIP! There are no circuit switched components in LTE/EPC There is a new approach in the inter-connection between radio access network and core network. The EPS architecture is made up of an EPC (Packet Core Network, also referred as EPC) and an eUTRAN Radio Access Network (also referred as LTE) The CN provides access to external packet IP networks and performs a number of CN related functions (e.g. QoS, security, mobility and terminal context management) for idle (camped) and active terminals. The RAN performs all radio interface related functions. The LTE/EPC radio access network - Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN) - will only contain Node Bs. No RNC is provided anymore. This means, that the evolved Node Bs take over the radio management functionality. This will make radio management faster and the network architecture simpler. E-UTRAN exclusively uses IP as transport layer. Behind the EPC follow one or more IP networks. A major example will be IMS, that can benefit especially from the QoS awareness of LTE.

LTE/SAE Network Elements


Main references to architecture in 3GPP specs.: TS23.401,TS23.402,TS36.300 Evolved UTRAN (E-UTRAN)
HSS eNB Mobility Management Entity MME
ME -M S1

Evolved Packet Core (EPC)


Policy & Charging Rule Function S7 PCRF Rx+

S6a X2

S10

Gx

S11 S1-U LTE-Uu S5/S8 SGi

PDN

LTE-UE

Evolved Node B (eNB)

Serving Gateway SAE Gateway

PDN Gateway

NOTE: Interface names are from draft specification and may not be the final interface names.
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S7 is Gx

Introduction
Overview Requirements
Delay & QoS Throughput & data rates Spectrum

LTE/ SAE key features


Network architecture LTE Air Interface Specification

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LTE Air Interface Key Features


TX
Fast Link Adaptation due to channel behaviour 64QAM Modulation

RX
Tx
MIMO Channel

Rx

Advanced Scheduling Time & Freq.

scalable

Short TTI = 1 ms Transmission time interval ARQ Automatic Repeat Request

DL: OFDMA UL: SC-FDMA

OFDM is the state-of-the-art and most efficient and robust air interface and could be used for both FDD and TDD modes
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The state-of-the-art design of the LTE air interface is characterised by OFDMA (DL) and SC-FDMA (UL) together with MIMO. The downlink modulation is based on OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access). OFDMA is a variant of OFDM which has the advantage that receiver complexity is at a reasonable level, it can handle scalable bandwidth requirements and it supports various modulation schemes from BPSK, QPSK, 16QAM to 64QAM. This allows adaptive modulation on a per user base. In uplink direction a variant of OFDMA called SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) is used. It has the advantage against OFDMA to have a lower PAPR (Peak-to-Average Power Ratio), which leads to lower power consumption and less expensive RF amplifiers in the terminal. LTE will support MIMO. It describes the possibility to have multiple transmitter and receiver antennas in a system. Other names are beam-forming or smart antennas. Up to four antennas can be used by a single LTE cell. This allows having spatial multiplexing and beam-forming. MIMO is considered to be the core technology to increase spectral efficiency. Currently the performance of MIMO for high mobility cases is still under investigation. HARQ implements a protocol on layer 1/layer 2 that allows for fast retransmission. Furthermore blocks can be retransmitted with increased coding. In contrast to UMTS where physical resources are either shared or dedicated, the Evolved Node B in EUTRAN handles all physical resource via a scheduler and assigns them dynamically to users and channels. This provides greater flexibility than the older system

Introduction
Overview Requirements
Delay & QoS Throughput & data rates Spectrum

LTE/ SAE key features


Network architecture LTE Air Interface Specification

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3GPP List of Specification Series


FDD and TDD Specification Harmonisation: The TDD mode is included together with the FDD mode in the same set of specifications !

36 Series contains most part of LTE related specifications for Radio

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The specification of LTE/EPC starts with UMTS release 7 for the studies and reports and UMTS release 8 contains the first complete set of technical specifications. E-UTRAN which takes the biggest part will be specified in series TS/TR 36.xxx. In TS 23.401/402 one will find the network architecture. All 3GPP specifications have a specification number consisting of 4 or 5 digits. (e.g. 09.02 or 29.002). The first two digits define the series, followed by 2 further digits for the 01 to 13 series or 3 further digits for the 21 to 55 series.

LTE Air Interface Specifications


The LTE radio interface is standardised in the 36-series of 3GPP Release 8. The detailed physical layer structure is described in five physical layer specifications.
LTE is standardised in the 36-series of 3GPP Release 8: LTE is standardised in the 36-series of 3GPP Release 8: TS 36.1xx Equipment requirements (terminals, eNodeB) TS 36.1xx Equipment requirements (terminals, eNodeB) TS 36.2xx Layer 1 (physical layer) specifications TS 36.2xx Layer 1 (physical layer) specifications TS 36.3xx Layer 2 and 3 specifications TS 36.3xx Layer 2 and 3 specifications TS 36.4xx Network signalling specifications TS 36.4xx Network signalling specifications TS 36.5xx User equipment conformance testing TS 36.5xx User equipment conformance testing

SC-FDMA SC-FDMA Subcarriers eNodeB

OFDMA OFDMA

Frequency

Physical layer specifications: Physical layer specifications: TS 36.201 Physical layer; General description TS 36.201 Physical layer; General description TS 36.211 Physical channels and modulation TS 36.211 Physical channels and modulation TS 36.212 Multiplexing and channel coding TS 36.212 Multiplexing and channel coding TS 36.213 Physical layer procedures TS 36.213 Physical layer procedures TS 36.214 Physical layer; Measurements TS 36.214 Physical layer; Measurements

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