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Power System Protection EE 5940 By Pratap Mysore

Power System Protection EE 5940 By Pratap Mysore Lecture 1- Fundamentals University of Minnesota January 20,

Lecture 1- Fundamentals University of Minnesota January 20, 2011

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Acknowledgements

University of Minnesota Center for Electric Energy (UMCEE). IEEE Twin Cities local chapter. Xcel Energy. HDR Inc.

Energy (UMCEE). IEEE Twin Cities local chapter. Xcel Energy. HDR Inc. EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Instructor contact information

Pratap.mysore@ieee.org

Instr ucto r contact information Prata p.m ysore@ieee.org EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 3

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Reference Books

C.R. Mason, “The Art and Science of Protective Relaying”. GE Publication. Link- http://www.gedigitalenergy.com/multilin/no tes/artsci/index.htm

digitale nergy.com/multilin/no tes/artsci/index .htm This book was first published in 1956! EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

This book was first published in 1956!

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Reference

“Network Automation & Protection Guide”, published by Alstom

Automation & Protection Guide”, published by Alstom Link changed due to acquisition- will be posted soon.

Link changed due to acquisition- will be posted soon. Relevant IEEE documents – published papers, guides, standards and recommended practices.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Reference Book from IEEE

For IEEE members – free download www.ieeexplore.org Sign in as a member – go to books and browse Title – Power System Protection- P.M.Anderson

go to books and browse Title – Power System Protection- P.M.An derso n EE 5940 Jan

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Major Power System Components

Generators Transformers Transmission lines Switching devices Loads

Generators Transformers Transmission lines Switching devices Loads EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 7

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Power System One Line

Transmission line Generator Distribution Transformer Shunt G Reactor GSU transformer Shunt Capacitor GSU –
Transmission line
Generator
Distribution
Transformer
Shunt
G
Reactor
GSU
transformer
Shunt
Capacitor
GSU – Generator Step up Transformer

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Normal Operating Conditions

Normal – Voltages are within the specified values.

Normal – Voltages are within the specified values. ANSI C84.1 – 1995 (R2005) (100 Volts up

ANSI C84.1 – 1995 (R2005) (100 Volts up to 230 kV). IEEE 1312-1993 (R2004) Re-designation of C92.2-1987 for voltages above 230 kV. (Short guide - only 6 pages).

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Voltage Classification

Low Voltages – Up to 1000 Volts Medium Voltage – 1 kV up to 100 kV High voltage (HV) – 100 KV up to 230 kV Extra HV (EHV) – 345 kV up to 765 kV Ultra HV (UHV) – 1100 kV EHV and UHV defined in IEEE 1312

kV up to 765 kV Ultra HV (UHV) – 1100 kV EHV and UHV defined in

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Voltage Range

Electrical systems – designed and operated within a normal range (defined as Range A) and operating conditions leading to wider range (Range B) where corrective actions are required to bring back the system within normal range.

corrective actions are required to bring back the system within normal range. EE 5940 Jan 20,

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Voltage Range

Range A- Max. - +5% of the nominal and minimum varies –2.5% up to 5% – 120 V* within 114-126V ( Service range); 13.8 kV - 14.49 kV – 13.46 kV (97. 5% of 13.8 kV).

13.8 kV - 14.49 kV – 13.46 kV (97. 5% of 13.8 kV). Utilization voltage range

Utilization voltage range (voltage at the customer) – up to ~90% V nom. * - State regulations may have different limits at low voltages.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Voltage Range

Max. voltage up to 345 kV +5% of the nominal.

Voltage Range Max. voltage up to 345 kV +5% of the nominal. 500 kV – 550kV;

500 kV – 550kV; 765 kV –800kV; 1100 kV –1200 kV.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Overcurrent limits

Conductors, pipes and wires, are rated to carry specified current that limits temperature rise over ambient or maximum temperature to design parameters. ACSR conductor –maximum 100deg. C Tubular bus – 30 deg. Rise over 40 deg. Ambient Transformer – 65 deg. Rise over 40 degrees ambient

over 40 deg. Ambient Transformer – 65 deg. Rise over 40 degrees ambient EE 5940 Jan

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Frequency

Typically very close to the nominal frequency Interconnection guidelines within +/- 0.5 HZ Regional requirements for corrective action for frequencies outside this limit

Regional requirements for corrective action for frequencies outside this limit EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Normal Operation

As per C.R. Mason – “ Normal” operation assumes no failures, no mistakes of personnel nor “acts of god”.

failures, no mistakes of personnel nor “acts of god”. The system design should take into account

The system design should take into account the failures, human errors and abnormal operating situations.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Electrical Failures – Possible Solutions

Insulation failures due to lightning or switching transients or sustained overvoltages –Surge arrestors and over voltage relaying Short circuits resulting in excessive fault currents –fuses; relaying to detect such conditions. Relays operate isolating devices such as circuit breakers or circuit switchers. Circuit breakers are rated to interrupt short circuit currents.

switchers. Circuit breakers are rated to interrupt short circuit currents. EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Abnormal Operating Conditions

Severe unbalance of generation and load leading to off nominal frequency operation;

and load leading to off nominal frequency operation; Detection schemes to mitigate these situations such as

Detection schemes to mitigate these situations such as frequency relays, out of step blocking/ tripping schemes, overload detection relays. Severe over/under voltage – voltage relays to isolate load/ equipment.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Protective Relaying

detects short circuits and/or abnormal operating conditions that may affect the equipment/ the system. Isolate only the faulty equipment.

may affect the equipment/ the system. Isolate only the faulty equipment. EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Protection Requirements

Isolate faulty equipment as soon as possible

G Transformer –GSU Generator
G
Transformer –GSU
Generator

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Redundancy

What happens if the relay doesn’t operate?

Redundancy What happens if the relay doesn’t operate? Add a second set of relaying Make sure

Add a second set of relaying Make sure that some other relay clears the fault such as a relay looking into the generator from the system.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Backup Protection

What happens if the breaker fails to operate?

Protection What happens if the breaker fails to operate? Provide a relay to detect this condition

Provide a relay to detect this condition and trip adjacent sources for the fault. This could be at the same location or at a remote location.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Other Failures

D.C. power is required for operating breakers and other auxiliary devices.

for operating breakers and other auxiliary devices. Battery failure: Solution is to provide remote back up

Battery failure: Solution is to provide remote back up or provide redundancy at the local station. D.C. circuits protected by either fuses or D.C. breakers. Provide separate circuits for primary and secondary trip paths.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Generator Protection – Redundancy With Back up

Isolate faulty equipment as soon as possible

G Transformer –GSU Generator Trip Trip Primary protection Breaker failure Relay Secondary protection
G
Transformer –GSU
Generator
Trip
Trip
Primary protection
Breaker failure Relay
Secondary protection
protection Breaker failure Relay Secondary protection Initiate Breaker Failure EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Initiate

Breaker

Failure

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Copyright@2011

Another relay looking from the transformer into the generator or the bus can also provide the back up function.

24

Instrument Transformers

Current transformer – scales down the primary current to manageable value for the relay. Ex: 2000 Amps is the nominal current of the generator ; 2000/5 can be the ratio. The relay input is 5Amps if the primary current is 2000 Amps.

be the ratio. The relay input is 5Amps if the primary current is 2000 Amps. EE

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Instrument Transformers (Contd.)

Instrument Transformers (Contd.) Potential transformers – Step down the voltage to relay input range (66Volts to

Potential transformers – Step down the voltage to relay input range (66Volts to

120Volts)

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Relay Inputs

Current with nominal 5A rating. Voltage nominal –from 66V to 150 V (This could vary depending on the manufacturer).

nominal –from 66V to 150 V (This could vary depending on the manufacturer). EE 5940 Jan

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Zones of Protection

3 Transmission line 2 Shunt G 4 7 Reactor Transformer – Generator GSU 1 1-
3
Transmission line
2
Shunt
G
4
7
Reactor
Transformer –
Generator
GSU
1
1- Generator
3-Unit protection
5- Line protection
7- Shunt Reactor
2- Transformer
4-Bus protection
6- Shunt Capacitor
5
Shunt
Capacitor
6
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Copyright@2011

28

Zone Boundary

The boundary is defined by

The fault interrupting device (Breaker in our example)

1.

The fault interrupting device (Breaker in our example) 1. 2. Location of the current transformer EE

2. Location of the current transformer

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Zone Boundary Example

Zone of protection Bus relay
Zone of protection
Bus relay

Typical Location of CT in

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Overlapping Zones

Prevents Blind spots

3 Transmission line 2 Shunt G 4 7 Reactor Transformer – Generator GSU 1 1-
3
Transmission line
2
Shunt
G
4
7
Reactor
Transformer –
Generator
GSU
1
1- Generator
3-Unit protection
5- Line protection
7- Shunt Reactor
2- Transformer
4-Bus protection
6- Shunt Capacitor
5

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Shunt

Capacitor7- Shunt Reactor 2- Transformer 4-Bus protection 6- Shunt Capacitor 5 EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

31

Zone Boundary CT Location

Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in
Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in
Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in
Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in
Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in

Live tank Breaker

Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in
Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in
Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in
Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in
Zone Boundary CT Location Live tank Breaker Blind zone Bus relay Typical Location of CT in

Blind zone

Bus relay

Typical Location of CT in

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Zone Boundary – Blind Zone

If the interrupting device (Breaker) is outside the CT boundary, there might be “ It is not my zone” situation – Blind Zone. One solution - Trip all zones associated with this breaker – Ex.- trip the bus relay when line relay picks up and trips the breaker. Modern relay Solution- Disable the CT input if the breaker is open – This will allow the bus relay to clear the fault after the line breaker opens.

This will allow the bus relay to clear the fault after the line breaker opens. EE

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Changing Zones of Protection

Breaker maintenance/ Current Transformer (CT) problem Original zone of protection 2 G Transformer –GSU Generator
Breaker maintenance/ Current Transformer (CT)
problem
Original zone of protection
2
G
Transformer –GSU
Generator
3
Expanded zone of protection

Primary protection

Secondary protection

zone of protection Primary protection Secondary protection Trip and initiate B/F of Bkrs 2 and 3

Trip and initiate B/F of Bkrs 2 and 3

If CT is the problem – rewire CT to the line breakers 2 and 3 or rewire bus relay CT to transformer CT

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Other Names for Clearly Defined Zone Protection

Merz-Price protection Unit protection Differential protection

Protection Merz-Price protection Unit protection Differential protection EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 35

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Protection Where Zones Are Not Clearly Defined

Transmission line Distribution Transformer Shunt Line G Reactor Relay Transformer – Generator GSU Overcurrent
Transmission line
Distribution
Transformer
Shunt
Line
G
Reactor
Relay
Transformer –
Generator
GSU
Overcurrent relay
Impedance relay (Ratio of voltage to Current)
Shunt
Capacitor
Feeder
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Copyright@2011
36

Breaker Operation for Faults at Various Locations

Transmission line L1 Distribution 3 4 Transformer Shunt G 1 2 10 Reactor Transformer –
Transmission line L1
Distribution
3
4
Transformer
Shunt
G
1
2
10
Reactor
Transformer –
7
5
Generator
GSU
Equipment
Normal clearing
Bkr Failure
11
12
Generator
1
2
* depending
GSU
1, 2
1,3,5 for Bkr 2 failure
on which
6
8
breaker fails
Bus
2,3,5
1,3,5 for failure of 2
2, 4,5 for failure of 3
2,3,6 for failure of 5
L1
3, 4
2,5,4 or3, 7, 10
9
L2
5,6
2,3,6 or 8, 9,5
Shunt
L3
7, 8
4,10,8 or7, 6,9
Capacitor
Capacitor
9
6,8
Shunt reactor
3,4
2,5,4 or 3, 7, 10
Dist. transformer
4,7,10
3 for Bkr 4 failure or 8 for Bkr 7
failure -Feeders Assumed
radial
Feeder
11
10
EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Other Relay Terms

Sensitivity – Relay is sensitive enough to operate for faults.

– Relay is sensitive enough to operate for faults. Selectivity – Operate as intended. Reliability –

Selectivity – Operate as intended. Reliability – Perform when called upon. Security – from operations point of View; undesired tripping Vs. failure to trip.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Other Functions

Auto restoration. Alarms to assist system operator’s decision.

Functions Auto restoration. Alarms to assist system operator’s decision. EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 39

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Relay Protection Designs

Mostly based on past experiences. There are many ways to provide redundancy – Local or remote. Unlike physical layout designs, different solutions may not have any significant effect on the cost of the project. More of an art than science.

significant effect on the cost of the project. More of an art than science. EE 5940

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Relay Inputs

Voltage Current

Relay Inputs Voltage Current EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 41

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Electrical Parameters – Measuring principles

Voltage – over voltage/ under voltage or rate of change Current – overcurrent or undercurrent or rate of change Derived quantity – Impedance –V/I magnitude or rate of change; Direction based on phase angle relationship between V and I Frequency- Over or under frequency – magnitude or rate of change Voltz per hertz - overfluxing

frequency – magnitude or rate of change Voltz per hertz - overfluxing EE 5940 Jan 20,

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Industry Accepted Device Numbers

ANSI/ IEEE C37.2 Device number standard Examples:

52- Circuit breaker

87 – Differential relay
87 – Differential relay

51

– time overcurrent relay

50

– Instantaneous over current relay

27

– Under voltage relay

59

– Over voltage relay

2- time delay relay

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

One Line Diagram – Protection Design

Need to know the layout of the substation or the power plant. Location of the breakers and CTs. What to use - Primary/ secondary or back up. A.C. connections. What to trip.

to use - Primary/ secondary or back up. A.C. connections. What to trip. EE 5940 Jan

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Alternate Names

Metering and relaying diagram. Based on past practices of Utilities/ Power plants. Varies from one company to another. Some utilities show CT and PT connections on one sheet and show the tripping logic on another sheet.

and PT connections on one sheet and show the tripping logic on another sheet. EE 5940

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

M&R Diagram

Provides details on what protection is used. Shows which breakers are tripped. Serves as a good reference document to develop three line diagrams (Schematics).

as a good reference document to develop three line diagrams (Schematics). EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Example – Metering & Relaying Diagram
Example –
Metering &
Relaying
Diagram

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Fault Current and Voltage at the Relay

Location

V S (t) = V m Sin(ωt); θ - Fault initiation angle R – total resistance ; L- Total Inductance; α = R/L ϕ - System angle ; ϕ L – Line angle = tan -1 (ωL/R) Z L = (R L 2 + ωL L 2 ); Z = (R 2 + ωL 2 )

Relay Location

L L L S R S R L V S
L L
L S
R S
R L
V
S
2 + ω L 2 ) Relay Location L L L S R S R L

Fault current, I(t) = (V m /Z) [ sin (ωt + θ - ϕ) –Sin (θ - ϕ) e - αt ]

Voltage at Relay location,

V R = V m (Z L /Z) [ sin (ωt + θ - ϕ + ϕ L ) – (Z/ ωL) Sin (θ - ϕ) Sin (ϕ L - ϕ) e - αt ]

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Fault Current Waveform

Fault Current Waveform EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 49

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Relay Inputs

Current input may have D.C. offset. The amount of offset depends on the fault incidence point on the voltage waveform. Voltage inputs rarely have any offsets as line angle ϕ L and system angle, ϕ are close to each other. If ϕ L = ϕ S = ϕ; the system is considered as homogenous system.

If ϕ L = ϕ S = ϕ ; the system is considered as homogenous system.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Relay Classification

Electromechanical Static Numerical/microprocessor (digital)

Classification Electromechanical Static Numerical/microprocessor (digital) EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 51

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Relay Chronology

Electro-mechanical relays – Significant portion still in service. – Major development in 1950s. Solid state – Transistor versions – Late 60’s. Op. amps/ CMOS Technology – early 1970s. Microprocessor relay – late 70- early 80s.

CMOS Technology – early 1970s. Microprocessor relay – late 70- early 80s. EE 5940 Jan 20,

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

What Has Changed?

Electro-mechanical relays – single function relays. One relay for each function. Solid state technologies – combined two or three functions. Microprocessor based relays – Multifunction relay with emphasis on fault records, control features. Latest Technology – Wide area protection, Synchro-phasors, interoperability standards.

– Wide area protection, Synchro-phasors, interoperability standards. EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 53

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

What Is Hard To Change?

All protection application philosophies, based on electromechanical relay concepts, are still prevalent - several multifunction relays used as multiple single function relays. Cost of implementation of new concepts is easy but, prevalent legacy approach blocks such changes citing additional maintenance overheads.

legacy approach blocks such changes citing additional maintenance overheads. EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 54

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Electromechanical Relays

Types of electromechanical Relays
Types of electromechanical Relays

Telephone Type Relays Hinged Armature Relays/ Clapper type Relays Plunger Relays Induction Disc relays Induction cup/Cylinder Relays

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Telephone Type Relay

Telephone Type Relay EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 56

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Induction Disc Type Relay

Induction Disc Type Relay EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 57

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Induction Cup Relay

Induction Cup Relay EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 58

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Maintenance

GEK-99350 –Adjustment Techniques for Electromechanical relays by GE

ent Techniques for Electromechan ical rel ays by GE http://pm.geind ustrial. com/FAQ/Documents /PVD/GEK-99

http://pm.geindustrial.com/FAQ/Documents

/PVD/GEK-99350.pdf

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Current Transformer (CT)

Steps down high currents to relay input levels. Applications – Metering and Relaying. Types

levels. Applications – Metering and Relaying. Types Free standing CT. Bushing CT. Auxiliary CT. Optical

Free standing CT. Bushing CT. Auxiliary CT. Optical

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Current Transformers – IEEE Documents

IEEE C57.13-2008, “IEEE standard requirements for instrument Transformers”. IEEE C57.13.1-2006, “ IEEE guide for Field Testing of Relaying Current Transformers. IEEE C57.13.3-2005, “ IEEE guide for Grounding of Instrument Transformer secondary circuits and Cases”. IEEE C57.13.5-2009, “ IEEE Standard for Performance and Test Requirements for Instrument Transformers of a Nominal System voltage of 115 kV and above”. IEEE C57.13.2 –2005 – This standard covers tests required for CT from 600V up to 38kV. IEEE C37.110-2007 “IEEE Guide for the Application of Current Transformers for Protective Relaying Purposes”.

r the Application of Current Transformers for Protective Relaying Purposes”. EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Polarity Marking

H 1 I Primary I Secondary X 1 X 2 X •Sec. Winding Designation –
H
1
I
Primary
I
Secondary
X
1
X
2
X
•Sec. Winding
Designation –
3
X
4
X,Y, Z, U,W and
V.
X
5
•Ratio 1200:5A

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Free Standing CT

Used in systems up to 800 kV. Air Oil Nitrogen Insulator Primary winding Secondary Core
Used in systems up to 800 kV.
Air
Oil
Nitrogen
Insulator
Primary
winding
Secondary
Core & winding
Tank
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Copyright@2011
63

Bushing CT

Internally or Externally Mounted on the Bushing

Bushing CT Internally or Externally Mounted on the Bushing CT rating- If primary is not an

CT rating- If primary is not an integral part of the CT, The CT should be rated for the equipment ratings.

Ex: Transformer or breaker bushing CT.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Auxiliary CT

Used for Ratio Matching

Auxiliary CT Used for Ratio Matching EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 65

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Terminology Related to CTs

Rating Factor – Specifies the maximum continuous Primary current carrying capability. –1.0, 1.33, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0 ad 4.0 are the preferred rating factors as per the standard. Ex: 2000/5 R.F: 2.0; The maximum rating on the primary is 4000A.

standard. Ex: 2000/5 R.F: 2.0; The maximum rating on the primary is 4000A. EE 5940 Jan

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Metering CT

Accuracy is defined at a rated connected load ( referred to as Burden)

Example:
Example:

Burden

Resistance (Ω)

Inductance (mH)

Impedance (Ω) @ 60 HZ

Power factor

Designation

B-0.1

0.09

0.116

0.1

0.9

B-0.5

0.45

0.58

0.5

0.9

B –1.8

1.62

2.08

1.8

0.9

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Metering Accuracy Class:

As defined in C57.13

1.2

0.976 – 1.024

0.988 – 1.012

Metering Accuracy Class Accuracy 10% rated current At rated current 0.3 0.994 - 1.006 0.994
Metering Accuracy Class
Accuracy
10% rated current
At rated current
0.3
0.994 - 1.006
0.994 - 1.006

0.6

0.988

– 1.012

0.994-1.006

High Accuracy class 0.15 is defined in C57.13.6 with burden class E- 0.2 and E-0.04 at unity power factor. The CT will confirm to the Accuracy class at higher currents if Rating Factor is greater than 1.0

unity power factor. The CT will confirm to the Accuracy class at higher currents if Rating

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Relay Class CTs

C-Class – 3% at rated current and 10% at 20 times the rated current. This is based on designated burden.

the rated current. This is based on designated burden. Burden Resistance ( Ω ) Inductance (mH)

Burden

Resistance (Ω)

Inductance (mH)

Impedance (Ω) @ 60 HZ

Power factor

Designation

B-1.0

0.5

2.3

1.0

0.5

B

- 2.0

1.0

4.6

2.0

0.5

B

- 4.0

2.0

9.2

4.0

0.5

B

– 8.0

4.0

18.4

8.0

0.5

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Relay CT Designation

C-Class low leakage flux, The ratio can be calculated.

C-Class low leakage flux, The ratio can be calculated. T- Class – high leakage ratio cannot

T- Class – high leakage ratio cannot be calculated and has to be determined by tests. X- Class – 1% accuracy at rated current and user defined accuracy at 20 times the rated current. Refer C57.13 to specify.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Excitation Curve

Voltage developed by CT

Excitation Curve Voltage developed by CT Knee-Point 10% error at 100A 10A EE 5940 Jan 20,
Knee-Point 10% error at 100A
Knee-Point
10% error at 100A

10A

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

C400 CT Excitation Curves

C400 CT Excitation Curves EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 72

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Excitation Curve

A finite amount of current is used to establish flux in the magnetic core – Excitation or Magnetizing current . C400 – CT can push 100 A into 4 ohms burden at 10% accuracy. From excitation curve, CT develops ~500 V at 100 A with 10A excitation current.

From excitation curve, CT develops ~500 V at 100 A with 10A excitation current. EE 5940

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Excitation Curve

Internal voltage drop at 100A = 0.002 ohms x 240 turns x 100A = 48V; CT terminal voltage = 4 X 100A = 400V CT internal voltage at 100A (10A excitation current) = ~500V > 400V

CT internal voltage at 100A (10A excitation current) = ~500V > 400V +48V. EE 5940 Jan

+48V.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Knee- Point Voltage

Knee- Point Voltage IEC defines the point as the voltage at which 10% increase in voltage

IEC defines the point as the voltage at which 10% increase in voltage results in 50% increase in excitation current. IEC Classification – 5P20, 10P20 – 5% error at 20 times the nominal current or 10% error at 20 times the nominal current.

45 deg. Line intersection with the excitation curve.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CT – Steady State Performance

Cable- #10 gauge – 1.0 ohms per 1000 ft. E/M relay burden generally published as Volt Ampere (VA) – Depends on the relay and the setting – as high as 15.68 ohms – 3.92 VA @0.5 A Microprocessor Relays- 1-5 VA at 5A. Max. Z=0.2 ohms.

A Microprocessor Relays- 1-5 VA at 5A. Max. Z=0.2 ohms. Excitation Current Relay Burden Cable impedance
A Microprocessor Relays- 1-5 VA at 5A. Max. Z=0.2 ohms. Excitation Current Relay Burden Cable impedance
Excitation Current
Excitation
Current
Relay Burden
Relay
Burden

Cable impedance

Cable impedance

Z=0.2 ohms. Excitation Current Relay Burden Cable impedance Cable impedance EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011

Z=0.2 ohms. Excitation Current Relay Burden Cable impedance Cable impedance EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CT Transient Performance

Voltage developed across the secondary of a CT is given by V S = (Z burden + 2R cable +R CT ) I f, if there is no D.C. offset

l e +R C T ) I f , if there is no D.C. offset V

V S = (1+X/R) (Z burden + 2R cable +R CT ) I f, with D.C. offset I f is the primary current/ CT ratio. X,R - reactance and resistance of the primary system. The CT voltage rating > V S to avoid CT saturation.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Current Transformers References -Books and Papers

Stanley E. Zocholl, “Analyzing and Applying Current transformers” SEL Publication, 2004. IEEE WG, “Transient response of Current Transformers”, IEEE Trans. PAS, VOL.PAS-91, 1977. Arthur Wright, “ Current Transformers, their transient and steady state Performance”, Chapman and Hall, 1968. Brian D. Jenkins, “Introduction to Instrument-Transformers”, CRC Press, 1967.

D. Jenkins, “Introduction to Instrument-Transformers”, CRC Press, 1967. EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 78

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Asymmetrical Fault Current –Core Flux Waveform

If the fault is cleared before the steady state is reached, core may have high remanent flux.

Core Flux ωt
Core Flux
ωt
the steady state is reached, core may have high remanent flux. Core Flux ωt EE 5940

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

IEEE PSRC Documents

IEEE C37.110-2007, “IEEE Guide for the Application of Current Transformers used for Protective Relaying Purposes”. CT saturation calculator. http://www.pes-psrc.org/. published reports

CT saturation calc ulato r. http://www.pes- psrc .org/ . published reports EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CT Selection

Maximum continuous rating of the primary circuit. 2000/5 RF = 2.0 – Primary can carry 4000 A continuously. This means that all loads connected to the secondary side should be capable of carrying 10A.

all loads connected to the secondary side should be capable of carrying 10A. EE 5940 Jan

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CT Selection

Select primary rating based on the load current carrying capability.

rating based on the load current carrying capability. If load rating is 5A is max. rating

If load rating is 5A is max. rating and if the primary needs to be 3000A, select 3000/5A.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CT Selection

Determine the max. fault current. Determine the X/R of the system. Determine the burden – Add cable impedance and the connected relay impedance. Select the C Class (100, 200, 400 or 800) so that C-Class V > (1+X/R)*If*(Z Burden) ) to avoid saturation. It may not be possible to avoid saturation.

n ) ) to avoid saturation. It may not be possible to avoid saturation. EE 5940

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Other Factors –CT Selection

Max. secondary current <Microprocessor relay A/D limit (Typical - 100Apk). Remanence (residual flux) in the core allows CT to saturate earlier. According to C37.110 Annex C Table C1 on 230 kV system, out of 141 CTs checked, 20% had up to 80% remanence, and 39% had up to 20% remanence. Based on this V C-Rating > (1+X/R) I f Z B (1-Remanence/100) to avoid saturation.

i n g > (1+X/R) I f Z B (1-Remanence/100) to avoid saturation. EE 5940 Jan

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CT Ratings- at Tapped Ratios

C-class Excitation curves are provided for all lower ratios. The Rating Factor higher than 1.0 leaves to confusion on the ratings. EX- 2000/5 RF 2.0 Ratings, 4000A and 10A. At 1500/5, primary rating is 3000A based on secondary limit of 10A. At 800/5, Primary rating is 1600A based on 10A limit of the secondary.

of 10A. At 800/5, Primary rating is 1600A based on 10A limit of the secondary. EE

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Will CTs Always Saturate?

It depends on the burden, X/R and C-rating and also on the point of fault incidence.

X/R and C-rating and also on the point of fault incidence. C37.110 and the referenced paper

C37.110 and the referenced paper provide time to saturate equations and curves. Use Excel spread sheet on IEEE-PSRC website.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Faults

Majority of faults are single line to ground. D.C offset is maximum if θ - ϕ =90 0 System angle, ϕ is around 70 0 –85 0 Fault should occur around zero on the voltage waveform. Most of the faults due to insulation failure are around the voltage peak. D.C. offset Probability is low for line to ground faults. On three phase faults at least one of the phases will have significant offset.

On three phase faults at least one of the phases will have significant offset. EE 5940

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CT Saturation Calculator

Examine the time to saturate, effective current calculated by the relay

Examine the time to saturate, effective current calculated by the relay EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Potential Transformer

Steps down the voltage to 120V or less. C57.13 specifies the ratings.

voltage to 120V or less. C57.13 specifies the ratings. Metering Accuracy –0.3, 0.6, 1.2 at 90%

Metering Accuracy –0.3, 0.6, 1.2 at 90% to110% of the nominal rating. C57.13.6 – 0.15 Accuracy Class specified.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Voltage Transformer Ratings

Typically connected –Phase to ground.

Standard Ratios as per Table 12 of IEEE C57.13- 2008.
Standard Ratios as per Table 12 of IEEE C57.13-
2008.

40250V/ 115V/67V on 69 kV system – Secondary has a tap. Relays (legacy relays) are normally connected to 67 V tap. Modern relays can withstand at least up to 150V.

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

VT Burdens

Designation BURDEN At 120V and at 69.3V basis VA Power Factor W 12.5 0.1 X
Designation
BURDEN At 120V and at 69.3V basis
VA
Power Factor
W
12.5
0.1
X
25.0
0.7
M
35.0
0.2
Y
75.0
0.85
Z
200.0
0.85
ZZ
400.0
0.85

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Polarity

H 1 X 1 X 2 X 3 Y-Winding
H
1
X
1
X
2
X
3
Y-Winding

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Capacitor Coupling Voltage Transformer

CCVTs are more economical at higher voltages instead of wound transformers. C1 Compensating Reactor Transformer
CCVTs are more economical at higher
voltages instead of wound transformers.
C1
Compensating
Reactor
Transformer
C2

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CCVT Transient Performance

CCVT Transient Performance EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 94

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CCVT Transient Performance

CCVT Transient Performance EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 95
CCVT Transient Performance EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 95
CCVT Transient Performance EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 95

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

CCVT –Effect of Load on Transients

Transients are higher if CCVT is loaded. Fault Point on the waveform also has an effect.

higher if CCVT is loaded. Fault Point on the waveform also has an effect. EE 5940

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Further Reading/ References

C.R. Mason- Chapters 1,2,7 and 8 Alstom – Chapter 2,3 and 6 P.M.Anderson – Chapters 1 and 2

1,2,7 and 8 Alstom – Chapter 2,3 and 6 P.M.Anderson – Chapters 1 and 2 EE

EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011;

Questions?

Questions? EE 5940 Jan 20, 2011; Copyright@2011 98

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