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Energy Conversion and Management 48 (2007) 12661272 www.elsevier.

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Theoretical and experimental investigation of wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector with cross ow heat exchanger
H.M.S. Hussein
*
Solar Energy Department, National Research Centre, El-Tahrir St., Dokki 12622, Giza, Egypt Received 22 March 2006; accepted 27 September 2006 Available online 14 November 2006

Abstract In this work, a wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector with a cross ow heat exchanger was investigated theoretically and experimentally under the meteorological conditions of Cairo, Egypt. The authors earlier simulation program of wickless heat pipes at plate solar water heaters was modied to be valid for the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector by including the solution of the dimensionless governing equations of the present analysis. For verifying the modied simulation program, a wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector with a cross ow heat exchanger was designed, constructed, and tested at dierent meteorological conditions and operating parameters. These parameters include dierent cooling water mass ow rates and dierent inlet cooling water temperatures. The comparison between the experimental results and their corresponding simulated ones showed considerable agreement. Under dierent climatic conditions, the experimental and theoretical results showed that the optimal mass ow rate is very close to the ASHRAE standard mass ow rate for testing conventional at plate solar collectors. Also, the experimental and theoretical results indicated that the number of wickless heat pipes has a signicant eect on the collector eciency. 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Theoretical analysis; Experimental investigation; Wickless heat pipe; Two phase closed thermosyphon; Flat plate solar collector; Cross ow heat exchanger

1. Introduction The wickless heat pipe, which is essentially a two phase closed thermosyphon tube, is a highly ecient device for heat transmission. It utilizes the evaporation and condensation of its internal working uid to transport heat [1,2]. Therefore, it has the ability to transfer heat at high rates over considerable distances and with extremely small temperature drop between the evaporator section (heated region) and the condenser section (cooled region) of the pipe. This makes the wickless heat pipe be more recommended to be used in solar systems, mainly in solar collectors [35]. Moreover, using wickless heat pipes in at plate solar collectors do not need moving parts or external pumping power and act as a thermal diode, preventing
*

Tel.: +20 2 3335946; fax: +20 2 3370931. E-mail address: hmshussein@yahoo.com.

the reverse circulation problem in conventional solar collectors [4,5]. The previous work on wickless heat pipes at plate solar collectors was directed towards studying their performance theoretically and experimentally or comparing them with conventional solar collectors [310]. The common way used by most of the previous studies was circulating the water from the heaters tank to a header through which the water was distributed to ow through a separate annulus around the condenser section of each wickless heat pipe of the collector (i.e. in parallel direction). Then, the water outlet from each annulus was collected in an outlet header to ow back to the tank. Foster et al. [11] showed theoretically and experimentally that the major resistance to heat ow from the collector to the water to be heated was in the convective lm of the water in the annulus of the condenser section of the heat pipe. They recommended that a small shell and tubes heat exchanger

0196-8904/$ - see front matter 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2006.09.021

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Nomenclature A C d F g h I k l _ m n P s t T U W Z z area, m2 specic heat, J/kg K diameter, m factor, dimensionless acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 heat transfer coecient, W/m2 K global solar radiation intensity, W/m2 thermal conductivity, W/m K length, m mass ow rate through heat exchanger, kg/s number perimeter, m inclination angle with respect to horizontal, deg time, s temperature, K heat transfer coecient, W/m2 K pitch distance, m dimensionless coordinate coordinate ccs co coll e ev ex excs exi exo wall cross section of condenser section condenser section; condensation collector aperture eective evaporator section heat exchanger heat exchanger wall cross section inside surface of heat exchanger outside surface of heat exchanger convective lm heat transfer between condenser section and cooling water fo convective lm heat transfer between cooling water and heat exchanger g glass i inside; instantaneous l liquid phase of working uid inside wickless heat pipe L overall n number of wickless heat pipes o outside p absorber plate; wickless heat pipe R heat removal s saturation of working uid inside wickless heat pipe sc solar constant t total w water wi inlet cooling water wn cooling water after nth wickless heat pipe wo outlet cooling water from collector wo(exp.) experimental outlet cooling water from collector wo(th.) theoretical outlet cooling water from collector

Greek letters a absorptance, dimensionless g eciency, dimensionless h dimensionless temperature k latent heat, J/kg l dynamic viscosity, N s/m2 q density, kg/m3 s transmittance; dimensionless time Subscripts a ambient a sky

might be considered. Radhwan et al. [12] presented an experimental investigation for two R-11 charged integrated solar water heaters for forced and natural circulation water ows. The results showed that the inclination of the condenser integrated with the collector frame had a remarkable eect for natural circulation water ow, while it had no signicant eect for forced circulation ow. Mathioulakis and Belessiotis [13] conducted an experimental and theoretical investigation to study the performance of a new ethanol thermosyphon solar water heater. In this system, the condenser section of the thermosyphon tube was placed inside the tank of the water heater. Abreu and Colle [14] experimentally investigated the thermal behavior of wickless heat pipes for compact solar water systems. Their wickless heat pipes were characterized by a semicircular condenser section and a straight evaporator section. Dierent evaporator lengths, ll ratios of working uid, cooling temperatures and slopes of the evaporator were tested for dierent heat uxes and for their eect on the overall thermal resistance.

As shown above, most of the previous studies had a common feature that the condenser sections of the wickless heat pipes were separate tube in tube heat exchangers where the water entered and exited these heat exchangers through two common headers. Other previous studies showed that the major resistance to heat ow in the wickless heat pipes solar collector was in the condenser sections of the wickless heat pipes, and they recommended more studies using dierent types of heat exchangers at the condenser sections. Therefore, in the present study, a wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector with a cross ow heat exchanger was designed, constructed and investigated theoretically and experimentally under dierent climatic conditions, cooling water mass ow rates and inlet cooling water temperatures. Also, the eect of the number of wickless heat pipes on the transient thermal performance of the present type of wickless heat pipes at plate solar collectors was investigated. The cross ow heat exchanger was integrated with the collector frame at the top. The cooling water ows in the heat exchanger in cross ow around

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Cross-flow Condenser section heat exchanger B W Cooling water outlet Insulation

z Cooling water inlet

Absorber plate Wickless heat pipe Glass cover

A Section B-B

B Section A-A

Fig. 1. Cross-sectional views showing the assembly of wickless heat pipes, absorber plates, and cross ow heat exchanger of a wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector.

the condenser sections of the wickless heat pipes, which were arranged in one row as shown in Fig. 1. The collector in this form is simplest in manufacturing and has less material cost. 2. Theoretical analysis Fig. 1 shows cross-sectional views of the wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector under investigation. The mathematical model of the wickless heat pipes at plate solar water heater with annular heat exchangers (i.e. parallel ow) was previously presented, generalized and solved by means of a simulation program designed by Hussein et al. [3,9] and Hussein [15]. In the present study, the governing equations of the condenser sections of the wickless heat pipes, cooling water and the cross ow heat exchanger will be presented and generalized in dimensionless forms. For simplicity, the following assumptions are made in the analysis: 1. Heat transfer from the end cup of the condenser sections of the wickless heat pipes is ignored. 2. The condenser section of each wickless heat pipe is subjected to uniform cooling water temperature. 3. Since the phase change of the working uid inside the condenser section of the wickless heat pipe occurs at constant temperature, the temperature gradient in the longitudinal direction of the condenser section can be neglected. 4. The rate of heat ux from the condenser section of each wickless heat pipe is uniformly distributed on the cooling water ow through the heat exchanger pitch distance (W) (see Fig.1). 5. The end face areas of the heat exchanger are relatively small and well insulated. So, the thermal losses from them are neglected (i.e. dTex/dz = 0 at z = 0, z = npW).

The energy rate balance (W/m) of the condenser section of the wickless heat pipe is represented as follows: qco Accs C co oT co pd i hco T s T co pd o hfi T co T w W=m ot 1

The condensation heat transfer coecient (W/m2 K) inside the condenser section of the wickless heat pipe can be evaluated as follows [16]:  0:25 k 3 q2 gk 0:108 l l hco 0:997 0:334cos s ll lco T s T co lco =d i
0:254cos s0:385

W=m K

The convective lm heat transfer coecient (h) of the cooling water ow in the cross direction on the condenser sections of the wickless heat pipes inside a heat exchanger is obtained from correlations given by Rohsenow and Hartnett [17]. The energy rate balance (W/m) of a dierential element of the cooling water inside the cross ow heat exchanger is represented as follows: qw Aw C w oT w oT w pd o lco _ mw C w hfi T co T w ot oz W P exi hfo T w T ex W=m 3

The convective lm heat transfer coecient (hfo) of the cooling water ow inside a rectangular duct is obtained, based on the hydraulic diameter of the rectangular duct, from correlations given by Kreith and Bohn [18]. The specic condition of the inlet cooling water temperature serves as the boundary condition of Eq. (3) as follows: T w T wi at z 0; t P 0 4

The energy rate balance (W/m) of a dierential element of the cross ow heat exchanger is represented as follows:

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qex Aexcs C ex

oT ex o2 T ex k ex Aexcs P exi hfo T w T ex ot oz2 P exo U ex T ex T a W=m

The boundary conditions needed for the solution of Eq. (5) are written as follows: dT ex 0 dz at z 0; t P 0 and z np W ; t P 0 6

The instantaneous eciency of the wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector is dened as follows: _ gi mw C w T wo T wi =Acoll I t 7 The instantaneous eciency of a solar collector as function of the number of its wickless heat pipes can be evaluated as follows: _ gn mw C w T wn T wi =I t lev np W 8

To generalize the analysis, dimensionless parameters for time, coordinates and temperatures are dened as follows: s kpt ; qp C p W 2 Z z ; np W h k p T T a I sc W 9

Using the above parameters, the governing equations of the present analysis are generalized in dimensionless forms. Solutions of the dimensionless form of the governing equations of the collector components are obtained using nite dierence schemes. The authors earlier simulation program of wickless heat pipes at plate solar water heaters is modied to be valid for the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector by including the solution of the dimensionless governing equations of the present analysis. The cooling water and the cross ow heat exchanger wall are each discretized into np nodes. The modied Eulers method is used for solution of the dimensionless form of Eq. (1), while the simple explicit method is used for solution of the dimensionless forms of Eqs. (3) and (5). 3. Experimental set up and procedure Fig. 2 shows a schematic diagram of the experimental set up of the present work, while the basic characteristics
Thermostat Water tank Electric heater

and specications of the dierent components of the wickless heat pipes collector under investigation are summarized in Table 1. The collector was made of 14 wickless heat pipes with distilled water as the working uid. The evaporator sections of the wickless heat pipes were welded to absorber plates (ns) made of copper sheets (see Fig. 1). The evaporator sections/absorber plates assembly was treated and painted black to have high absorption to solar radiation. The condenser sections of the wickless heat pipes were immersed in a cooling manifold (cross ow heat exchanger) as shown in Fig. 1. The assembly was then incorporated in an insulated box made of an aluminum frame and a base of galvanized iron sheet. The box was insulated from the back and sides by glass wool insulation. The casing was covered in front of the evaporator sections/ absorber plates assembly by ordinary window glass sheet. In contrast, it was insulated by glass wool insulation in front of the heat exchanger as shown in section B-B in Fig. 1. The wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector was then mounted on a tiltable stand of a closed loop test rig for testing at plate solar collectors shown in Fig. 2. Physical quantities measured in the present work are: cooling water temperatures in several axial sections along the cross ow heat exchanger, cooling water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the collector, cooling water ow rate, incident solar irradiance and ambient air temperature. For temperature measurements, 15 K-type thermocouples
Table 1 Basic characteristics and specications of the dierent components of the collector Gross dimensions Length 1.0 m Transparent cover Material: white glass Width 1.96 m Dimensions 0.76 1.9 0.004 m Air gap 0.05 m Length 0.75 m Depth 0.1 m Collector eective area (Acoll) = 1.44 m2 Pitch distance 0.135 m Coating: velvet black Inner diameter 0.0117 m Total length 0.92 m

Absorber plate Material: copper Thickness 0.0004 m Wickless heat pipes Material: copper Evaporator length 0.75 m No. of pipes 14 Heat Exchanger Type: shell and tubes Material: galvanized iron Insulation Material: glass wool Box material Frame: aluminum

Outer diameter 0.0127 m Condenser length 0.1 m Working uid: distilled water Cross section 0.1 0.03 m Flow direction: cross

Pressure gauge

Valve

Flow meter

Circulating pump Thermocouples locations


14 12 10 8

Sight glass Valve


Twi

Length 1.9 m

Cross-flow heat exchanger Solar collector Wickless heat pipes

Thickness 0.05 m

Position: Back and sides

Fig. 2. A schematic diagram of the experimental set up of the present work.

Base: galvanized iron

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60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Local time, h 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 17 18

were placed at several axial locations along the cross ow heat exchanger as shown in Fig. 2. Another K-type thermocouple probe placed in a well ventilated shelter was used to measure the ambient air temperature. A rotameter was used to measure the cooling water ow rate, and a weather station connected to a data logger was used for the measurements of the solar irradiance incident on the tilted surface of the collector. The experiments on the collector were conducted at different cooling water ow rates. During each experiment, the mass ow rate of cooling water was kept constant, and the other physical quantities were recorded. For each cooling water ow rate, two sets of experiments were conducted: (1) Experiments along the standard local time of the day from 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m.. These experiments were performed to verify the present modied mathematical model under transient conditions and to study the eect of the cooling water mass ow rate on the transient thermal performance of the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector. (2) Experiments along several days during the quasisteady state period around solar noon. This group of experiments was performed to conrm the results of the rst group of experiments at dierent inlet cooling water temperatures for dierent cooling water mass ow rates. The uncertainties in the various variables used in the determination of the collector eciency are: 0.1 C for any temperature measurements, 0.1 L/min for the water ow rate, 16.4 W/m2 for solar irradiance and 0.001 m for any distance measurements. For the range of the measurements of the present work and following the procedure of Abernethy and Thompson [19], the maximum uncertainty of the collector eciency was found to be about 5%. 4. Results and discussion For investigating the transient thermal performance of the present type of wickless heat pipes solar collector, the experimental results of some selected experiments of the rst group and their corresponding simulated ones are represented graphically in Figs. 35. Figs. 3 and 4 show the instantaneous variation, along two selected days, of the meteorological conditions (Ta and It), inlet cooling water temperatures (Twi) and experimental and corresponding simulated outlet cooling water temperatures (Two(exp.) and Two(th.)) at two dierent cooling water ow rates. For the same solar intensity, Figs. 3 and 4 show that the cooling water temperature rise increases with the decrease of the cooling water ow rate. Also, Figs. 3 and 4 indicate that the experimental results of outlet cooling water temperatures of the collector and their corresponding simulated ones have the same trend with considerable agreement. Fig. 5 shows the comparison between the instantaneous experimental eciencies of the collector and their corre-

Ta Twi Two (exp.) Two (th.) It

15

16

Fig. 3. Instantaneous variation of It, Ta, Twi, Two(exp.), and Two(th.) at _ mw 0:0125 kg=s.

60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Local time, h

Ta Twi Two (exp.) Two (th.) It

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 17 18

15

16

Fig. 4. Instantaneous variation of It, Ta, Twi, Two(exp.), and Two(th.) at _ mw 0:0458 kg=s.

0.8 0.7 0.6 Efficiency 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Local time, h 15 16 17 18
mw=0.0125 kg/s (exp.) mw=0.0125 kg/s (th.) mw=0.0292 kg/s (exp.) mw=0.0292 kg/s (th.) mw=0.0458 kg/s (exp.) mw=0.0458 kg/s (th.)

Fig. 5. Comparison between the collector instantaneous experimental and theoretical eciencies at dierent cooling water mass ow rates.

sponding simulated ones for three dierent cooling water mass ow rates. For dierent cooling water mass ow rates, Fig. 5 shows that the simulated results of instantaneous collector eciency have the same trend as the experimental ones with considerable agreement. Fig. 5 indicates also that the instantaneous eciencies of the collector are maximum at the cooling water mass ow rate of 0.0292 kg/s. This cooling water mass ow rate is very close to the ASHRAE standard mass ow rate for testing con_ ventional at plate solar water collectors (i.e. mw 0:02Acoll kg=s [20]).

Solar intensity, W/m

Temperature, C

Solar intensity, W/m

Temperature, oC

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For the quasi-steady state period around solar noon, the experimental results of the second set of experiments and their corresponding simulated ones are analyzed and represented graphically in Fig. 6 for three dierent cooling water mass ow rates. This is to demonstrate the comparison between the experimental results and their corresponding simulated ones at dierent inlet cooling water temperatures for dierent cooling water mass ow rates. Using the curve tting technique, as shown in Fig. 6, it can be found that the experimental results of the second set of experiments and their corresponding simulated ones could be represented linearly as a function of the measured parameter [(Twi Ta)/It]. So, the instantaneous eciency of the collector can be evaluated at any inlet cooling water temperature and meteorological conditions by the following equation [20]: gi F R sg ap e F R U L T wi T a =I t 10

Temperature, oC

41 38 35 32 29 26 23 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 Local time, h 13 13.5 14

650 550 450


np=8 (exp.) np=10 (exp.) np=12 (exp.) np=14 (exp.) Twi It np=8 (th.) np=10 (th.) np=12 (th.) np=14 (th.) Ta

0.8 0.7 0.6 Efficiency 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0


mw=0.0125 kg/s (exp.) mw=0.0292 kg/s (exp.) mw=0.0458 kg/s (exp.) mw=0.0125 kg/s (th.) mw=0.0292 kg/s (th.) mw=0.0458 kg/s (th.)

350 250 150

Fig. 7. Instantaneous variation of It, Ta, Twi, experimental and theoretical cooling water temperatures for dierent collector wickless heat pipes.
0.03

0.005

0.01 0.015 0.02 (Twi-Ta)/It, m2.K/W

0.025

0.8 0.7 0.6 Efficiency 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1


np=8 (exp.) np=10 (exp.) np=12 (exp.) np=14 (exp.) np=8 (th.) np=10 (th.) np=12 (th.) np=14 (th.)

Fig. 6. Comparison between the collector experimental and theoretical eciency curves at dierent cooling water mass ow rates. Table 2 Intercept and slope values of the experimental and simulated eciency lines of the collector at dierent cooling water mass ow rates _ mw kg=s 0.0125 0.0292 0.0458 Experimental FR(sgap)e 0.4862 0.6664 0.6011 FRUL 5.1928 7.5179 5.8745 Theoretical FR(sgap)e 0.5199 0.7113 0.6429 FRUL 5.9375 8.5827 6.7451

0 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 Local time, h 13 13.5 14

Fig. 8. Eect of number of wickless heat pipes on the collector instantaneous experimental and theoretical eciencies.

Solar intensity, W/m

The term FR(sgap)e of the right hand side of Eq. (10) represents the intercept of each eciency line with the y-axis as shown in Fig. 6. On the other hand, the product FRUL of this equation represents the slope of each eciency line. For three dierent cooling water mass ow rates, the experimental and simulated values of FR(sgap)e and FRUL of the collector under investigation are summarized in Table 2. For dierent cooling water mass ow rates, Fig. 6 and Table 2 show that the experimental results are a little lower than their corresponding simulated ones. This can be attributed to the assumptions made in the present analysis for simplicity. For dierent measured parameters [(Twi Ta)/It], Fig. 6 indicates that the collector eciency is a maximum at a cooling water mass ow rate of 0.0292 kg/s, which is very close to the ASHRAE standard mass ow rate. This result con-

rms the results of the rst set of experiments. Also, Fig. 6 proves that the present modied simulation program is an eective tool for predicting the thermal performance of the present type of wickless heat pipes at plate solar collectors. For investigating the eect of the number of wickless heat pipes on the performance of the collector that has constant pipes pitch distance, the experimental results of an experiment at the optimum cooling water mass ow rate (i.e. 0.0292 kg/s) are analyzed and represented graphically with their corresponding simulated ones in Figs. 7 and 8. Fig. 7 shows the instantaneous variation of the meteorological conditions (Ta and It), inlet cooling water temperature, experimental cooling water temperatures at the four dierent locations shown in Fig. 2 inside the collector heat exchanger and their corresponding simulated ones. As shown in Fig. 7, the simulated results of cooling water temperatures (Twn) have the same trend as the experimental ones with considerable agreement. Also, Fig. 7 indicates that the temperature of the cooling water ow inside the collector heat exchanger increases signicantly with the increase of the number of collector wickless heat pipes up to 12 pipes. For further increase in the number of collector wickless heat pipes above 12, a little negative eect on the experimental cooling water temperature is noticed at low meteorological conditions, and a little positive eect on it is noticed at high meteorological conditions. This can be attributed to a decrease of the condensation heat transfer rate inside the wickless heat pipes due to the decrease of
47 44 850 750
2

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the temperature dierence between the condenser section of the wickless heat pipes and the cooling water for the further increase in the number of collector wickless heat pipes, especially at low solar intensity. Fig. 8 demonstrates the comparison between the experimental instantaneous eciencies of the collector evaluated by Eq. (8) for dierent wickless heat pipes and their corresponding simulated ones. The gure shows that the experimental results and their corresponding simulated ones have the same trend. Also, Fig. 8 indicates that the collector experimental eciency increases with the increase of the number of wickless heat pipes up to 12 pipes. In contrast, for wickless heat pipes over 12 pipes, a signicant decrease in the collector experimental eciency is noticed in spite of the small increase of the collector cooling water temperature as shown in Fig. 7. This result can be attributed to the fact that the small increase of the useful energy gain by the collector does not compensate for the signicant increase of solar energy incident on the collector due to the increase of its surface area as a result of increasing its wickless heat pipes with constant pipes pitch distance. On the other hand, the theoretical eciency of the collector decreases slightly with the increase of its wickless heat pipes over 12 pipes, specially at high meteorological conditions (i.e. high values of It and Ta). This result can be attributed to the assumptions made in the present analysis for simplicity. 5. Conclusions From the theoretical and experimental investigation of the present type of wickless heat pipes at plate solar collector, it is concluded that: 1. The present modied simulation program is an eective tool for predicting the transient thermal performance of the wickless heat pipes at plate solar collectors with cross ow heat exchanger. 2. The experimental and theoretical results indicate that there is an optimum cooling water mass ow rate for cross ow wickless heat pipes at plate solar collectors. This optimum mass ow rate agrees well with the ASHRAE standard mass ow rate for testing conventional at plate solar water collectors.

3. For constant pipes pitch distance, the experimental and theoretical results indicate that there is an optimum number of wickless heat pipes to be used in designing the wickless heat pipes at plate solar collectors with cross ow heat exchanger. This optimum number is about 12 pipes.

References
[1] Terpstra M, Van Veen J. Heat pipes: construction and applications, a study of patents and patent applications. New York: Elsevier Applied Science; 1987. [2] Faghri A. Heat-pipe science and technology. UK: Taylor and Francis; 1995. [3] Hussein HMS, Mohamed MA, El-Asfouri AS. Appl Therm Eng 1999;19:789. [4] De Vries HFW, Kamminga W, Francken JC. Solar Energy 1980;24:209. [5] Hull JR. ASME Trans J Solar Energy Eng 1987;109:253. [6] Ezekwe CL. Solar Wind Technol 1990;7:349. [7] El-Haggar SM, El-Ass A, Ghanem IM. In: Proceedings of the 4th international conference on energy, development and environment, Cairo, Egypt, vol. 1, 1994. p. 37. [8] Ismail K, Abogderah M. ASME Trans J Solar Energy Eng 1998;120:51. [9] Hussein HMS, Mohamed MA, El-Asfouri AS. Energy Convers Manage 1999;40:1949. [10] Hussein HMS, El-Ghetany HH, Nada SA. Energy Convers Manage 2006;47:1539. [11] Foster AR, Kowalshi GJ, Lopez GW. Proceedings of the 6th Miami international conference on alternative energy sources, Miami Beach, Florida, vol. 1. New York: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation; 1983. p. 337. [12] Radhwan AM, Zaki GM, Jamil A. Int J Energy Res 1990;14:421. [13] Mathioulakis E, Belessiotis V. Solar Energy 2001;72:13. [14] Abreu SL, Colle S. Solar Energy 2004;76:141. [15] Hussein HMS. Energy Convers Manage 2002;43:2479. [16] Hussein HMS, Mohamed MA, El-Asfouri AS. Renew Energy 2001;23:279. [17] Rohsenow WM, Hartnett JP. Handbook of heat transfer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1973. [18] Kreith F, Bohn MS. Principles of heat transfer. 5th ed. Boston: PWS Publishing Company; 1997. [19] Abernethy RB, Thompson JW. Handbook uncertainty in gas turbine measurements. Measurement uncertainty handbook. Instrument Society of America ISA; 1980. [20] Kreider JF, Kreith F. Solar heating and cooling: engineering, practical design, and economics. New York: Hemisphere; 1977.