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MAIN VERBS IN REPORTED SPEECH STRUCTURES a. Statements: SAY / TELL (to s.o.) + that clause / s.o.

+ that clause D.S: Yes, I know its true. They have an affair. I.S: He said (to me) it was true. He told me it was true. b. Questions: ASK / WANT TO KNOW / WONDER if / whether / wh- clause D.S: Do you like fish and chips? What do you think of the new manager? (wh- questions) I.S: He asked me if / whether I liked fish and chips. He wanted to know if / whether I liked fish and chips. He asked me / wanted to know what I thought of the new manager.(wh- questions) *Wonder (to ask oneself): I wondered if I should go to the party. c. Commands: TELL / ORDER s.o. + to inf D.S: Dont behave like that! I.S: He told / ordered his son not to behave like that. SPECIFYING VERBS IN REPORTED SPEECH 1. ACCUSE ( accusation) object + of + v. ing D.S: You did this, John. You stole the money. I. S: He accused me of stealing the money. 2. ADMIT (admission) that clause / v. ing D.S: Im afraid I did it. I took it. Its my fault. I.S: She admitted that she had taken it. She admitted having taken it. 3. ADVISE (advice) to inf / that clause D.S: If I were you, I would tell the truth. I.S: She advised me to tell the truth. She advised that it was better to tell the truth. 4. AGREE (agreement) with + object + on / to inf / that clause D.S: Yes, you are quite right. I had the same impression. Yes, all right. I wont tell anyone. Well, yes; if the weather is bad, we cant go. I.S: He agreed with me on the same impression. He agreed not to tell anyone. He agreed that if the weather was bad, we couldnt go. 5. APOLOGISE (apology) (to s.o.) + for + v.ing D.S: Im sorry, Im late. I.S: He apologised (to the teacher) for being late.

6. BEG ( begging, a request to ask with a deep feeling) s.o. + to inf D.S: Please mum, please can I stay up late and watch the film? I.S: He begged his mum to stay up late and watch the film.
7. COMPLAIN (complaint) (to s.o.)+ about + s.th. / that clause D.S: Waiter, theres a fly in my soup! I.S: He complained (to the waiter) about a fly in his soup. He complained that there was a fly in his soup.

8. DENY (denial) having + participle D.S: I didnt do it, I tell you! I didnt break that window! I.S: He denied having broken that window. 9. EXCLAIM (exclamation) that clause D.S: What a horrible dress you are wearing, dear! I.S: He exclaimed that the dress (she was wearing) was horrible. 10. INFORM (information) s.o. + about + s.th D.S: The next train leaves at 5 oclock, madam. I.S: She informed her about the time of the next train. 11. INVITE (invitation) s.o. + to inf D.S: Would you like to spend the weekend in the country? I.S: Maria invited me to spend the weekend in the country. 12. OFFER (offer) to inf / s.o. + s.th. D.S: Would you like me to meet her at the airport? Would you like a drink? I.S: He offered to meet her at the airport. He offered me a drink. 13. PREFER (preference) v. ing / to inf D.S: Id rather have Chinese food than a hamburger. I.S: He preferred eating Chinese food to a hamburger. He preferred to eat Chinese food rather than a hamburger.

14. PROMISE (promise) to inf D.S: Ill wear this ring until the day I die. I.S: He promised to wear that ring until the day he died.
15. REFUSE (refusal) to inf D.S: No! I dont see why I should do your work. I.S: He refused to do his work. 16. REMIND (reminder) s.o. + to inf D.S: Remember to switch off when youve finished. I.S: He reminded me to switch off when I had finished. 17. SUGGEST (suggestion) v.ing / that clause D.S: Lets not tell anyone until we are quite certain that the report is true. I.S: He suggested not telling anyone until they were quite certain that the report was true. He suggested that they shouldnt tell anyone until they were quite certain that the report true. 18. THREATEN (threat) to inf D.S: If you dont pay the rescue, well kill the boy. I.S: They threatened to kill the boy if the didnt pay the rescue. 19. WARN (warning) s.o. + about + s.th. D.S: Hey! Be careful with that broken glass. I.S: He warned me about the broken glass.


REPORTED SPEECH 1. Change of tenses When we report someones words afterwards, the verb forms often move into the past. DIRECT Present simple I type letters. Present continuous I am typing letters. Present perfect simple I have typed letters. Present perfect continuous I have been typing letters. Past simple I typed letters. Past continuous I was typing letters. Future simple I will type letters. Shall I type letters? Am/are/is + going to I am going to type letters. Future continuous I will be typing letters. Imperative Type letters! Modals I can type letters. I may type letters. I have to/must type letters. NOTE: Do not change would, could, might, ought to and should. INDIRECT Past simple He said that he typed letters. Past continuous He said he was typing letters. Past perfect simple He said he had typed letters. Past perfect continuous He said he had been typing letters. Past perfect simple He said he had typed letters. Past perfect continuous/Past continuous He said he had been typing letters Future past simple He said he would type letters. He asked if he should type letters. Was/were + going to He said he was going to type letters. Future past continuous He said that he would be typing letters. To + infinitive I told him to type letters. Past modals He said that he could type letters. He said that he might type letters. He said that he had to/must type letters.

NOTE: If what a person said is still true or relevant, it is not necessary to change tenses or time references. e.g. Ive booked the table for Friday night. She said shes booked the table for Friday night. 2. Other changes INDIRECT Then That day The day before, the previous day The next/following day, the day after The next/following week/month The previous week/month, the week/month before The week before That Those There

DIRECT Time expressions Now Today Yesterday Tomorrow Next week/month Last week/month A week ago Demonstratives This These Here

Pronouns The change of pronouns will depend on the person being referred to in the in the indirect speech. I gave you my notebook, Sally said to Peter.

Sally told Peter that she had given him her notebook.

3. Reported speech structures A) Statements Reporting verbs: said, told, etc. e.g. I have something to show you, I said to her. I told her (that) I had something to show her. B) Questions Reporting verbs: asked, wanted to know, wondered, etc. Word order: as they are not real questions, the word order is the same as in a normal statement. e.g. Did you see anything suspicious? The policeman wanted to know if I had seen anything suspicious. Two types of questions: Wh-questions: What do you want? He asked me what I wanted. No-wh-questions: Do you like Pepsi? He asked her if she liked Pepsi. C) Commands Reporting verbs: told, ordered, beg, etc. e.g. Stand up, the teacher told Peter. up. Dont do that, Pam ordered her son. that.

The teacher told Peter to stand Pam ordered her son not to do