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OF

SPORTS AND PASTIMES
EDITED BY

HIS

GRACE THE DUKE OF BEAUFORT,
ASSISTED BY ALFRED
E. T.

K.G.

WATSON

FENCING, BOXING, WRESTLING

PRINTED BY

SrOTTISWOODE AND

CO., NEW-STREET SQUARE LONDON

0^

,

P 7

7

FENCING
BY

WALTER
/r/77/

POLLOCK, F. C. GROVE, AND CAMILLE PREVOST, Maitre d'Armes
H.
A COMPLETE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE BY EGERTON CASTLE, M.A., F.S.A.

ART

BOX NG
I
E. B.

MICHELL

WRESTLING
WALTER ARMSTRONG

WITH ILLUSTRATIONS FROM INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHS

LONDON

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND
1889

CO.

^^^i^^^rfttMitftaB

BBlOH^^p^^va UTAH

DEDICA TION
TO

H.R.H.

THE PRINCE OF WALES.

Badminton

:

October^ 1889.

Having received permission to dedicate these volumes, the Badminton Library of Sports and Pastimes, to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, I do so feeling that I am dedicating them to one of the
best and keenest sportsmen of our time.
I

can say, from
can

personal observation, that there
extricate himself from a bustling

is

no

man who

and pushing crowd of

horsemen, when a fox breaks covert, more dexterously

and quickly than His Royal Highness

;

and that when

hounds run hard over a big country, no man can take a
line of his

own and

live

with them better.

Also,
I

when
seen

the wind

has been blowing hard, often have

His Royal Highness knocking over driven grouse and
partridges

and high-rocketing pheasants

in

first-rate

vi

DEDICA TION
style.

workmanlike

He

is

held to be a good yachtsman,
is

and as Commodore of the Royal Yacht Squadron
looked up to by those
exhilarating pastime.

who

love

that pleasant and
is

His encouragement of racing

well known, and his attendance at the University, Public

School,

and other important Matches

testifies
all

to

his

being, like
sports.
I

most English gentlemen, fond of
consider
it

manly

a great privilege to be allowed to

dedicate these volumes to so eminent a sportsman as

His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, and

I

do

so with sincere feelings of respect and esteem and loyal

devotion.

bp:aufort.

BADMINTON,

PREFACE.
A FEW
EINES only are necessary
to explain the object
forth.

with which these volumes are put

There

is

no

modern encyclopaedia

to

which the inexperienced man,

who

seeks guidance in the practice of the various British

Sports and Pastimes, can turn for information.

Some
but one

books there are on Hunting, some on Racing, some
on

Lawn

Tennis,

some on

Fishing, and so on

;

Library, or succession of volumes, which treats of the

Sports and Pastimes indulged in by Englishmen

— and
arc

women— is wanting.
to supply the want.

The Badminton Library Of

is

offered

the imperfections which must

be found

in

the execution of such

a design

we

viii

PREFACE
Experts often
differ.

conscious.

But

this

we may

say,

that those

who

are seeking for

knowledge on any of the

subjects dealt with will find the results of

many

years'

experience written by
at the Sport or

men who

are in every case adepts
write.
It is to

Pastime of which they

point the

way

to success to those

who

are ignorant of

the

sciences they aspire to master,

and who have no
volumes are

friend to help or coach them, that these
written.

To

those

who have worked hard

to place simply
Vvall

and

clearly before the reader that

which he

find within,
it

the best thanks of the Editor are due.

That

has been

no

slight labour to supervise all that has
;

been written he

must acknowledge

but

it

has been a labour of love,

and very much lightened by the courtesy of the Publisher,

by the
Editor,

unflinching, indefatigable assistance of the Sub-

and by the
subject

intelligent

and able arrangement
writers,

of each

by the various

who

are

so

thoroughly masters of the subjects of which they

treat.

The reward we

all

hope

to reap

is

that our

work may

prove useful to this and future generations.

THE EDITOR.

CONTENTS,
FENCING.
CHAPTER
PAGE
i

Introduction
I.

Practical Instructions

.

.

.

.

.

-35
.

II.

Practical Instructions— ^<9/?//;///^^.
Practical Instructions— ^6>;////^?/^<^ Practical Instructions
.

.

.

43
59

III.

.

IV.

V.
VI.
VII.

Practical

—contmued Instructions — continued

,

.

.

.

74

.

.

.88
.

Practical Instructions— ^<9;?//;/^/^^.
Singlestick

.

.

98

no

BOXING AND SPARRING,
I.

The History of Boxing

II.

The Old School
The Art
of'

.......

117

135 148

III.

Boxing

X

.

CONTENTS

WRESTLING.
CHAPIER
I'ACE

Introduction
I.

175
.
.

Cumberland and Westmoreland
'

.190
197

II.

Chips'

III.

Ring Reminiscences
Styles and Systems
.

2c6
.

IV.

.

.

.

.

.

221

Appendix — Bibliotheca artis Dimicatori.*:
Index

.

241

295

IL L USTRA TIONS.
The eighteen Intaglio Plates in
Messrs. Hachette <^
'
'

Fencing^ are given

^

l^y

permission of

Co.

,

from a French work

in preparatioji.^ entitled

UEscrime^ par

C. Prevost a?id G. Jollivet,^

The Woodcuts are engraved

ly J. D.

Cooper

after Photographs by

Geo. Mitchell.

FENCING.
Vignette on Tit

Up age

The Salute
line.

:

position after disengagement into outside

Parried by tierce

......
...
.

Frontispiece

First Position

To face p.
:

36

Second Position

on guard

,,

38
38

Third Position:

the lunge or extension

,,

Engagement
Parry
Parry
in

in

Tierce
.
.

.

.

.

.

.

,,

44
44

Seconde
Tierce

,,

in
in
in

,,

44
44

Parry Parry

Quarte
Septime
.

,,

,,

44
92
92

Time Thrust

in Sixte
in

,,

Time Thrust

Octave

,,

The Salute

:

taking position

,,

98

Xll

ILL US TRA TIONS
:

The Salute

First position

The Salute
The Salute

:

taking distance

.

....
left
.

To face p.

98
100

:

Recognition to the

100
. .

The Salute The Salute
line.

:

Recognition to the right

.

100

:

position after disengagement into inside

Parried by quarte
:

.....

102 102

End

of the Salute

adversaries saluting each other.

BOXING.
On Guard
Stop with the Left
.

117

122 126

Stop for Right- Hand Lead-off

Retreat

in

good order

130
.

Ducking to the Right

The

Side Step

Slipping

Left Arm Guard

.... ....
.

134

140
144 148
152

Left-hand Lead-off
Right Arm Guard
Lead-off at the Body

Page 156
7h face p. 156

Double Lead-off with the Right
Right-hand Lead-off at the Body
160
162
166
.

Right-hand Cross-counter
Cross-counter Body-blow

Left-hand Cross-counter

168

ILL US TRA TIOI^S

Xlll

WRESTLING.
The Hank
Catch Hold Style
Buttock
Inside Lock or Click,
To face p. 175
,,

194 198

,,

Cornwall and Devon

.

,,

200
202

The Hipe
The Hold

.

,,

,,

204

Bally Heave, Cornwall and Devon

.

.

.

,,

224

Half Nelson, Lancashire

,,

230

f^

FEN C
BY

I

N

(;.

W. H. POLLOCK,

F. C.

GROVE, and CAMILLE PREVOST.

p--

FENCING.
INTRODUCTION.
By
F. C.

Grove.

The
to
it

art of giving

without receiving has been studied for a very
;

considerable time

but,

though those who devoted themselves
for

had every possible reason
its

endeavouring to improve
it

it,

to develop

true principles, to bring
in fact stimulated

to perfection so far

as might be

—were

by the strongest and most
which urges a

enlightened form of

self-interest, that

man

to

take his enemy's hfe and preserve his
gress was
it

own — but very
'

little

pro-

made

for a long period,
called,

and the

noble science,' as

was very early

remained

in a terribly imperfect state,

hindered and encumbered by infinite pedantry and nonsense,

and taught by pragmatical and very
pupils

foolish Masters of

Fence

to

who were content
skill

to follow egregiously

wrong systems
literally

although

in

disposing of an adversary was

a

matter of most

vital

concern to them.

It

might be thought

that truth at the sword's point

would soon penetrate, but such

was

far

from being the
clearly

case.

To show
and how

how

tardy was the development of fencing,

singularly wrong were the
all

methods followed

in

what was

of the highest importance to

who were or aspired

to be gentle-

B

U

2

FENCING
in the old-fashioned sense of the word,

men,

we must

reverse

the usual process and begin at the end of our story.
then, take fencing as
it is

Let

us,

now

taught and practised, and supto various forms of athletic

pose that some

man accustomed

exercise, but totally ignorant of fencing

and

its

history, sees for

the
self
is

first
'

time an accomplished French swordsman place him-

en garde.'

He

will

very likely perceive that the attitude

obviously the right one, so far as anything can be said to be

perfect in a world in

which methods of destruction are always

being improved.
for

any thrust or

The combatant's sword-arm is free as can be parry he may wish to execute. He is perfectly
and
at the
is

firm

on

his feet,

same time can advance or
no more exposed than
is

retire

with ease, while the body
for a steady balance.

necessary

The hand and sword
and
at the

are in the position
for

which

is

best for attack,

same time

defending

the vital parts.

After admiring the really admirable attitude ^of

the swordsman, the unlearned observer will probably think
that
it is

clearly the right one,
hit

and the only

right

one

;

that

it

must have been
have been, the

upon without very much
way of

trouble,

and
&c.

that,

whatever the complexities of lunges,
fittest

parries, ripostes,

may

facing an adversary

must soon

have been discovered by those who devoted themselves to the
art of fence.

Well
to find
it

;

it

took them about two centuries and three-quarters

out.

Men

began

to

ponder

in Italy

on the best way

of encountering an 'opposite'
slash in the
first

who could
all

thrust as well as

half of the sixteenth century,

and when the

position which
finally

is

now adopted by
fix

the best

swordsmen was

decided upon, the present century was
the date a good deal

at least a quarter

sped; some would

later.
;

The layman would

thus be very considerably in error

but
one.

nevertheless his mistake would be a most pardonable

The

position

now taken by

the fencer

when he throws himself


^.

INTRODUCTION
on guard seems so certainly the right one, and,
the expression, the natural one, that
it

if

we may use
under-

appears
;

difficult to
if this

stand

why

it

took so long to find

it

out

and,

be thought

an over-bold expression of opinion and a hasty condemnation of
the great masters,

we may

quote, in support of

it,

the authority

who was well versed in the old literature of the schools, and who ranked high amongst the quickest fencers that even Paris ever saw, enjoying a considerable reputation in what we may call the Bertrand period, when skill was carried as far as
of one
it

has ever been, before or since.

In

that

inimitable

book,

'

Les Secrets de TEpee,' the
to

Baron de Bazancourt describes himself as seeking
a totally untutored
fight.
'

show
mimic
to

man how
,'

to face the foe in real or
says,
'

My
I

dear

C
will

he

you have never taken

fencing,

think

you kindly allow

me

to

use you as

an exponent?'

'With

pleasure,' answers the other, adding,
'

naturally enough, that he will be very awkward,

For a few

minutes, perhaps,'
fate,

replies

the Baron;
it.

'that

is

the

common

and none can escape
tells
is,

Now

place yourself on guard.
to strive for
for attack

This expression alone
to be

you what you have
be equally ready
(forgive

on guard

— that

to

and

defence.
is

Bend

the haunches

an expression which
with clear-

perhaps incorrect, but expresses
;

my meaning
. .
.

ness)

sink the

body a

little.

{Asseyez-vous sur vous-meme /)

The

right

arm must be

half stretched out.
all

With
it

this

position the sword can pass through

the lines

has to

guard.
'

I

advance on you.

To

retreat,

and

at the

your proper distance, you have only to step
foot,

same time keep back with the left

and

let

the right follow immediately.
:

To advance

is

the

same thing reversed
'

the right foot advances, the
like a

left follows.

Bravo

!

you are moving

fencing-master [some parcare to keep the legs bent
B 2

donable exaggeration here].

Take

4

FENCING
steadily balanced, equally ready for attack

and the body
defence.
.

and

.

.

Are you

tired ?

'

^No.'
'

So much the better

;

it

shows that your attitude

is

the
it

right one, that

none of the muscles are cramped, and that

does not paralyse you in any movement.

Such

is

defence.'

After this Bazancourt goes on to explain, in like simple
ner, the principal attacks of the fencer,
'

man-

and winds up by

saying,

One

last

word
?

;

why have
seems

this position

and these movements
instinctive.'

been chosen

Because they are natural and
right in so far as
;

He

certainly

such w^ords can be
strange that people

applied to the use of the sword

but

it is

should have laboured for two hundred and seventy-five years
before they learnt to rely on
'

natural

and

instinctive

'

move-

ments.

How

these years were for the most part misspent,

and
right

how by

a remarkably slow process
at last,

of evolution the

method was reached

we

shall

endeavour to
is

tell

:

but

our chronicle must be a brief one, as this

a practical

Manual

of Fencing, not a History of the Art of Fence.
It

has been said with perfect justice by Mr. Egerton Castle

in his

well-known work,^ by

far the best

which

exists

on the
is,

subject, indeed the only real history of fencing there

that,'

strange as

it

of fire-arms.

may seem, fencing resulted from the introduction The Barons of old, who are usually referred to in

no very complimentary way, but from
one would
with the lance, but

whom

nevertheless every-

fain think himself descended, cultivated precision

when

fighting with the

sword they had

little

need

for anything but strength.

Their hand-to-hand combats
in the great days of

must

in

one respect have resembled what

prize-fighting
1

was known as a

real slogging
the

match.
to

Covered with
the Eighteenth

Schools

and Masters of Fence from

Middle A^es

Century, with a Sketch of the Development of the Art of Fencing with the Rapier and the Small Siuord : by Egerton Castle, M.A., Con Brevetto di Nomina a

Maestro

di

Scherma

;

London

:

George

Bell

and Sons.

'

INTRODUCTION
to think of not exposing the

S

plate-armour, and often with a shield to boot, they had no need

body unnecessarily, or of

protect-

ing

it

with the sword.

ously until a joint w^as
until

They hacked away at each other vigorpierced, weak armour cut through, or
As, however,
into disuse,

one succumbed from sheer exhaustion.
fell

armour by degrees

and

as duels very

much

resembling modern duels gradually took the place of the

tremendous battle on horse or on foot
delighted,
it

in

which the knights

grew more and more incumbent on those who

had any
left to

self-respect to acquire

what they

at first despised
;

and

men
a

of low degree,

skill in

the use of the sword

until in
it is

time

it

became

as necessary for a gentleman to fence as
to ride or shoot
:

now
need

for

man

indeed, there w^as far

more

for fencing

than there can be for riding and shooting,
it

because these do not preserve from sudden death, whereas

was fervently hoped, not without reason, that fencing might.
Dexterity in the use of the sword

— as distinguished
men

from

mere

hacking and hewing

— which

thus

became so imporwho, bearing

tant, originated with

the sword-and-buckler

only the latter for defence, and not being clad in armour of
proof,

had need

to

be deft with

their w^eapons.

In time gentleat
first skill

men had
in fencing

to imitate their vulgar skill,

and although

was despised, not only in England, but
it

also, strangely

enough, in France,

gradually

became apparent
first

that a gentle-

man would do
he was
in

well to gain proficiency wath the sword, unless

willing to

be

killed

by the

bully he met, or to

fall

any sudden quarrel.

It is

needless to say, however, that he

soon changed the weapon of his humbler fellow-creature.
schools of fence grew to be the resort of

As

men

of gentle blood,

the cutting sword, derived from the knight's ponderous weapon,

was discarded

for the rapier, which,

never be confounded with the
error
is

a very

common

one,

we would here remark, must small-sword of later days. The at least in England, and, when

6

FENCING
is

there

a public exhibition of fencing, an assault with rapiers

is

very frequently announced.

This

is

entirely wrong, being, as

lawyers would say, a frightful misnomer.

was used by many generations of fighting
sword was heard
of,

The rapier, which men before the smallAs it remained

was essentially a cut-and-thrust weapon,

having a long narrow blade, often double-edged.
in use during so

many

generations, there

is

hardly any need to

say

that

its

length and size varied considerably at different

times.

One

of us has handled in
rapier, so

an

Italian
it

collection

a

beautifully

mounted
feet

long that

was hard
it,

to under-

stand

how any

ordinary

man

could wield

or
it.

under seven

and a half could even draw

how any man The practical

good sense of
awhile,

duellists,

however, discarded this absurdity after

and the

rapier,

reduced to reasonable proportions, beIt

came a very
deadly as
its

useful

and formidable weapon.
like the

was not so

successor the small-sword,

and could not be
;

handled with anything
siderable period
it

same precision

but for a confor all ordinary

was found quite good enough
if

purposes.

Probably,

a duellist of the day could be revived,
fights very often

he would say that rapier

ended
after

in the death
all,

of one of the combatants,

and what more,

could be

required

?

We need

hardly inform our readers that for weapons
hilts

of this kind were devised those exquisitely beautiful
are at the present day the glory

which

and

delight of the collector of

arms.

To

the Italians and the Spaniards belongs the honour of
first

having been

pre-eminent in rapier practice, and both had
;

schools of arms of high repute
utterly irrational system,

but the

latter,

following an

most deservedly

lost after a

time the

reputation they had gained, and the principal fact

now

re-

membered
most

in connection with their schools

is

that

one of

their

famous teachers produced the most elaborate, and quite the
ridiculous, treatise

on fencing ever

written, which,

we may

IN TROD UC TION
observe,
as there
is

7
different,

saying a great deal.
after
if

In Italy the case was

was

long time progress, though very slow progress.
it

The method,

method

can be
;

called, of the early Italian
this
is

swordsmen was a very bad one but
as the use of the pointed

not at

all

astonishing,
art,

sword

w^as

a totally

new

which

had

to

be

learnt.

Considering, however, the vital importance
its

of fencing in those days, indeed

necessity for gentlemen and,
to preserve a

we may
it

add, for others

who wished

whole

skin,

does seem surprising that a vicious system should have lasted

so long,

and

that progress should

have been so slow.

In our

own days we have
ticular
it

seen what excellence

may

result

where there
par-

are strong reasons of expediency for being

handy with one

weapon.

Some

citizens of the Great

Republic have found
in

highly advisable to be

good revolver shots, and

consequence

a quickness and precision in firing have been attained in parts of America which seem miraculous to those Europeans

who have
skill.

been lucky enough

to witness

and survive an exhibition of
need
effective use of it,

With the primitive

fencers, however, the pressing

for the

sword did not lead to anything hke
the early Italian fencers
stant practice,
their
for

and though

may have been
after there

formidable from contricks,

and may have mastered some dangerous

method remained, even
it,

had been ample time

developing

a singularly bad one, altogether opposed in

many
stood,
that

respects to the true art of swordsmanship as

now underBaron de

which we may observe

is,

in theory, so perfectly simple

men may be pardoned

for agreeing with the

Bazancourt, and for wondering greatly

when they
it is

learn what a

long time has been taken to evolve
to judge early students
It

it

:

but

always dangerous

by the

light of after-acquired

knowledge.

must

also of course
at first

swordsmen fought

mind that the Italian with sword and buckler, and afterbe borne
in

wards with sword and dagger, and that the use of the former

weapons necessitated an attitude

differing

somewhat consider-

S

FENCING
now assumed. The
With the dagger, however, the

ably from that

best position was not, or rather should not have been, of so differ-

ent a character.

principal use of the
left,

been

for parrying thrusts directed to the

weapon must have and for use at close

quarters.

To

attack left-handed with the dagger a

man who
;

held a sword in his right hand would be to court death

and we

can hardly suppose that the old masters of fence ever practised,
or even counselled, such attacks in actual combat, though they

may have described them
seem
to

in their books, in

which they certainly

have described every attitude and movement possible

except the right ones.
antics they spoke
of,

But

it is

difficult to believe that all

the
for

and

set forth in picture,

were meant

serious
large

and

practical combatants.

They probably
to give

inserted a

amount of superfluous matter
fill

an imposing appear-

ance to their works, and to

pupils with

amazement and
;

admiration at the Maestro di Scherma's knowledge

and

in this

respect the usage of the old masters has unfortunately not been

so

much

departed from as might be wished in later days.
also another

There was

and a more creditable reason why the
to teach

old teachers should set forth for their pupils' benefit various
strange gymnastics.
to wield the

They had

men, not merely how

sword

in a regular

combat, but also

how

to defend

themselves against a sudden attack, or in la

rixe.

For

this

purpose tricks and antics,
instinctive,

if

practised

till

they became almost

might be very valuable.
to
tell

Of books

us

how

the old swordsmen were trained to
all

fight, either in

sudden brawl or with

ceremony on the

field

of honour, there are many, though the earliest have disappeared.

The works

of

Jayme Pona de Majorca,
at

published, or
;

said to have

been published,

Perpinan
;

;

of Pedro de la Torre

of Pietro Moncio, published in 1509

and Francisco Roman,

published in 1532, are not

now to be

found, and
;

some doubt has
on the whole,
it

been

felt

as to their ever having existed

but,

INTRODUCTION
seems most probable that these were
real books,
earliest

9

though now beat present

yond even the book-hunter's ken. The

works

extant are those of Antonio Manciolino, which appeared in 153 1,

and of Achille Marozzo, which was produced
Venice
in 1536.

at

Modena and
work apCamillo

The

latter writer

had apparently a great repu-

tation as a fencing-master,

and

several editions of his

peared

;

but

it

had nothing

like the value of that of

Agrippa, published at

Rome

in 1553, or of

Giacomo

de' Grassi,

which saw the

light

seventeen years later at Venice.

The

first

of these was an amateur
or

— that
is

is

to say, fencing

was not

his sole

main pursuit

— and

it

therefore to an amateur or quasifirst

amateur that belongs the honour of having
portant step in the use of the rapier.

made an imcalculated

The Schoolmen

how many
Agrippa

angels could dance on the point of a needle, and

first

discerned the vast capacity for homicide which lay

in the point of a sword,

and how many
if

souls could be rapidly

released from the bondage of the flesh,
slashing,

puncturing, rather than

was resorted

to.

Grassi saw the value of the point

quite as clearly as his predecessor,
it

and bade
all

fighters rely

upon

for straightforward attacks.

In

probability both writers

utilised largely the unwritten lore of the schools, which, however,

they were certainly the

first

to put into a clear

and

definite
it

form, thus laying the foundation of

modern fencing; but

must be
to raise.
It
first

said that the superstructure took a considerable time

was to the knowledge of the value of the point which was

insisted

on

in their published

works by these two accom-

phshed swordsmen that the
tation as fencers.

Italians

owed

their skill

and repu;

In

many

respects their system was absurd

and, though

it

may seem

easy to speak thus in 1889, the conit

demnation

will

hardly appear excessive when

is

known

that

they persisted in making passes to both sides— i.e. in skipping

about

first

to

one side and then to the other— long

after

lo

FENCING
that, generally

Agrippa had taught

speaking,

it

was best to

keep the

right foot forward.
'

He

and Grassi were succeeded
'

by Viggiani, whose book
1575.
step.

Lo Schermo appeared

at

Venice

in

In one respect he made, and almost

literally,

a real

His

'

punta sopra mano,' as described by him, and as

illustrated afterwards

by

his

imitator,

Meyer, was certainly a

direct ancestor of the developpement of the

French

fencers, and,

though
as that

far

from being so near an approach to the true attack
forty years later, indicated

which Capo Ferro showed
Viggiani,

the right movement.

we should
Grassi,

observe, was really
as
;

a contemporary of

Agrippa
it

and

his

book was

finished fifteen years before
as in others, credit

was published
to those

but in this case,
first

must be given
to the world.
w^hole, the

who have

made

themselves

known

Of these
most

three writers, Agrippa
;

was
first

certainly,

on the

original
little,

to him, in the

place, but to the other

two not a

belongs the credit

of having insisted on the use of the point.

In

this respect

they

were enhghtened swordsmen, and

it

was the knowledge of the

use of the point instilled by these writers and acquired in the
schools of fence of Italy which

made

the Italian fencers so

formidable and famous throughout Europe.
tinued to hack and
withal

The

English conbrutal, but

hew one another in a barbarous, somewhat jolly fashion. The Spaniards were
and obeyed a
set of elaborate rules

slaves to a

senseless pedantry,
as

which had

much

to

do with fencing

as they

had with astronomy.
;

the French

made

little

progress at

first

but the Italian

Even method

had one cardinal
best.
It

merit,

and

Italian teachers
that,

were

for long the

seems strange indeed
far,

having comparatively

early got so
further, but

they did not, during

many
having

years, get

any

continued for generations to teach a variety of wild

and

senseless

movements, unable,

after

made

a great

advance, to free themselves any more from the thraldom of
tradition.


INTRODUCTION
The
Saviolo's
'

ii

next work of any importance by an Italian was Vincentio
Practise/ published in

London

in 1595.

Saviolo, like

others of his countrymen in the sixteenth century,

and

like

Angelo
i.e.

in the eighteenth,

came over
;

to instruct the barbarians

Englishmen— in

the art offence

and he seems
;

to

have been

much

patronised by

men
ill,

of high degree

but with humbler

people he fared very
narrative of

having been, according to the amusing

George

Silver, to

be referred to

later on, insulted

and thrashed by English masters of defence.
great advance

His book was no
it,

on those which had preceded
of
all

but

is

a valuable

compendium

relating to the art as then understood,
for

and

was certainly quite good enough

Englishmen, who had every-

thing to learn, and who, save in the ranks of the nobility,
a

showed

marked
It

distaste for rapier play,
is

which has never altogether died

away.

not a

little

remarkable that the only two original

works of any note in the English language on fencing should

have been written by Itahans.

Next

in order of

time to Saviolo

came

Docciolini,

whose book was published

at Florence,

and
had
art

Fabris of Bologna,

who brought

out his very stately work under

the august patronage of Christian IV. of
merit, but merit hardly proportioned to
its

Denmark.
size

It

and grandeur

and

it

may be

said that

no

special

advance was made in the

of using the sword from the time

when

Viggiani foreshadowed

the lunge in his

'

punta sopra mano,' until Nicoletto Giganti

taught at Venice and Ridolfo

Capo Ferro

at Siena.

Whether

one learnt from the
ing,
it

other, or
;

from report of the other's teach-

is

impossible to say

but both explained and drew for

their fortunate,

very nearly as

and we doubt not enraptured, pupils the lunge, now taught and delivered. It is curious to see,
last

however, what deadly error there was when one truth had at

been reached.
Ferro's
to

Fencers

who have not

read Mr. Castle's or

Capo

work

will

shudder to learn that he bids the combatant
to see
its

keep his eye on the adversary's blade, so as

move-

12

FENCING
and determine what he hadvicious.

merits

better do. precisely

Nothing could

be more purely
not to do on the
skill,

This

is

what the modern
tells his

maitre d'armes most emphatically and most justly
first

pupil

attack.

Where

there

is

great disparity of

the better fencer, infinitely quicker than the other,
;

may

parry by the eye

but in ordinary contests no course can be

followed at the outset more likely to ensure defeat on the ground
or in the salle d'armes.

With these two distinguished
sword
fencing

writers

and masters of the
Italy.

may be

said
it

to

have culminated in
:

Men

continued to cultivate

with great vigour
less note.
;

there were

teachers of renown

and others of

Three works of
but, if the art did

some value appeared during the century
not sensibly
Italians,
lost their

decline,

it

made no

progress in the hands of

and
in

by degrees the swordsmen of the Peninsula
Europe, and had to give place to the mattres

prominent position, ceased to be looked upon as

the

first

(Tarmes of France.

During the

latter part of the sixteenth

century the French were really dependent on the Italians for
instruction in the sword.
in 1573,
first

The

treatise of St. Didier,

published

was entirely taken from

Italian sources; but in the

half of the seventeenth century

Ducoudray

flourished, w^ho,

if

he has been wTongly credited with the invention of the lunge,

probably
of

made

attack

more formidable

;

and, in 1653, Besnard

Rennes brought out a work which showed that, after carefully studying the Italian method, the French masters had
improved on
clearly
it.

One

thing he

and

his

contemporaries saw very
Italians,

which was never comprehended by the

who,

zealous as they were,

and

clever as they w^ere,

do sometimes

remind one of Charles Lamb's Chinamen who burnt dow^n their
houses to eat roast
defensive
pig.

The

maestri w^ould have no purely

movements with the sword.

Every parry must also

be a

thrust.

The Frenchmen

perceived what the quick-witted

INTRODUCTION
Italians

13

ought to have perceived before,

that, generally speaking,
;

trying to

do two things

at

once was a mistake

separated the
faintly

defensive from the offensive movements,

and indicated
'riposte

what was long afterwards developed into the
ferme,' perhaps the

de pied
In

most deadly of

all

thrusts with the sword.

other ways improvements on the Italian methods were indicated

by Besnard, who was followed

in

1670 by

De

la

Touche, whose

name seems almost as appropriate as that of Gatechair did in our own time, by De Liancourt in 1686 and by Labat inj^(^o,
1696,

and

1

701.

When
The

the latter wrote the French schools

were supreme.

Italians

had had

their day.
it

.They had

practised fencing with fervour, written about

with eloquence,

and

illustrated

it

with great beauty.

But now they were
who,

completely distanced by their ultramontane brethren,
if

they had advanced slowly, had continued to advance, and
at the

who,

end of the seventeenth century, had
point.

learnt to rely

entirely
clearly

on the

The

illustrations of

Labat show very

what fencing was at

this time.

Some

of the

movements

resembled those of a swordsman of the

latter part of the last

century or the beginning of this; but the Italian waltzing was not
yet altogether

abandoned, and the

left

hand played a

large part

in the encounter,

sometimes parrying, sometimes grasping the

adversary's sword.

One

of Labat's illustrations represents a fencer
left;

apparently wresting the sword from the other's grasp with his

and we may here observe
thus

that the practice of using the left

— which,

of course, prevailed in the days of the earlier
Castle points out, the fight

swordsmen
in
'

— quite explains, as Mr.
sword from

Hamlet,' which has puzzled so

many people.

In struggling
in

at close quarters,

one combatant might succeed
his hand, but lose his

wrenching

his adversary's
at the

own weapon
where the

same moment.
blunt,

One
it

of us once saw a sailor of extrahilt,

ordinary strength seize a cutlass close to the

edge

is

and break

short

off.

.

In fencing the use of the


14
left

;

FENCING
hand gradually disappeared
;

but

it

is

not a
it

little

curious

that, after

enjoying a long period of repose,

should again, in

every sense, have

come

to the front.

In a comparatively recent
left

duel one of the combatants parried with his
killed his antagonist.

hand and
in

There were peculiar circumstances
his

the case which

made

conduct perfectly

fair,

but the question
is

naturally arose whether the use of the left

hand

permissible.

There was apparently no body which could give a formal
decision
;

but we believe that the general opinion of French
left

fencers was that parrying with the
alike in the

hand

is strictly

forbidden,

mimic and
been

real

combat.

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the edge was,
as has just
said, practically

discarded for the point, and a
epee de co77ibat

weapon much resembling the present
first

was used
a marked

but albeit French masters of fence were incontestably the
in

Europe, they did not, after having

made

advance, improve their art so

much

as

might have been exis,

pected

;

nothing like modern fencing— that

fencing as

it

has

prevailed from the days of Bertrand's fame to our

own time
interest for

was approached.
this

One

reason which
art

may

partly account for

slow progress

when the

had such intense

the best society will be presently stated.

Books were published,

but they had no very great value, the only one of importance

being that of Danet, which appeared in 1766.

Though someart
:

what pedantic, he wrote sensibly about
fortunately

his

but un-

he was too slow in addressing the world, and

allowed himself to be anticipated by one

who spoke from

amidst the outer barbarians, though he was not of them.
Before Danet published, Angelo had dared to bring forth, in

London, of

all

places in the world, his magnificent work, which,
skill

whatever the true

of the author as a swordsman

may

have been, was undoubtedly a complete and admirable exposition

of the art

of fencing as

it

then existed, showing

INTRODUCTION
perfectly the

15

system which the French fencing-masters had

developed from the complex rapier play of the Italian masters.
Before, however, speaking of this grandiose volume,
it is

neces-

sary to glance at the history of fencing in other countries than
Italy

and France, and

also to describe briefly the

methods

of attack and
play.

defence which gradually led to small-sword

Respecting the history of fencing,
play, in

i.e.,

rapier
to

and small-sword

to any,

Germany and Spain, save those who wish

there
to

is little

be said of interest

acquainted with the history of

make themselves exhaustively the sword. The Germans had a
of exclusive rights and privifamilies

mighty corporation, with
leges
;

all sorts

but, like

some of those
office,

which had the monopoly

of the executioner's

they do not seem to have attained any

great excellence in their work, though undoubtedly they suc-

ceeded

in killing

somehow or
;

other.
it

They began

to write

about

swordsmanship very early

but

would be

difficult to

name any

German

writer

who

attained a reputation approaching that of

Marozzo, Agrippa, Grassi, Viggiani, Capo Ferro, Marcelli, Liancourt, Labat, or Angelo. Indeed, the best

works in the German

language were translations, and though there were schools of

arms in Germany, there do not seem to have been any in which
skill

in rapier play

was acquired, as

it

was

in those of Italy or

France.

As

the

Germans then

were,

when using
of

the rapier,

nothing but followers of the swordsmen of these two countries,
it is

not necessary to
It

make any mention
In Spain the

German manuals of
like writing

the art of fence.

would be something
case

about
:

English

violinists.

was

different

the

Spaniards had at

first,

as has been said, a reputation equal to
to

that of the Italians,

and were thought
art of

be great masters of the

refined

and mystic

wielding the rapier, and their schools

were sought by gentlemen desirous of completing an education
lamentably deficient in one respect.

But while the

Italian

6

1

FENCING
renown.

maestri long preserved their glory, the Spaniards soon succeeded
in losing their early

The most

practical of arts

was

lost

in a haze of pedantry,

and though the courage of the Spaniards

and constant
lists,

practice

must have made them very formidable duel-

they probably, like the English athletes
fifty

who went through
in spite of
it.

the training in vogue

years ago,

became strong

the system they followed, and not by reason of
1600, forty-six years after Agrippa wrote in Italy,
years before Giganti's

In 1599-

and only seven

work appeared, Don Luis Pachecco de

Narvaez published
which, even

at

Madrid a
is

treatise

already referred

to,

when all allowance

made

for the

crude condition
It

of swordsmanship at the time, appears absurd.

seems some-

thing like those Eastern systems of medicine which are elaborate,

and even symmetrical, but unfortunately have no relation whatA magic circle was ever to the human body or its ailments.
inscribed in which the combatants had to go through a series

of solemn movements, which seem to have borne about the
relation to the passes

same

and

^

volti
is

'

of the Italians that a minuet

does to a waltz.
the reputation
it

This work

worth mentioning on account of

acquired amongst a people very fond of arbitrary

and elaborate

rules

based on nothing in particular, and also
^

because an elaborate paraphrase

of

it

was published in very
appearance; but of the
is

magnificent fashion thirty years after

its

other Spanish writers, and of the Spanish schools, there

no
it

need 'to speak.

So

far as
Italy.

anything good was taught in them,

probably came from

Much more amusing
though, perhaps,
it is

is

the history of fencing in England,
like

something

what a history of boxing
first

in

France would be.
our country by

When

the rapier was

introduced into

men who had

travelled in Italy

and Spain, and
first

when

the use of the point as well as the edge was

advo-

cated, the English people viewed the
^

new sword

play with

Girard Thibault,

'

Acad^mie de

I'Epee,' folio,

Leyden, 1628.

INTRODUCTION
extreme disfavour, not because
it

17

was more deadly than the
scruples in

other— men were not troubled with humanitarian those days but seemingly because Englishmen

had been
this

accustomed

to

hack and slash each other, and regarded

way of operating as the only legitimate kind of fighting, and looked upon the new system as treacherous, unfair, and ignoble
:

why,

it is

impossible to say: but no dislikes are so deeply rooted

and so

lasting as those for

which no reason can be given.
first

The

aversion with which the English people from the

regarded

the pointed rapier has certainly proved lasting, since the prejudice against fencers was,
if

the expression
spirit,

may be

allowed,

transferred en bloc in a liberal

when Frenchmen took

the

place of Italians, and, as has

been already observed, can hardly
strong this dislike was from the
in the history of swordsfully,

be said to be extinct now.
first
is

How

shown by an amusing episode

manship which Mr. Castle has described
In the

but of which we

can only speak in very brief and cursory fashion.
latter part

of the sixteenth century Italians

came

to

England

to teach

swordsmanship,

much

to the disgust of the

indigenous swordsmen.

Amongst

the native masters of defence
foreigner,

who were

greatly aggrieved
first

by the advent of the
foreigner,

twice accursed,

insomuch as he was a

and secondly

because he came to take honest Englishmen's bread, was one

George

Silver,

who was by no means inclined
told

to

remain inactive

under grievous wrongs, and who, having helped to discomfit

the

Italians,

of their

discomfiture
skill

by himself and

others,

and argued with no mean
In his
^

against their

method of
in
'

fighting.

Paradoxe of Defence,' pubhshed

London
of great
certainly,

in 1599,

he

tells

of three Italians, ^teachers of offence

reputation, established in
if

London

in his time,

who

they gave as

much

offence as they received,

must have been

adepts in their art and well competent to instruct anybody.

These were 'Signior Rocko,'who seems

to

have occupied

much
c

8

'

1

FENCING
Jeronymo,
his son,

the same position that Angelo did a century and three-quarters
later
of.
;

and Vincentio Saviolo already spoken

Now if it be true,

as Silver says, that

Rocko

received twenty,
it is

forty, fifty, or

a hundred pounds for a course of lessons,

not

wonderful, considering what these sums then represented, that

the English masters of defence grew very wroth.
hit at

When men are
both.

once in purse and vanity, they are apt to grow desperate,

and even unmannerly.
First

The English swordsmen proved
and bade him come
forth.

one Austen Bagger went to the house of Rocko, called
fellow

him a cowardly
did with a
'

This Rocko
well,

two-hand sword,' but Bagger defended himself

tripped the other up, cut
to

him over with a

stroke

more
'

familiar

Eton boys

in the

head master's presence, without

first fault

to plead, than to fencers,

and trampled upon him, but allowed

him to
forth,

live.

On

the second occasion

when

injured feeling broke

words only passed, but these were of a serious nature befitting the grave dispute. Rocko the younger and Saviolo spoke
contemptuously of English swordsmanship.
as there

There was then,
but their

would be now, some reason
taste,

for their sneers,

remarks were not in good
time very badly.

and they

certainly chose their

They having
to fight

asserted that Englishmen were

accustomed

to retreat before the sword. Silver

and

his brother

Toby challenged them

on a

scaffold, so that the
;

man who
but this
is

ran away would be in danger of breaking his neck

highly practical proposal, which, with due modifications,

some-

times carried out in our day, was not accepted, and the Italians

were put to shame.
comfited, as he was

Afterwards Saviolo was

still

more

dis-

whom

mauled by a Somersetshire bravo, towards he showed, according to Silver, the most Christian for-

bearance.

The

dispute ended tragically, as disputes usually did

in those days.

Poor Jeronymo Rocko was run through the
Chiefe, who, seeing
it

body by an EngKshman named
coach with a
girl to

him

in a

whom

he was attached, thought

a happy

INTRODUCTION
and obvious occasion
for calling

19
to fight,

on him

and

killed

him

forthwith.
Italian Maestri di

So the

Scherma fared very
in actual

ill

at the

hands

of their English brethren, and proved themselves less stout

men, having

all

the worst of
if

it

combat, and fearing to
is

accept a challenge,

Silver's narrative

to

be trusted

;

but

probably

it

was largely adorned by fancy, which has usually
stories.

played a great part in fencing
of his

A 7naitre d'ariJies^ telling
fellow-countryman by

own

defeat, or of the defeat of a
is

a foreigner,

a

phenomenon

as yet

unobserved by a student

of the science of arms.

Given the personality and nationality

of the speaker, the conclusion of an account of an assault or
duel

may be

stated almost with the certainty of a mathematical

Whether truthful or not, however, Silver's pages are most amusing and it must be said that his suggestion mentioned above was an admirable one, and might well be carried
solution.
;

into effect in our

own

time.
to

Nothing would tend more to
acquire
it,

promote steady play and

make men
rails

than causing

them

to fence

on a platform without

and only allowing some
it is

four steps backwards.

Putting individual cases apart,

not

to be desired that fugitives should break their necks, as Silver

charitably

hoped the

Italians

might

:

but a series of ignominious

tumbles would bring about an amount of ridicule which would cause those timorous fencers who dance away from an attack
like frightened girls either to

mend

the error of their ways
is

or to give

up a masculine

sport which

entirely unsuited to

their peculiar idiosyncrasies.

The

dislike for fencing

i.e.

for thrusting

— and the love for
some
inex-

the cutting sword, which Silver expressed so vigorously, continued to animate his countrymen, and the result of the fond-

ness of Englishmen for what was looked upon, for
plicable reason,
as the national

weapon may be seen
is

in our

own

time in the

game

of single-stick, which

neither sabre
c 2

;

20
play

FENCING
nor
cudgel,

but a bastard

sport,

with

no

particular

meaning.

By

the mass of Englishmen fencing was for long

regarded as a fashionable amusement of objectionable foreign
origin, suited only for fine

gentlemen, just as the Italian opera,

after its introduction,

was

for long

looked upon as an entertainIt is

ment

fit

only for the hyper-refined.

with the most sincere

contrition that

public as

saying

is

we allude to anyone so frequently forced on the the Needy Knifegrinder, but really his hackneyed most applicable to fencing in England. With or
is

without the blessing of Providence, story there

none

to

tell.

During a good many generations a certain number of English-

men

learnt fencing as

it

was practised

in Italy

and France, but

nothing originated here, and, though a good

many works were
several
his

published by Englishmen, none save translations had any real
value.
It
is

true that Sir William

Hope, who wrote

books on fencing, had a few good
elaborate writings
in

ideas, but

on the whole

had no great

merit, and,

though he studied
It

France, he was behind the French fencers of his day.
said that fencing

may almost be

was the one subject on which

Englishmen and Scotchmen could not produce a good manual
for after the publication of Saviolo's treatise

no

original

books

of real value saw the light until Angelo brought out his gorgeous
folio
'

L'Ecole des Armes.'
this magnificent

^

To
it

work we have already

referred.

When
like

appeared the
it

art of fencing

was growing something

what
one

now

is

;

and, after long time, an approximation to a

symmetrical and rational method had been reached, though
vitally

important change had to be made, and for

this,

strange to say,

people had to wait some

fifty

years

onger.

Much, however, had been done when Angelo
1

wrote,

though

It is said that some of the a ghastly story about this book. by a man condemned to death, who was allowed a respite The work done, he was to finish them for the benefit of his wife and children. hanged. Whether this painful legend is true, we are unable to say.

There

is

plates were engraved

INTRODUCTION
certainly the old masters of fence took

21

an unconscionable time

over their work.
Malevolti
friend
'

From Marozzo in 1536 to Domenico Angelo Tremamondo (simplified at the request of a noble
'

into plain Angelo) in 1763

seems a long period when the
is

important and highly practical nature of the art

considered

;

and, strange to say, the improvement which was so slowly
consisted

made

more

in getting rid of what

was bad than

in introducing

what was good.
first

As has been
use,

seen,

when

the pointed rapier
defence.

came

into

the

buckler was carried for

Afterwards the dagger served both for offence and defence,

though

far less for the

former than for the

latter.

The
them

use of

these two arms partly accounts for

some of the

features of the
;

old fencing, but does not altogether account for

and,

when every allowance has been made
swordmanship which were due
been said already, very hard
tance of the point
to

for the peculiarities of

to these

two arms,

it is,

as has

understand why, as the imporappreciated, the

became more and more
antics,

old fencers failed to see the impropriety
say the bad taste

— we

might almost

— of gymnastics,

and gambols, which

made

accurate use of the point about as practicable as

good

covert shooting would be for a

man who

persisted

\\\

standmg

on one

leg.

To

give any idea of their antics

and gambols would

necessitate, not only a long description, but also a long series

of illustrations showing

given here.
with the

how not to do it, which cannot be The reader who desires to become well acquainted
is

quaint history of a deadly pursuit
It is sufficient
strictly

referred to
to say that

Mr. Castle's instructive pages.

now

what

is

in the present

day most

forbidden was formerly

most

strictly

enjoined.

To
;

begin with, the swordsmen were,

as has

been

stated, taught that every

movement

of defence

must

also

be one of attack
;

that each guard or parry

must

also

be a thrust

that

is

to say, with

no command of

point, they

were told to do in every instance what with perfect

command

22

FENCING
it

of
to

is

now

recognised as the most

difficult feat possible,

only

be rarely attempted.

Although the advantage of keeping
it

the right foot foremost was perceived early,

was not thought

necessary to keep

it

steadily foremost.

It

was quite permissible

to bring the left foot to the fore, not always for the sake of

using the dagger, but to

facilitate a

quick twist round of the

body, the enormous danger run being overlooked.
of

A

variety

movements

to the right

and

left,

for the

purpose of avoiding

the sword and taking the adversary at a disadvantage, were
taught,

sometimes the

right foot,

sometimes the
'

left,

being fore'

most

and though the point must have been most irregularly disordered, these no doubt were executed by the duellist with
;

much
One

grace and vigour.

It

was a chasse-croise ending

in death.
left.

Occasionally a combatant did more than step to the right or

of Agrippa's pictures represents a fencer in a position which
to invite a thrust in a portion of the

seems
to be

frame usually thought
;

more

in

danger from the boot than from the sword

and

when it is remembered that in those days ignominy attached to wounds behind, it seems strange that such a way of avoiding
thrust should be counselled
;

but, in truth, the old masters of

fence were altogether strange in their

method of defending
advantage
stepped to the

themselves against thrusts.
of internal
lines,

They

failed to see the

and

to perceive that a

man who

right or left in front of his

antagonist, exposed himself

and

could not by any possibility retain perfect
sword.
It

command

over the

could not be done, even with the light weapon of
less

our days,

much

with the ponderous rapier.
it

In course of time, however, the French masters, and be added some of the
to better things.
after
it

should

later Italians, gradually

saw

their

way

While retaining the dagger
left

for a time and,

was dropped, the parry with the
left

hand, and even

allowing the

foot to

be brought forward now and then, they
it

perceived that, on the whole,

was better to keep the right foot

INTRODUCTION
for the

23

most part to the
one
if

front,

and

also that transverse

movethe

ments were a mistake, and that the fencer should step forwards

and backwards
parries,

in

line.

They

also

much improved

and improved
all

they did not perfect, the riposte

— most

formidable of

ways of using the sword, mastery of which

beyond aught else makes a man formidable in the duel. When Angelo wrote, then, a very pretty system of swordsmanship
trations,

existed,

though he thought

fit

to give historical illus-

probably for the purpose of swelling out his book.
it

The

principal part of

taught very practical small-sword play

;

but in the method which he set forth there was one
defect,

vital

due

to the singular obstinacy of

amateurs and masters

of fence,

who

refused for long to accept a contrivance which
in the pursuit to

would have greatly aided them
were devoted.

which they
after-

As had happened before, and as happened

wards, an art which ought to be as practical as book-keeping

was made the subject of a senseless pedantry.
For, strange to say, the old fencers were very slow in con-

senting to wear masks.

As long ago

as the

middle of the

last

century coverings for the face, not indeed such as they
are,

now
it

but giving protection, were invented

;

but,

though

it

might

be

difficult to say precisely

when they came
It

into general use,

seems clear

that,

for a considerable time,

fencers of repute
taste, or, as
it

would have none of them. would now be
creditable
called,

was thought bad
to

bad form,

wear them.

To

hit

an

antagonist in the face, even by accident, was considered disin

the

mimic combat, and gentlemen apparently
fear of inartistic
;

would not take a precaution which indicated a

work by an opponent

;

which was courteous certainly
is

but

even when the elaborate ceremonial of the time
consideration, the courtesy seems a
little

taken into
;

strained

for

it

can
just

have been but a

partial consolation to a
his antagonist

man who had

been gouged to know that

was seriously annoyed,

24

FENCING
careless

and would be thought
did not perceive

and inelegant

in style.

Then

it

seems singular that those who were given to swordsmanship

how much masks would
to

aid their practice.

Without them the fencer was obliged, in order to avoid the
risk

of grave

accident,
to rest the
this must*

keep his head back as

far

as

possible,
left

and
and

whole weight of the body on the

leg

;

have made assaults slow, clumsy, and

unreal.

Anyone

trained in the

modern method, who
will

will

take

the trouble to assume the position of the ancients, will find

how
safe-

awkward and cramped play becomes, and

probably wonder

much

that the old

swordsmen did not accept a necessary

guard which would have made the free use of their limbs
possible."

As

it

was, the free use of the limbs was not gained
after the safeguard

until

some time

was generally adopted.

has often happened in other things than fencing, rules
for certain circumstances

As made

were obeyed when circumstances had

changed.
their youth,

Fencing-masters taught what they had learnt in

and men who fought each other on the smallest
devotion.
is

pretext obeyed the pedantic dicta of their instructors with blind

and touching

After the time of Angelo's work the history of fencing

to

a certain extent traditional, and must be gathered in part from

the unwritten lore of fencing-rooms and from contemporary
journalism.

There

is

every reason to believe that, even after

the use of masks was introduced,

and

after the style of play
it

had become more

free,

pedantry was, as

had been

before,

the bane of fencing.

Stiff

and formal, the fencing-masters of

the early part of the century executed each
absolute

movement with

precision, and, not altogether without reason, were
like

most intolerant of anything

rough-and-ready sword play

;

and, in a way, their assaults must have been very pretty, but

they wxre wanting in spontaneity, quickness, and reaUty.
great master of fence, himself

A
well

now

long departed,

who

INTRODUCTION
remembered the old
assault
still

25

days, described to

one of us what an
was
like

between

two
;

maitres

d'armes

when form
been given

reigned supreme
^

how each would throw himself on guard,
seem
to have
!

making an

appel
'

'

(which, alas, they
'

to) with a defiant

Voila. monsieur

followed perhaps by another

beat of the foot

:

how an

elaborate lunge, perfect in style, but

not erring on the side of quickness, was parried and answered by
a riposte, not
'

du tac-au-tac

'

certainly or of hghtning rapidity,
:

but, as the lunge was, perfect in style

how one combatant
dozen successive

would form, with exquisite
parries,

precision, half a

which the other, in an equally polished manner, would
:

deceive

how throughout
its

there was strict adherence to rule
It

;

no

flurry,

no unseemly scrambling.
way, but
it

was very
'

finished, very

clever in
ever,

was not

'

la guerre,^

La guerre^' howhad reigned
for

was destined to come

in time.

For, after the stately old fencing-masters

long
art

— retarding, so

far as

can be told now, the progress of an

which ought to have become much more practical after masks came into general use the terrible Bertrand, who has

been called the Napoleon of fencing, appeared, to baffle and bewilder the dogmatic veterans, as Napoleon bafiled and bewildered the generals of Austria.
despise rule, or
'

He
in

did not by any means
;

form
all

'

as

it

would now be called
it,

but,

on the

contrary, accepted

that

was good

and never belonged

to the ranks of the energetic insurgents

fencers

;

but he absolutely refused to

known as irregular be bound in practice at

least— by what was pedantic and
forbid

artificial,

or to consider any-

thing as forbidden merely because the fencing-masters chose to

In a word, he broke through rule where rule was unmeaning, showed that moveit

without giving any valid reasons.

ments of defence and assault which were thought too hazardous
to be attempted

were safe and practicable
to the
assault,

;

and bringing
it

life,,

vigour,

and

fire

made

it

what

ought to be,

26

FENCING
The
old fencers shuddered
;

the image of the actual combat.
but, beating

them and

their disciples,
hits, as
it it

Bertrand prevailed.

If

a yearly average of his

compared with those of
was

others,

could have been compiled,
one.

would have been an amusing
in practice chiefly that
left

As has been

indicated,

he

shone, for he was

not a theorist, and

no work behind

him

;

nor was he very successful as a teacher, only producing

during his whole career one pupil of great renown, the justly
celebrated Pierre Prevost,^ long resident in this country.
in the assault

But

he was supreme, and the force of his example

largely influenced fencing in Paris,

and

to

him more than

to

anyone

else in this century

is

due the modern French school

which, combining regularity with freedom, demands obedience
to rule, but only to rule for

which practical and unassailable

reasons can be given.

M. Legouve has drawn a charming sketch of
ordinary fencer,

this

extra-

who
to

seems, like those

men who

can play

twenty games of chess at once, to have been created for his
special pursuit,

and

have been physically gifted as perhaps one

man may be

in

two or three generations.

Of

his extraordinary

vitality the following story, told to

one of us by the person who

had the misfortune
It

to

be reproved by him,
his

may

give

some

idea.

was

his

custom when making

rounds in the morning
least

to run

from the house of one pupil to another, not the

because he was in a hurry, for he was a
hurry himself
for

man who would

not

anybody, but because walking was too

slow for his superabundant energy.
ing

One
and

very frosty mornat a
'

when he and
together,
'

his assistant
latter

were going along
fell.

smart

pace

the
c'est

slipped

Trainard,^

said Bertram,

parceque vous laissez la patte trap longvite^ et

temps par
glisser.^

terre.

Levez-la

vous n'avez pas

le

temps de
his
full

Which he exemplified by running
1

off at
work.

Father of Camille Prevost, part author of

this

INTRODUCTION
speed

'

27

— which was very high speed
the
other to

indeed
follow

— along
as

the sHppery

pavement, leaving

best

he might.

Another story from the same source shows
skill.

his astonishing

At a public

assault,

he

fell

out with his antagonist, a very

famous fencing-master of the day, because the latter would The public seemed rather disposed to not acknowledge hits.
side with his foe,

whereupon Bertrand,
on
his

after a very impertinent

remark

to the audience, put

mask, which he had taken

off for a

moment, and placed himself on guard.
and
rapidity.

His an-

tagonist attacked with rare vigour

He

was met

by an irreproachable

parry, but there

was no

riposte.

A second

onslaught followed, which met with a like response, and presently
it

became apparent

that Bertrand

would not attack or riposte
'all

or retreat an inch.

Naturally exasperated, the other did
:

he

knew,' to use the apt language of the Ring; but in vain

he could

not mark Bertrand's jacket with a touch that would have killed a
fly,

and after a long

effort

had

to give

up exhausted. Such
in the

feats

have often been described in novels, even as the
willow

splitting of the

wand by an arrow was described
life

famous romance;
extremely
rare.

but in real

they have been, to say the
skill

least,

When the
be

antagonist has

and quickness, a fencer who
is

acts

only on the defensive, and does not retreat,
hit before long.

almost certain to

Another story shows Bertrand's intense

vanity,

and

also his readiness.

One

day,

coming

late to his

fencing-room, he found a gorgeously clad young officer of the

Gardes du Corps who had been waiting
Bertrand^^ observed the youth sharply,
'-

for
'

some

time.

'

M,

vous

etes

en retard,^
'

Je ne

suis pas
etes

un cocker de fiacre,' retorted the
done
the
?

other.

Qu'-est'

ce

que vous

Vous

etes

un maitre

d''

amies,'

Mon-

sieur^'

replied
''

maitre

d'armes with

infinite

scorn and

majesty,

avec deux aunes de drap on fait
le

un

officier

comme

vous

— et dans
art

monde

entier il n'y a qu'un

Bertrand'

The

which this prince of swordsmen exemphfied has had,

28
as

FENCING
may
well be imagined, various literary exponents during the

present century, but, of

many

books, however, only four need

be named

;

those of Possellier,
Cordelois,

Gomard
the

;

Grisier,

pseudonym of and Prevost aine, and that of
the

known by
first

Bazancourt already mentioned.

The

of these,

who adopted
so,

name

of a fencing-master to whose school he succeeded,
in the history of the

was very well versed

sword— unusually
his
'

indeed, for the time at which he wrote

— and
list

Theorie de

FEscrime,' published in 1845, contains a

of the Italian and

French
the

writers
to

on the subject which
be
found
until

w^as the best, or

one of

best,

Mr.

Castle's

work

appeared.
writer

Grisier's

book enjoyed popularity

for a time,
it

and the

had the enormous advantage of having
preface from the pen of Alexandre
for

heralded by a long
;

Dumas

but the work has

some time ceased
is

to

be accepted as a standard authority,
studied.

and

now
'

but

little

The well-known
it

'

Lemons

d'Armes

of Cordelois appeared in 1862.

Copious, written

with the greatest care, and admirably illustrated,

achieved

deserved renown, and has long been an honoured text-book
in the schools.

We

cannot but think that

it is

open

to con-

siderable

criticism; but

we do not wish

to

undertake the

invidious task of picking holes in the work of a distinguished
fencer,
ever,
it

who
is

is still

remembered by many.
and
'

On

one

point,

how-

necessary to speak plainly.
'

Cordelois condemiued
^^

the

'

coup de temps

coup (T arret
is

which Bertrand had

perfected.

The
The

coup de temps

a dangerous stroke, but
is

when

delivered with proper judgment
fencing.

one of the most

brilliant in

coup d'arret

is

invaluable in the fencing-room,
antagonist.

and on the ground against a rash and unskilled

The

little

work of Prevost

aine,

'Theorie Pratique de

FEscrime,' published in London, in i860, and translated into
English, was, as might be expected, perfect of
cise
in
its

kind.

Conit

the extreme, but at the

same time

perfectly clear,

INTRODUCTION
contained
all

'

29

the instruction which could possibly be given in

the very limited space to which the author strictly confined
himself.
tive

His pamphlet was not meant
fencing, but

to

be a

full

and exhausfor the use

manual of

was intended principally

of his

own

teaching,

who desired to study carefully his method of and who also desired that some record of it should
pupils,
it

remain.
thing

Necessarily, however,

was but an

abstract.

Any-

more would have been

useless at the time in this country.

Of
'

a very different nature from the four works

named

is

Les Secrets de I'Epee' of the Baron de Bazancourt quoted

at the

beginning of this brief history.

The

others were

swordsmen
for dis-

who took
author

to writing.

He

was a writer who had a fancy

coursing about the sword.

More courageous than
Grisier's

the famous

who was content to preface
an

volume, he spoke for

himself, absolutely, as

instructor,

and boldly contravened
must be
with infinite
first,

many of the dogmas most
skill, fire,

cherished and revered by the pundits
it

of the sa//e d^armes, and this he did,

said,

and
all

audacity.

The

fencing-masters thought

and

last

too in

probability, of explaining precisely

how

to use

the
self

sword.

Bazancourt

— albeit
first

a mighty

swordsman himinevitably the

and much

interested in the art

— followed
:

writer's instinct,

and thought

of pleasing
to the

which he did

unmistakably.

From

its

happy

title

happy sentence
which

which ends
seems no
at all

it,

his book, written in

that perfect style

style at all

— never palls or
it

— just as the best manners are no manners
loses
its

hold on the reader, and, unlike

most works on fencing which seem somewhat severe outside
the fencing-room,
foils.

may be read
he
is

afar

from the clink of the
is,

But, fascinating as his light-hearted writing
forget that

the reader

must not
an

dealing with a very expert literary

dodger, and that for the literary
irresistible

mind

bright paradox has often

charm.
;

In
but,

bright

Bazancourt dealt largely

paradox the Baron de being an able man, his paradox

*

30

FENCING
to him, as
it
it

was not

all in all

would have been

to a

weak one,
sense.

and he mixed up with
'

a certain
'

amount of good
in his
'

Why have I

written this
'

book ? he pleasantly asks
to mislead

open-

ing sentence.

To amuse and

might be answered

by an indignant swordsman of the old school, and the answer

would not be altogether without
ness be added, that
effort to instruct.
it

truth,

though

it

should in

fair-

was

in

some

respects a not unsuccessful

Clever as his work

is,

however,

it

would not need other than

the most brief notice in this attempt to give an epitome of the
history of fencing were
brilliant
it

not that he represents in the

mos t
fury

manner the malcontents whose very name

stirs to

a righteous inaitre d^armes

—professeur d'escrime
to reject.

it

should be

but we

may be
this

allowed to follow the example of M. Legouve,

and loathe

modern

appellation, which,

by the way, some
combatants

great fencers

seem inclined

The

irregular

can no more be ignored in any account of swordsmanship than
naval
the
critics

can be ignored by the Admiralty, and, possibly

like

latter,

mingle some truth with a great deal of nonsense.

They

are the irreconcilables of the salle (Tarmes^ thoroughly

discontented with existing laws, and no inapt or dull opponents
of them.

They

are not a party of recent date, but have existed

since the days of the battle between the romantics
classics, if

and the

not from an earlier time, and they are a power to be

reckoned with, as regular swordsmen now and then find to
their cost.

To
in

give their views

would be impossible, because
rules

they are not bound, as the others are, by any set of views
set

forth

the

shape

of

and

instruction

;

but

Bazancourt
though, as
is

may be regarded

as their best literary exponent,

usually the case with rebel leaders, he has been

hugely outstripped by those
it

who have

followed him.

Shortly,
is

may be

said that the irregular fencer thinks that he

at

liberty to get at his antagonist, or to avoid his thrusts, in

any

INTRODUCTION
way
that

31
t,

seems good to him
to double

;

to contort the body, to twis to

to duck,

himself up, to run back,
:

prod and

poke as he thinks

fit

which

at first sight appears plausible
that, if rules are artificial,

enough
fencing

;

but

it

must be remembered

itself is artificial.

A man
To

does not come into the world
else's

with a sword in his hand, though a sword in somebody
often sends
it

him out of
real

it.

attempt to follow instinct where

can be no

guide

may

be, not only to

do what
is

is

wrong, but

perhaps to do the exact opposite of what

right.

Men
it

used
dis-

bows and arrows
covered that
it

for a considerable

time before

was

was best to draw the string to the

ear.

As has been shown briefly, and but imperfectly we fear, modern fencing is the result of a long study, extending over
very

many

generations, of the art of using the sword.

It

was

impeded and hindered by pedantry, by undue conservatism,
by a kind of mysticism, and even by wild fancies innumerable;
but
still,

being of great practical importance,
better,

it

made

progress

by degrees, got slowly better and
certain,

more
to

precise,

more

more based on knowledge of how
serve the sword

make

the limbs

and body

—more deadly, in a word;
it

and three
be

centuries after

Marozzo wrote

may be assumed

that the art

of using the

weapon had become

as nearly perfect as can

hoped
of his

for in

an imperfect world, and certainly very much

better than anything that

anybody could invent
Marozzo

for himself out

own mother- wit.
that Bertrand flourished,
;

It was three centuries after

and

to Bertrand's period

Bazancourt belonged

but the rules

which that volcanic genius was willing to obey were too
severe for the amateur, and, not

content with girding most

happily at pedantry, he claimed license for the fencer to caper

about according to his own sweet fancy, of which his followers have availed themselves to an extent which certainly he never
anticipated.

Such

license

is

not

and was not

permissible,

32

FENCING
may be
the reasons given for granting
it.

plausible as

A system
just as
belief,

which

it

has taken three centuries to mature must be studied

and mastered throughout, not taken up and dropped
suits the pupil.

Though

tenacious of

life

almost beyond

absurdities

and pedantry have gradually been threshed

out,

and
this

fencing according to the system of the French school as expanded

by Bertrand

is

now

as practical as anything can be.

Of

there can be no better proof than the amusing sentence of

Bazancourt, quoted at the beginning of this chapter; he thought
that the position of guard

must be natural and
practical,

instinctive,

because

it

was so eminently

and obviously,

as

it

seemed
it is

to him, the right position.
;

So

far as

can be told now,

the best position

and the German manner of using the
best.

bow

of the violin

is

undoubtedly the

One

is

about as

spontaneous, obvious, and natural as the other.

So with the
once the
case,

rest.

due

to

The rules of fencing are not, as was dogma and caprice, but are the result
and of
infinite

of hundreds

of thousands of combats,

pains

devoted to one object, the most practical method of handling
the sword.
Difficult the

system undoubtedly
it,

is,

and time and

work are required
where excellence

to master

but this

is

the case in any pursuit

is

desired.

After the system has been mastered,

and

real skill with the foil attained, the fencer will
it

be in a
it

position to judge what
join those

is

worth,
;

and may abandon

and

who

deride discipline

but the probabiHty of his

coming
away
is,

to the

conclusion that his pains have been thrown

to say the least, remote.

There

is,

we

believe,

no case
as

on record of a swordsman who, having attained repute
a regular fencer, went over to those
as they pleased.
It is

who claimed

liberty to

do

easy to deride method, but less easy to
is

deal with a sword which

always in line and a point never
le

far
it

from the body.

'

Rira Men qui rira

dernier,^

Of

course

may happen

that

an irregular fencer beats a regular one hollow.

INTRODUCTION
No
and put the slow by the
naturally quick
side of the swift,

33

system can altogether make up for the inequaUties of nature

and a man who

is

much for one who is Bazancourt, who was a left-handed naturally slow and heavy. swordsman, had astounding natural quickness, and may have In like manner a man prevailed against well-skilled fencers. who has a natural talent for acting, but has never studied, in the old sense of the word, may produce certain brilliant effects but study is advisable for those who wish to act all the
and
active

may be

too

:

same.

In the pages which follow
to acquaint

this chapter,

an attempt

is

made

Englishmen

in the

most

practical

manner

possible
is

with the method of fencing or small-sword play which
followed in the best French schools.
essentially that of Bertrand, with

now
is

The system

followed

whom,

perhaps, swordsmanship
;

culminated after
despite

its

long period of slow progress
of ambitious

for assuredly,

the

zealous efforts

and most accomlittle

plished fencers, his

method of using the point has been but

departed from or improved upon during the time which has
elapsed since he was supreme in the assault.
said,

As has been

he

left

nothing written behind him

;

but his system was

thoroughly mastered by his one really distinguished pupil, the
elder Prevost,

who

in turn
it

imparted
to

it

to his son, labouring

most strenuously
careful tuition.

to teach

him during a long course of
as practice in fencing
years' experience

Aided by such knowledge
five,

since the age of
as prevot

and more than twenty
in Paris

and maitre d'armes
French
fencers,

had given him, the son,

working

for

endeavoured to put the method of

the great swordsman in a written form, with such modification
in detail

and amplification
be necessary.

in

some

respects as experience
is

had

shown

to

An

attempt

English colleagues and by himself to
practise fencing in England,

now made by two do the like for those who
what
is

and

to give

believed to be

D

34

FENCING

a really practical theory of small-sword play

— that

is,

a rule of

instruction which, while altogether rejecting irregular fencings

recognises regularity merely as a

means to an end, and exacts

obedience to

rule,

but only to rule which can be thoroughly

explained and indisputably justified.

35

CHAPTER

I.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS.
It may be well to begin by the explanation of a few elementary
technical terms in constant use.
in the course of the instructions.

The

others will be explained

Tierce ; Quarte.

— These words, which
third

are often referred to
Strictly

as something cabalistic, are really the simplest possible.

speaking, they

mean

and

fourth, tierce being the third
foil

and
than
of,

quarte the fourth of the eight parries of the
shortly to be described
;

or small sword,

but as they are

much more used
whole
art

any other

parries, they are

much more

frequently spoken

and

are thought

by many
easiest

to indicate the

and mystery

of fencing.

The
to

language

is

say that

way of explaining them in popular tierce means right, and quarte left.

Thus, when the swords are crossed with the points upwards,
the fencers are engaged in tierce

if

the blades are to the right
left.

of each other

;

in quarte, if to the

To

lunge in tierce
;

is

to lunge high to the right of the opponent's sword
quarte, to lunge high to the left of
it.

to lunge in

Fencers speak of the lines
lines, will

of quarte and tierce.

These, together with the other
farther on.
It

be described a
in a

little

should be explained that
fencer,

combat between a right-handed and left-handed
is

one

engaged

in quarte
;

Supination
tion

when the other is engaged in tierce. pronation. The hand is said to be in supina-

when 'the finger-nails are turned uppermost when they are turned downwards.

;

in pronation,

D 2


36
Opposition,

FENCING

—To take opposition
when
engagement

is

so to protect the

body

with the blade

the swords are crossed, that the opponent
;

cannot

hit in the line of

e.g., if

the swords of two
his blade so far to
his point

fencers are crossed in quarte,

and one holds
left

the

left that, if

the other thrusts to the

must go

past the body, the former takes opposition in quarte.
Nullify,

— To
it
;

nullify,

avoid, or deceive a parry,

is

so to

manipulate the
parry misses

foil

or sword in attacking, that the opponent's

e.g., if

the blades are crossed in tierce, and

one fencer, dropping
a

his point

under the other's hand, makes
so as to cause

sham

thrust to the left of his blade,
left,

him
real

to parry to the

and

then, rapidly returning,

makes the

thrust to the right of the other's blade, he nullifies or avoids

the parry to the

left.

This

is

the simplest form

;

some of the

methods of
the extreme.

nullifying parries are, as will

be seen, complex in
deceiving a parry.

The French
is

always

call this

Tromper une parade
however, a
literal

the regular expression.

In

this case,

translation

would hardly be the

best, so

we
do

usually speak in these instructions of nullifying or avoiding a
parry.
this,

It is

hardly necessary to point out that, in order to

the attacking fencer must rightly forecast the other's de-

fensive

movement.

If the

combatant who

is

attacked does not

make

the parry expected, the attack will be

all

wrong.

Nothing

more marks a

great master of the sword than the
is

power of

divining what his opponent

going to do

—a

power which

sometimes seems to those unaccustomed to fencing-rooms
almost miraculous.

HOW TO HOLD THE
Let the thumb be
part of the corded
flat

FOIL OR SWORD.

on the upper

— that

is,

the convex

hilt,

the forefinger holding the two sides
fingers being flat against the left

and lower

part,

and the other

FIRST POSITION

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
side.

yj

The

fingers should
is

touch each other

lightly.

This way

of holding the sword
best to linger play

incontestably that which lends itself
is,

—that

to directing the point

by the action
If,

of the

thumb and

forefinger aided

by the other

fingers.

as

some masters have taught, the forefinger is stretched away, the middle finger and the other two fingers must grip the hilt, and this will tend to make the movements less quick and less
light.

The

parries

specially will

be wanting

in precision

and

smartness.

THE
Three
fencing
1.
:

POSITIONS.
rightly

only, in

our opinion, are

recognised in

-—

That which the fencer takes before placing himself on

guard.
2.

3.

The The

position on guard.

extension

i.e.

the lunge.
heels

First position.

—The

must touch,

the

right
at

foot

pointing towards the adversary,
angles to
right
it
;

and the
the

left

foot

right

the legs straight

;

body turned towards the
;

and presenting three-quarters
at

face to the adversary

the

hand holding the sword

about the height of the head, the
;

arm
the

straight
left

and inclined

to the right

the
side,

hand in supination
but clear of
it,

;

arm

falling naturally

by the

the

hand turned outwards.
Second position.
position
:

—To
it

change from the

first

to the

second

Lower the

right hand, turning the knuckles

down-

wards, and

move
it

towards the
;

left,
lift

which grasps the blade
quit hold with the
it
;

lightly just as if

was sheathed

the arms to the top of the
;

head, giving a roundness to the
left

movement

hand, and place
height, the

it

slightly

backwards, keeping

at the

same

arm

half stretched out

and rounded

bring
right

the right

hand

in front of the chest, a little

below the

38
breast, the

FENCING
arm
bent, the elbow close to the body, the button
;

of the

foil at

the height of the eyes

carry the right foot for-

ward about two

soles' lengths, the distance

varying slightly with
feet,

the height of the individual and the size of the

and bend
left.

both legs equally.
Let

Keep

the right heel in a line with the

the iveight of the body be equally divided between the

two

legs,

and the right knee be over the instep.
without turning the body to the
himself
:

Press the

left

hip in well

left.

The

fencer must not efface

three-quarters face to the adversary must be strictly

maintained.
it

This position

is

known

as being

on guard.

When

has been assumed, the combatant can attack or defend him-

self,

advance or

retreat,

with equal ease, and without any pre-

paratory movement.
find
it

If,

on

firs-t

taking
as
is

it,

the pupil does not
it,

natural

and

instinctive,

Bazancourt called

let

him be persuaded
art,

that the fault

not with his teacher or the
this conviction

but with himself.

The more

penetrates

with regard to this and other positions and movements the

more chance
of fencing
facts
is,

there

is

of ultimate success.

One
it

of the beauties

that, like a

kindly doctor,

teaches

men many
least

connected with themselves which they never in the

suspected before.

Third
position
:

position.

—To
the

pass from the second to the third

stretch

right

arm

straight,

keeping
;

it

at the

height of the shoulder, without bending the body

the

hand

in

supination; advance the right foot about a sole and a half— the
stature of the individual being always taken into consideration

—lifting the toes a

little,

the heel brushing the ground. At the
is

same moment

that the foot
settling

advanced, tighten the loins (as

men do when
hand

down

in the saddle before a leap), press

in the left hip, straighten the left leg to the left thigh without touching

and
it,

thigh,

drop the

left

the palm turned out-

wards.

The

left

foot

must remain

flat

on the ground, and the

o
o ^ ^ o ^ ^o o

cXDO

o
C/1

^ O ^ ^ W

2 w c
X
a;

(U


PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
avoided.

39

shoulders must drop naturally, any rigidity being carefully

The
is

right

knee must be

straight

above the

instep.

This

the developpement of the French fencers

Anglice^

the lunge or extension.

REMARKS RESPECTING THE GUARD.
The
height of the

point
;

should vary according to the
far

stature of the adversary

so

as

may be

practicable the

sword should point towards
It

his eyes.

has been urged by a well-known writer on fencing

who
as

has had

many

followers,

in practice at all events, if not in

theory, that the

combatant should
should turn the

efface himself as

much

possible— that

is,

left

side as

much

as

he can

away from the antagonist, presenting only the
exposing himself as
little

right side, thus
this is
it is

as

may

be.

In our opinion
in this

an

error.

With the body turned round
difficult

manner,

extremely

to

preserve a steady balance, and in conseless

quence the parries become large and slow, and the lunge
rapid than
it

should be, as
is

it is

impossible to get that action

of the loins which

essential to a quick extension.
left

Care must be taken to hold and drop the

arm

in the

manner indicated.
posed
for grace,

It is not, as is
is

sometimes imagined, merely
right,

but

an important counterbalance to the
it

helping and quickening the extension as
aiding the recovery as
it

falls,

and

greatly

is

raised again.

The body must be
If the fencer leans

kept perfectly upright, bearing neither forwards nor backwards.

Indeed

this is of the highest

importance.

forward, he exposes the upper part of his
point, and,

body to the adversary's
leg,

resting too
for

much on

the right

has not the

freedom necessary

quick extension.

Leaning back, on the
left leg,

other hand, thereby throwing the weight on the
it

makes

almost impossible to

retreat,

exposes the lower part of the

40

FENCING

body, and retards extension in attack and the riposte by the

time necessary to bring the body well on to the two legs again.
Further, this position obliges the combatant to
spite of all that has

jump

;

and, in

been said

in novels

about the bounds of
either in the

fencers, there

is

no such thing as jumping

advance

or the lunge.
It

has been said that the
left

left

knee should be
left

straight over

the end of the
its

foot

;

but this forces the

haunch out of
left leg.

proper position, and gives an awkward curve to the
in front of

The knee should be
the
left foot.

and a

little

inside the front of

OBSERVATIONS ON THE LUNGE OR EXTENSION.
However rapid the lunge, the hand must always start first that is, the movement of the hand must precede that of the body^ since the hand holds the foil or weapon with which the
:

antagonist

is

touched, or with which
let

it is

hoped

to touch him.

Care must be taken not to
this destroys the balance,

the body drop forward, as
to pull the left foot off the
it,

and tends

ground, thereby depriving the fencer of his main hold on
rendering recovery extremely
position of
difficult,

and putting him

in

a

much

danger.

The
on the

old practice of making the sole of the shoe resound

floor

should never be indulged

in.

It

has long been
is
it

altogether

abandoned

in the best schools,

and

now looked
is

upon
to
is
lift

as vulgar.

To make
step,

this senseless noise

necessary

the foot, and this deadens the

movement.

The

lunge

a glide

and not a

and the heel must press the ground

first

when

the fencer reaches his limit.

To

return to the guard.

Let the elbow drop by the
:

side,

bringing back the sword to the position of guard

bring the

;

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
right foot

41

back
left

to within

some two

soles' length of the left heel

bend the

knee again, and

raise the left hand.

To

bring

the body back rapidly the loins and of the
steadiness,

and

steadily, there

must be pressure of
which gave impulse,

left hip,

similar to that

and quickness

to the attack.

The

fencer

may
left

also regain the

second position or guard
:

by drawing the
to within

foot forward as follows

Bring the

left

foot

about two

soles' length of the right,
lift

drop the right

elbow to the side and
guard.

the

left

arm, assuming the position of

This method of rising from the lunge should only be

adopted when the adversary has retreated considerably on
being attacked, and
is

better suited for those

who have

attained

some

skill in

the assault than for beginners.

When
of the
leg
;

an attack has not succeeded and the fencer wishes to
:

place himself instantly out of distance

—Throw

all

the weight

body on

to the left leg

by a vigorous
left,

effort

of the right

bring the right heel against the
soles'

and step back about

two

length with

left foot,

dropping the right elbow by the

side, raising the left

arm, and falling into the position of guard.

To regain

the first position,
left

—This can be done
up
left

either for-

wards, by bringing the

heel

to the right, or vice versa.

To advance,

— Being
to

on guard, step forward a few inches
foot forward the

with the right foot and bring the
distance, the right starting
first,
is,

same

and the position of guard being
or less, to confront danger,

maintained.

As

advance

more

small steps are advisable.

To
the

retreat,

— Being on guard, step back
right foot
first,
it is

a few inches with

left foot,
left

and bring the

back the same distance,

the

foot starting

and the position of guard being mainas
is

tained.

When
is

necessary to get instantly out of distance,

the retreat

the

same when on guard

when on
to

the lunge.

The

appel,

—To

make

the

appel

stamp, or rather

to slap the floor with the sole of the right foot, producing

42

FENCING
unmeaning noise already spoken
were concerned
it

the

of.

So

far as first-class

fencers

was long ago abandoned
it

in the

assault, but, until quite recently,

was

still

heard in the Salute,

to

be described hereafter. Now, however, the French Academy

of

Arms has

happily also abolished
is

it

even in the Salute, and

the appel therefore

a thing of the past.

In the days when idiocy played so large a part in fencing
it

was thought that the appel frightened the adversary.
it

Of

course

never frightened anybody over

five,

and served no

purpose but to put the antagonist on his guard and to retard
the attack of the booby

who made

it.

It

was a favourite with

the gallery in public assaults.

43

CHAPTER

II.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS— Continued,

THE

LINES.

A

LINE, SO called,
foil

is

the space between the one side or the other

of the fencer's of the body.

or sword
is

and the corresponding

side or limit

The word

not a happily chosen one, but

we

must accept established usage.

There are four
the blades in the
low.

lines in fencing
first

;

two upper and two lower,

case being pointed high, in the second

The upper

lines are called inside

and outside

;

the inside

being to the

left

of the blade, the outside to the right.
;

The
left

lower lines are called lower and exterior
the fencer's blade, exterior to the right.
^

lower to the

of

In order to determine the
blades should be pointed up or
as has

lines,

it

is

necessary that the
it

down

;

but

is

not necessary,

been

alleged, that there should

be engagement.

THE ENGAGEMENT.
The engagement
simply, or
is

is

the junction of the blades.

It

may

take

place in each of the four lines,

and

is

either called
is

engagement

named

after the parry

which

being formed when

the blades meet.
^

Engagements
'
'

in
'

the lower hues are rarely
'

in this sense,

are dessous and dehors. Of the latter, when used no exact translation in one word can be given, and, in order to avoid a dual name, an arbitrary meaning is given to the word exterior.

The French terms

44

FENCING
When
the Itahan system
is

resorted to by French fencers.

followed

it is

otherwise.

SIMPLE PARRIES.
Simple parries are those which meet the blade directly in
the line in which the thrust
is

made.
for

Eight are recognised

;

two

each

line.

They

are called

:

— Prime,
Octave.
lines,

Seconde,

Tierce,

Quarte,

Quinte,

Sixte,

Septime,

Tierce, Quarte, Quinte,

and

Sixte are in the upper
parries are transverse

the others in the low hues.
in the

The

movements
versa.

upper

lines, semi-circular in

the lower

when
vice

engagement changes from the upper to the lower, and
Frwie.
the

—The hand

in pronation opposite the left shoulder;

arm

bent,

the elbow lowered somewhat,

the point low

and a
hip,

httle outside the

lower

line.
little

Seconde.

— Hand

to

the right a
;

higher than the right
;

and well

in front

hand

in pronation
little

the

arm

straight

without

stiffness,

the point a

lower than the hand and

slightly outside the exterior line.
Tierce.

— The hand to the right
the point
line.

in pronation, the

elbow by
little

the side

at the height

of the eyes and a

beyond the outside
Quarte.

— The

hand

to the

left,

neither in pronation nor

supination, but the

thumb uppermost;

the elbow close to the

body

;

the point at the height of the eyes
line.

and

slightly

beyond

the inside

Quinte.

—The
;

hand

to the left in pronation, at the height

of the belt
Sixte.

the point well

beyond the

inside line.
;

— The hand to the

right in supination
little

the point at
line.

the height of the eyes, and a

beyond the outside

Septime or semi-circle. —^The hand to the right in

supination

< o

o o
IxJ

CO

<

O

uq


PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
at

-

45
;

the

height of the shoulder
left at

;

the

arm

half extended

the

point to the
Octave.

the height of the breast or shoulder.
seco7i.de ^

—The same as

but the hand in supination.

Such are the

eight simple

parries recognised in fencing.
it is

We

have described them because

necessary that the fencer

should

know what
find in

are the regular parries,

and should under-

stand the meaning of terms which he will hear in the fencing

room and

books

;

but in practice the simple parries
first

may

be reduced to

four.

This happy change was
all

introduced

by Bertrand, who was above

things practical,

and abundant

experience has shown that the great swordsman was right.

The
1.

four parries which
it is

may be abandoned
large

are
;

:

Prime^ because

and therefore slow

difficult

on

account of the position of hand and blade, and because, while
it

is

very easily avoided, coming back to another parry after
is

prime has been avoided
covers the

by no means easy.
because
it is

Septime, which
smaller and thereis

same

lines, is better,
if it

fore quicker,

and because,

has been deceived, recovery

much
2.

easier, the

hand being

in supination.

Quinte, because, with the point well outside the line
in pronation, the riposte
is difficult,

and

the

hand

while quarte covers

the same line without this drawback.
3.

Sixfe^ because, the

hand being

in supination, there are

only the ends of the fingers to resist the effects of a smart beat
in the outside line,

which may drive the blade over to the

left

or

knock

it

right out of the fencer's hand.

With

tierce there is

the

thumb
is

to

meet the shock of a sharp parry or

beat,

and

tierce protects the

same

line as sixte.

Not a few
is

fencers think
:

that sixte
is

quicker than tierce, but this

an error

indeed,

it

be slower, because to deflect the adversary's blade the point must be raised higher than it need be for the other
likely to

parry.

We may

observe that the pronation in tierce must be
slightly.

pronounced but

46
4.
is

FENCING
Octave^ because, the

hand being

in supination, this parry

inferior to

seconde

for a reason precisely similar to that just

given.

Seconde protects the same
will

line as octave.

We

now

indicate the

manner

in which, starting

from

the four engagements, the four essential parries are made.

From

the

Engage ?7ient
the

in

Quarte.

To To To

parry seconde^ drop

point,

making

it

describe a

half-circle

from

left

to right.

parry

tierce^

Take the position of seconde. move the hand to the right, taking the

tierce position.

parry septime,

height of the

move the hand to the right and to the shoulder, the arm half extended, and, at the same
and let
it

time, carry the point to the right,

describe a half- circle

from

right to

left,

coming

to the position of septime.

The

parry thus executed from engagement in quarte combines tierce

with septime or demi-cercle.

From Engagement

in Tierce,

To
left.

parry seconde^ bring the

foil

into seconde

by making

the point describe a half-circle from above to below by the

To
left,

parry quarte^

move

the

hand and point from
into septime
left,

right to

taking the position of quarte.

To
it

parry

septi77ie^

bring the

foil

by making

describe a half-circle from right to

passing under the

adversary's blade or hand.

From Engagement

in Seconde,

To

parry

tierce^

make

the

point
left,

describe

a half-circle
foil

from below to above by the
position.

and bring
describe

to

tierce

To

parry quarte^

make

the

point

a

half-circle

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
from below to above, passing from right to
to quarte position.
left,

47

and bring

foil

To

parry septvne^ bring the

foil

into septime position.

I^ro7n

Engagement
foil to
is

in Septime,

To
as has
line
is

parry seconde^ bring
this

seconde position.

With

engagement there
by

no need to parry
tierce line.
;

tierce, since,

been shown, septime covers the
also covered
this

The

inside
-

comprehensive parry

but, never

theless,

when the adversary's point is aimed high, the quarte parry may be used without making the half-circle to do this raise the point and move the hand to the left, lowering it a
:

little.

THE CHANGE OF ENGAGEMENT AND DOUBLE
ENGAGEMENT.
The change
of engagement in the upper lines

passing the point under the adversary's blade.

made by The change
is

by passing the blade over
tremely dangerous.

his point

is

not advised, being ex*

Changes

in the lower lines are
;

made by
said,

passing the point

over the blade

but, as has

been

engagements in these

lower Hues are not largely practised by French fencers.

As

the adversaries cannot both be equally covered in the line of

engagement,
frequently be

it

is

obvious that a change of engagement must
to get out of a dangerous position

made

and take
the

opposition in the other line without pressure on the blade.

The double engagement or double engage.
Opposition

—This

is

name
this

given to two successive changes of engagement made rapidly.
is
is,

taken on the second change.
lightness of
it

Simple as

movement

hand and

skill

in finger-play are
it

required to execute

properly, and, for this reason,

is

an

48

FENCING
In advancing
it is

admirable exercise.

of great use, as

it is

not

easy to snatch a lunge
to in the retreat.

upon

it

;

but

it

should not be resorted

SIMPLE ATTACKS.
Simple attacks are those which are preceded by no
feint.

There are four: the
The straight

straight thrust,

the disengagement, the

coupe, and the counter-disengagement.
thrust.

—In

this attack, as

in

all others,

the

movement of
or foot.

the

It

is

hand and arm must precede that of the body impossible to pay too much attention to this most

absolute rule offencing.

The

straight thrust

is

made by extending the arm and lunging

in the line in

which the swords are engaged.
is

When

in this or

any other attack the point
is

directed to the body, the

hand

best in supination
is

;

some few exceptional

positions apart,

pronation

very apt to send the point out of the right line,

and makes
point

finger-play difficult.

The opponent's blade may be

held or quitted in the straight thrust.
is

When

the adversary's

too low, an almost irresistible straight thrust

may be

given by seizing with the fort of the sword the faible of his,
the

hand being held
The
disengage.

high.
is

To
is

effect this stroke successfully

very great quickness

necessary.
quitting the line
in

—This

which the

blades are engaged and thrusting in another, the blade in the
vast majority of attacks passing

under that of the adversary.
from upper

It

maybe made from one upper
to lower,
is

line to the other,

line

from lower to upper, and from lower to lower.
is

that

which

usually practised in fencing.
;

The first The second may

occasionally be used

but the two

latter

are very seldom re-

sorted to in the French school, save for feints, or after feints.

To disengage
line to

in the upper lines.

—Pass

the point from one

another under the opponent's blade and hand by a

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
spring-like

49
taking

movement

of the

thumb and finger, and lunge,
;

opposition at the'same time
It is

the

hand

in supination.

a grave mistake to suppose, as

many

fencers do, that

in the disengage, the point should

be kept as close to the ad-

versary's blade as possible.

On

the contrary, the point should
his

be advanced so as
should be, in
fact,

to pass

under

hand or arm

;

there

one continuous

spiral, if

the expression
his

may

be allowed, from the moment when the point leaves
to that

blade

when

it

happily touches his body

— or

is

unhappily pre-

vented from doing so by his objectionable

activity.

To disengage from high

to

low.

— Drop

the point and pass
line.

the blade under the adversary's into the lower

The two
effected

other disengagements above

named

are of course

by passing the blade over that of the adversary.
cut-over.

The coupe or

— The

coupe

is

the opposite of the

disengage, the blade being passed over the adversary's blade
instead of under.

In the French school

it is

only used in the

upper

lines.

To make
other,

the coupe.

— Raise

the point and pass

it

over the

by the action of the thumb and
Tighten them

forefinger, loosening the
it

other fingers.
line,

slightly as

drops into the other

bringing the hand into supination, extending the arm and

lunging.

The

counter-disengage.

— This

can

only be

made on
of

a
it

change of engagement, or a double engage.
the fencer

By means

may

baffle the attack

and snatch a lunge, though
Preceded by a
serves to nullify a parry.
quitting
is

this of course requires considerable address.
feint, or

an attack on the sword,
disengage
is

it

As

stated above, a

made by

one

line
in
is

for another.

A
;

counter-disengage, on the contrary,

made

the same line

the movement, though similar in appearance,

in fact reversed.

To counter-disengage on a changefrom quarte

to tierce.

— The
E

50

FENCING
is

instant that touch of the adversary's blade
point, pass the blade

gone, drop the
of

under

his

by a very delicate movement
spiral,

thumb and the arm and
tion.

forefinger,

keeping to a continuous

extend

lunge, taking opposition with the
this to nullify the

hand

in supina-

Reverse

change of engagement from

tierce to quarte.

On

a double engagement the counter
the second change.
is

movement must be

made on
disengage

In the lower lines the counter-

made by

passing the point over the adversary's

hand.

The
when
touch

counter-disengage

may sometimes be

abridged by

passing from an upper line to a lower, or vice versa.
the engagement
is
is

Thus
in

in quarte, the fencer

may, the instant

given, drop his point to the exterior line

and lunge

that hne.

In

like

manner, with engagement in

tierce,

he may
called

drop the point and lunge in lower Ime.
^^^////^r-disengages, as they are
still

These are

still

made

in the reverse way.

SIMPLE PARRIES AS AGAINST SIMPLE ATTACKS.

When

the straight thrust

is

attempted without quitting

the blade, take opposition in the hne.

When

the

blade

is

quitted, give a hght but smart rap or beat, taking opposition.

If the mistake of holding the point too low has

been made, and

the antagonist endeavours to force the straight thrust, safety

can be gained in either line by raising the point so as to bring
the fort against the faible of the other's blade, and by taking
opposition.

On
septime

a disengage into the inside
;

line,

parry,

quarte,

or

into the outside line, tierce

;

into the lower or into the
;

exterior line, parry septime or

seconde

against a coupe into

the inner Hne, parry quarte

;

into the outer line, tierce.

On

a counter-disengage bringing blades to

inside

line

:

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
after the

51

change parry quarte or septime
;

;

with blades brought
lines,

to outside hne, tierce

with lower and exterior

septime

and seconde

respectively.

FINGER-PLAY OR DOIGTE.

The

point should

be

directed

in

fencing

by the
all

use
its

principally of the

thumb and
feint,
it

forefinger,

which govern

movements.

The

other fingers

merely aid by giving the
in

blade steadiness in

power
a

an attack on the sword,

and by supporting
sary to close a
line

in

shock or

when

it

is

neces-

by taking or maintaining
pressui'e with
it

opposition.

There must be momentary or brief

them when
but they
to feel.
little

required, ceasing the instant necessity for

ceases;

must never quit the

hilt,

which they ought always

The

hilt,

however,

may on

occasion be separated by a
it

from the palm of the hand, and brought back to
pressure of the fingers.

by the

Without

this

it is

impossible to exe-

cute circular or semicircular

movements

properly.
fingers,

The
is

proper use of the

thumb and

called doigte,
is

of the greatest importance
action with

in fencing,

but

extremely
to a

difficult to acquire,

them being contrary

man's

natural instinct, which prompts
wrist.

him

to use his

whole hand and

In

first

lessons, therefore, the greatest possible pains

must be taken

to

make
If,

the pupil govern

the

point in

the

manner

indicated.

instead of relying on the supple fingers,

the fencer gets into the habit of working with the

arm and
all

clenching and stiffening

its

big muscles, he will contract an

but incurably vicious style of swordsmanship, only to be got rid
of by such an

amount of perseverance and

self-control as will

probably exhaust his entire stock, and leave him none for the
other efforts of
life.

E 2

52

FENCING

ATTACKS ON THE SWORD.
By means
are

of these

movements the

adversary's sword

is

got

out of the way in order that the body

may be

attacked.

They

made by

a pressure, a beat, a scrape, or a twist {pressions,

battements^froisses^ croises, liements).

The attack by pressure.
other blade so as to

— This
it

is

merely to press on the

move

out of the line and

make an

opening, with a view either to attacking directly, or to nullifying
a parry.

The

beat,

— This
it,

is

a light but smart tap on the adversar}^'s
difficult for

blade, paralysing
resist

and making- it the more

him

to

a direct attack, or one

Great care must be taken not

made by to move the

nullifying his parry.
foil

too far from the

other in order to give a very smart tap, as this
for the adversary to

makes

it

easy

avoid the beat.

All the fingers

must work

in the battemejtt.

The
the
'

scrape.
;


'

If slang

were allowed,
is

this

ought to be called

Scrooge

but there

no English word which precisely

reproduces the French /r^/V^^.
It
is

delivered in tierce
or
his

when

the adversary has his point

too

low,

arm stretched
line,

out.

The

object of

it

is

to

paralyse his

hand and arm

for the

moment, or

to drive his

blade out of the
it

so that his

body may be attacked.

Often

disaniTS.

To execute
the faible of

it

seize, so to

speak, with the fort of the sword

his,

then, with a vigorous pressure of the fingers,
to his
hilt,

bring the point

down

keeping touch the meanwhile,

and giving
for the

his

sword a scrape which ought to unnerve his hand

moment,

There must be energy

in this
;

movement,

and the adversary's blade must be well felt but there must be no heavy pressure due to clenching of the muscles. The

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
"Scrape in tierce
is

53
is

the only one that the fencer

advised to

attempt.

The

tiioist

(croise),

— This

is

bringing

the

adversary's

blade from an upper to a lower

line,

the object being to disIt

arm, or thoroughly to paralyse the defence for a moment.

can only be effected when the other's point
It
is

is

too low.
in quarte
:

thus

executed
fort,

—with

engagement

seize

the faible with the

and, by a pow^erful but rapid movement,

bring the adversary's blade into seconde, passing the point

over his

hilt.

This ought to give a scrape and twist which

will

either disarm

him or completely loosen the sword
engagement
in seconde.

in his grasp.
little

At the end of the movement the point should be a
than
it is

higher

in the usual
:

With engage-

ment

in tierce

seize faible with fort,

and bring the other blade
hilt.
is

inco septime, passing the point over his

The
more
the

twist

from quarte into seconde

undoubtedly the

telling of the two.

The twist and lunge (liement),
last

—This

is

somew^hat like

movement, but
that

is

less violent
is

and does not disarm, and

the body, as well as the blade,

attacked in ouq continuous

movement, so

it

is

not quite in the same category as the
It is

four attacks on the blade just described.

only possible

when

the adversary's point

is

too low.
in quarte
:

To
ing the

execute

it

—with

engagement

seize the fort

with the faible; pa^s your point over the other's

hilt,

straighten-

arm at the same time, and lunging in the exterior line with the hand in supination, and taking marked opposition to the right. This is the famous thrust known as flanconnade or
liement

d ^octave.
twist

The

and lunge from

tierce

to a

bwer

line
to,

and from

seconde to an upper

line are not

now

resorted

as they so

often result in simultaneous hits (coup double).

Attacks on the sword are often preceded by changes of

54

FENCING
may be
prefaced by a change of

engagement, and the scrape

engagement or double engage and coupe.

Hoiv
to

to

avoid and frustrate attacks on the sword^

and hoiv

parry

the attacks on

sword and

body.

—The

pressure on the

blade, the beat,
into the other

and the scrape are
line or into a

frustrated
line.

by a disengage

upper

low

As
lower

the

first

two attacks on the sword may be made in the

line,

they

may be

nullified
line.

by a disengage into the other

lower line or into an upper

The

twist

from quarte to seconde
;

is

frustrated

by a

dis-

engage into tierce

that

from

tierce into septime

by yielding

the blade completely

and disengaging

into the exterior line. as well
dis-

The
as

twist

and lunge, being an attack on the body

on the sword, must not be escaped and frustrated by a
in the

engage

marner

just described, as there
latter part

would be great
it

danger of simultaneous hits; the
fore

of

must there-

be parried.

To parry

the flanconnade.
first,

—Without

losing
is

touch,

yield

the sword completely at point being then to the

until the blade

horizontal (the

left)

;

drop the hand

slightly,

and

raise

the point so that the blades be in quarte position, and take

opposition in that

line.
is

A
ment,

change of engagement with an attack on the sword

frustrated in the
i.e.

same way

as an ordinary

change of engage-

by a counter-disengage.
of engagement

The change
frustrated

made by

the twist

may

also be

by a counter-disengage.

On

the change of engage-

ment, coupe and scrape, disengage on the scrape, and do the

same with the double engage, coupe and
FEINTS.

scrape.

A

feint

is

a

sham

or false attack

made

without extension,

and indeed without moving the body.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
In order to deceive
parry by preventing
it

55

— that

is,

to nullify or avoid a foreseen

from reaching the blade in time
feints

— a com-

posed

attack,

in

which one or more

precede the real

attempt to

hit,

must be made, save

in

some few cases which
advance the

need not now be considered.
It is

by no means uncommon
little

for fencers to
feint,

hand a

and no more on each

only stretching the
this a mistake.
;

arm out

fully at the end.

We

cannot but think
the
first

The arm should be extended on
move
the body forward.

movement

but

it

must be kept quite supple, and great care must be taken not

to

The

reasons for extending the

arm

are very simple.
close to him,
is

The

adversary, startled

by seeing the point so
a parry in the line in
it

almost obliged to
in danger,

make

which he appears to be

thereby rendering

all

the
:

more
in

likely that

he

will

be a victim to the real attack.

Further

composed

attacks the

end must be quicker than the begin-

ning.
will be.

The

nearer the point to the body the quicker the end

In feints the body must be kept perfectly steady, and, for
their
fit

execution,

command

of finger-play
lines,

is

essential.

In
in

all feints,

even in those in the low

the

hand should be

supination.

Whatever the nature of the composed attack may
extension
[i.e.,

be, the full

the

movement

of the right foot and of the body]

must be

at the

end

— that

is

to say, there

must be no extension
is

with the false movement.

When

there

an advance with
together,

a composed attack, step and
extension being

feint

must be

the

made

with the real attack only.

To
may be
due

nullify or

avoid the adversary's parries, or to cheat his
^

steel, if

a paraphrase of the French expression
allowed,
it is

tromper

le fer

'

necessary to foresee what his parry will be,

or to watch his blade and, by superior quickness
to finger-play, avoid
it

and precision
This
latter

as each parry

is

formed.

56

FENCING
is,

course

generally speaking, only practicable
skill.

when

there

is

some
foil

disparity in

It is

almost needless to say that no rules can

be

laid

down

for this,

which depends entirely on mastery of

and quickness of perception.
here.

The

personal equation comes in

The

first

way of cheating the

steel

may be

called nullifying

by forecast, the other nullifying parries by the eye.
series of parries are to

When

a

be nulhfied, both methods

may be
parry wnll

resorted

to.

The

fencer

makes a guess what the
and hand
essential for

first

be, and, this proving right, trusts to eye

for nullifying

the others.

In doing this

it is

him

to regulate his

speed by that of the adversary.

Too many
composed
this
is

fencers unfortunately try to nullify parries in a

haphazard and utterly meaningless manner.
attack, without considering
nullifies

They make a
is

what the parry

that

movement
be.
it

or

what the adversary's
such an attack
reflects

defence
succeed,

likely to
is

Of

course

may
credit

but

due to pure chance, and

no

on the

swordsman.

Very often an attack of
jars

this

kind brings about

one of those unpleasant
contraction.
It

which are known as parries by

cannot be too strongly insisted on that every move?nent in

fencing should have a purpose.

There can be no greater mis-

take than to indulge in vague flourishes of the sword or

moveto

ments made without any definite
like a child w^ho

object.

To do

this

is

be

thumps the keys of a piano under the impression

that

it is

playing.

COUNTER PARRIES.

A

counter

is

a circular parry
circular
it

— that

is

to say,

one

in

which

the blade

makes a
body.

movement

following that of the

adversary in order to meet

again at the point of departure and
is

ward

it

off the

The word counter

chosen as the near-


PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
est

57
is

approach to the French

contre, for

which there

no precise

equivalent.

Counters are named according to the engagement
is

from which the parry

made.

They can only be

properly

made when
versa
in

the adversary attacks in the hne opposed to that

of the engagement
\

i.e.

attacks in quarte from tierce or
vice versa.

z^/V^

seconde from septime or
:

Counters are

made

as follows

Engaged

in quarte to

parry counter-quarte.

—The

moment
his

the adversary disengages or

makes a coupe,

to attack in out-

side line, describe a circle with your point passing

under

blade or hand from
circle,

left

to right in the lower
in quarte, as

segment of the
his.

and take opposition

your blade catches

The

point must be directed by the

thumb and

forefinger, aided
fingers, so as to

at the last

moment by

smart pressure of the

give a sharp clean rap which will drive the other blade away.

From

tierce to parry counter-tierce,

—The instant

the adver-

sary disengages or

makes .a coupe

to attack in inside line,

make

the point describe a reverse circle to that of counter-quarte,
following the principles laid

down

for that parry.

From

seconde

to

parry

counter-seconde.

— Directly
make
left,

the
the

adversary quits the blade to attack in the low hne,
point describe a circle
his hand,

moving first from

right to

passing over

and follow the same principles
quitted for attack in

as in counter-quarte.

From
sword
is

septime to parry counter~septi??ie,

—The

exterior line,
left

moment the make the point

describe a circle,

moving

first

from

to right, passing over his

hand, and observe the same principles as in the other parries.

When
are to the

there

is

no junction of the

steel,
to.

the parries are
If the blades
is

named according
left

to the lines

approximated

of each other, w^ith the points high, the parry
;

called counter-quarte

with points low, counter-septime

;

and

so with the other two.

Septime,

it

is

to

be observed, may very often be advan-

58

FENCING
used instead of counter-tierce.
attacks as the other,
It can,
as,

tageously
the

It

protects

from
as

same

and covers the lower Hnes

well as the upper.

moreover, be executed more quickly
to describe
is

than counter-tierce,

owing to the point having
circle,

considerably less than a

the antagonist's blade

much

sooner caught.

REVERSED COUNTER-PARRIES (CONTRE-OPPOSES).
These, as the

name

indicates,

are the ordinary counter-

parries executed the opposite way.

Thus, being engaged in
is

quarte, to parry the reversed counter {contre-oppose de quarte)
to parry counter-tierce.

In order to take opposition there must

be a transverse as well as circular movement, but the two must
be welded so as
counter
to

form one continuous parry.

Reversed
tierce

from
;

quarte

engagement

is,

therefore,

and

counter-tierce

reversed counter from tierce engagement, quarte

and counter-quarte.
other
is

The

first is
it is

seldom resorted
easily

to,

but the

an excellent parry, as

made and

not easily

avoided.
lines,

Reversed counters are hardly ever used

in the lower

save

when

the adversary parries seconde with direct riposte
later

(to

be explained

on) then,

in

retreating,

septime and

counter-septime

may sometimes be

useful.


59

CHAPTER

III.

PRACTICAL. INSTRUCTIONS

Continued.

HOW TO NULLIPT OR
Engaged

AVOID THE SIMPLE PARRIES.
parry of quarte
(the adversary

in qnarte ta nullify the

being exposed in the line of the engagement, without which of
course there can be no straight thrust)
1.
:

Simulate a straight thrust, or

make

a beat,

and

diserbgage

into the outside or low line (line of tierce or septime).
2,

Simulate straight thrust or beat, and

make

a coupe.
line of

In the other lines parries corresponding to the

engagement are
lines there

nullified in a similar

manner, but

in the

lower

can be no coupe.
in

From engagement
eno;ao-e into

quarte,

— To

nullify

seconde

:

dis-

the outside line.
:

To
1.

nullify tierce

Simulate disengagement into outside line and disengage

into inside line.

This
It

is

called one-two,

and

is

a frequent

attack in fencing.
in

may be abridged by
in inside line,

simulating thrust
dis-

low

line

and attacking
line

and by simulating

engage into outside
2.

and attacking
line.

in exterior line.

Disengage into low

Change engagement, giving a pressure or beat, or the scrape on making the change, and disengage into exterior or
3.

inside line.

—— — —
6o

FENCING
To
1.

nullify septime

:

Make

feint in

low

line, feint,

well-marked, in inside line

(one-two low and quarte
2.

lines)

and counter-disengage.
in the line of

If the adversary

is

exposed

engagement,

simulate straight thrust or beat, and counter-disengage.

Fro?n engagement in
first

tierce.

—To

nullify

seconde

:

one -two,

dropping point as though to attack in seconde, then attack-

ing in tierce.

To
1.

nullify quarte

:

One-two, feinting of course in quarte and attacking in

tierce.
2.

One-two

low, feinting in quarte

and attacking

in low^ line.

3.

Change engagement, with a pressure or beat on making
line.

change, and disengage into outside or low

To
1.

nullify

septime

:

Feint

disengage

into
is

quarte,

and

counter-disengage

into exterior line.

This

called a double disengage, or simply

a double.
2.

Simulate coupe .and counter-disengage.

3.

Change engagement with beat and counter-disengage.
ifi

From engagement

seconde.

— To

nullify tierce

:

one- two
line.

simulating attack in tierce, and attacking in exterior

To
1.

nullify quarte

:

Disengage into low

line.

2.

Feint, disengage into quarte,

and counter-disengage

into

tierce.

To
hilt.

nullify

septime

:— One-two,

going over \h^ adversary's

One may be marked high or low. From engagement in septime. — To
hilt.
:

nullify

seconde

:

one-

two over the

To

nullify quarte

one-two, ending the attack in tierce.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS

6i

PARRIES FOR MEETING THE ATTACKS JUST DESCRIBED.
With engagement
in quarte.

i.

To

one-two

in inside line

:

counter-quarte, septime or tierce
parried
if

and

quarte.

Seconde may be
if

the feint

is

in outside (or upper) line, but not
;

the

feint is in exterior line

anyhow,

this requires great nicety of

judgment.
2.

To

one-two in exterior

line

:

septime, or better, seconde,

when

the attack has been rightly judged.

A
is

change of engagement

in the

upper

line,

with a beat,

pressure, or scrape

on the change, and disengage into quarte,
as the
first

parried in the

same way
;

of the attacks described

in the

above paragraph

a change with one of these

movements

and

thrust in exterior line, in the
3.

same manner
:

as the second.

To disengagement
To one-two

into exterior line

parry septime or

seconde.
4.

counter-disengage, beat and counter-dis:

engage, feint of straight thrust and counter-disengage

parry
or

septime and seconde,
septime and quarte.

or

septime and counter-septime,

Engaged

in tierce.

i.

To meet
tierce.

one-two in upper line:
If the attack
is

counter-tierce, or quarte

and

rightly

judged, tierce only
2.

may

of course be parried.
line
:

To

one-two with thrust in low

septime, or quarte

and seconde.

A

change of engagement with a beat or pressure
in outside line,
;

on change, and disengage

is

parried in the

same

way

as the

first

attack mentioned above

a change so followed
as the second

with attack in low line in the same
attack spoken
3.

manner

of.

To

a double, or feint of coupe

and counter-disengage, or
:

change of engagement and counter-disengage

parry septime

and seconde, or septime and counter-septime.

62

FENCING

HOW TO NULLIFY OR
Engaged in quarte
disengagement
tierce,
2.

AVOID COUNTER-PARRIES.

to
is

avoid counter-qiiarte,
to
say,

i.

Double the

—that

simulate disengagement into
in tierce.

and counter-disengage and lunge

Double disengage ending low
low
line.

:

double, as before, but

end

in

The hand may,
last,

in this case,
little

be in complete
lower than the

pronation at the

and should be a

shoulder, but the point
so as to
3

must be kept high on the disengage,

make

the adversary raise his hand.

Simulate disengagement into tierce and

make

a coupe,

just at the

end of the

other's parry, into tierce (this

might be

called counter-coupe).
4.

Simulate coupe and counter-disengage into
;

quarte or

into low-line

in the latter case the

hand may be

in

complete

pronation at the end.

E?igaged in

tierce^ to

avoid

counter-tierce.
line.

i.

Double

dis-

engage, ending in quarte or in exterior
2.

Simulate disengagement and
into

make coupe

into quarte; into

or,

simulate coupe

quarte,

and counter disengage

quarte or exterior
are avoided

line.

Counter-seconde and counter-septime

by doubling, the attacks ending either high or low

for counter-seconde.

HOW TO MEET THE ATTACKS
Engaged
line
:

LAST MENTIONED.
in

in quarte.

— To

meet a double disengage

upper

parry

counter-quarte
is

and

tierce,

or

double

counter-

quarte— that

to say, parry counter-quarte twice.
:

To meet
and
into

a double disengage in lower line

parry counter-quarte

septime or counter-quarte and seconde.

Engaged

in tierce.— \,

To meet

a double disengage


PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
inside line, feint of disengage
feint of

63

and coupe

into inside line, or
line
:

coupe and counter-disengage into the same

parry

counter-tierce

and

quarte, or

counter-tierce

and septime, or

double counter-tierce.
2.

To meet

a double into exterior line or feint of coupe
into exterior line
;

and counter-disengage

parry counter-tierce

and seconde, or counter-tierce and septime.
In seconde, meet a double disengage, ending low, by double
counter-seconde; ending in upper
line,

meet by counter-seconde

and

tierce or quarte

;

in septime,

meet the same by double
if the

counter-septime, or counter-septime and quarte,
point
is

adversary's

aimed

high.^

HOW TO FRUSTRATE A CHANGE
Engaged
tierce
will

OF ENGAGEMENT AND AVOID A SIMPLE PARRY IN THE UPPER LINES.
in quarte.

—To
:

frustrate a

change of engagement to

and parry

in quarte

simulate counter-disengage (which

mduce movement
change

the adversary to parry quarte)
is

and disengage

;

this

called

one-two on
in

a

change.
:

To

avoid the

to tierce

and parry
change to

seconde

one-two on the change,

with the feint in seconde, and the end in tierce.

To

frustrate a

tierce

and parry in septime

:

double

the counter-disengage, attacking in exterior (seconde) line.

Ei2gaged in

tierce,

—To
:

avoid change of engagement

to

quarte and parry in tierce
1.

One-two on the change.
Counter-disengage into low
line.
:

2.

To
To

avoid change in quarte, and parry in ssconde
line.

counter-

disengage into upper (tierce)

avoid change to quarte and parry in septime
1

:

simulate

See page

30.

-

64

FENCING
low
line,

a counter disengage into
adversary's
hilt,

then, passing point

over

attack in exterior (seconde) line.

HOW TO MEET THESE
Engaged
after the

ATTACKS.

in quarte.

i.

To meet

one-two on the change:

change parry the reversed counter (quarte and counter-

quarte) or quarte

and

tierce.
:

To meet
after the

the counter-disengage

into seconde (exterior) line

change parry seconde or
:

septime.

To meet
;

the double counter-disengage

after

the

change parry septime and seconde, or septime and counterseptime or, if the attack is aimed high, septime and quarte.

Engaged

in tierce

:

i.

To meet

one-two

:

after the

change

parry septime, or tierce and quarte, or seconde.
2.

To

the counter-disengage into low line

:

reply by parrying

after the

change septime or seconde.
:

To
tierce

the counter-disengage into the upper line

reply by

and counter-quarte.
feint of

To

counter-disengage into low line and disengage
:

into exterior line

reply after the change

by septime and counter
the attack
is

septime, or septime
high, septime

and seconde

;

or, if

aimed

and

quarte.

To frustrate a double engage and avoid a simple parry, On the change to the second engagement, make the movements which have been described above. To meet these attacks,
resort to the

same defences

as have

been given

for the attacks

on the

single

change of engagement.

To frustrate a change from one high line to the other, and From engagement in quarte to nullify nullify a counter-parry.

counter-tierce

:

double the counter-disengage, ending in the

inside or exterior line.

From engagement in tierce to
disengage into outside or low

nullify counter-quarte

:

double

line.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
To meet
line
:

65
in inside

the
after

first

of these attacks

when ending

parry,

the change, counter-tierce and quarte,
;

or

counter-tierce

and septime, or double counter-tierce

to the

second answer by counter-tierce and seconde, or counter-tierce

and septime.

A

double-engage

is

frustrated,

and the

circular

parry
;

nullified,

by similar movements on the second change

and

these attacks are

met by defences

similar to those described for

the single change.

VARIOUS MANNERS OF NULLIFYING TWO SIMPLE
PARRIES.

Engaged
two-three

in quarte^ to avoid tierce
is

and

quarte.

— Make

one-

— that

to

say, feint in tierce,

then in quarte, and

attack in tierce.
first feint

This

may

often be shortened

by making the
in

low, the second inside (in quarte),
;

and the attack
first

the low or in the tierce line the upper or outside
line,

or by

making the
this last

feint in

the second in the exterior hne, and

the attack in the outside hne.

By

movement,

tierce

and seconde may be
in the

nuUified.
in tierce are

Quarte and tierce from engagement

avoided

same way as

tierce

and quarte, the order being of course

reversed.

From engagement in seconde to nullify septime and seconde. Make one-two-three over the hilt. This may be shortened
first feint

by making the

in tierce, the

second

in exterior line,

and attacking
feint in

in

low

line, or

by

feint in

tierce or in
tierce.

low

line,

seconde (exterior) and attack in

To avoid septime and
over the
hilt.

seconde from septime.

— One- two- three,


66


-

FENCING

HOW TO MEET THE ATTACKS
From engagement
tierce

LAST DESCRIBED.

in quarte to meet one-two-three,

— Parry
in the

and reversed counter
awaited,

(counter-tierce)

;

or the real attack

may be
low

and simple

tierce parried or counter-quarter,

but this requires nice judgment.
line,

When

the attack

is

parry tierce

and septime, or tierce, quarte and seconde.
tierce.— V^xxy quarte
is

From engage??tent in
counter)
attack.
or,

and septime (which
than the reversed
septime on the

on the second movement here
;

better

without responding to the

feints,

From
counter
counter
;

seconde
or, or,

and seJ>time,—V 2ixry septime and reverse septime on the attack or, seconde and reversed
;

;

seconde on the attack.

METHODS OF NULLIFYING A COUNTER AND
SIMPLE PARRY.
E?tgaged in quarte.
1.

—To

nullify counter-quarte

and tierce

:

Simulate double-disengage, feinting in tierce or septime

(low line), and disengage into quarte.
2.

Double-disengage into low
is

line.

In

this special case the

hand
3.

best in supination at the end.

Feint coupe and counter-disengage into tierce or sep-

time

;

disengage into quarte.
Feint coupe, then counter-disengage into septime.

4.

Hand
the

best in supination.
5.

Feint disengage, and then

feint coupe,

to avoid

counter,

and disengage

into quarte.

This requires consider-

able precision.

To
1.

nullify counter-quarte

and seconde
tierce.

:

Double-disengage into

2.

Feint a coupe and counter-disengage into tierce.


PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
To
I.

67

nullify counter-quarte

and septime

:

Simulate double-disengage into
line.

tierce,

then double the

opposite way into exterior

This attack

may be shortened
into

and made more easy by simulating the double-disengage
septime (low
line),

instead of simulating

it

into tierce.

In complicated attacks of
the

this kind, the necessity
is

of having

hand

in supination in the feints

even more imperative
in pronation
it

than in simple attacks.

With the hand

is

not

possible for the fencer to have such mastery of finger-play as
will

enable him to regulate the speed of his movements by

that of the adversary's.

There must be perfect command over
carefully avoided.
nullify counter-tierce

the body,

and leaning forward must be
in tierce.

Engaged
1.

—To

and quarte
line,

:

Simulate double-disengage into inside
line.

and

dis-

engage into outside
2.

Double

into exterior line, the

hand

in pronation at the

end.
3.

Feint a coupe, and then either simulate a counter-disline,

engage into exterior hne and attack in outside

or simulate

counter-disengage into inside line and disengage into outside
line.
4.

Feint a coupe,

and counter-disengage

into

exterior

line.

To
1.

nuUify counter-tierce and seconde

:

Simulate double-disengage into exterior line and disengage

(passing the point over the hilt) into low or outside line.
2.

Feint a coupe, and counter-disengage into exterior line,
into low or outside line.
practically
this

and then disengage
Counter-tierce

and septime are
disengage

the

same

as

double counter-tierce, and theoretically
nullified

defence should be
this

by a

triple

;

but attacks of
It is

kind are

dangerous and should be avoided.

better to try to sucor,
if

ceed with a double disengage by sheer quickness,

the

F 2

:

68
fencer has not speed

FENCING
and precision
thrust, for
this,

to

rely

on the
here-

counter-riposte
after.

or

second

to

be

explained

From seconde

to

avoid

counter-seconde

and septime

simulate a double-disengage into low line and disengage over
hilt into exterior line.

From
late a

septime to avoid counter-septime and seconde
line,

:

simu-

double disengage into exterior
or low line.

and disengage over

hilt into inside

DEFENCES AGAINST THE ATTACKS JUST DESCRIBED.
Efigaged in quarte.

i.

To meet

feint of

double disengage
feint

into tierce or septime,

and disengage

into quarte,

of

coupe and of counter-disengage into
disengage into quarte
:

tierce

or

septime,

and
;

parry counter-quarte, tierce and quarte
;

counter- quarte and seconde

or counter-quarte

and septime.

The

last

is,

generally speaking, the best defence.

2.

To meet

double-disengage into septime line (2) or feint

of coupe, and counter-disengage into

septime (4): counter-

quarte and seconde or septime.
3.

To meet
:

attacks intended to avoid counter-quarte

and

septime

parry counter-quarte, septime and seconde, or (better)

counter-quarte, septime

and counter-septime.
i.

Engaged

In tierce.

To meet

the double-disengage,

and

disengage into outside

line,

the feints of coupe, counter-disengage

into inside or exterior line,
tierce,

and attacks

in tierce

:

parry counter-

quarte and tierce, or (better) counter-tierce and reversed

counter.

To meet

attacks intended to avoid counter-seconde

and

septime, and counter-septime

and seconde

:

parry respectively

counter-seconde septime and seconde,

and counter-septime,

seconde and septime.

These

attacks, however, are not

common,

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
at least in the

69

French school, and probably

in

each case a stop

thrust

is

the best answer.

VARIOUS WAYS OF NULLIFYING REVERSED COUNTERPARRIES.

Engaged

in quarte^ to nullify reversed counter,
first feint

i.

Simulate

one-two (marking the

high or low), and counter dis-

engage into inside
2.

line, or
is

simply into seconde.

If the adversary

exposed in the

line of

engagement,

make

a beat, or feint a straight thrust, and counter-disengage

as above.

Engaged

in tierce^ to nullify reversed counter,

i.

Simulate
line.

one-two and counter-disengage into tierce or into low
both these attacks the
3.
first feint
is

In

may be

in seconde.
line of

If the adversary

exposed in the

engagement,

make

a beat, or give a scrape, or simulate the straight thrust,
into tierce or low line.
in

and counter-disengage
Reversed

counter-parries

seconde

and septime are
into quarte or low

avoided by one-two and counter-disengage into exterior-seconde
line,

and by one-two and counter-disengage

line respectively.

VARIOUS METHODS OF MEETING THE ATTACKS JUST
DESCRIBED.
Engaged
engage
line
:

in quarte,

i.

To meet

one-two and counter-disto inside

to inside line, or beat

and counter-disengage

parry reversed counter and quarte, or reversed counter

and septime.
2.

To meet one-two and

counter-disengage into seconde, or

beat, scrape, or feint of straight thrust,

and counter-disengage

:

parry reversed counter

and seconde or septime.


yo

FENCING
Engaged
in tierce.

i.

To meet
:

one-two and counter-disof straight thrust

engage into

tierce, or beat, scrape, or feint

and counter-disengage
tierce,

into tierce

parry reversed counter and
(i.e.

or double the reversed counter parry

quarte and

double counter-quarte).
2.

To meet
:

one-two and counter-disengage into low

line,

or
to

beat, scrape, or feint of straight thrust

and counter-disengage

low

line

parry the reversed counter and septime or seconde.

The scrape, unless made with great lightness and quickness, may be frustrated, and the adversary caught on the false movement, by a disengage in the manner indicated when speaking of
that attack

on the sword.
to

From seconde and septime
engage
:

meet one-two counter-disor

parry

reversed
or,

counter and seconde,
in either case,

reversed

counter and septime,
counter-parry.

double the reversed

VARIOUS mp:thods of avoiding a reversed COUNTER AND SIMPLE PARRY.
Engaged
seconde
1.
:

in

quarte,

—To

avoid

reversed

counter

and

Simulate one-two, counter disengage into exterior
hilt into tierce.

line,

and disengage over
2.

Make

a beat or simulate a straight thrust, counter-disline,

engage into exterior

and disengage (over
:

hilt) into tierce.
i.

To

avoid reversed counter and quarte

Simulate one-

two, counter-disengage into quarte or into seconde,

and

dis-

engage into
2.

tierce.

Give a beat or simulate a straight thrust and counterdisengage into quarte or only into seconde, and disengage into
tierce.
3.

Simulate one-two and counter-disengage into seconde.

—— —
PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
4.

yi

Give a beat or

feint a straight thrust

and counter-dis-

engage into seconde.

To
1.

avoid reversed counter and septime

:

Simulate one- two and

make double counter-disengage
and make a double

into seconde.
2.

Give a beat or

feint a straight thrust

counter-disengage.

Engaged in
1.

tierce,

— To avoid reversed counter and seconde
tierce.

:

Simulate one-two and counter-disengage in

2.

Give a beat, or a scrape, or
tierce.

feint a straight thrust

and

counter-disengage into

To
1.

avoid reversed counter and tierce

:

Simulate one-two, counter-disengage into tierce and dis-

engage into quarte.
2.

Give a beat, a scrape, or
tierce,

feint a straight thrust, counter-

disengage into
3.

and disengage

into quarte.
line of

Simulate

one-two and counter-disengage into

septime.
4.

Give a beat, a scrape, or

feint a straight thrust

and coun-

ter-disengage into line of septime.

To
1.

avoid the reversed counter and septime

:

Simulate one-two, counter-disengage into

tierce,

and

double-disengage into seconde.
2.

Give a beat, a scrape, or

feint a straight thrust, counterhilt

disengage into septime,
seconde.

and disengage over the

into

METHODS OF MEETING THE ATTACKS JUST
DESCRIBED.
Engaged
in
quarte,

i.

To meet

one-two,

counter-dis-

engage and thrust or disengage in

tierce,

or beat or feint a

72

FENCING
movement
:

straight thrust with similar

parry the two reversed

counters (counter-tierce and counter-quarte).

Meet one-two and counter-disengage into seconde, or beat or feint of straight thrust and counter-disengage into seconde by reversed counter-parry and septime.
2.

Meet one-two and double counter-disengage into seconde, or beat or feint of straight thrust and double counter-disengage with the reversed counter, septime and seconde, or if the end
3.
is

in the inside hne, with reversed counter,

septime and quarte.

Engaged
gage into

in tierce,

i.

To meet
:

one-two and counter-disenof straight thrust and

tierce, or beat, scrape, or feint

counter-disengage into tierce
tierce

parry

reversed

counter and

or the

double reversed counters (quarte and double

counter-quarte).
2.

To meet

one-two counter-disengage into tierce and

dis-

engage into quarte, or beat, scrape, or
followed by similar attacks
quarte, or reversed counter
:

feint of straight thrust,

parry reversed counter, tierce and

and septime.

Meet these

attacks

ending in low line with the last-named parry, or reversed counter

and seconde.
3.

To meet

one-two counter-disengage into septime and
hilt

disengage over the

into seconde, or beat, scrape, or feint
:

of straight thrust, followed by similar attacks
counter, septime

parry reversed

and counter-septime or reversed counter,

septime and seconde.

We

have now described most of the attacks which can be
the
foil

made with

or

small-sword,

and

the

defences

by

which those attacks can be met.
attacks there are to be

Other and yet more complex
yet

met by

more elaborate

parries.
fol-

Thus

the aggressive fencer

may

deceive a counter-parry

lowed by two simple ones, or a reversed parry followed

in like

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
manner, or two counter or two reversed counter-parries
to
:

J2>

and

each of these movements of offence there
it

is

a fitting answer,

but we do not think
protracted phrases.

necessary to speak at length of these

First,

because the fencer who has tho-

roughly mastered the movements which have been described
will easily

be able to reason them out
will
is

for himself; and, secondly,

because they

be of very
skill

little

use to him

if

he does.

Where
and the
there
is

there

not high

and

perfect regularity

on both
figures,

sides, the

blades get entangled in these
is

complicated

result
real

mere vulgar and senseless prodding.
it

When

mastery of fence,

is

tolerably certain that the

aggressive but long-winded fencer will not be allowed to ter-

minate his phrase in peace.

The

other will intimate to him
is

by means of a time or stop thrust that there
despatch, and that, whatever
prolixity
is

such a thing as

may have been
;

the case formerly,

now

out of fashion
left

and
to

if

the

combat be with and

swords, he will probably be
in another world.

complete his prolegomena

We

will therefore dismiss these attacks,

proceed to describe the terrible return- thrust of the French
fencers, the aptness of

which was so obvious that the word which
any other fencing expression, been

describes

it

has, unlike

adopted

in ordinary speech,

and has long been synonymous

with a happy and ready retort.

The

riposte

is

not confined to

the duelling ground or the fencing-room.


74

FENCING

CHAPTER

IV.
Continued,

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS

THE
The
ing
;

RIPOSTE.
is

riposte
not,

is

the return thrust which
it

dehvered

after parryis

be

understood, after making a parry, which

avoided by the attacking fencer, but after the parry which
actually meets the antagonist's blade

and wards

it

off the

body.

On

the defensive

movement

the riposte depends.
will the

Just in

proportion as the

first is

smart and precise, so

second

be quick and deadly, and the more accurate the parry, the
safer the riposte.

The
because

return thrust
it

is

certainly

more

difficult

than the attack,
it,

is

necessary to parry before delivering

and be-

cause the defensive
quickness as to

movement may have necessitated such cause some contraction of the muscles, which
:

tends to impede the thrust
is

but,

on the other hand, the riposte

less

dangerous than the attack, by reason of the parry which

has driven off the adversary's blade, thereby somewhat disconcerting him,
given,

and

also because the adversary

is

near

when

it is

and can be touched by merely extending the arm without moving the body.

The

pressure of the fingers which

is

needed

for the parry

is

not required for the riposte, as the fingers are not used in the

same way when driving
deliver

off the steel

and when

thrusting.

To

the

riposte

with

quickness they must be

slightly

^

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
loosened immediately after the clash of the parry.

75

Some

cases apart, the fencer should always riposte after he has found

the steel by his parry.

There are three kinds of
riposte
;

ripostes

:

the direct or straight

the riposte with a change of line or
riposte

some preparatory
temps

movement, and the
perdu).

with a pause {riposte a

The
in

direct riposte.

—The
found.

direct or straight riposte
is

is

a thrust

the line of the parry, that
is

to say, of the line in

which the
in-

adversary's blade
stance,
if,

Thus, to give the simplest

on a disengage from

tierce into quarte, the fencer

attacked parries quarte, and then thrusts in quarte, he gives
the direct riposte.
It
steel,

may be
which
is

delivered

in

two ways

:

without quitting the
;

called the riposte with opposition

or,

quitting

the steel after a clean, smart parry, which ought to sound like the click of a

good gun-lock.

This

is

called, with

happy onoperhaps the

matopeia, the riposte
other,
is

dii tac-au-tac^

and, being quicker than the
it

better.

As has been

already said,

is

most deadly of the

fencer's thrusts.

The
because
is

direct riposte
it

must be delivered without 7noving the foot
at the

ought to be given

time w^hen the antagonist

extended on the lunge.

Indeed the point ought to touch him
Great
not to

at the

moment when

his right foot presses the ground.
i.e.

care must be taken not to bring the body into play.,
7?iove it

forivard or raise the shoulder^ as doing so deadens the

make the point miss the antagonist's body. To deliver what we will call the Bertrand riposte {tac-autac) from quarte. Turn the hand to supination, and thrust
riposte

and tends

to

with

all

possible rapidity, taking opposition to the
it

left.

To

execute this riposte properly,

is

indispensable that the parry

should be smart and properly made.

The

riposte without

quitting

the

steel

should only be


76

FENCING
the adversary presses strongly on the steel in such

made when
a way as to
it
:

make

it

impossible to clear the blades.
little

To

execute

— Keep the

point a

higher than usual in parrying, so

as to bring with the

more

certainty the strong part of the
;

sword
to

against the yielding part of the adversary's

turn the

hand

complete supination, and
gonist
;

raise

it

so as to dominate the anta-

drop the point somewhat, taking a marked opposition,
careful to

and be
hilt

keep the strong part of the blade near the

against the yielding part of the other.

To

give the

Bertrand

riposte after
(i.e.

parrying

tierce.

—The
com-

moment

the parry has struck true

of course, the

moment
to

the parry has warded off the blade) bring the
plete supination, so as to direct the point,

hand

and extend the arm.

The
sible,

riposte with opposition in tierce should, so far as pos-

only be given

blade, so as to
deliver
it
:

when the adversary presses strongly on the make the Bertrand riposte impossible. To
raise the point a httle higher
\

— After parrying,

than
then

usual

;

raise the

hand, turning to complete supination

drop the point towards the body and extend the arm, taking

marked opposition
It

to the right.

sometimes happens, however, that the swordsman who
tac,

has parried tierce cannot clear his blade for the tac-au

although the adversary does not press upon

it.

In this case

the riposte with opposition should be executed in the

same way
is

as the tac-au-tac riposte, except, of course, that the steel

not quitted.

There

is

another kind of direct riposte in the

outside line, called de tierce
say barbarous, term which
to translate.

pour

tierce—

'im

eccentric, not to

This,

we must confess oui utter inability which would seem to be a sort of mixture
executed in the following manner:
it

of tierce and prime,

is

The moment

the parry has told, whether

be clean or with

opposition, bring the

hand

into complete pronation, the
at the

thumb

towards the ground, the hand

same time being

raised to


PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
a level with the shoulder.
to

77

Extend the arm, directing the point We do not the body, and take opposition to the right.
because the sudden turn or

counsel this riposte for several reasons.
1.

It is difficult to execute,

twist of the

hand

into the

most marked pronation has a strong
lift

tendency to make the fencer
the
left,

his shoulder, stiffening

it

at

same

time,

and

also to

make

the

body lean or sway

to the
its

the result being that the

flat

of the blade, and not

point, touches the body.
2.

Because,
it is

if

the riposte

is

parried or passes
to

(i.e.

misses

the body),

extremely

difficult

form another parry with

the speed necessary to meet a counter-riposte promptly delivered.

From

seconde^

to

g'we the

Bertrand

riposte,

—The

instant

the parry has told, direct the point on to the adversary's

body

by the spring of the thumb and
three fingers.

forefinger, loosening the other
is

The
to

riposte with opposition

executed in the

same manner.

From
the

septum^

give the

Bertrand
it

riposte,

— Instantly after
pass

parry,

drop the point so that

may
it
;

under
it

the
to
in

hand of the adversary without touching
the
supination.

and point

body while extending the arm, the hand being kept

METHODS OF MEETING THE RIPOSTES JUST DESCRIBED.
To meet
Parry quarte,
at the

the tac-au-tac riposte after a parry in quarte.
rising,
i.e.

regaining the second position (guard),

same

time.

To meet
With those
heavily

the riposte with opposition after a parry in quarte.—

fencers

on the

who make hard or heavy parries, and press steel when taking opposition, seeking to succeed

by sheer strength, notwithstanding the other's parry, the fencer


>]%

FENCING
lift

must

his point sharply, at the

same time bringing the elbow
and must take
it

to the side again so as to regain the advantage of having the
fort against the faible of the antagonist's blade,

opposition as he

rises.

Often, to frustrate this riposte,

is

sufficient to yield the point completely, so that the adversary

finds nothing to resist his pressure,
his blade.

no support so
tells

to speak for

When
it,

this

is

done, strength

against the

man
on

who

is

exerting

and sends

his point out of line,
(i.e.

which gives

time to his antagonist to take guard

to put himself

guard) out of reach, or to resume the offensive.

To meet

the tac-au-tac riposte after a parry in tierce.
;

Parry tierce while rising

or,

parry while rising the reversed

counter (counter-quarte), making use of the impetus given to
the blade by that of the adversary,

and keeping the hand
Septime with op-

higher than in the usual quarte position.
position

may

also

be parried

in the following

manner

:

keep

the

hand very high and
left,

to the right while rising, directing the

point to the
highest,

the

hand somewhat bent with the thumb
for septime, but with

and take the position described
raised than

the

hand more

when making

that

parry in the

ordinary manner.

To meet

the riposte with opposition after a parry in tierce,

or the riposte called tierce

pour

tierce.

— Parry while rising
given by

the
the

reversed counter, making use of the impetus
adversary's blade,

and keeping the hand higher than
parry

in the

ordinary quarte position; or

septime with opposition

while rising, as described above.

To meet
this
'

the Bertrand riposte in seconde.

— Parry seconde
as

;

riposte

can also be parried

in

the

same way

the

flanconnade.'

To meet

the tac-au-tac riposte after a parry in septime.
or, if

Parry septime,

the other's point

is

directed high, quarte.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS

79

RIPOSTES WITH A CHANGE OF LINE, OR WITH A FEINT OR OTHER PREVIOUS MOVEMENT.

By

ripostes with a

change of hne one or more parries are
cases.
it

nulHfied, save in

some few

To
gonist

succeed with these ripostes,

is

necessary to

make

a

forecast of the defence, to
is

know
'

the parry to which the antawill

prone,

and

w^hich his
call
it

hand

almost instinctively
la

form.

The French
'

la

parade qu'un tireur a dans

main

—that

is,

the parry which a fencer

makes with the

greatest

ease and, from pure habit, often

makes automatically.
&c. are
are with

The ripostes with change of line and with feint, many in number. The principal ripostes of this kind
the

disengage,

the

coupe,

the counter-disengage, the twist,

one-two, the coupe-disengage and the double.

Others could

be named.

There are
;

just as
it

many

ripostes of this kind as

there are attacks

but

is

best not to attempt any riposte

more elaborate than with the double-disengage. These ripostes must be made instantly after the
the parry, without the scintilla of a pause.
It is

strike of

sometimes useful
&c.) to extend a
rises,

in

the

composed

riposte (riposte

with

feint,

little

e.g. if

the adversary draws his

body back, or

while making a parry.
nullifies this parry

In

this case the

composed
as to

riposte
it

which

may
his

take so long
is

make

impossible to reach

him before

body

partly

withdrawn.

In such a case

it

is

necessary to

make

a half-

extension, advancing the foot about a sole's length in order to

reach him before he has resumed guard.

But the fencer cannot
or semi-lunge

be too strongly warned that

this half- extension

with the riposte should only take place

when

it is

impossible to
i.e.

reach the adversary by the extension of the arm alone,
thrusting (after the feint, &c.) without

by

movement

of the foot or

8o

FENCING
that, if
it

body; and

is

sometimes well
let

to extend,

it is

invari-

ably wrong to stoop forward, or to
bo'dy drop forward.

the upper part of the

After a parry in quarte.
is

—To avoid quarte
This

when

the

hand

held very high

:

riposte in low line.

much

resembles

the tac-au-tac riposte,

and can be executed nearly
:

as quickly.

To meet this riposte parry septime or seconde while rising. To avoid quarte when the hand is not held very high or seconde riposte by a disengage into tierce. To execute this,
:

the point must be passed as far forward under the adversary's

arm

as possible, the

hand being

in

supination,

and, in the

thrust,

marked opposition must be taken

to the right, without

any extension.

To

deliver this riposte properly considerable
is

command
and the

of finger-play

required.

Just as the parry

is light,

smart and accurate, so
riposte be true

will the

blade clear the other quickly

and formidable.

To
tierce.
left

nullify quarte with the

hand low

:

riposte

by coupe into

To

execute

this,

the point must be raised towards the
little

shoulder,

and the hand drawn a

back towards the

left

breast, so as to pass the point quickly over that of the antagonist
:

then the point must be smartly dropped in the tierce line
is

as the thrust

made, the hand being

in supination.

To meet
coupe into
or, if

the riposte by a disengage into tierce, or by a
:

tierce

parry quarte and tierce

;

or counter-quarte
is

;

the riposte has been divined,

and

if it

quickly made,
in

parry tierce while rising, without
quarte.

making any movement

To

nullify the parry of
:

septime

made promptly without
line,

any pause
supination.

counter-disengage into exterior

the

hand

in

To meet
the point
rising.
is

this riposte

:

parry septime and seconde

;

or,

if

directed Mgh, parry septime

and quarte while


PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
If,

8i

in attacking, the adversary takes

marked opposition to

the

left,

the riposte

may be made by a

twist into the exterior hne.

In deHvering
right as
trary,

this riposte

opposition must not be taken to the
but,

when making an attack with the twist, the hand must be kept to the left and
hilt,

on the con-

the fort of the

blade, close to the
sary's blade, the

held against the faible of the adverlittle

hand being a
for this

higher than the belt and in

supination.

The
follows
:

reasons

difference

between the manner of

delivering the attack with the twist

and the

riposte are as

When
is

an attack

is

made

with the twist, the adversary's blade

well in front of his body,

and

if

the fencer does not take

opposition to the right, he will
point.

spit

himself on the other's
riposte with the twist
is is

When, on the other hand, the
by the
parry.

given the adversary has just attacked and his point

driven

over to the
fore, are

left

The

respective positions, there-

not the same as in the attack, and the fencer could not

take opposition to the right without bringing the point into his

own

breast.
this riposte
:

To meet

turn the

hand

to pronation, taking

opposition in seconde.

Owing

to the position, the riposte

by

a twist cannot be parried in the

same way

that the flancon-

nade

is.

To

nullify a parry in tierce

:

riposte with one-two, the finale
line.

of course in quarte, and the feint in the low
of this kind
the
first
it is

In ripostes

not possible to stretch the hand out fully on
as
is

movement,

done with the
at the end.

similar attacks

;

the

arm can only be To meet this
seconde while
Quarte and

fully

extended
:

riposte

parry tierce and quarte or septime, or

rising.

tierce or tierce

may be

nullified

by a riposte
execute this
:

with coupe and thrust in the exterior

line.

To

G

82

FENCING
left
left

the point must be raised towards the

shoulder, the

hand
he

drawn back a

little

towards the fencer's

breast, so that

may whip
it

his blade neatly over the adversary's point.
(i.e.

When

has cleared the point

the riposting fencer's point) must be

rapidly dropped into the exterior line

and the arm extended,
little

the hand
shoulder.

being in supination and a

lower than the

With an adversary who turns round bringing the right shoulder forward and leans over covering himself with his hand
and arm so
riposte
as to expose his

body

as

little

as possible, the
is

by a coupe and thrust

in exterior line

most

telling

;

but in this case the hand ought to be inclined towards pronation at the end,

and the point directed towards the
belt to the right of
:

right flank

a

little

above the

and close

to the elbow.
;

To meet this
or,

riposte

parry second or septime while rising
tierce with the

remain extended and parry
high.

hand very low
without the
in

and the point

To
slightest

nullify

counter-quarte
:

made promptly
riposte

pause or hesitation
line.

by a double ending

low or outside

To meet
rising,

a riposte with a double ending low
;

:

parry while

counter-quarte and septime or seconde

or parry tierce
first

with judgment so as to catch the blade on the

part of

its

movement, the point being kept high so

as to bar the line.
:

To meet
of

a riposte with a double ending in outside line
;

parry counter-quarte and tierce

or parry tierce in

first

part

movement
riposte

as just described.
tierce.

After a parry in
high
tion.
:

— To
:

nullify tierce with the

hand

by a disengage

into quarte, the

hand

in supina-

To meet
rising.

this

riposte

parry

quarte

or

septime while

Another way of

nullifying tierce with the

hand high which

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
also avails to nullify septime with opposition
is

%i^

to riposte

by a

thrust in exterior line with the
is

hand

in supination.

This riposte

excellent with an adversary who,

knowing

that he cannot
in

parry a straight riposte, turns his

body round and stoops

order to avoid

it.

When

this

ashamed

to resort to this

—and many fencers are not ignoble device — the riposting fencer
is

done

must, as above stated, deliver his thrust with the hand inclined

towards pronation, and direct the point a
close to

little

above the belt

and

to the right of the adversary's elbow.
this

To meet
rising.

riposte

:

parry seconde

or

septime

while

To
To

nuUify tierce with the hand low

:

riposte

by a coupe.

execute this

the point must be raised towards the right
right shoulder, while the

and the hand moved towards the
well bent, so that the blade
sary's point
;

arm

is

may be

easily passed over the adver(i.e.

the instant

it is

cleared, the point

the riposting

fencer's point)

must be promptly dropped

into quarte,

and the
being

arm extended with the hand
taken, so far as

in supination, opposition

may be practicable,
:

to the

left.

To meet this riposte parry To avoid quarte or seconde
tierce

quarte while rising.
:

riposte

by one-two, ending in
;

and marking the

feint in the exterior line

the

hand

in

supination, with opposition to the right.

To meet
counter
(i.e.

this riposte

:

parry quarte and tierce or reversed

counter-quarte) while rising.

To

nullify quarte with the

hand high hand

:

riposte with a

coupe

and disengage
supination.

into low line, the

either in pronation or

To meet this riposte parry septime or quarte and seconde. To nullify the reversed counter made instantly riposte by
: :

a counter-disengage into low
counter-disengage into

line,

the hand in pronation, or by

tierce, the

hand

in supination.
:

To meet

the riposte by a counter-disengage into tierce line

G 2

84

FENCING
(counter-quarte) and tierce,
or parry

parry reversed counter

double reversed counter.

To
the

nullify

septime

:

riposte

by a double

into exterior line,

hand

in supination.
this riposte
:

To meet
point
is

parry septime and seconde

;

or, if

the

directed high, septime

and quarte.
nullify quarte
it
:

AJter a parry in seconde.

—To

riposte

by a

disengage into
turning the

tierce.

To

execute this

is

necessary while

hand

to supination to

a curve large

enough

to pass
:

make the point describe round the arm of the adversary.
exterior line, the
:

To meet this riposte parry tierce. To nullify tierce riposte by one-two into hand in supination. To meet this riposte
:
.

parry reversed

counter

;

or,

with judgment, seconde at the end.
a reversed counter
:

To nullify
ment of
line.

made instantly without

a

move-

hesitation

riposte

by a counter-disengage

in exterior

To meet
seconde.

this

riposte

:

parry

reversed

counter

and
low

After a parry in septime.
riposte

— If the adversary's hand
tierce,
'

is

:

by a

twist

from septime into
called

holding his blade
'

the while.
i^parade

This
de

may be

septime holding the sword

septime enveloppee).

To

execute

it

:

the

hand
There

must be kept high,

in supination,

and

to the right.

must be no extension.

To meet
The

this riposte

:

parry septime with opposition, or

reversed counter.
parry of septime with opposition
is

avoided by a direct
line just

riposte or

by the

feint of a twist into

upper

marked,

and a disengage

into low line.
:

To

nullify quarte

simulate the direct riposte in low line
into high line (tierce).

and counter-disengage
one-two ending high.

This resembles

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
To meet To
nullify
this riposte
:

85
or, better,

parry quarte and tierce

;

quarte and counter-quarte.

septime

:

simulate direct riposte in low line and
of course) into exterior line.
:

disengage (over the

hilt,

To meet
thrust
is

this riposte

parry septime and seconde, or,
still

if

the

directed high (though

in the exterior line), parry

septime and quarte.

RIPOSTES WITH A PAUSE (RIPOSTES A TEMPS PERDU),
Ripostes of this kind are those which are preceded by a
brief pause, touch of the steel being

abandoned, so that the

adversary

may
the

half

make
is

or indicate a parry which the ripost-

ing fencer can nullify.

When

parry

perfectly true,

this

moment's pause

enables the fencer to regulate his riposte by the adversary's

movement, and,

if it

has been rightly forecast, the pause helps

the fencer in regulating his speed by that of the adversary.

When

the parry

is

not perfectly true, the pause enables

the fencer to bring his blade into line,
riposte with accuracy.
If the adversary

and

to deliver

the

bends the body forward, making a low

stoop

when

attacking, the pause enables the fencer to riposte
(the adversary)
is

just at the

moment when he

raising himself.

All the direct ripostes, save the riposte with opposition,
all

and

the ripostes with change of line, or preceded by a feint,

save the riposte by a twist, can be
is

made

with the pause, which

specially useful
his parry
;

when

the adversary hesitates or falters in
will

making

but nevertheless the fencer
in this

do well not
adversary

to indulge

overmuch

kind of

riposte, as the

m ay

make

use of the remise.

Remarks.

— Ripostes with a pause, when made by means of
is

a coupe, have this peculiarity, that the pause

made during

86

FENCING
is

the execution of the stroke— that
raised.

to say, while

the point

is

After a parry in quarte the coupe riposte with a pause can be

dehvered

in the following

manner

:

Directly the parry has been

made,

lift

the point to the right, bringing the
;

hand towards the

right shoulder

then,

when

the adversary has parried quarte,

drop the point

in the outside line,
it

extending the arm.
:

After a parry in tierce
parry,
lift

can be delivered thus

After the

the point to the

left,

bringing the hand towards the

left breast,

and

directly the adversary has parried tierce,

drop

the point in the inside line, extending the arm.

This method of executing the riposte with a pause by a

coupe

is

decidedly dangerous, as

it

leaves the whole of the

bcdy uncovered.
thp: counter-riposte.
This
parried.
is

the thrust which

is

given

when
has

the riposte has been

The

fencer whose attack

been defeated, and

who has
riposte.
It

in turn parried the riposte,

can deliver the counter-

has already been said that to parry the riposte the fencer

.should,

whenever
;

it is

possible, rise,

coming back

to the posi-

tion of guard

and, indeed, in the lesson the pupil should
rise, in

always be taught to

order that he

may

acquire the init

valuable habit of rapidly withdrawing the body, so as to get

out of danger, and have perfect
the counter-riposte, then,
first
it is

command

of any attack.

For

necessary to extend just as for a

attack.

Counter-ripostes

may be

direct or with

change of

line,

or

preceded by a

feint, like

ripostes, but they differ

from these
said,

thrusts in requiring extension, which, as has

been

should

not usually be necessary with a riposte.

A

thrust

delivered after parrying the

counter-riposte

is

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
third

Z-j

called a second counter-riposte, and, in like manner, there are

and fourth counter-ripostes, and the
just given apply to

rules

which have

been

them

;

but to deliver the second,
if

fourth,

&c.,

it

is

well to avoid extension,
first,

possible, as the

adversary should extend to deliver the

third,

&c.

Counter-ripostes are most useful, and should be largely
practised.

Few

things are prettier in an assault than a vigorous
in
;

attack

and defence,

which a
but the

series of well-judged counter-

ripostes are that the

exchanged
is

moment

the fencer perceives

combat

hkely to degenerate into a breast-to-breast

struggle, a corps-ct-corps^ to use the

P>ench expression, he must

bring the phrase to an end by promptly and rapidly placing

himself out of distance, taking care to keep the correct position,
so as to be able to assume instantly the offensive or defensive,
as

need may

be.


*

88

FENCING

CHAPTER

V.
Continued,

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS

QUITTING BLADES.

QunTiNG
by a pause

blades (absence d'epee ou de fer)

is

the

action of

breaking the engagement

when you precede an
it is

attack or a feint

in order to mystify the adversary

and make him

lose touch of your

movements

:

the action, too, of breaking

the engagement and opening the line slightly to draw an attack

from the adversary.
Quitting blades
is

dangerous.

To do

it

you must be sure

of your parry, for your judgment must depend on a comprehensive glance.
It is well
is

not to attempt this except with an adversary
legs,

who

not very firm on his

or very apt at

a

swift

attack

without preparation.

THE FALSE ATTACK.
The
body.
false attack is

an attack of any kind which

is

only half

executed and which does not aim at reaching the adversary's

You

wish him to take

it

for a real attack,

and

yet not

to expose yourself to the risks of a real attack.

The notion is to make him parry and riposte, keeping your own counter-riposte or remise in readiness as the case may be. Or you induce him to make an extension, or a time, on which

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
you parry and
riposte.

89

Or you may do
;

it

merely to mystify

him

or to upset or discover his plans

or else to find out

what

are his favourite parries so as to be able to deceive

them when

the occasion arises.

The

false attack

should approach more or

less nearly to a
it is

complete lunge according to circumstances.
a view to bringing off your

If

made with
it

own

counter-riposte or remise,

should go so
will take
is
it

far as nearly to

touch the adversary.

Thus he
If
it

for a true attack

and reply with a

full riposte.
it

made

to

lead
far,

him on

to

an extension or a time,

should

not reach so
parrying.

as there will be

no question of the adversary

In other cases you must judge by the degree of

quickness you discover in your adversary's susceptibility.
false attack is a useful

The

manoeuvre, but one on no account to be

abused.

ATTACKS ON PREPARATIONS.
These are
adversary
is

attacks, as their

name

implies,

made

while the
of

himself preparing an attack with the help
;

changes of engagement, on pressures, on quitting blades
false attacks
;

on

made to draw favourite parries on any movement of the legs made to facilitate attack or simply on shifting the grip to the pummel of the foil to obtain a longer reach, a
;

thing which
impossible.

makes parrying very

difficult

and

riposting almost

Attacks on preparations are safe enough
just
at

if

they are

made
is

the right

time.

The
is

adversary,

occupied as he

with his

own

plan of attack,

seldom able

to parry with the

accuracy and swiftness needed to w^ard off a sudden and decided
attack.

Attacks on preparations are generally simple attacks such
as

the

straight thrusts, disengagements,

preceded sometimes

by a

light beat,

and counter-disengagements.

To

ensure their

90

FENCING
movement.
If

success you must have a good guard, so that you can execute
the attack without one unnecessary
yourself to

you have

make

the very sHghtest preparation for attack, the
start

two attacks might
the worst kind.

together and result in a double lunge of

Sometimes,
thrust

if

you mistrust your quickness with a
if

straight

on a preparation made by quitting blades, or
is

you judge

that this
thrust,

a false preparation

intended to draw a straight

then you

may make
you can
it.

a false attack to lead to a parry
feint a straight thrust

and

counter-riposte, or

to

draw a

parry and deceive

RENEWED ATTACK.

A
after

renewed attack

{reprise

d'attaque)

is

an attack made

immediately upon the conclusion of a phrase.

For example,
two adversaries

one attack and one parry

at the least, the

find themselves
hit.

on guard

again, without either

one having been

Then one

of the two takes or retakes the offensive

by a

simple or complicated attack, whether advancing at the same

time or not.

This constitutes a renewed attack.
to execute

These often succeed, but
be sure on your
legs,

them

well

you must
in line,

you must keep your hand well

and must not

lose your balance or position during a phrase.

To make

a simple renewed attack proves
;

much

coolness,

presence of mind, and adaptability

to

make

a complicated
qualities,

renewed attack proves the possession, not only of these
but also of

much judgment,
and superior

swiftness in

comprehending the
Indeed
it

whole

situation,

finger-play.

is

one of

the prettiest things in the science of fencing.

The
the

longer the phrase, the

more

difficult to

execute, but

more

likely to succeed, is the

renewed

attack.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
THE STOP-THRUST.
{i.e.

91

Coup (TAin'H.)
indicated

The stop-thrust attack made on the
at the

is,

as

by

its

name, a simple

adversary's advance to stop

him when he
must be made

attacks while thus advancing.

The

stop-thrust
lifts

moment when
Otherwise
it

the adversary

his foot to take a step.

The
tion.

attack must be fully developed without a moment's hesita-

might
is

result in a

double lunge.
a brilliant, answer to
is

The
fencers
say,

stop-thrust

a good,

even

who

attack with the advance, or with a rush (that

to

with several swift steps of advance), their object being to
so near as to embarrass

come
to

you

in parrying or riposting, or

provoke a mere hand-to-hand struggle.
If

you

try the

stop-thrust you

must have

all

your wits

about you, and you must not dream of any preparation.
stop-thrust delivered one

A

moment

too late

is

as

bad and dan-

gerous as anything in fencing can be.
It is

almost impossible to parry a well-executed stop-thrust
its

unless you have foreseen

execution.

TIME-THRUSTS.

The

time-thrust

is

an attack made with opposition on a

complicated attack, and intended to intercept the line where

such an attack

is

meant

to finish.

The

time-thrust

is

a thing
to

of the most accurate judgment

and readiness; you must,
things,

execute

it,

gauge both the attack and the quickness of your
Well done,
it

adversary.

is

one of the best

ill

done,

one of the worst

things, in the possibilities of fencing.

The time must be taken
attack,

before the finish of the adversary's

and

if,

as

is right,

he does not develop the lunge before
a half-lunge to meet

the finish, you must

make

him half-way

to

92

FENCING
or,

touch him,

at least,

to

make

it

harder for him to parry.

I'he finish of the attack must decide the Hne of the time.

In quarte, to take a time on a one-two or on a coupe-

degage

in the inside or exterior

Hne

adversary leaves your blade lower

moment when the your point with a movement
:

at the

resembling counter-disengage into the exterior
strong opposition to the right,

line,

with a

and with a

half-lunge, the nails
in the

upwards.
'

This

'

time

'

can also be taken with the hand
will

seconde' position, but the aim of the point

be

less certain.
line,
it is

To make
upper
line.

a good time on a one-two in the quarte the attacker's feint should
it is

necessary that
If

be made in the
is

made

in the lower line, the time

scarcely

possible without a binding of the blades or a rencontre de garde

line

—which tends to put the points of both combatants out of the superior to that of the — unless a quickness
infinitely

attacker

makes the time possible on the very moment of the
to take the time

attacker's feint.

In

tierce,

on a one-two
feint is

in the outside
in the inside
:

(tierce) line,

whether the attacker's

made

or exterior line, or on a coupe-degage in the outside line

at

the

moment when

the adversary quits your blade

make

a straight

thrust with opposition to the right, to close the outside line, the
nails

upwards with a half-lunge.

In quarte, to take the time on a double, in the outside line

intended to deceive counter-quarte

:

at the

moment when
if

the

adversary quits your blade, counter-disengage as

to avoid a

change, with the exception that you must oppose to the right

and

half-lunge.

In

tierce, to

take the time on a double, intended to deceive
:

counter-tierce or septime

at the

moment when
if

the adversary

quits your blade lower the point as

to parry septime

and

thrust in the exterior line, nails up, opposition to right, half-

lunge.

H
><

c/:

X

> <

O o

CO

X

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
In quarte, to take the time on a one-two-three above
deceive tierce and quarte)
tion in tierce
:

93
(to

answer the

first

feint

by an opposi-

and make a

straight thrust in the outside hne,

nails up, opposition to right,

and

half-lunge.

In

tierce,

to take the time
:

on one-two-three
first

(to

deceive
in

quarte and tierce)
quarte,

answer the

feint

by an opposition
;

and lower the point

in the exterior line

opposition to

right, nails up^ half-lunge.

In quarte, to take the time on a one-two counter-disengage

meant

to

deceive the reversed counter or septime
it,

:

feign the

parry of septime, and instead of executing
exterior line
;

thrust in the

opposition to right, nails up, half-lunge.
take the time on a one-two counter-disengage
:

In

tierce, to

meant

to deceive the reversed counter

feign the parry of the
it,

contre-oppose, and instead of executing
line,

thrust in the inside

which becomes the outside
;

line at the finale of the adver-

sary's attack

opposition to right, half-lunge.

In quarte, to take the time on a double and disengage

meant

to

deceive counter-quarte and tierce

:

at the

moment
at

when

the

adversary quits

your blade,

double the counter-

disengagement
the finale
;

in the outside line, extending the

arm only

opposition to right, nails up, half-lunge.
to

In

tierce,

take the time on a double

and disengage
and quarte

in the outside

hne meant

to deceive counter-tierce

or seconde
side line
;

:

feign the parry of septime

and

thrust in the out-

opposition to right, half-lunge.

TIME PARRIES.
If

you are engaged

in quarte,

and think

that your adversary
:

proposes to

make

a time-thrust on your one-two

feign a dis-

engagement

in the outside line,

and instead of completing the

second movement of a one-two, parry seconde with a half-lunge

94
(to inspire

FENCING
more confidence
you think he
in

your adversary

who

intends to

time you) and then riposte.

In

tierce, if

will

time your one-two outside

:

feign a disengagement in the

exterior line,

and instead of comAnother way

pleting the second

movement

of a one-two, parry tierce with
riposte.

the
is

hand high and with a half-lunge and
disengagement

to feign a

and— as

the finale of the attack

determines the line of the

time— instead

of executing

it,

parry

septime with the hand high.

In quarte,

if

you think the adversary means
:

to take the

time on your double

as

you make the second movement

of the double, parry tierce with the

hand high with a half-lunge

and

riposte.

Another

w^ay

is,

instead of executing the second

movement
In

of the double, to parry septime with the

hand

high,

or seconde.
tierce,
if

you think the adversary means

to

take

the

time on your double

— instead of

completing the second move-

ment of the double, parry seconde with a half-lunge and
riposte.

In quarte,

if

you think the adversary means to take the
:

time on your one-two-three

in executing the third

movement
or,

of the one-two-three, parry tierce with the

hand high

;

instead

of completing the third movement, parry septime with the

hand

high, half-lunge,
tierce, if
:

and

riposte.

In

you think the adversary means
instead of executing the third
riposte.

to time

on your

one-two-three

movement, parry

seconde with half-lunge and
In quarte, one-two
if

you think the adversary means to time your
:

counter-disengage
that
is

instead of executing

the

third

movement,
half-lunge

the counter-disengage, parry seconde with

and

riposte.

In

tierce, if

you think the adversary means
:

to time your

one-two

counter-disengage in the outside line

in executing the

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
third

95
tierce with

movement, or counter-disengagement, parry
riposte
;

the

hand high with a half-lunge and

or,

instead of

executing the third movement, parry septime with the hand
high, or seconde.

In quarte,

if

you think the adversary means

to

time your
riposte.

double and disengage: parry seconde with half-lunge and
In
tierce, if

you think the adversary means to time your
:

double and disengage
tierce with

in executing the third

movement
and

parry

the

hand

high, with a half-lunge

riposte, or

parry septime with the

hand

high, or simulate a double parry

quarte and riposte.

THE REMISE.
The term
your point
at

remise

is

applied to the action of again aiming
after

your opponent's body when he ripostes,

an

attack which he has parried, either with a
or a timed riposte, or a retraction of the

compound

riposte,

Generally the remise
It is

is

made

in the

arm before riposting. same line as the parry.
and by

done by a

slight

drawing back of the body (you must not
to feign a retreat,

draw yourself up completely) so as
needed.

again aiming your point at your adversary's body with opposition, if opposition is

A

remise

is

wrong when the
skill.

riposte hits, or

when

it

fails

only from want of
rightly given

A

remise, therefore,

can never be

on a
is

direct riposte.

Opposition

not wanted in a remise

made on

a timed

riposte, for the remise
is,

must take place during the pause

— that

the withdrawal of the blade
It is well to

— which

precedes the actual
after executing

riposte.
it.

resume position rapidly
is

Again, opposition

not necessary in a remise on a riposte
for the

preceded by a retraction of the arm,
during the drawing back of the arm.

remise takes place

The

remise with opposition

is

certainly to be preferred

;

for.

96
to

FENCING
make
this,

you must judge

first

that the riposte will not be a
it

direct one,

and secondly what form
:

will take.

After parrying quarte

it

is

wrong
low

to remise
line.

on a riposte

made by a disengagement be made on a riposte by a
good
to remise

in the

A

remise cannot
It is

twist into the exterior line.

on a riposte made by a disengagement or a cutline.

over in the outside

Then you

get your remise without
right to bar the

changing the
line in

line,

and with opposition on the
effect.

which only can the riposte take
to the ripostes of
:

As

one-two into quarte and cut-over and

thrust in exterior line

on these you cannot remise as you can
you hardly ever
of the one-two in the tierce line,
line,

time, in the exterior line, because in riposting
finish the first

movement

and
the

because in making a cut-over and thrust in the exterior

hand

is

low,

which makes that

line

inaccessible.

On

these

ripostes,

however, you can remise without change of line and

without opposition.

In

this case

you must execute the moveto position.
first

ment with

great rapidity,

and come quickly back
is

Under

these conditions the remise

sure to get the
late.

hit,

but the riposte

may

also get in a hit,

though

It is better,

therefore, to try to parry these ripostes, unless, indeed, they are

ripostes with a pause.

After the parry of tierce

:

it

is

wrong

to remise

on a

dis-

engagement

in exterior or inside line, or

on a cut-over.

On

a riposte of one-two or of cut-over

and thrust

in the out-

side line, or

on the riposte of the double, you can remise withon the

out change of line and with opposition to the right.
After the parry of seconde
:

riposte,

timed or

not,

of a disengagement on the outside line you can remise in the outside line with opposition to the right.

On

the riposte of one-two exterior you can remise in the

exterior line with opposition to the right, the nails of the

hand

up or down

as

you please.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
After the parry of septime
:

97

on a

riposte

made

with a feint

below and a counter-disengagement above, one must make a
remise without changing the engagement and with opposition
to the right.

On

a riposte

made

with a feint below and a disengage-

ment over the
remise

hilt,

the same

remise holds good.

Counter-

ripostes affect the remise exactly as ripostes
is

do

;

in all cases a

discounted by quitting the adversary's blade after

the parry, and then using the
as

same parry a second
after

time.

But,

an exception,

if

on a disengage riposte

a parry in
line,

seconde the adversary remises in the outside or tierce
then parry
tierce.

REDOUBLING.
This
is

repeating an attack while

still

on the lunge when the
It is

adversary parries but does not riposte.
cut-over or by a disengagement.

done

either

by a

A

slight

drawing back of the

body
back.

is

necessary

;

but above

all

the

arm must not be drawn

H


98

FENCING

CHAPTER

VI.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS— <r^;///;?^(?^.

THE SALUTE.
The
Salute, or prelude to the Assault, was, towards the
official

end

of 1888, put into definite and
d' Amies

form by the Academic
Until then
it

of Paris, founded in 1886.

had been

practised in various schools, with various differences of detail.

The rules laid down by the Academy are here embodied. The purpose of the Salute is to give both fencers an opportunity of showing courtesy to each other

and

to the spectators,

and,

it

may be added,

of exhibiting their
It is

own

proficiency in
:

correctness

and elegance.
assumes the

thus conducted

Each
to his

fencer, having put his

mask on
fall

the floor about a yard

left,

First Position opposite his adversary at

the proper distance, letting his arms

naturally, the point of

the
left
first

foil

nearly touching the ground in front of him,

and

to the

of the right foot.

Then both

execute simultaneously the

movement of coming on guard. The first movement consists in making
and extending the
the right,

a step

forward,

raising

right arm, with the nails of the right
level with the top of the head,

hand turned upwards on a
a
little

and

to

and the blade extended with the arm.
upright, so that the fencer can

Then

the

hand

is

quickly brought close to the chin, the nails

towards the

face,

and the sword

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PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
go on
to salute his adversary

99
to the

by dropping the sword

right at the full extension of the

arm, with the palm of the

hand turned

to the ground.

The second movement
arm towards
the
left

consists in bringing
seizes,

back the

right
it,

hand, which

without grasping

the shoulder of the blade, imitating the gesture necessary to

sheathe and unsheathe a sword.

The
The
of,

third

movement

consists in elevating both

hands

to-

gether above the head with a graceful curve.
fourth consists in letting go the blade from the
its

left

hand, which takes
the head, the

place behind, and at the level of the top

left

arm

still

being bent, while the right hand

drops to the level of the right breast, the arm half extended,
the elbow in front
of,

and close

to,

the body, the point of the

sword on a
In the

level with the face.
fifth

movement you advance
upright.

the right foot about

two steps

in front of the left heel, sinking

down on

the legs

and keeping the body
stration,

[These movements, here separated

for clearness

of demon-

must

in practice glide into each other.]

In coming on guard for the Salute, each fencer must take
care to touch his adversary's point in tierce at the

moment

when the right hand drops, so as to give the movement of the legs. At the moment when
of tierce, with the blades joined.

signal for the

the right feet

are firm on the ground, the right hands must keep the position

Once on
first

guard, both fencers recover to the position of the

movement.
of the fencers invites the other, with the words,
first.
*

One

A

vous^ Monsieur^^ to take distance

It is

customary to g\N^

precedence
guest.

in this

matter to the elder fencer or to an invited

The one who does

take distance

first

becomes the

attacker,

H

2

loo

FENCING
To
take distance
nrJls
:

direct the point, with

arm

full

stretched

and the

up, the

hand on the

level of the chin, at the

adversary's body, without touching him.

To
steps

execute this movement, advance the right about three
in front

and a half

of the

left

heel,

just shaving the

ground, and keeping the

left

leg stretched out.
leg,

When

the foot
is

touches the ground, bend the right
exactly above the instep.

so that the knee

The

bust remains upright, the loins
thigh.

arched, the

left

hand separated from the

Having made
right

his lunge, the attacker recovers himself with
first

one movement, resuming the

position, but bringing the

hand

to a slight distance

from the chin, and holding the

sword nearly upright.

This

last

movement

of

hand and sword

must be done simultaneously by both
cute the
first

fencers,

who then
is

exe*^

of the salutes to the public.
left,

This

done by
little

saluting to the'

with the hand in pronation, a
left breast,
left.

ad-

vanced, and at the level of the
horizontal,

the sword almost

and half-way

to

the

Then

bring the hand

back near

to the face again, as above, and, with the

hand

in

supination, reverse the process just described.

[In public assaults, the salutes should be addressed directly
to the President

and Vice-President,

if

there

is

one.

On no

account must both fencers make them in the same direction.

The

President, without rising from his seat, acknowledges each

salute with

a motion of his

foil

;

the Vice-President, sitting

opposite to him, answers with an inchnation of the head.]

Now
in quarte.

the adversaries

fall

on guard

as

above described

(without, however, raising the hand),

making an engagement

The
that the

attacker disengages, with the nails up, in the line of

sixte-tierce^

without touching his adversary, and taking care
of the arm precedes that of the legs.

movement

The

adversary parries tierce or sixte lightly and then drops his point

m c<X
p
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H

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PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
with the nails

loi

down

as

if

threatening a riposte in the low hne.

The

attacker on this parry throws his point upwards

and backof the

w^ards past his

own

left

ear with a quick

movement

thumb and
ring,

forefinger.

The

nails are

downwards, the middle,

and
is

little

finger leave

the hilt

and remain open.

The

arm
the

extended, the hand on the level of the head and held to

the right, so that the attacker looks at his adversary between

arm and the
and then

blade.
falls

He

keeps

this position for a

moment

or two

back on guard, taking the engagement of

tierce or sixte,

which the adversary also takes with opposition.

The

attacker disengages, the adversary parries quarte,
if

and

as

before drops his point as

threatening a riposte in the low

line,

but this time with the nails up.
repeats the

The

attacker on the parry

movement

just described,

throwing the point past
nails

his right instead of his left ear

and with the
or two

upwards.
falls

As

before he remains thus a guard.

moment

and

back on

The

parryer engages again in quarte.

The

attacker repeats these disengagements in sixte-tierce
to the

and quarte

number
last

of four or

six.
is

The number must
in quarte.
his

be even, so that the
last

disengagement

In the

engagement the attacker may ornament
pause on the lunge, contrasting
it

style

by a

slight

with the swift recovery

after the others.

The
his

adversary parries exactly as before.

He
him

must take

time from the attacker, so as not to

make

wait either on the engagement or on the parry. attacker

The

now makes

the motion of one-two, beginning

in quarte, without lunge or extension, placing the

hand

in tierce

on the second movement, and
First Position, while

after this

he recovers to the

the parryer remains on guard, with his

hand

in position for parrying tierce.

As

the attacker recovers,

the parryer, in his turn, takes distance and recovers in one

movement,
fall

as the attacker has

done

before.

Then

the two

on guard, and now the parts are interchanged, the former


I02

FENCING
becoming the attacker
after taking distance,

parryer
versa.

and

vice

After this both

backwards, the

come on guard with a step of the left foot hand in tierce, make three beats on the floor
first

with the right foot, the

slowly, the other
left

two quickly, and

then recover forwards and salute to

and

right.

When

the final one-two has been executed, the adversaries
fall

recover at the same moment, and almost immediately

back

on guard, moving the
taking care that the
the legs.
the
left

left

foot two steps

behind the

right,

and

movement
this

of the arms precedes that of

Immediately on

they recover forwards, bringing

foot

up

to the right,

and repeat a second time the two

salutes already described.

joining blades in quarte.

Then they come quickly on guard, Once more they recover forwards,
hand brought
close to the chin,

and

salute each other, w^ith the

the nails tuinei to the face, the sword perpendicular.

Then

the palm of the hand

is

turned to the ground, and the sword
arm.
dis-

lowered to the right
It

at the full extent of the

must be again noted that the Academic d'Armes

countenances the old-fashioned appels with the
however,
des mises
'

foot, allowing,

a slight beat with the right foot to

mark

la finale

e?i

garde

et des developpemenis,^

When
directions.

two left-handed fencers go through the Salute

to-

gether, they have only to read right for left throughout the

A
his

left-handed

man engaged

in the Salute with a

right-handed
1.

man must
mask on
his right.
in
tierce

Lay

Take the right-handed man's engage first coming on guard. 3. Take distance with the nails dow^n.
2.

for the

4.

The

final

one-two

is

done

in sixte-tierce^

and

to this

end

the left-handed man, after taking distance, gives the engagement
of quarte to his adversary,

who

parries quarte

on the one-two.

o

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1

^

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02

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PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
5.

103

tierce.

The Salutes take place together, The left-handed man must so
is

first

in quarte^ then in

place himself that the

President

on

his right.

THE ASSAULT.
The
assault
is

the practical application of the knowledge

acquired in lessons, and

may be

called a

mock

duel.

It

demands
lest

unremitting attention, and the rapid conception and execution
of ideas.
falls

The
bad

fencer

must watch himself

carefully

he

into
first

habits,

and must never

relax in his observance of

the

principles.

The

assault

is far

more

attractive than the lesson, but
full

must

not be indulged in without the master's

approval,

and the

master himself must be the learner's
the master's part in
it,

first

adversary.

As

for

he

will

of course hold his rapidity both

of

movement and

of design in check, so as to put himself on
the novice,

something

like a level with

whom

he

will

avoid

discouraging by hitting him too frequently.

He

will

indeed
hit.

give the pupil encouragement by allowing himself to be

Taking

to the assault or loose play too early

is

an

irre-

parable mistake, and one of which the pupil will be conscious

throughout his career as a fencer.
play has been
lessons.

After the dignity of loose

reached,

it

is

indispensable to go on taking

However

watchful

over

himself he

may

be,

even

the cleverest pupil cannot without lessons avoid acquiring
tricks.

bad

The

professor

ought to see just where the pupil's

judgment has

failed him,

and

to give

him

hints of

what

line

to take against this or that adversary, according to each one's
style.

The

professor

who knows
and the

his art will in this

way add
thing to
certain

to the lesson's interest

pupil's progress.

The
avoid
is

assault

is

a perpetual

improvisation.

The

the adoption of a set style, the

making of a

I04

FENCING
of attacks
or
parries,

number
corners.

always the same,
will fail

upon

all

What succeeds

with one

with another, and

own movements should depend upon one's adversary's. The crossing of blades is the signal for beginning the It is indispensable, by way of precaution against encounter. surprise, to come on guard out of distance, and not to join
one's

blades

till

one

is

completely ready.

It

sometimes happens that

when one rushing on the other profits by the other's confusion to make It is therefore a great mistake to come on guard within a hit.
the fencers place themselves too near each other,
distance.
It
is

wise

to

advance

gradually

within

distance.

The
;

adversary
therefore

may be on
it is

the watch to attack on the advance

well to have a parry ready in one's head, so to

speak, for such an attack.

Nor

is

it

a bad plan to advance

with the intention of drawing the adversary's attack and meeting
it

with parry and riposte.

The touching
The
is

of blades

is

one of
;

the principles which should be most rigidly adhered to

it is

indeed the fencer's guide.
only be indicated by what

right

moment

for action
;

can
the

called feeling the steel

if

blades do not touch, double attacks

— that

is,

attacks

made
is

simultaneously by each fencer— are often the

result.
it

In dealing with a fencer who
to

will

not join blades,

well

keep out of distance and as much on the defensive as
:

possible

not to lunge except on his advance

:

to threaten

him
he

often

:

thus he will probably be induced to join blades.

If

refuses, feint attacks to

draw

his parry
;

and

riposte, to

be met

with a parry and counter-riposte

or to

make him
one
is

thrust

and

be met with a parry and riposte

;

or, again, if

not quick

enough

to hit

him with a
it.

straight thrust, feint

one to draw a

parry and deceive
in front of attacks.

The

point must not be kept immovable
as a kind of finger-post for his

him

:

it

would serve

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
his opponent's blade to get a point of leverage,

105

In dealing with a heavy-handed adversary who presses on
it

is

better to

join blades very lightly, or not at

all.

Heaviness of hand must
beats,

be met by the

lightest finger-play.

Avoid engagements,

and so

on, so as not to leave a point of leverage.
his

If in attack or riposte the adversary seeks to force

attack straight

in, in spite
little

of the parry, then

it is

good

to parry

with the hand a

closer to the

body than

usual, so as to

get the fort of the blade

more on the

adversary's faible.

A

tall

man
;

should avoid attacking with an advance (step
avail himself of his

and lunge)

he should, on the contrary,

reach to keep his adversary at a distance, and attack him on his

advance or preparation.
Fencers often come on guard carelessly; they neglect to sink

down enough on their legs, thinking to avoid fatigue when they mean to attack they double themselves up, as it were, to get more spring and quickness. During such a preparation to
;

attack a simple attack

is

almost certain to be successful.

A

short

man must

always advance to get within distance.
;

Therefore his hand and blade should be always busy

he

should make frequent changes of engagement, feign sometimes
to give
attack.

an opening, and manoeuvre

to

make

the adversary

He

should be strong in the parry and riposte, and
hotly engaged.

never relax

when once

Fencers of about the same height should be chary each

one of

his attacks

;

their success

depends

in

such case on a

fine sense of

time and occasion.

As
best

all

attacks can be parried in

way

in the jjarticular

more than one way, the circumstances must be chosen.

A
whose

slight retreat
;

on the parry helps both the parry and the
a thing to do specially with an adversary

riposte

and

it

is

style

one does not know.
parries
like

Circular

counter-quarte,

and

semicircular

io6
parries like

FENCING
septime, are

more

difficult to

deceive than simple

parries like quarte
It is

and

tierce.

not possible to judge an adversary's method accurately

until

one has fenced several times with him.
style

His movements
what are
his

and

must be

carefully

watched

to discover

favourite attacks
difficulty in

and

parries,

and what
will

ripostes

he has most

meeting.

Then one

employ, as

much

as

possible, the parries that lead to these ripostes.

Feints
possible
;

and

false attacks

should be disregarded as
is

much

as

to take

them

seriously

to play the adversary's

game.

Some

fencers follow

up

their attacks

by a redouble or a

remise without caring to parry the riposte, which they sometimes avoid by stooping.
their position

This comes of a bad grounding
is

;

as

on guard

bad they overtopple themselves,
well, if there is

and

resort to

redoublements to keep their balance.
such adversaries
it

To meet
empty
air,

is

room, to

take a long step back, and so to leave

them

battling with

and

if

they want to resume the offensive, to employ

a stop-thrust.

Some

fencers draw back the

arm before a
iVt

riposte

;

this

again comes of having a bad position.

the

moment when
fall

they draw back the

arm

it is

well to

make

a remise, and to

back quickly on guard, so
the hit

as to avoid being hit,

even though

comes
But

late

by the adversary's thrust with the hand low.
is

For fencers who attack with a rush the stop-thrust
thing.
if,

the

on

this

advance, they continually parry to stop

the

stop-thrust,

then one

must wait
retreat,

for the

end of

their

attack,

and parry without any
Fencers of
this

and

if

need be with an

advance.
retire
:

kind hope to force the adversary to
in

if

he does

not,

they probably retire
If,

a

confusion

which should be turned to account.
retire,

however, they do not

then the adversary should himself step well back and

attack on the next threat of advance.

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS

107

Other fencers continually extend, taking no heed of double attacks, and hoping to succeed by sheer audacity and by
twists

and turns of the body

;

and they

will

even

start disputes

to bewilder the adversary.

Tricks of this kind are the merest

abuse of fencing, show a conscious weakness,
nothing but contempt for those

and lead

to

who

practise them.

With people of
lunge.

this

kind feign attacks, catch their blade on

the extension, cross the blade firmly with a twist (croise)

and

They

will

soon

try

another method.

Time-thrusts are ticklish things.

They must be

tried only

when

the fencer has surprised an elaborate attack designed by
;

the adversary
lunge, which

a wrongly-judged time-thrust leads to a double
discreditable
;

is

a rightly-judged one shows ex-

cellent discretion

and execution.
kills several

Note, too, that one mistaken time

well-judged

ones

;

for

it

proves that the

successes

have been due to

chance.

When

a fencer keeps on retreating without apparent cause,
is

suspect that he

laying a trap.
little,

In dealing with an unknown adversary, attack as
simply,

as

and

as

little

with a step forward as possible.

Come back at once on guard No assault should last longer

even

after a hit.

than a quarter of an hour.

Over-fatigue makes one slip into tricks.

Do
play.

not ask

if

a hit has told

;

trust to the adversary's fair

When
of
it.

you have succeeded

in a plan of attack

do not boast

Any

sign of impatience, even with one's

self, is

distracting

and unpleasing. With a tricky adversary do not complain turn his tricks to good account if possible if he goes tco far, find a decent excuse
;
;

for

ending the assault

io8

FENCING
As the
practice of the science of
qualities,
all
it

arms depends as much on
is

moral as on physical
nomenclature to cover
taken as a base.
fencing assaults,

impossible to devise a

methods.

Let the principles be

When
let

the learner has arrived at the stage of

But

if

he

is

him fence with anybody who asks him. lucky enough to be under a master who knows
let

the real principles,

him go on taking
the only safe

lessons from

him and
for

from him alone.
attaining success.

It is

and sure method

LEFT-HANDED FENCERS.
With a left-handed fencer the
lines are naturally reversed,
parries.

and so must be the engagements and

Two

left-handed fencers are of course on the same footing

as two right-handed fencers, but with a right-handed
to a left-handed fencer,

opposed

when the
and

first is

engaged

in quarte, the

second

is

engaged

in tierce

vice versa.

If right-handed fencers

met left-handed fencers as often as
;

the latter do the former, they would be on equal terms
this
is

but, as

not

so,

the right-handed fencer

is

generally at a disadvan-

tage with a left-handed antagonist.

As

a rule, avoid giving a

left-handed

man

a

chance of

parrying quarte.

This parry generally comes easy to him and
its effect.

his position favours

He often follows a
;

parry of quarte

or counter-quarte by a riposte in the low line,

and the natural

parry against this riposte
is

is

seconde

but the surest and quickest

tierce

on the lunge, with the hand low and the point high.
an excellent chance
left.

The
for a

slightest hesitation in his riposte gives

redouble with a cut-over and with opposition to the
left-handed

The
tierce

man

cannot easily riposte on the parry of

because his riposte meets the right-handed man's parry
:

of quarte

his

favourite ripostes

are the

cut-over

and the

PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS
disengagement in
tierce
:

109

therefore

it is

well to remise

and force

him
line

to a straight riposte.

If the left-handed

man

seeks to avoid ripostes on the lowhis

by lowering his elbow and hand so as to hide

body

instead of parrying, then riposte high, near the shoulder.

Timed

ripostes

and

reprises are very

useful against left-

handed men.
Time-thrusts between
avoided.
left-

and right-handed men should be
is

An

excessive opposition

needed

to prevent a colline save

lision of hilts,

and

this gives a

wide opening on every

that of the opposition.

Tio

FENCING

CHAPTER

VII.

SINGLESTICK.

Singlestick, probably practised

far

more widely throughout

England than
simple matter
parries,
this,
it

fencing,

is

apt to strike casual observers as a very

—a
it

mere question of hard and rude blows and
sometimes
is,

which

but not always

is.

More than

has happened to one of us to be assured by a certainly

not unintelligent person,

who imagined

himself to be in the

habit of playing at singlestick, that as for treatises on the art

of singlestick there was no need for them or indeed any
for

room
far.

them, as no such

art

existed.

This was going too
is

Singlestick, as has

been said

in the Introduction,

a bastard
skill,

game, but

it

does give scope for very considerable
left at

so

much

so that in the brief space

our disposal

it is

impossevere

sible to

do

justice to
play.

it,

or to the

much more grand and

work of sabre

In Mr. Egerton Castle's 'Schools and Masters of Fence,'
often previously referred
singlestick or cudgel was,
to,

we find and is, the

it

laid

down
in the

that

'

the

foil

of the back sword.'
sixteenth

The

author
*

tells

us
'

also that in
{sen potius
'

England
wafter
'

century the

waster

?)

—a
;

dummy

sword

with a blade rendered harmless by being rounded or transversely set

— was

the

foil

of the back sword

and
'

that in the

early seventeenth century the

name
for

'

waster

was applied to
was the

cudgels inserted in sword guards.
early

Here

.evidently

form of that substitute

an offensive and defensive

1

SINGLESTICK
edged weapon which has found
singlestick of the present day,
its

1 1

latest

development

in the

which may be said to corre-

spond

in a very

rough and haphazard fashion to the modern
^

sabre just as the

waster/ or in later times the form of smgle-

stick described in the

second chapter of

^

Tom
The

Brown's Schoolstick

days,'
*

corresponded to the back sword.
'

used

at the

veast

in

the White Horse Vale was

*

a good stout ash stick

with a large basket handle, heavier and somewhat shorter than
a

common

singlestick.'

It

may be worth

passing notice that

as at the ^veast,' so in the eighteenth century there
for protection of

was no idea

head or body

in practice bouts with sticks.

Captain Godfrey, author of the 'Useful Science of Defence,'

how I have purchased my knowledge in the Back Sword with many a broken Head and Bruise in every part of Nor is the captain's exquisite reason for taking up the me.'
describes
'

'

'

back sword undeserving of
wrote,
'

attention.

'

I

have followed,' he

chiefly the Practice of the

Back Sword, because Conceit

cannot so readily be cured with the File in the Small as with
the stick in that.

For the argiimentum hastinandi is very strong
;

and convincing
of a File, yet
get
if

and though a
is

Man may
him,''

dispute the
Stick,

full

Hit

he

knocked down with a
it

he

will

hardly

up again and say

just brushed

From which words

of wisdom
hits

we may

learn that fencers chary of acknowledging
rarity in

were not a greater

1747 than they are nowadays.

The back sword
modern sabre and

play referred to by Godfrey resembled

singlestick play,
is

and not

that specialised
*

form of back-swording which
Schooldays,' and which
is

chronicled in

Tom

Brown's
students'

curiously like the

German
on

schlager fight.

The

best

and

most

authoritative

book

sabre

and

singlestick, published
1

up

to the date of the present writing,^

has been

Since these words were in print an addition of import to sabre literature made by the pubhcation of Captain Hutton's Cold Steel (Clowes).

112
is

FENCING
'Lessons
in

Sabre,

Singlestick,

Professor of Fencing, late 2nd Life

M. Waite, Guards (London Weldon
etc.,'

by

J.

:

&

Co.).

The
his

late

Mr. Waite,

who

learnt fencing

from no

less

a master than the elder Prevost, was unsurpassable with the
sabre,

and
it,

work

is

largely devoted to what^

when he
'

intro-

duced

was a novelty and an important one,

in the ordinary
I

run of sabre play.
wrote,
^

To

quote his

own words
it

:

made

it,'

he

part of

my work

as a teacher

and sabre player

to imin

prove sabre play by adapting to
fencing,
players,
etc., in

many movements used
make

which have hitherto been

entirely overlooked
fencer, to

by sabre

and

also,

by copying the

the attacks,
effective,

a closer,

and consequently quicker and more

manner than they had before been made.'

Mr. Waite's manual,

published some eight or nine years ago, was, as he went on to
point out, intended chiefly to inculcate advantages up to then

too

much

neglected by sabre players— advantages to be gained

by taking a lesson from the enemy

—the

enemy

in this case
or, to interfoil

being the French duelling sword against the sabre,

change the terms according to Mr. Waite's inference, the
(Captain Godfrey's
'

File

')

against the singlestick.

There

is,

however, a curious fallacy which must
It

now be

pointed out.
singlestick
foil
is

has been thought not unnaturally that the

may be

considered the

foil

of the sabre, just as the

may be considered the small sword of practice, and it very commonly believed that work with the stick enables
to

a

man

use the
far,

sabre

;

but unfortunately the analogy
for,

is

far,

very

from

perfect,

though the fencer who has

never handled the practice epee
culty
like
first

may
for

at first
it,

find

some

diffi-

when he exchanges

the

foil

this will

be nothing

the difficulty experienced by the singlestick player

who

uses a practice sabre,

by which, of course, we mean' a

steel sabre

resembling the real weapon, not the light wooden
If

substitute.

he

is

opposed

to a

good continental

tireur de

SINGLESTICK
sabre he will find, however skilful he
that he
is

113

may be

with the stick,

a

mere child

in the

hands of

his antagonist,

and

will

see only too clearly that, were the

combat a

real instead of a
\

mimic
and

one, the other

would carve him about as he pleased
little

will

even discover, possibly not a

to his

annoyance,

that his hard unfitted

work with the

stick has in

one important respect

him

for using the sword.

In singlestick play there
fiat

can be no distinction between blows with the
of the blade.
thing.
real

and the edge

In the severer contest

it

is

a mightily diiiferent

Nothing more excites the derisive condemnation of a
fiat

French swordsman than blows with the

of the blade by
n'aiine

a combatant too clumsy to give the edge.

Je

du sabre
the

que

le

tranchant^ sang

Frenchmen many

years ago
fiat

when

ignominious punishment of slapping with the
w^as

of the sabre

introduced for a brief space into the French army.

In

real

combat such a blow would probably be the most dan-

gerous to the

man who

dealt

it

that could be delivered, giving

the chance of a death-dealing riposte in reply to a stroke which

could do no real harm.
the sword, the
into account.
sarily far larger

Further, in considering the stick

and

much

greater weight of the latter

must be taken
there

In the large movements of sabre play, neces-

than those of fencing, this may,

if

is

any
lose

carelessness, throw a
his balance
;

man

out of

line,

or even

make him
is

and anything
hazel-twig,

like w^ild play,

such as

common
takes
that

enough with the

becomes hazardous
that he has

in the extreme.

The

singlestick player will therefore discover

when he

the blunted sword in

hand

much

to learn,

and

the careful training he has gone through and the work he has

done must be supplemented by a good deal more
tunately he

;

and unforto

may

also discover that

it

is

by no means easy

get the practical
successor.

knowledge he
in

requires.
is

Waite has had no
not so
is

Even

France sabre play
it

much

praclittle

tised or cared for as

used to be, and there

but very
I

114

'

FENCING
skill.

inducement
assaults

to attain professional

In

all

probability

good
re-

between men who had

really

mastered the sword would

not be understood.

There would not be the heavy and
;

sounding thumps which the public consider their due
best

so the
to

combatants would be thought tame.

This

is

be

regretted.
skill

Sabre play does not admit of the same exquisite
it

as fencing, but

is

a noble and manly form of contest,

closely resembling the real battle.

We may
Take,
if

conclude with a hint to fencers

who may oppose
is

epee to sabre, or foil to stick.

And

this hint

very brief.

you know

it

well, the

guard recommended by Captain

Hutton, draw, whenc^ver you think you can parry and riposte,

your adversary's dropping cut on the forearm
that, to

;

and never

forget

extend Captain Godfrey's dictum,
it is

it is

more easy to make

sure of a cut than

of a thrust in the heat of an encounter.

In other words, beware of failing to credit your adversary with
this

advantage over and above his individual
\F^or Bibliography^ see

skill.

Appendix

at

end of book.

'\

BOXING AND SPARRING
BY
E.
B.

MICHELL

I

2

IFi^ure I.— On

guard

BOXING AND SPARRING
CHAPTER
I.

THE HISTORY OF BOXING.
It

may be an

unpleasant surprise to some of the great admirers
is

of Boxing, to hear that the antiquity of the art

incapable of
fingers

being proved, or even seriously maintained.

Although

were made before

fists,

and nature has given

to all of us our
skill to

hands and arms before they would have the strength or
use a sword or a dagger,
still it

must be admitted that very few
fist

people resort naturally or instinctively to the use of the

as a
will,

means of

attack or self-defence.

Test the m.atter as you

by any of the estabhshed theories

for ascertaining the age of a

human

institution or practice,

and you

inevitably arrive at the

same conclusion.

Children, in their earliest struggles with one

another, before any wicked intruder into the nursery has given

them a
the
biting

hint as to
fists

ways and means, seldom or never
for

resort to

doubled

disabhng their infant

foe.

Scratching,

and pinching are the most obvious and common methods
;

of attack

and the victim almost invariably
tactics, or

retaliates either

with the same
wrestling, or

by adopting some uncouth form of
feet or knees.

by kicking with the

No
in the

doubt a good reason
examples
first set

for these

impulses

is

to

be found

to the infant combatant.

These come

Ii8

BOXING AND SPARRING
from the brute creation.
Cats and dogs

in nine cases out of ten

present to the children in every well-regulated household their
earHest patterns of unholy strife
;

and

it is

at a far later

period
sight

in their lives, if ever, that their eyes are scandalised

by the

of two

human

beings exchanging
stall,

fisticuffs.

Long

before this
the neigh-

the stable or the

or even the

home paddock or

bouring village green or lane, has familiarised them with the
spectacle of

some four-footed animal making use of
the
strategists
call offensive
fold, affords a

its

heels or

hoofs for what

purposes.

The

deer park, again, or the sheep
tactics

ready example of

which may be generahsed under the head of butting.
needs
little

But

it

discrimination on the part of the puerile

spectator to observe that the occiput of the
well as of the stag,
is

ram

or sheep, as

better arilied for purposes of hostile aggres-

sion than that of the

human

race

;

and thus the boy or
is

girl

who

rushes at an adversary with the head
of the word,

usually, in every sense
his or her

more thick-skulled than the generality of
the

playmates.

Even

if

hand
out
this

is

used

for warlike purposes,
first

it

is

in

ninety-nine cases
fingers open.

of every hundred
it

used with the

In

form

presents to the uninitiated a
foe.

much
it is

better prospect of

damaging the

In the

first

place,

a broader and bigger weapon.

Applied to the side of the

opponent's face, or even to his ribs or shoulder or elsewhere,
it

covers a larger extent of the hostile territory, and causes a
stinging

more

and louder-sounding blow.

Secondly,

it

reaches

further, just as a long

sword reaches further than a small one,
fist

and has a chance of coming home when the doubled
be short of the mark.
for use in that
tion,

would

Thirdly, the

hand

is

more quickly ready
less prepara-

way than

in the other,
sit,

and requires

Children do not habitually
;

stand and play with their
is

fingers tightly closed

and even the bad boys whose temper
fists

exhibited

l)y

clenched

clench them only by reason of what

THE HISTORY OF BOXING
the doctors call an
'

119
or,

involuntary contraction of the nerves,'

in other words, because they feel a desire to grip the throat of

the enemy, and inasmuch as neither that nor anything else

is

handy

for the occasion,
air.

make

the

best

of the business

by

gripping the empty

These, perhaps, are refinements.

But the

fact,

howevei

explained, remains indisputable, that at the earliest time

when

we can observe
^

the

unarmed warfare of our
an adversary, which

fellow creatures
pugilistic.

they resort to almost any form of attack rather than the

Even pummelling
practice,
is

'

is

not an

uncommon
is is

almost always reserved for occasions when he
pugilistic principles,

down, and when, according to true

he

exempt from such punishment.
scientific infant in such-like

And

note also,

that

your

emergencies

will prefer to

pumon the

melHng the elephantine
fallen foe.

tactics oi kneeling or treading

It is pretty certain that in

the eternal order of things the
to fight without

mature human being, when he had
at
all,

any armour
or
'

adopted similar plans

for purposes of aggression
'

revenge.

The adult man

very soon finds out that both

slapping

and scratching
ingly, in all

are unsatisfactory

modes of

attack,

where the
Accord-

opponent has any strength and determination

to resist.

times and countries these tactics have been aban-

doned

to the use of the female sex,

whose

battles are usually

interrupted by the interference of

some

stronger power before
It
is

they can develop into a settled combat.

impossible to
lived

go back even
actually

in

imagination to the time

when men
But
if

unarmed upon the
it

face of the earth.

such a

time ever existed,

will

be confessed by those who care to

argue the matter out that they would assuredly not decide their
differences according to the rules of the P.R.,

and probably
fist.

would not even
as

strike a single

blow with the closed

As

far

the

first

records of ancient nations

are yet known,

they

I20

BOXING AND SPARRING
Wresthng
art.
is

support entirely this view of the case.

constantly

mentioned
^

at a far earlier

period than the sister

And when
it

smiting

'

is

referred to as causing the death of the smitten,

is

may most easily be inferred that some deadly weapon was used. The most that can be said by
either expressly stated

or

the advocates of boxing as a primaeval practice

is,

that

it

was

employed
far

in

combination with wrestling in a species of contest

more

closely resembling the 'rough
scientific battles of the

and tumble of Yankee
'

renown than the

English Prize Ring.
'

The

fact

is,

that before the

'

rough and tumble

can be

superseded by bond fide boxing, three or four things must have
occurred which are not likely to occur quickly of their
accord.
It

own

must have become recognised somehoAv or other

that one ought not to hit a

man when he is down
'

;

'

and there must

be present

at the fight

some third

party or parties

who

are willing
at least

and able

to enforce that artificial rule.

Moreover, one

of the combatants must have learnt one of the most difficult
parts of the pugilistic art

— how,

by stopping the rushes of an

adversary, or getting out of the way, to prevent his attempts to
'

close,' or

catch hold.

Lastly,

one of them

at least

must

also have

found out how to use
to finish off his

his fists with so

much

effect as to

be able

man by mere

hitting,

without resorting to the

process of strangulation or suffocation.

How

difficult

it is

to

acquire such a proficiency

may be

conjectured from the fact of
in the

the ccestus having been invented

and used

manner

to

be

explained below.

Here, by the way,
is

not, as

may be remembered that prize-fighting many people are now inclined to say offhand, an
it

example of boxing pure and simple,
word.
wrestling played an important
in the encounter.

in the proper sense of the

In the historic battles of Mendoza, Bendigo, and Sayers

and sometimes a decisive part

The published records of those and hundreds

of other prize fights speak very graphically and forcibly of the

THE HISTORY OF BOXING
trenchant blows which occasioned most applause.
or, as

121
First blood,

the

more

poetic chroniclers have
is

it,

the

'

first

appearance

of the claret,'
struggle
;

always noted as an important point in the
first

and the

and successive knock-down blows and most of
latter,

excite

the eager interest of the historian

his readers.

Much

less

attention

is

paid by the

and often by the
both
is

former, to such comparatively dull details as the result of a
tussle for the
fall.
^

After a short

struggle

down, the Slasher being uppermost.'
this

There

men Avent not much in

laconic

summary
*

to attract particular notice,
it is
'

pared with the sesquipedalian terms in which
the

when comexplained how
disturbed the

same Slasher

visited the kissing trap,'
'

and

olfactory organ,' or

elicited the

ruby from the proboscis,' of his

redoubtable opponent.

And

yet, if the truth

were known, the

unlucky owner of the features to which these attentions were
paid

may have
unlucky

attributed his defeat,
inflicted

and quite rightly

too,

much

less to the

knocks

upon

his long-suffering visage than

to the

fall in

which

his collar-bone

was half dislocated,
felt

and

after

which

his

interior

arrangements

as

if

they had

been forcibly jumbled up together.
chronicler gives a broader hint.

Sometimes the veracious
:

'They then closed
but

and

after

a short tussle the Infant threw his man, falling heavily
him.'

upon

This

is

more suggestive

;

it is

nevertheless far from

truly representing to the

imagination of the unlearned reader
in

the position of the

man

question,

who

finds

some two

hundredweight of exceedingly robust infant precipitated upon

him

as

he

lies flat

on the ground, while the point of an elbow
Hercules

of which the

infant

might have been proud

is

forced with the whole impetus of that falling mass into the pit
of his stomach.

In the ancient and flourishing time of the Prize Ring wrestling

and

fighting

were

much more

evenly matched in their
;

effect

on the

result

than most people supposed

and though

'

122

BOXING AND SPARRING
decidedly superior in the use of his
fists

a

man who was
come

would
equal a

usually

off the winner,

when

the boxing was at

all

more expert
from a
art into the

wrestler w^as almost sure to carry the day.

Regarded

strictly scientific

point of view, this intrusion of the one
to

domain of the other was

be regretted.

It pre-

vented anybody from saying with any certainty
time the best boxer in England.
that in the days of

who was

at

any

No

one can say positively

Tom

Cribb or Jem

Ward

there was not

some

village hero blushing

unseen in the consciousness that
fair

he could beat the champion in
not the
in
gift

fisticuffs

though he had
boxer rushed
belt,'

of keeping his legs

when an

inferior

and seized him round the body.

To

win

'

the

a

man
per-

must combine
haps common,

in himself the virtues not of Castor
;

and Pollux
is

but of Pollux and Milo
it

and, although the combination

is

by no means invariable.

At the present

day many of the best boxers are hopelessly and confessedly
incompetent in the wrestling arena.

Emerging from
digressions,

prehistoric speculations

and philosophic

however pertinent

to the matter in hand, into the

light of civilised literature,

we

find the earliest

dawn

of Euro-

pean society
his

reflecting the figure of the

boxing

man

in almost

modern aspect. Amidst the clash of arms in the before Troy a place is cleared for the veritable prize Amongst the mighty w^arriors whose names come down
on the grand Homeric
fists,'

plain
fight.

to us

roll-call is

'

Polydeuces, good with his
in the
!

mentioned

in the

same honourable phrase and
as
'

same sonorous cadence
Polydeuces, better

Menelaus, good at the war cry

known

as Pollux,

was not indeed amongst

the assailants of Troy, but he must have perished only a short

time before, for he was the brother, and apparently the
brother, of Helen,

tw^in

who

w^as still in the
is

prime of hfe even when

Troy was sacked.
traditions both of

His name

inseparably connected, in the
art

Greece and Rome, with the

and practice

Figure

II.

Stop with the left

THE HISTORY OF BOXING
of boxing, and he was the 'patron
saint,'

123

together with his twin

brother Castor, of

all

the public games.

The appearance
is

of
for

these brothers at the Battle of

Lake Regillus

immortahsed

the benefit of English readers by Macaulay,
at

and was recorded
In

Rome

by the building of

their

temple in the Forum.

the mythologic and legendary history of the old world boxing
finds a large

and honourable

place.

Apollo, besides his
fists
;

skill

with the bow, was certainly a good god with his
several of the sons of
bruisers.

and

Zeus by mortal mothers were excellent
sea,

Neptune, god of the

was the father of one

Amycus, king of the Bebrycians, and progenitor of a race of
fighting

men.

This worthy was accustomed, as

it

seems, to

challenge strangers

who

visited his

dominions
to

to put the gloves
at

on with him
his

;

and no one appears

have escaped death

hands

until Pollux, landing with the Argonauts,

took up the

customary challenge and paid

off the tyrant in his

own

coin.

The
is

tale suggests

an anecdote of much more recent date, which

perhaps more true and certainly more capable of being

proved than that of the Asiatic monarch.

Not very

far

from

London is The fields
and repose

a small estate sloping to the banks of a famous river.
are verdant,
his

and

invite the passing stranger to land
is

weary limbs. The house of the owner

at

some
For

distance, screened by a belt of tall shrubs

and

trees.

picnic parties hastily improvised

it is
'

a spot to be desired of

the eye

;

and the

servitors of the

riparian

owner

'

see their

way

occasionally to turning an honest half-crown or shilling by

according to such parties a sort of French leave to pitch their

camp

for

an hour.

But when the jealous Naboth comes home
he
is,

early from his daily labours

or at least was, in the habit

of falling mercilessly

upon the
off

intruders.

Nor

is it

enough

for

him

to

warn them

and repudiate the

invitations
if

of his

servants.
style of

He

invites the

gentlemen of the party,

not in the

Amycus,

at least in a sufficiently

provoking manner, to

124
'

BOXING AND SPARRING
it

have

out with
fair

him then and
'

there, and, being a stout fellow

with a very

knowledge of the noble art, was doubtless accushigh-handed
style,

tomed

to drive out the intruders in

with

great honour and gratification to himself.
the party of Argonauts
(or white-mail) to

One

day, however,

who had

landed, after paying black-mail
to include
this

John Thomas, happened

one of

the

best

amateur boxers of the day, and

individual,

although of a particularly peaceable disposition, was by dint of
repeated objurgations levelled at the retreating camp,
at last

aggravated into turning round and facing the lord of the

domain.

A

set-to

was proposed and immediately accepted,
village

and

after

two very brisk rounds the

Amycus was

led off

bleeding and discomfited by his butler and gardener to receive
the commiserations and, what was
still

more

to the purpose,

the sponge and cold water tendered by his sorrowing relatives.

In the western parts of the world Sicily was for a time the
headquarters of the noble art of self-defence, and Eryx, one of
her kings, lorded
as
it

over the island in somewhat the same way
gloves,
still

Amycus over the Bebrycians. His blood and brains^ were shown in the
But Eryx met
his

stained with

next generation to a de-

generate race which was appalled at their size and formidable
aspect.

match
island,

at last in Hercules,

whose

wanderings led him to the
in a set-to with the king,
It

when he of course engaged and of course came off the victor.
over the world to celebrate the
great

was the custom

all

funerals of defunct kings
sports.

and

men by

displays of athletic

And

this fashion survives in full force still in

South-

eastern Asia.

At the cremation of the

last

second King of

Siam as well as those of the chief Princes and Ministers
which are observed with extraordinary

pomp and splendour—
especially of boxing

a field was reserved and surrounded by lines of troops for the
exhibition of quarter-staff matches

and

matches.

So

at

Thebes, when the sons of King OEdipus had

THE HISTORY OF BOXING
tomb of the
elder one.

125

perished in single combat, there were grand games over the
Strangers were admitted freely
;

and
the

one of them, Euryalus, who hailed from Argos, beat
native professors

all

and carried

off the prize.

This man, moreover,

was the nephew of one of the very warriors

who had been
city
;

most active
if it

in organising the late attack in

upon the
it

so that,
likely
list

had been

any degree a close competition,

seems

that

he would have been refused admittance on the

of

entries.

But the

first

really authentic
is

account of boxing which has
it is

come down
demigods.

to us

so good, that

needless to speculate any

further as to the style or the exploits of the earlier heroes
If
it

and

had no other

title
it

to quotation, there

would be

ample excuse

in the fact that

was produced by the masterly

hand of Homer.

In the catalogue of sports held at the funeral
list,

of Patroclus, boxing comes second on the
after the horse race,

immediately

and

just before the wrestling competition.

A

number of valuable

details

may be
;

collected from the short
a curiously
rules

but spirited narrative in the Iliad
close analogy between the

and they present

custom of those times and the
belt

of

Enghsh

pugilism.

The

—the emblem of modern chamlost

pionship in the P.R.

is

an indispensable part of the costume,
the day by

and
no

is

buckled on to the hero who eventually
person than Diomede.

less a

Probably the rule against
for

hitting

below the belt was already estabhshed,
this

we read of no

foul

blows either in
is

or

the

Virgilian account.

And
on

there

no other reason
it

easily to

be found

for the putting

of this cincture unless
it

were to mark the spot below svhich
to hit.

was considered unfair
was also

Nothing more seems to have
ccesfus (as to

been worn by the men but the

which presently), hands and arms

and

this

fitted

on by Diomede

to the

of his principal.

There was no preliminary shaking of hands,
'

of course, and no

tossing

'

for corners,

but each combatant

126

BOXING AND SPARRING
at

advanced
by the

once into the middle of the
stakes, but the ring

ring.

Nor were

there
in

any ropes and
front

would be roughly closed

row of

spectators,

which was certainly seated on the
the referee was also w^inting,

ground.

That important

official

but

it is

clear that the rules of fair play

were enforced by the

general voice of the assembled multitude, which had the right

of refusing the prize to a victor

if

he had offended against the

known

rules of the contest.
in the ring, the

Having advanced
one another, and
'

combatants stood facing
orthodox phrase)
little

at the

same time
But
it

(in strictly

put up their hands.'
'-

seems that there was very

preliminary

sparring for an opening.'

Possibly the absence
;

of such tactics

may have been

exceptional

but at any rate the

putting up of the hands was immediately followed by an advance

on both

sides to close quarters.

The hands became 'mixed no

together,'

and

at

once there began a crashing of the jaw^-bones

w^hich caused a shudder

amongst the more tender-hearted.
blow^s,

This interchange of half-arm

which could only have

occurred in in-fighting, lasted apparently for a long time, until
the perspiration poured from every limb of each fighting man.

There must, however, have been some cessations and some
retreats to a safer distance.

For

just afterwards

it is

clear that
'

Euryalus, the second comer, the friend of Diomede, was

out

of distance,' peering about for a chance of making a well-judged
attack.
It

was while he was engaged
a rush at
off
'

in this operation that

Epeiis

made

This 'lead
combat.
a heap.

was a

him and caught him full on the cheek. knock-down blow, and it decided the

The limbs of Euryalus w^ere relaxed, and he fell all of As when by the ripple caused by a sharp north'

easter a fish

is

cast

up on the beach, so the blow stretched him
victor thereupon
foe,

helpless

on the ground.' The

magnanimously
led off by

extended his hand and raised his fallen
his

who was

comrades through the crowd

w^ith clots

of blood rushing

Figure III.— Stop for right-hand lead-off

'

THE HISTORY OF BOXING
from
his

127
to side,

mouth, and

his

head wobbhng from side

and
*

his feet

dragging behind him.

Several other details peep out which
of the fighting school was pretty

show that the philosophy
the

much

same then

as now.

When

the Greeks are invited by Achilles, the master of the

games, to come up to the scratch, the probable winner is spoken
of in advance, not as the
the best, but
is

man who can
'

hit the hardest, or

guard

who can 'endure
as aXeyeir?;,
is

the longest.'
;
'

The
and

contest itself
it is

announced

causing distress

clear that
'

the distress referred to

the same as that mentioned in 'Fistiana
i.e.,

and the 'Records of the Ring,'

that

it is

not the mere pain

caused by the hard knocks received, but that exhaustion which
is

the real cause, nine times out of ten, of losing a fight.

This

is

shown by the

fact that the very

same word
at

is

used as an
are given.

epithet for the wrestling in

which no blows

all

Then,

it

was not supposed that a second

man would
prize
latter

volunteer

to enter the lists unless a very

handsome

was given to the

loser as well as the winner.

While to the

an unbroken
of

mule was

offered,

the

former was allowed the prospect

winning a double cup as a solatium.

And many

a Greek soldier

encamped
prefer the

in the plain of

Troy beyond the sea would surely
less

more portable and

troublesome of the two

articles

of property.

It is noticeable,

moreover, that Achilles never

contemplates even the chance of more than one pair coming
forward.

Two men

only are

the two best in the

whether by frequent

summoned and they are to be From this it is plain enough that, host. displays or common repute, it was well
;

known which amongst each
Argives, Cretans, &c., was the

division of the army, Athenians,

champion boxer.

The
'

first

who

stood up does not appear to have had

much
'

of a

record.'

He
;

'was a good
but by his

man and
own

tall,'

and was

well skilled in boxing

confession he was only a poor fighter in the

actual battle-field,

and excused

his default in this respect

by

128

BOXING AND SPARRING
He was,
moreover, a cousin by the half-blood of Achilles
to all

explaining that no one could be learned in every art at the same
tmie.
himself.

His challenge

comers was boastful enough, and
all

in the style affected

by the challengers of

ancient times.
'

He

promised with a strong asseveration that he would
body, and smash the bones,' of anyone
the prize with him.
credentials.

break the
to

who came

dispute

The second comer

is

furnished with better

He

was the same Euryalus already mentioned as
all

having gone from Argos to Thebes and vanquished

the

Cadmeian
Almost
these

pugiHsts.
at the

same

time, or at least only a few days after

funeral sports were held

on the plain before Troy, a
in

similar display

was taking place within the walls

honour of

Hector.
Virgil,

The account of this comes, not from Homer but from who in speaking of it refers to the fact that Paris was
all

the best boxer in

Troy.

He

resembled

in this therefore, as

well as in his beauty of figure, that other great archer Apollo.

The

only

man who

ever set-to with him, even in practice, was
at the

a certain Dares,

who

Hectorian games came out the

winner, Paris probably not condescending to compete.
principal competitor was the giant

His

champion Butex, a descendfought against Pollux.
it is

ant of that same

Amycus who had

From

this stage of pugilistic history

a short step to the

Virgilian record, wTitten evidently by a

man who
It is

thoroughly

understood what he was writing about.
lost,

too good to be
in

and

is

in every respect

more worthy of being included

this place

than the fantastic prose of the chroniclers of the

English Prize Ring.

The

first

man

to enter the

lists,

which

were on

this

occasion open to
in Troy,

all,

was the selfsame Dares who
safely

had beaten all comers
claim to be
the
best

and might therefore pretty
the diminished

man

in

Trojan force

encamped

in Sicily.

His speech, made

after waiting a time in
'
:

vain for a challenger,

may

thus be modernised

Beg pardon,

THE HISTORY OF BOXING
m' Lord, but
if

129

no one haven't the pluck

to put

'em on with me,
here for ever,
this there

what's the use

o'

me

standing 'ere

?

I can't stop

ye know.

Hand

over that there

prize.'
;

Upon

was

some applause

amongst the Asiatics

but an unexpected

challenger soon appeared.

This was a very old man, who had
or,

been the favourite pupil

to use a truly
Sicily,

orthodox term, a

novice of King Eryx, the Bendigo of
his gloves.
istic.

and had inherited
But the

His mode of challenging was eminently characterthrew both these gloves into the
ring.

He

size

and appearance of them appalled the Trojans, and caused a determined objection on the part of their champion, who at
once backed out of the whole business.
This matter was
Sicilian

compromised, on the magnanimous proposal of the
veteran,

by the production of two equal
to

pairs of gloves,

which
;

were fastened on

both men's arms by ^Eneas himself

and

the fight at length commenced.

The

Sicilian

threw off his two
'

outer garments (remember he was an old man),

exposing to

view the huge joints of his limbs, his mighty bones and muscles,

and stood up
and puts

in all his gigantic size in the

middle of the

ring.

Then each man on
his

the alert raises himself on tip-toe
(fault again) to

(fault),

arms up high

guard the head.

Their heads held high are drawn back, and their hands are
confused together (another mistake) as they spar for an opening.

The one

is

quicker in getting about on his
;

legs,

and con-

fident in his youth

the other, better built-up and with stronger

limbs, but retarded by the trembling

and

tottering of his knees,

and shaken
breath.
(short hits),

in his giant

form by a distressing shortness of
effect

Many

blows are delivered on both sides without

many come home
in

with a hollow sounding effect on

the ribs and chest (compare the Tiines account of the Sayers-

Heenan

fight,

which a blow from Sayers on the
to the breaking in
fists

ribs

is

compared

in

sound

of a box), and round

the ears and temples the

are ever busy, while the jaws of

K

I30

BOXING AND SPARRING
Entellus
acstill

each absolutely clatter with the well-planted blows.
stands quite
(this

passage

is

inimitable),

accommodating

curately the motions of his
eyes,

body

to the warnings of his watchful

and eludes with well-judged action the long shots of the

adversary.

The
tries

other man, like one

who

besieges a fort on an

eminence,

first

one and then another mode of approach,
an opening, and presses on in
It is

and

spies about everywhere for
'

vain with every species of

lead-off.'

only

when

the big

man assumes
Entellus

the

offensive

that

he

comes

to

any harm^

showed

that

he was coming on with

his right (the
it

ancients always led off with this hand) by raising

on

high.

The
or,

other saw the blow coming from above, and with a quick

side step got away.

Either the Sicilian
likely,

made

a grievous blunder,

which

is

more

the straight hit from the shoulder

— the

pride of the British pugilist
force of the

— w^as unknown in antiquity,
to

and the

blow was allowed

depend merely on the weight

of the loaded glove slung round at arm's length towards the foe.

However
in
'all

this

may have

been, Entellus was certainly at fault
art.

one of the elementary principles of the

His

feet

were

wrong,' and his attitude so bad that in missing his
fell

man he

toppled over bodily, and

very heavily, amidst tremendous

shouting on the part of the adverse faction.

Every one jumped
fallen

up

— long

battles
at

were evidently most unusual— and the

man's second

once ran

in

to

pick

him

up.

Surprise was

manifested at the fact that the pugilist was neither damaged nor
*

dismayed

'

!

He

goes to work

w^ith

a will thenceforth, and
ring,'

drives the smaller

man

^

all

over the

raining his blows

both with right and

left like hail

on the discomfited champion.

Then

summary interference on the part of the master of the sports, who charitably attributes the mishap of his fellowcountryman to the influence of some god or goddess. The
there
is

a

veteran, baulked of his full revenge
his

— for he meant to finish off

man

in

complete

style

fells

with a blow between the horns

Figure IV.

Ketreat

in good

order

THE HISTORY OF BOXING
the ox which was to be his prize, and offers
to Eryx, thus sacrificing as he says
'

131 as a sacrifice
in

it

up
'

a better hfe

Heu of that
'

of his intended victim.

Why Dares did
it

not 'go

down

to save

himself from punishment,
sporting
It style,
'

does not appear.
belt, retires.'

Entellus, in true

having won the

remains, before dismissing the boxing of the old world,
its its

to
'

mention what was
In

chief characteristic, the use
first

of the

caestus,' or glove.

origin there can

be

little

doubt

that this apparatus

was used as a protection

to the

arm

or hand.

In the practice of round-arm and downward
natural to unskilled pugilists, there
is

hitting,

which

is

much danger
is

of bruising
the most
in

or breaking the

bone of the forearm.

Even amongst

expert performers, where one of

them

much overmatched
modern
his

height and weight,

it is

often difficult to avoid this result, as w^as
times,

amply proved

in the greatest prize fight of
'

when

Tom Sayers
portionate

'

giving away

about ^n^ inches in height and a pro-

amount of
extent,

weight,

had the bone of

guard arm
to avoiding

broken very early
this to

in the encounter.
it

With a view

some
as

was the practice to bind the knuckles
strips of leather,

and forearm round with
serve

which would not only

a partial protection to the guarding arm, but also
striking

deaden the blow of the

arm and

fist.

Even

to this

day the very same practice prevails
linen are similarly
fighting

in Siam,

where

strips

of

there

is

bound round the hands and arms of the men as high as the elbow. In the Homeric account, no mention of any covering for the hand except
leather from a wild bull's hide.'
It

the 'bands of well-cut

was

at a

much

later

time that the caestus began to be armed

with metal in order to increase instead of diminishing the force
of the blow
;

and the passages where

Virgil has introduced the
suit the ideas

loaded glove are anachronisms, necessary to
his unlearned readers.

of

Even

in the latest
for

times gloves were

used,

especially in

practice,

deadening the blow.

They
K
2

132

BOXING AND SPARRING
fist

were padded on the inside of the hand, and must have been
dangerous enough, as a hard blow with the clenched
anything
is

when

held within

it

is

almost sure to break the bones of

the knuckles or at least dislocate a joint.
sports of the

But

in the ferocious

Roman
The

amphitheatre such things would be quite

out of place.

impatient and blood-thirsty audience would
fight of the

have been bored to death even with a modern prize
fiercest kind.

The back

of the leather caestus was accordingly
iron,

loaded and faced with lead and

and sometimes

rings of

metal were passed round the knuckles and hands.

There were

various descriptions of c^stus called by various learned Greek

names
great

— for the

Romans

admittedly took their rules from the
of these are to be found
is

Greek games

— and specimens
pugilist

in several

ancient monuments.

There

also

an admirable

statue in the

From this it would seem that the classical boxers stood and moved in the attitude of swordsn:ien, using the right arm very much as if it had been a sword or club, and the left very much as if it had
Louvre of a

on guard.

been a

shield.

It is said that in

the schools the ears, which were
practice of round-arm hitting,

the chief sufferers in the

common

were protected by small caps or covers.

The accepted
in Attica

opinion

was that boxing was originated by Theseus
there was an

and

that

ancient Italian school of the art in Etruria.
in

From boxing
almost
at

the classical age

we must come down
There
is

one leap

to the

Hanoverian.

of course no

doubt that

in the interval the use of the fists
all

was

common

in

many

countries in almost

parts of the world.

While the
hands

practice of the Savate, in which the feet as well as the
are used, was growing

up

in France,

an exactly similar

style of

boxing was being separately developed in the remote countries

between India and China.

Once

recognise the idea of personal

contest for purposes of sport as opposed to purposes of actual
.

destruction,

and the

fist

becomes a material weapon more

really


THE HISTORY OF BOXING
suitable for deciding a doubtful claim than any other.

133

Once
find

admit that

men had better settle their
unarmed

differences

by temporarily

disabling one another than by killing outright,
contests with the
fairest

and you

or protected

hand recognised

as the

and

readiest tests of rival merit.

The mistake

is

to sup-

pose that boxing was ever anything more than an
business, regulated

artificial

by fixed

rules,

and saved by the interference

of referees or umpires from degenerating into a mere 'rough

and tumble.'
favourite

That England during the middle ages was a
of the art in pretty

home
'

much

its

present form no
it

one
in
'

will

be bold enough to doubt, although the allusions to

Ivanhoe
is

where no

less a

personage than Richard Coeur de
it,

Lion

claimed as a professor of

must be regarded as

fanciful.

Every characteristic of the Anglo-Saxon race was

such as to make the exercise congenial to their tastes and
habits
;

and

in the old-fashioned fairs held at
it

market towns

and

village greens

is

impossible to doubt that, besides the
there

wrestlers

and

quarterstaff players,
local pugilistic

was commonly a But
it

good show of

champions.

is

only after

the age of lance
after

and cudgel had died out with the Plantagenets,
bows and arquebuses had been driven out

the era of

with the Yorkists and Lancastrians,

when

the long sword of the

Tudors had been supplanted by short swords of the Spanish

and French
last

schools,

and when the

latter
;

had gone out with the
that prize fights,

descendants of the Stuart Kings
elaborate

and

consequently the
established

study of pugilism, found their

home

in the island.

In quite the

earliest part of

George

I.'s

reign a French traveller, in his

memoirs of

travel in
all

England, thus alludes to the universal popularity amongst
classes of English of fighting with the
fist
:

Anything that looks like fighting is delicious to an Englishman. If two little boys quarrel in the street, the passengers stop, make a ring round them in a moment, that they may come to fisticuffs.

134

BOXING AND SPARRING
neck-cloth and waistcoat^ and gives them to hold
standers-by.

Each pulls off his to some of the

Dming
fight

the fight the ring of by-

standers encourage the combatants with great delight of heart,

and never part them while they
all sorts

according to the rules

;

and

these by-standers are not only other boys, porters and rabble, but

and mothers of the boys and hearten him that gives ground or has the worst. These combats are less frequent among grown men than children, but they are not rare. If a coachman has a dispute about his fare with a gentleman that has hired him, the coachman consents with all his heart the gentleman pulls off his sword and lays it in some shop, with his cane, gloves and cravat, and boxes in the same manner as I have described above. I once saw the late Duke of Grafton at fisticuffs in the open street Avith such a fellow, whom he lambed most horribly. In France we punish such rascals with our cane, and sometimes with the flat of our sword, but in England this is never practised they neither use sword or stick against a man that is unarmed.
of of fashion.
fathers
let

men

The

them

fight

on as well as the

rest,

;

;

Figure V.

Ducking to the right

135

CHAPTER

11.

THE OLD SCHOOL.

The

father of actual professional prize fighting, the established
is

patriarch of the ring,

Figg,

whose

portrait

we have on
first

the
roll

canvas of Hogarth, and whose
of recognised champions.
10

name
is

stands
17 19
;

on the

His date

and he appears
is

have reigned eleven years, when his name
'

succeeded
Greeting.'

by the rather enigmatical mention of

Pipes and

How many
another
is

pitched battles these heroes fought against one

a question that could only be decided by diving into
;

the mustiest records of pugilistic literature

but

it

seems that

Gretting (for that was his real name)
time,
Pipes,

won

alternately for
it

some
with
easily

and was rather undecidedly getting the worst of

who was

the smaller man,

when both were very
1734, the
right

vanquished by the redoubtable Jack Broughton.

From
list

the

end of
sole

their four years' tenure of office in

of

champions continues unbroken and complete
famous international
battle at

down
with

to the date of the in

Farnborough
the
title

i860

j

and an enthusiast may even

trace

down

a few gaps and uncertainties to the present day.

A

running

commentary on the most prominent names
found
in polite literature without

in the roll

may be
more

much

difficulty, as

for

than a century the champion of the day was better known
in

fame

to the

rank and

file

of Englishmen than the Prime

Minister, or the Archbishop of Canterbury.

Most of them are
display
in

immortalised in very tolerable woodcuts, which

'

136

BOXING AND SPARRING
truthful detail their special

somewhat exaggerated but doubtless
points of excellence
istics.

and

their distinguishing personal character-

Their

portraits, as well as those of their chief antagonists,

may be
inn,

seen hanging on the walls of the most famous rooms
art is still

where the noble

taught

;

and

in

many

a country

once owned by a sporting landlord, the

traveller

may come

unawares upon a smoke-dried copy of some notable pitched
battle in w^hich a pair of flat-nosed heroes with monstrously

developed muscles are seen fronting one another in orthodox
attitude with

more

or less dilapidated visages.
all

The

rest

of

these worthies' performances, and
fists,
'

that they did with their

are they not

mentioned

in the
?

Book
it

of the Chronicles of

Boxiana' the oracle of the Ring

From

these authentic records
half,

appears that in about a

century and a

beginning from 1700, some four thousand
in pugilistic battles,

Englishmen engaged
in print,

which were reported
fights

and

that at least seven

thousand

took place,

giving an average of over three fights to each

man, whether
'

winning or

losing.

Very few of these were

international

encounters, as until quite recent times prize-fighting was confined almost entirely to

England

;

but on one occasion, in 1754,

a French pugilist challenged the

champion of the

day,

and a
a pass-

scene followed which
ing mention.
Pettit,

is

sufficiently ludicrous to deserve

At the

first

onset the foieigner,

who was named
to the ropes

rushed

at his antagonist, and, getting

him on

or rails, very nearly throttled
strike a blow.

him before he had had time
this

to

Slack, the English champion, was black in the

face

when he escaped from

predicament, and continued

the round, which was a long one.

During
'

its

progress the

Frenchman,
off the

as the reporter says,
'

frequently

carted his

man

stage

— for

in those days

the ring consisted usually

of a boarded platform

—and

in other

rounds he adopted the

manoeuvre of seizing the Britisher by the hams and throwing

THE OLD SCHOOL
him
^

137

easily.'

After eighteen minutes' fighting the odds were a

guinea to a shilHng against the champion,
quite flabbergasted by the

who seemed

to

be

strange

tactics

of his opponent.

After

this,

however, Mr. Slack devised the plan of keeping

quite close to the Gaul,

and so avoiding

his rushes

;

and

in so

short a time as seven minutes

more the

battle

ended
hit

in favour

of the

islander.
Pettit

After receiving a

severe

in

the ribs.

Monsieur

suddenly bolted
^full

off the stage, being, in the

reporter's opinion,

strong,'

and able

to

go on.

Thus

finished one of the

most exciting and diverting spectacles ever
observes,
turns,'

offered to the on-lookers, being, as the chronicler
'perfectly ridiculous at times,

and equally dreadful by
inflicted

by reason of the severe punishment

on the English

champion

in the early rounds. laid

It

appears that the

Duke

of

Cumberland, who had
large loser

heavy odds on the foreigner, was a
result of this fight
;

by the unexpected

but, finding

Slack to be a better

man

than he had supposed, afterwards

backed him heavily

in his

match with Stevens, and

lost again,

thus undergoing the penalty which stockbrokers picturesquely
describe as being
'

hit in

both

eyes.'

A propos

of the wagering

which went on
Ring,
it

in the last century

amongst the patrons of the

may be mentioned
less

that Johnson, in his

match with

Perrins in

1789, w^as believed to have been backed by a Mr.

Bullock for no

than 20,000/.

Perrins was a giant

who

fought at seventeen stone, and he was tremendously mauled

by Johnson, a

far smaller

man.
also a complete

These records of the Ring provide
to those sentimentalists

answer
life in-

who descant upon
It

the danger to
all

volved in prize fighting.

appears from

the evidence that
all

deaths from boxing are infinitesimally rare, and out of

pro-

portion fewer than fatal accidents caused by boating, steeplechasing,

and some other bodily

exercises.

The

duration of

the

battles varied greatly, several of

them

lasting over four

138

BOXING AND SPARRING
won and
lost in less

hours, while others were fairly

than twenty

minutes.

Nothing

is

more notable than the way
last

in

which some

men,

after

appearing to be on their

superior condition to stave off

turn a losing battle into a win.

managed by the evil moment, and actually Chance and luck have played
legs,
skill,

but a small part in determining the merit of competitors for
fistic

fame, which

is

gained by the possession of nerve,
all,

strength, and,

above

that pluck

which

is

usually the special
' '

boast of free nations.
short, but, in a

The average duration of a round was very
and the ten of which
to

famous match between Sayers and Perry, the
;

second round lasted nearly half an hour

the battle consisted averaged over ten minutes each.

The

first

of those
it

who reduced boxing

an accurate science

and popularised

to

Londoners was Jack Broughton, who was

champion from 1740 to 1750, and who built and opened an amphitheatre for pubKc displays of the art behind Oxford Road,
near Tottenham Court Road, in the second year of his reign.

The next was Mendoza household word in the schools of arms— who reigned in 1791, and opened the Lyceum in the
Strand, where he long enjoyed the
aristocratic admirers and pupils.

patronage of

the

most

His immediate successors, Jackas well
sort of

Jem Belcher, and Pearce (the Game Chicken), were known in their generation as Wellington or Pitt and a
son,
;

apotheosis belongs, in the minds of

modern
1808,

pugihsts, to Gully,

who achieved champion honours
after

in

and was some years
!

elected

a

Member

of

Parliament

The

features

of

Belcher presented a rather

striking

resemblance

to the first

Napoleon

;

and no doubt some of
Ring

his rustic admirers considered

him the greater man of the two.
of the Prize
lived
;

This was the Silver Age

and a long succession of redoubtable heroes
manly waists with heavy subwith the fees of rich

and

fought, covering their

scription belts,

and

their

names with popular honours, while
pockets

they handsomely

lined their

THE OLD SCHOOL
pupils,

139

and lived on

tlie fat

of the land in crowded public-houses

where the muses joined company every evening with the professors

and admirers of the

'

noble

art.'

Lord Byron was not only

amongst the admirers, but

also a proficient in the art, as will
:

appear from the following quotations from his diary

Nov.

24,

1

81 3.

— Just

returned from dinner, with Jackson (the

Emperor

of Pugilism), and another of the select, at Crib's, the

I drank more than I like, and have brought away champion's. some three bottles of very fair claret for I have no headache. We had Tom up after dinner — very facetious though somewhat prolix. Tom is an old friend of mine I have seen some of his best

;

battles

in

my

nonage.

He

is

now

a publican, and,

I

fear,

a

sinner, &c.

have been sparring with Jackson for exercise this morning, and mean to continue and renew my acquaintance with the muffles. My chest and arms and wind are in very good plight, and I am not in flesh. I used to be a hard hitter, and my arms are very long for my height (5 ft. 8|^ in.). At any rate exercise is good, and this is the severest of all fencing and broadsword never fatigued me half so much.
17, 18 14.
I
:

March

The

lessons were continued for

some time afterwards

;

and
for

Byron continued throughout
Jackson, who, indeed, from

his life to

have a great regard

all

other accounts, appears to have

been a decided credit to

his profession.

Tom Cribb, Tom

Spring,

Jem Ward and Deaf Burke belong successively to this heroic age, and carry the title down to the time of Bendigo, whose pupils still
live

and breathe, and remember the far-famed accomplishments

of their master.

The admiration
Prize

professed by George IV. and
as well

his brother for the

Ring

is

known

as

any of their
at

characteristics

;

and the presence of those august spectators
on Molesey Hurst did a
circles

several of the big battles

vast deal

towards spreading throughout fashionable

as well

as

amongst the
the
fists,

common

people a liking for honest fighting with

instead of the sword or pistol business associated with

the continental nations, then so heartily detested in England.

I40

BOXING AND SPARRING
great victories of
;

The

Bendigo were gained over Deaf Burke
retired

and Ben Caunt

and he

unbeaten

in 1845, before the

exalted morality of the Victorian era had decreed irrevocably
that prizefighting was a degrading

and unlawful pastime.

Then
a short
1857,

there was a grand battle between
Slasher) in
interval,

Paddock and Perry

(the Tipton

1850, and the

latter,

who

reigned

when he was beaten by Harry brings us down to the time of Sayers and to fighting men who are still alive.

— with Broome —

till

the generation of

Tom

Sayers was one of the smallest
;

men who

ever got to

the top of the tree in prize fighting
for a long

and the physiologists were

time puzzled to account for his extraordinary powers.

A

learned discussion on the subject seems to have ended in
his great strength lay in the lower part of the
this part of his

showing that
shoulders
;

and the broad muscles of

body had
bricks,

been unusually developed by the practice of heaving
into lighters,

where they were caught by other workmen and
for water carriage.

stowed away
theory

Anyone who
pile,

likes to test this

may do

so by standing at the side of a pile of bricks,

taking them as quickly as he can from the

and

'

chucking
It will

'

them

a

good distance

to his left over the left knee.

be

seen that the attitude of the feet exactly resembles that recom-

mended

to boxers, while the action of the left

hand and arm

is

almost equally similar to the delivery of a correct blow from
the shoulder.
the heap

The

hands, both while picking the bricks off
level

and heaving them, remain
;

with the head or
at this sort of

shoulders

and thus a man w^ho spends hours
of Sayers

work becomes habituated
ring.

to the posture required while in the

The few contemporaries
to
criticise
left

who had

sufficient

knowledge

his

style, tell

us that in force of hitting

whether with the

or right he

had no equal whatever.
Their

The
was

blows came as from a catapult, and struck the
a sound like
cricket-balls

mark with
effect

hitting a wall.

riAure VI.

The

side step

THE OLD SCHOOL
striker
^

141

immensely enhanced by the wonderful judgment with which the
timed
'

them, catching his

man

as

he came forward or

as

he shifted

his ground,

and before he had a chance of draw-

ing back to lessen the shock.
skill

On

the other hand, that same
it

in

'

timing his

man

'

enabled the champion, when
it

was

impossible to escape a blow, to take
form.

in the

most modified
he guarded
of

Like Entellus, in the Virgilian prize

fight,

much more
to

with his cool quick eye and with the

movement

his body, than

by shielding himself with the arms, and appeared

vanish miraculously just

when
in

the enemy, after long

mantelling

oeuvring,
hit.

had worked

his

way

and seemed sure of a
his weight

The

perfect balance in

which

was sustained on

both legs enabled him to attack and retreat with such speed

and ease matched

as to disconcert a heavier athlete
in reach

;

and when, over-

and

strength,
'

he found the other coming to
'

close quarters, he
flinchingly,

would

take the blow
right

to all appearance un-

though by relaxing the
all

knee

at the

same time
head
fell

he took away

resistance,

and drawing back

his

almost with the lightness of a feather under the stroke.
reading the account of his historic match with
the account
is

In

well worth a perusal

Heenan — and one should remember parso deterribly

ticularly this little detail.

The knock-down blows which
and seemed so

lighted the

American

party,

damaging

to English prospects, were, in the opinion of those

who knew
Very
rounds
into

the native
different

champion

best,

a matter of small importance.
their feelings, if in the earlier in

would have been

the Benicia

Boy had succeeded

fighting his

man

a

corner, closing with him, throwing

him and

falling

upon him.
and get-

So

also the blows of the watchful Britisher did not represent in
skill

the matter of
ting

a

mere

faculty of seeing the openings

home

with best

effect.

They

are noticeable, in the eyes of

the connoisseur, not for what they did, but for what they did
not, that
is,

for not

exposing the striker to a rush and a close

142
for a
fall.

BOXING AND SPARRING
As
it

often happens in a long encounter, the really

telling

blows were amongst those that

made

least

show and

excited least applause.

And

the escape of

Tom

Sayers from
fact,

absolute undeniable defeat was due very largely to this
that the

hands of

his gigantic

opponent were so swelled with
boxing gloves than
fists.

hitting that they w^ere

more

like

As

to the

real merit

of the battle, which was decided
still

by the

referee to have

been a draw, there are
it

differences of opinion.
difficult

The

impartial historian finds

almost as

to

believe

that a

man

with a broken

arm could have stood up much
Allowing

longer, as that

one who was very nearly blind and whose hands
could soon have finished him
off.

wxre

like puff balls

for the fact of the

broken arm, and supposing that the accident
it

which caused
occurred,
it

it

— for accident

may

fairly

be called

—had

not

must be pretty evident

to all reasonable critics that

the Englishman was a long

way the

better

man

of the two.

By the by, the puffed condition of Heenan's hands was commonly attributed by the professionals who ought to know
best about
it

to his refusal to

undergo one of the usual
This
is

preli-

minaries to a fight in the Ring.

the pickling of the

hands
to

in a strong solution of 'astringents, the effect of
skin.

which
is

is

harden and roughen the

The

lotion,

which

also

often applied in a modified form to the face also, gives to the

skin a dark

and curious
'

look,
'

which Heenan, who was said
appeared to

to

be rather a

fine

gentleman

in his business,

dislike.

Prize fighting

is,

of course, one of those things in which the
;

ornamental should be subordinated entirely to the useful

and

the American champion no doubt saw abundant cause to regret
his

squeamishness

if

that

was the

real cause of his useless hands.

From

the

moment

of this great fight in i860 the fortunes
If Mr.

of the P. R. very rapidly declined.

Thomas
who

Sayers had

emulated the example of

Mr.
if

John Gully and become a
the big people
assisted at

Member

of Parliament,

and

THE OLD SCHOOL
the Farnborough battle had stood

143
in

up manfully

defence of

the Ring, something perhaps might have been done to arrest
its

decay.

But the end of the English champion was prema-

ture

and unpropitious.

A

disorderly

crowd created some

scandal even at the semi-public funeral which was given to his
remains.

And
in

as for his great antagonist

Heenan,

it

seems

only too well ascertained that in a subsequent fight in which he

was engaged

England he was

^

doctored/ or in other words

poisoned, and that so effectually that he never recovered the
injur}^

and died a few years

afterwards.

Meanwhile

for

about

seven years more the old established institution

fitfully

survived

amidst quarrels and inconclusive

battles,

and a

series of trouble-

some
which

interruptions caused by the increased vigilance
hostility of the police.
is

and

deter-

mined

Pugilism, like everything else
social ban,

tabooed and placed under a

became
fights

rapidly demoralised.

The

parties

which attended prize

included some of the most dangerous ruffians in the world,

and no man of respectability dared
protection of

to appear except

under the

some well-known member of the confraternity. Sam Hurst (the Staleybridge Infant) and another giant named
first

Paddock were the
Sayers.

to contest the title vacated

by

Tom

But neither of them possessed much science, and the
was defeated with much ease by Jem Mace, a com-

best of the two

paratively light weight,

whose

style

has by some been considered
to our generation a

better even than Sayers,

and has presented

type which has seldom been equalled and perhaps never excelled
in

any age.

The heavy

weights Baldwin and
little

Wormald made
falling

several matches, but with

result,

some of them

through, and others, though
in a draw.

commenced, ending unsatisfactorily
championship honours which
for a fight in that

Their

last

meeting was in the United States in

1868

;

and since

that the claims of

have been put in have generally stipulated

more free-and-easy

country.

Jem Mace, probably

the only

144

BOXING AND SPARRING
title

Englishman who would have found a backer against Sayers,
retained his

of champion, wnth
great

some

interruptions,

from

1861

till

1872,

and indeed a
far

deal later;
finest

and

for

more

than twenty years was

and away the

performer to

be found

in the world.

The

frequent displays which, in com-

pany with

his old antagonist

Joe Goss, he gave

in

both hemi-

spheres, familiarised a very late generation with the old traditions

and glories of the
few and
in style
far

ring

;

and there

still

exist professional boxers,

between,

who have

not been demoralised and spoilt
spurious sport termed

by the

vitiating effects of the

'glove fighting.'

Here
style of

it

should be remarked that the only true and correct

All the

modern boxing is that in which the bare fists are used. mere travesties of the original. rest are mere imitations

To

excel in

them one has

to

abandon some of the elementary
judge them, one must be con-

rules of the orthodox art.
stantly thinking not of

To
is

what

done by the men as they are, but
blows and parries
if

what would be the
were
off.

effect of their

the gloves
as to the

This

at least is the fairest
If,

way of deciding

merits of a pair of competitors.
points are given to a

adopting a different system,

man

for every
it

blow which comes home

to

the head or

body of the adversary,

becomes necessary

to count

those
for

flips

with the end of the fingers which in a real fight go
at all.

nothing

On

the other hand,
it

if

the value of a blow

is

estimated by the simple effect

produces through the

gloves^

then a

false

conclusion

is

formed, because in sparring or glove
is

fighting a dull
in real fighting

heavy thwack
it is

the most telling stroke, whereas

the quick, sharp knocks that do the damage,
lip,

cutting open a cheek or

and ornamenting the

ribs with
if

aching bruises, whereas the slow slogging blows, even
get

they

home, are apt

to shatter the striker's knuckles or dislocate

the muscles of his forearm rather than to do adequate
to a well-trained opponent.

damage

Figure VII. — Slipping

1

H

'

THE OLD SCHOOL
Glove
fights

145

were adopted, when the Ring proper came to a

bad end,

as the nearest possible

approach to the old-fashioned

prize lights.

Some

very good rules were drawn up for
also instituted the

them by
amateur

the Marquess of

Queen sberry, who

contest hereinafter to be described.

They

differed in several

important respects from those of the P.R., and chiefly in regulating the length

of the

rounds by time instead of by the

capabihty of both

men

to

keep on

their legs.

The admixture
;

of wresthng and 'hugging' with true boxing was also prohibited

the time between each round (of three minutes) was extended
to

one minute

;

and the time allowed
his

for a fallen

man

to get up,

which he must do by
seconds.
P.R.,

own

exertions,

was cut down to ten

Most of the other

rules

were similar to those of the
to

and the stakes were of course

be awarded

to the

man

who
and

held out the longest.

For the reasons already mentioned
is

several others, the glove fight

a poor substitute for the
;

real thing

which

it

attempts to reproduce

and although there

have been some important combats conducted under the new
rules with gloves on,
it is

needless to say more about this

artificial

and clumsy form of

sport.

Quite in recent times, moreover, the

necessity for resorting to such a device for deciding a pugilistic
affair

has been somewhat diminished, as means have been de'

vised for

bringing off' real fights in spite of the police

;

and

for

three or four years past a tolerable
fairly

number

of

them have been

fought out in different parts of England.
is

This

not the place to introduce an essay on the merits or

demerits of the P.R.
matters.

We

must proceed

to less controversial

But those who have any

interest in the
'

argument one

way or another may

profitably refer to the

Saturday Review

(volume 1885), where an apologist

for this ancient sport of the

British race did not hesitate to stand
its

up

seriously for

it

against

hosts of

modern

detractors.

tain, that

the squabbles of the

One thing at least seems cercommon people have, since the
L

146
fall

BOXING AND SPARRING
of the Ring, been settled

more commonly
It

in a brutal

and

cowardly way than when the ideal of Gully or Bendigo was
before the eyes of the quarrelsome man.
sort of street

was a more honest

row

— that which the Frenchman Missot described
is

as above, or
its

which

referred to in the
it

Ode

of Beranger, with

amusing plate

to bear

company.
?

Qa, mesdames, qu'en pensez-vous

Cest a vous de juger
Qiioi
!

les coups.
?

ce spectacle vous atterre
.
.
.

Le sangjaillit Dieux que les Anglais sont humains Non, chez nous, point,
battez des mains.
!

!

Point de ces coups de poing Qui font tant dlionneur a I'Angleterre.

Modern
into the

boxing, or

more properly speaking
gloves, has

'sparring,'

which
falling

means only the use of the
same disrepute

been saved from
by the
it

as partly pugilism,
it

by the innate love of
efforts of

the healthy-minded Britisher for
a few amateur clubs.
large scale

and

partly

The

first

of these to take

up on

a

was the old Amateur Athletic Club, founded by John
others in 1866.

Chambers and

During the second year of

its

existence, this club organised annual

amateur championship

competitions for handsome challenge cups presented by Lord

Queensberry.

Special rules were drawn up,

and the matches

took place in a twenty-four foot roped ring on grass, presenting
a close imitation of the

well-knowm scenes in which Sayers,
part.

Mace, and King had taken

These competitions were
;

kept up ever since, with, on the whole, surprising success
there
is

and

now

in existence a small

body of
all

ex- champions, each of

whom
'

can boast of having beaten
Indeed, the
list

comers

in a veritable
sort of

ring.'

became

at

one time a

double

one, for in 1881 a novel institution sprang up, which, discarding

some of the old

rules, set

up more elaborate ones of

its

777^

OLD SCHOOL
rival title of

147
to
its

own, and awarded annually a
heroes.

champion

own

For

five years these clubs

continued to give separate
in

sets of prizes, the

same man occasionally winning

both com-

petitions

;

but they have

now become merged
ranging from
'

into one,
for

and
less

amateur championships are awarded without dispute
than
five different weights,
1 1

no
is

st.

41b.,

which

the

boundary between heavy and
weight (9 stone), and
nastic
'

middle
'

w^eight,'

down

to feather

bantam weight

(8 stone).

Other gym-

and

athletic

clubs

have also done a good deal to
;

encourage boxing both good and bad

and there

are

now

probably more amateurs than professionals

who dabble

in this

form of art

1.

2

MS

CHAPTER

III.

THE ART OF BOXING.
It will have sufficiently appeared from what has already been
said that the 'Art of Self-Defence
is
'

is

eminently

artificial

— that

to say, that

its rules, far

from being such as one would devise

off-hand, are the result of prolonged experience

and
a

practice.
is

Accordingly, the very best way for one to
to follow the light of nature

become

bad boxer

and learn without a master.
;

untutored combats of boys are absurd parodies

and

in

The many

a remote place the clubs, where so-called boxing takes place,

produce

local

champions who

are disfigured

by almost every
style
;

fault that

can make them ridiculous.

A

bad

is

in this

matter, as in

most

others, very difficult to get rid of

and

it is

very rare to find a boxer of any pretensions
early in a

who

has not learnt

good
;

school.

Something may be done by the study
last

of books

and within quite the
Donnelly.

few years, a

new chance

has been afforded by the publication of a useful hand-book

by

'

Professor

'

To

the attentive study of this treatise

every beginner
there
is

may be

confidently

recommended,
'

especially

if

no chance of attending the

lectures

'

of a really com-

petent mentor.
It

may seem

paradoxical,

and provoke a
fists

smile, to say that
is

the

first

necessity for using the
feet.

properly
is

to

understand

the use of the

Before the beginner

allowed to touch

the gloves, or even to

make a

hit or a guard,

he should be taught

rigure IX.

Left arm guard

THE ART OF BOXING
to stand

149

and move about

in the

most correct way.
will tell

By

the

mere position of the
by

feet a

connoisseur

almost at a

glance whether a novice has learnt in a good school and profited
his lessons.

The

left

foot should

be

flat

on the ground,

pointing always straight towards the face of the adversary.
right foot

The

should be directly behind

it,

with a space of from

fourteen to twenty inches between heel and toe according to the

height of the individual

;

and the

right heel will

be raised an

inch from the ground, both knees being slightly bent, as by this

means the
and the
is

joints are

much more
The

ready for sudden movement,

little

that

is

lost in height is well

made up

for

by what

gained in
left,

agility.

right foot
it,

must not be

at right angles

to the

nor yet in a line with
forty-five.

but placed obliquely at about

an angle of

And

the weight of the
;

body must be

distributed between the two feet

so that

it

can be thrown in a
left

moment upon one
always
lifted first,

or the other.

In the advance the
if

foot

is is

and put forward a few inches

the design

merely to approach nearer to a retreating adversary, the heel

coming

to the

ground a

little

before the rest of the foot,

and

without any stamp or noise.
follow,

The

right foot

must immediately

and be

set

down
left

as gently,

occupying a similar position
as before.

at exactly the in leading
off,

same distance behind the other
the
foot will be

Bur

advanced quickly, though
is

gently, with a long bold stride, as the right foot

in a lunge in to

fencing.

A

six-foot

man

will easily step far
feet,

enough forward

leave thirty inches between his two

and even much shorter
knee
strongly bent,
right leg
is
it

men

will

cover this distance without spoiling their chance of

recovery.

When

in this position the left

is

so that

it is

exactly above the tip of the toes.

The The

almost straight and the heel raised very considerably, so that
is

at least four or

^Nt inches

off the

ground.
left

recovery

is

effected

by a vigorous spring from the

leg backwards.

In

ordinary retreating, the right foot must ahvays be

lifted first.

I50

BOXING AND SPARRING
inches, the left following
it

and withdrawn a few
the original attitude

quickly, so that
after

may be resumed.
is

In retreating

a

Mead-off' a different manoeuvre
first

usually adopted.

After the

spring back has been

made from
is

the

left

leg,

and

as the

weight of the body comes back on to the
is

right,

the right knee
legs together,

bent

;

and a second spring
foot

made from both

carrying the whole

body backwards.

Alighting from this jump,
in the

the

left

is

found occupying a position

same place
it,

where the
the right

right

had been, or perhaps a
at its

little

behind

whilst

comes down

normal distance behind.
touches the ground

In alightfirst,

ing, the front of the left foot

and

is

quickly followed by the heel, after which the right foot comes

down make
the

with the heel slightly raised as before.
a double step backwards, which
foot as
it

If

it is

intended to

is is

very often necessary,

left

touches the ground

pressed sharply down-

wards, giving a fresh impulse to the rear, and as the weight

comes back on
legs
feet
is
is

to the right foot the double spring with

both

xepeated.

Thus
and

in

two springs a space of about seven

covered

;

as the

advance

step,

properly made,

is

muchdess
to

rapid, the fugitive

ought by that time to be very well
all

out of reach.
is

Probably the most important thing in

boxing

or

become perfect in this lesson. Lift the wrong foot first, come down on the wrong foot, or in a false attitude, and it is
all

almost

over with the transgressor.

His
is

legs get crossed,

and

the right trips
further retreat

up the
is

left.

His body

overbalanced, and his

frustrated.
strides,

An
'

active

opponent follows him
tripping or tottering,

up with powerful
delivers a

and, catching
spills
'

him

heavy blow which
careful

him

like a

top-heavy jar of

water.

A

mentor

will

devote several lessons to the mere

perfecting of his pupil in this art of advancing

and

retreating

before he allows

him even

to put

on a

glove.

The body, in the meanwhile, should be kept upright, and the The left shoulder is thrown very most made of a man's height.

1

THE ART OF BOXING
forward,

15

and the upper arm lowered, so
on that side
;

that

it

forms a complete

shield for all the ribs

the elbow being close to the
to the knuckles the left fore-

lowest rib bone.

From the elbow

arm

is

held forward in a direct line towards the chest of the

adversary.

In

this position the

mere projection of the forearm
fist

in a forward direction operates to thrust the

out directly in

the
to

way of the opponent's

attack,

and

it is

very difficult for

him

come on without meeting

that obstacle directly with his face

or body.
Figs. 11.

An
and

idea of the effect
III.

may be

gathered from a glance at

The right forearm
right
right
is

will

occupy a rather similar

position, but

more

in front of the body, for the side ribs

on

this

side being

drawn back

away from any

attack,

need

little

or no defence.

The

shoulder and elbow are kept well

down, and the forearm
chest, so that the closed

bent across the lower part of the

fist is

about an inch below the point of

the

left breast.

In

this position the

two bones of the forearm
pit
'

effectually

guard that vulnerable place the
belt,

of the stomach

above the

known

to fighting

men

as

the mark.'
fist

Both
being

arms should be kept continually

in motion, the left

advanced and withdrawn a few inches by an easy movement,

and the

right

arm being worked upwards and outwards while
is

the knuckles are turned slightly, so that as the forearm
the lower muscles

raised

bones.
stiffness

come more and more forward in front of the The object of this movement is not only to prevent
in

the

arm-joints

and muscles, but
a hit or guard
is

to

prevent an

adversary perceiving

when

intended to be

made.
still

With a

similar object, the
;

body

will

not be kept stocklittle

in a stiif attitude

but the weight will be shifted a
to

from time

to time

on

one or other

leg,

and the ground
feet forwards

shifted occasionally

by imperceptibly moving the

or backwards, retaining always, as far as possible, the orthodox

distance between them.
difficult for

By

this

means,
his

it

becomes excessively
'

an adversary

to 'judge

distance

in

making or

152

BOXING AND SPARRING
The head
is

avoiding an attack. not so

bent a httle to the
It will
'

left,

but

much
his

as to fully face the

enemy.

point a foot or
left,'

two to

left,

and by the manoeuvre of
on the

eyes

the visual

organs are brought to bear on his face.
it is

If a

blow

is

to

be taken,

better to take

it

left

side of the face than full in

front.
in Fig.

The
I.

correct position of two

men on guard
*

'

is

shown

Several days should again be devoted to the study of attitude

before an attempt

is

made

at

guarding or hitting or real sparring.

Almost no

all

beginners, and not a few of those
will

who
They

consider

themselves quite adepts,
less

be surprised to hear that there are
shall

than

five different

methods of defence.

be

mentioned

in their order of merit,
;

and before going on

to the

methods of attack

for in all ages
is

and countries connoisseurs

have admitted that boxing

primarily the art of 'self-defence,'

and only secondarily
(i.)

that of injuring the antagonist.

The

stop by 'countering.'

—A

man who

is taller

than
well

his

opponent or who has a longer reach, ought,

if

he

is

skilled,

never to allow that unfortunate to get within striking

distance.

To

illustrate this take

two

dolls with flexible arms.
it

Extend the
of the

left

arm of the bigger one and put

in a

boxing

attitude opposite the other.
latter,

Do

what you

will

with the arms
;

you

will

never touch the face of the former

for

before the blow can get
doll will

home

the face or chest of the smaller

come

in contact with the

opposing

left fist

of the bigger.

Of

course, in order for this style of defence to be effectual, the

longer-armed

man must make the very most
that his

of his reach, and he

must be sure

blow does not miss

its

aim.

The

various

devices for eluding that aim, and preventing a long reach from
telling, constitute

the

ABC

of the small man's
skill

art.

But, sup-

posing an exactly equal degree of

and pluck, the long man

should always win by reason of his blows coming
those of the other
fall

home when
is

short.

The

stop by countering

mani-

Figure X.

Left-hand lead-off

THE ART OF BOXING
festly the best of all defences, for
is
it

153

needs

less trouble.

There

no

shifting of ground,

no

raising of the right arm,
left

no violent

exertion of the body.

Only the

arm

is

just

thrown forward

and the adversary
knock
is

is

disconcerted, receiving very likely a nasty

at the

same

time.

adopted the visage of

When this energetic system of defence the man who leads off, whether at the
fist

head, or at the body, as in Figs. II. and III., comes violently
into contact with the outstretched

of the intended victim.

Of course
with a
(2.)
*

this
'

'

stop

'

may, and often should, be combined
right arm.

guard

by the

The

retreat in

good
It

order.
is

— This
leg,

is

a

much

safer,

though
is

less

telling

manoeuvre.
is

effected, if the lead-off

short

and the distance
ground more or
(Fig. IV.).
(3.)

accurately judged, by throwing the balance

of the body back on the right

and

if

necessary shifting

less to the rear, in

manner already mentioned

Ducking.
in

— A dangerous but highly effective device, only
inferior in skill.
left,

to

be used
is

emergency or against a man

The
at

head
the

suddenly incHned well to the right or the
time,
if

and

same

necessary, the

body may be bent

in the

same
very

direction,

and lowered by bending one or both knees.

A

expert professor engaged with a comparative novice will turn

the latter into great ridicule by actually nodding his head for-

ward and allowing the slow blow aimed
lessly over.

at

him

to pass

harm-

Ducking, in combination with the several kinds

of

'

cross-counters,'

a safe opportunity

man
^

it

exposes the
cut.'

may be used with tremendous effect when offers but when attempted Avith a clever defendant to the damaging hit known as an
;

upper
Fig.

V. shows a

combination

of the

device of
telling

*

duck-

ing

'

with a less orthodox but

tremendously

form of

attack.

The head having been bent

well to the right, so that
it,

the left-hand lead-off passes well over

a forward

movement

154
is

BOXING AND SPARRING
is

made, whereby the whole body of the ducking man

pro-

jected forwards to that of the assailant.

As

the latter comes

on with the attacking impulse,
pointed by drawing back the
in a street row,

his left ribs are

exposed to the

impact of the advancing shoulder, which

and attacked

may be made more left arm. A small man engaged by a big fellow who knows someleft,

thing of the art and

who

leads off with the
;

miay employ
to

these tactics with great effect

and

if

he happens
flesh,

have a
is

bony shoulder, without much covering of

the coup

not

unlikely to break in the ribs of the adversary.
(4.)

The

side step.

—This

is

either

unknown to the unlearned,

or practised by
it

them

in a bungling inartistic fashion.

To

effect

properly, throw the whole weight suddenly

on

to the ball of the
it

left foot.

Raise the right foot bodily and step out with

well
left

to the right, alighting
foot following after
is

on the
put

ball of the right foot.

The

down

quietly in front of the

right,

and the man

is

in proper attitude again but standing a yard or
left.

so to the opponent's

If there

is

any danger of receiving a

blow from the

left

during the operation, duck the head and
if

lower the body so that the blow passes overhead, or
the
this

aimed

at

body

hits the point of the left shoulder.

When

well done,

stratagem leaves the other

man

pointing at nothing and

often hitting or advancing against the

empty

air (see Fig. VI.).

A
it

side step to the left

may be

effected

somewhat

similarly

;

but

should never be resorted to except in extreme emergencies,

to avoid being forced

by a heavier man into a corner or on
shifting ground,

to

the ropes.

Another mode of
is

more properly
ioot
is

called 'slipping,'

shown

in Fig.

VI L Here
left

the

left

raised

and

set

down

again at a point to the
it

of the adversary, the

right following

and coming down

in position

behind

it.

The

movement is that it exposes the left side to a very damaging blow. The proper style of breaking ground or shifting, or slipping, is by movements to the right, avoiding the
weak
part of this

THE ART OF BOXING
radical error of
right

155

working round to the

left

towards the opponent's

hand blows.

'(5.)

The guard

with the arm.

— Last

of

all

the defences,

although almost invariably reckoned as
of shielding with the arm.
is

first,

comes the device
'

For
;

this the right, the

guard arm,'

most commonly employed

but both are quite necessary.

Remember, however, in estimating the relative value of this defence, as compared with the others, that Sayers, during the greater part of his great fight with the American giant, could

make no

use at

all

of his guard arm, the bone having been

broken early

in the day,

and

that

Ned

Donnelly, the most suc-

cessful teacher of

more modern

days, fought in the ring for

an

hour with

his right shoulder dislocated,

and beat

his

man.

The

proper uses of the arms in guarding are as follows. For a blow
with the
the
till

left at

the head, raise the right

fist,

passing

it

towards

left, till it is

opposite the
it is

left

temple, straighten the elbow,

the angle

made by

very obtuse, and at the same time

turn the palm of the

hand

out, so that the

knuckles are inwards,
it

and bear forward on
pushed back on
the
to

that arm, so that

is
it is

not likely to be
hit.

to the face,

however hard

The

further
is

arm

is

passed across the body, the more likely the blow
call
is

fall

near the elbow, on what a fencer would
foible.

the j^r/ of the
if

arm and not on the
other

Otherwise there

great risk,

the

man

is

taller

and

stronger, that a

downward blow from
It is to

his left will
this risk,

break the outer bone of the forearm.
to give greater resistance to

avoid

and

the guard, that the

arm
hits

is

turned so that the blow

may

fall

on the muscle instead

of on the bone.

Nevertheless, after boxing with a

man who

down, you

will

be pretty sure to find some black and blue

marks along the ridge formed by the bone.
strong post and press against

To

test the truth

of these remarks as to this important guard, stand opposite a
it

with the weight of the body
nearer the point of contact

leaning on the

left

forearm.

The

156
is

BOXING AND SPARRING
more the knuckles are turned
in,

to the elbow, cind the
it

the

easier

will

be to support the weight on the point of pressure.
till

This guard should not be lowered
is fully

the weight of the blow
at

expended, and then the arm should return
place, but

once

to

its

normal

be ready

for instant use again.

Fig. VIII.
left
;

shows a right-hand guard stopping a lead-off with the
it

but

will

be observed that the

man on

guard has not passed his

arm

far

enough
wrist.

to the

left,

but receives the blow on the foible

near the

Figure VIII. —Right

Arm Guard.
its

To

guard a body blow, keep the right arm in

usual

position.

The forearm then
to save the ribs

crosses the

'

mark,' and the upper

arm ought
left.

from a round-handed attack with the

Blows with the opponent's

right

ought not to need very

much

guarding, but

when he

is

in the habit of cross- countering
it is

quickly,

keep the head back and rather low, so that
it

to a

great extent shielded by the shoulder as
off.

comes out

in leading

If this does not suffice the left

arm may be

raised in a

similar position to that

a left-hand lead-off.
in Fig. IX.
;

recommended for the right in stopping The position will then be as represented

and, as in a blow with the right the striker has the

fleshy part of his

arm downwards, the opposing guard generally

figure XI.— Lead-off at the body

'

THE ART OF BOXING
bruises
it

157

a

good

deal.

That
round

result
hit.

may
With

also
this

be deliberately
object
'

intensified in guarding a

feint

your

man

with the

left,

and, instead of delivering a

full

blow,

turn up the elbow sharply, leaning the head and body forward.

The

fleshy part of your assailant's

arm
a

will

come

full

on the

sharp corner of the elbow, and he will have had a lesson not
easily

forgotten.

In
it

like

manner

cross-counter aimed by

him

at the body, if

looks like getting home,

may be stopped
fist

by sticking out the
stands
tactics

left

elbow, holding the

low,

and the

pain inflicted on the foe will be very severe.
left

With a man who
same
or the left

foot foremost

and leads

off with the right, the
effect,

may be employed
'

with great
right
is

arm may

be passed upwards, as the
off.

in

guarding a left-hand lead-

In

in-fighting

'

or boxing at close quarters, both arms

may be

raised, as occasion occurs,

and the elbows seasonably

presented between the intervals of hitting.

And

the head

may

be guarded also by the
face, so that the

left

shoulder,

and by putting down the

blows come on the forehead or crown, jarring

the assailant's hands and arms, and causing
quite, as

him

almost,

if

not

much damage

as the

man

he

hits.

When

a beginner has

become
at length

pretty clever at resisting or

eluding an attack he

may

be allowed to

start

proceed-

ings as the aggressor.

And
his

for a long

time he should only be
is

allowed to use the

left.

The
as

lead-off

the essential point to

which he must devote
minutes
at a time,

whole attention.

Every day

for ten

and

much

oftener as he can, he should
still,

stand opposite a wall, or better

opposite a big sack

full

of bran hung up in the middle of a room.

Beginning

at a

moderate distance he

will hit

out at

this,

with an old glove on

his hand, adopting the position proper for advance,

and

retreat-

ing after each blow, a double step.
reach,

now

with a single spring, and sometimes with
to ascertain the real length of his

As he begins
he

and of

his stride,

will increase the distance

from which

158

BOXING AND SPARRING
off
;

he leads

and by degrees he

will

develop his resources so

much

that he finds he can strike from a distance far exceeding

his early attempts.

The reach

of a lead-off measured from the

foot of the wall struck to the right heel of the striker, will be

about equal to his own height
skilled teaching, could hit

;

but there are few
at

men who, without
and

an adversary

that distance,

who could do so and recover themselves easily. In extending the left arm as the foot comes out, the knuckles and elbows will be kept down, and the arm at the moment of
fewer
contact will be extended to
its fullest

much

length, perfectly straight.
it

The

left

foot
is

is

advanced
flat

till

about a yard separates

from the
is

right,

and

put

on the ground, whereas the right heel

raised

some
knee

inches.
is

The
it is

right leg

is

then nearly

straight,

but

the

left

bent

till it is

just over the

tip of the toes (see

Fig. X.).

And here
With

necessary to wait a moment, and estimate
hit,

the

full

value of a good left-handed
this

well-timed,

and well

delivered.
It will
left
fist

view place a
his

man

in the position indicated. right foot to the

be seen that

whole body from the

forms a long low arch, or rather the half of an arch in
is

which there
a

no weak

point.

Take
it

a heavy weight, a sack or
it

human

body, and precipitate
It will

or lean

against the front

end

of this semi-arch.
in destroying
its

be found to have absolutely no

effect

strength of resistance.
it

Nay, the very force with

which you press against

makes

its

resistance
it

more formidable.

And

the arch

itself,

consisting as

does of a bow-shaped

curve,

may be made

stronger

and stronger against any attack by

lowering the central and strongest part, consisting of the

human

body, so as to straighten out the curve, and drive the upper end
(the
fist)

further forward.

The

aspect of a face driven forward

against the end of this curve

would be a good deal altered
In a really good
force of the

when
blow

it

retreated from the ill-judged impact.

lead-off, properly timed,
is

and happily executed, the

the accumulated product of

many different

agencies,

all

Figure XII.— Double lead-off with the right

THE ART OF BOXING
directed
recipient.

-159

with the most

telling

effect

against

the

unlucky

The primary impulse comes,
It is

of course, from the

right foot, pressing the ground.

transmitted with accumuright leg,

lating force along the calf

and thigh of the

augmented
from the

by the natural weight of the whole body thrown forward, and
carried

on by the arm, which, extended

in a rigid line

big muscles of the back and shoulder-blade to the knuckles

resembles a long bar of bone.

Bring this formidable bar into

contact with a fixed mass of inert material, such as a huge sack

standing on
will

its

end, or a big box, or wall of thin wood,
is

and you

soon see what a sharp and damaging impression
to use this hit to

produced.

But

perfection extreme skill

and judgmentdelivering
it

are required.

the

The most blow when the arm is

usual mistake

is

not yet straight,
is

made by and when

loses its

chief virtue, as a

weak point

then interposed between the
hit.

ground and the face of the
error
is
is

man
it

Another very
it

common
Not only
and

to

draw back the

fist

before letting

go

out.

this entirely useless,

but

involves a w^aste of time,
is

gives a watchful
Finally, the
fist,

opponent notice of what

about to happen.
it

instead of going directly forward as
at,
is

should

towards the object aimed

often raised aloft

and then

brought down, hammer-like, only to be stopped by the inter-

posed guard,
leave the
attack.
left

or, if

it is

not so stopped, to

fall

downwards and

side of the striker

open

to

an ugly and dangerous

To

lead off at the body a similar action

is

made, the aim

only being somewhat lower, and the body and head correspondingly kept

down

(see Fig.
far
is

XL).

With a
and

taller

man, or one who
guard too high,

holds his head too
this

back or
;

his right-hand
it is

form of attack

the best

also exceedingly useful

when, by a pretended lead-off

at the head, the adversary

has

been inveigled into putting up
from both these

his

guard too

far.

The

recovery

hits is as difficult as the hits themselves.

The

i6o
greatest care

BOXING AND SPARRING
must be taken,
in practising at a

dummy,

not to

lean

upon the blow and take an impulse backwards from the
It is

object struck.

obvious that

if

a tendency to do this were
his

encouraged the novice who missed

mark would be wholly
like

unable to get back, and might even topple over altogether,
Entellus in
the
Virgilian
epic.
left

The impulse

in
;

recovering

must come

entirely

from the

knee and leg

and

as the

body

is

brought back, the

left

arm must be kept

partly ex-

tended and ready

for use as a shield against a

rush and a right-

hand blow.
and

The
is

practice required for learning

how

to lead off
;

even passably
it

to be

measured by months rather than days

can be brought to such perfection by years of constant
tell

exercise that a professor will actually

a novice,

'

Now

I

am

going to

hit

you with the

left,'

and

will

do so

in spite of his best

efforts to retreat, or

dodge, or guard.

The double step forward in leading off is used with a man who is shy and active but anskilled in the use of his legs. The first step may be a feint at the head or body, and the second The distance covered by a good man Mace, for a real hit.

example

is

almost incredible, and seems to take the assailant
ring.

more than half-way across the
spring back to clear the

For the defence take a

first hit,

and use the right-hand guard
dangerous and

or left-hand counter for the second.

Leading

off with the right

is

dif^cult.

It is

generally preceded either by a hit or a feint with the
little

left.

A

practice will enable
left.

you
is

to get out the right almost as far

as the

But the blow

altogether different,

and depends
in a lead-off
its

for its value

on

different principles.
hit

Although

the

arm
is

will

be straight and the

come from
front.
It is

the shoulder,

force

derived partly from the twist of the body by which the
is

shoulder

brought round to the

a sort of com-

promise between a half-arm blow and a blow with the straight arm,

and

it

requires far

more muscular action and

less

mere

utilisa-

Figure XIII

Right-hand lead-off at the body

THE ART OF BOXING
tion of balance

161

and weight than the
is

other.

Tn delivering

it

the palm of the hand
left

downwards, the head kept well to the

and the knee bent very much forward. As the right arm comes forward, it is likely to meet with the left fist of the
adversary coming out with a counter
will force this fist
;

and the idea
spite of
it

is

that

it

back and penetrate

in

to his face,
;

There
it

is,

however,
fail

much

fear of

its

failing to

do

this

and as

does so
it

the leader-off has to take the counter in

full face,

meeting

with the weight of his body as his right shoulder

comes forward.
his

Moreover,

if

the adversary should take
right,

it

into

head

to lead off at the

same time with his

he

is

almost

sure to get
XII.).

home and

give at least as

much

as he takes (see Fig.
effect

So dangerous a manoeuvre, of which the

may be
is

so

damaging, should not be attempted until the beginner has
ceased to be a beginner.

The

other right-hand lead off

even

more

risky.

It is

the same blow aimed about eighteen inches

lower, at the body.

And

the reason

why it

is

more hazardous

is

that in this case there

is

no reasonable likelihood of encoun-

tering the other man's left hand.
is left

On

the contrary, a free scope

for this

hand

to

come home with unchecked force
leader-off.

against

he advancing face of the
reserve

Far

better, therefore, to

both these

hits for use as cross-counters,

that
left

is

to

say, for the riposte delivered

when

the other man's

hand

has already
countering

come
more

out in a lead-off on his side.

If instead of

it is

proposed to stop the lead-off with an arm guard,
easy.

nothing
left

is

All that need be

done

is

to

keep the

arm

well back close to the ribs, as
hits are all
'

shown
;
'

in Fig. XIII.

In in-fighting the
therefore be 'round.'

half-arm

but they need not

The body should be thrown well forward,
As each arm
is

and the

face kept

down.
it

used

in hitting, the

shoulder belonging to

should be thrown forward with a twist

of the body, and every endeavour should be
the forearms inside those of the opponent
;

made

to

keep

so that the blows

'

i62

BOXING AND SPARRING
*

which come home may be
sarily

upper

cuts,'

and

his

must neces-

be only round-arm

hits.

The knees may be much more
is

bent than in out-fighting, as height
every effort should be
that
his

of less advantage, and
so
to

made

to drive the

blows lack force and his
hits

enemy backwards, body is more exposed
it is

heavy half-arm

with the right.

In prize competitions inbut
otherwise in a bona

fighting does not count for
fide set-to or a street

much

;

row

;

and even

in glove contests the
^

man

who keeps his eyes open and delivers a good rib pohsher when there is a fair chance, derives some benefit from it in the
shortness of breath and stiffness of the whole
to the adversary.
'

body which

result

Slogging

'

and hard

hitting with the

mere

object of doing

damage with the gloved hand earn no
;

credit in

the eyes of a good judge
effect of a

but

it is

impossible to prevent the

hard

hit

upon the subsequent proceedings from
mention the combinations of attack and

having
It

its

influence on the verdict.

remains

now

to

defjnce which are so essentially necessary to every boxer.

They
four

are of course very numerous, almost every one of the
principal
hits

above

described being combined with
of stopping or avoiding a blow.

several of the

many methods
left

But

it

may be

to the ingenuity of the learner

and

to the

care of his instructor to discover the less important of these

manoeuvres.

Two

sets of

combinations require particular comis

ment
and

— that in which the arm guard
is

accompanied with a

hit,

that in which the hit

used with a duck of the head.
first

In

the left-hand lead-off the beginner should at
face, while delivering the blow,

protect his

by putting up

his right-hand

guard.

By

this

means he
an fait

will

avoid the left-hand counter at

the head, which would otherwise assuredly

come home.
its

After

he

is

pretty well

at this,

and can appreciate the merits
demerits

of that line of defence, his teacher must show him

when

too freely used.

With

this object, as the right

hand goes

Figure XIV.

Right-hand cross-counter

THE ART OF BOXING
up and the
hit is

163;

dehvered the professor

will gently

counter his

man on

the body.
vital

The

latter thus learns that in

leading off he

exposes two

parts, the
it

head and the 'mark.'

And

for

some time he
that

will find

quite impossible to guard both.

By

degrees only he will acquire that quickness of eye and nerve
enables

him

to

guess whether the opponent means to
If the latter, he has only to
If the former,

counter high or to counter low.

keep the

right

arm

in

its

normal place.
he

he must
is

put up his guard.

Or,

if

feels sure that the

counter

com-

ing at the head, he
right.

may dodge

the blow by ducking to the
will,

In exactly similar style he

standing on the defence,

acquire a facility of guarding with the right, and at the

same

time, or immediately afterwards, before the assailant has got

back, delivering the
difference between a

left

as a counter.
off'

Remember
:

always this

4ead

and a 'counter'
;

in a lead off
it

the

left

foot

must be advanced

in a

counter

need not

;

but advantage

him within
of the

may be taken of the step-in of the enemy to bring distance. In common parlance, it is usual to speak
countering one another
;

men

but this
it

is

really a mis-

nomer.

When

both

men
If

step in

is

a double lead-off in

which each gets home.

both

men

only attempted to counter

they would be out of distance, unless indeed they were such
novices as to be both standing on guard within hitting distance.

Another device deserves some mention, on account of
ing
effect,

its tell-

although

it

involves an unorthodox guard,

and can

only be employed against an unskilled man,
his left foot

crooked or

hits in a
at

weak or

who stands with hammerhke fashion.
proper position in

Suppose a blow to be coming
fully aware.

your head, of which you are
its

Raise the

left
if it

arm from

exactly the

same way

as

were the right coming up to the

guard, but as soon as the muscle of the forearm
tact with the

comes

in con-

bone of the opponent's arm give
it.

it

a turn outwards

and press forwards, leaning heavily against

The whole upper
M
2

'

164

BOXING AND SPARRING
body
will

part of your adversary's
his

thus be

^

screwed round
all

;

right

hand

will

be

utterly

powerless for

purposes of
;

attack, as well as the left against

which you continue to press
fairly to

and

his left ribs wnll

be presented

you— an

inviting

mark upon
tremendous

w^hich
effect

you may deliver with perfect
the
full

safety

and

force

of your
their

right-hand
left

blow.

Untaught men stand naturally with
inwards, quite out of the proper line.

foot

turned

They

little

think, as
lets

they spar wnth a professor

who

with good-natured smile

them knock him about a bit, that with one back-handed turn of his wrist as they come blundering on he could send them spinning, and, as their broadside comes opposite him, could
lay

them

flat

on the ground wdth a broken
a

rib as easily as they

could crumple up a band-box.

Apropos of which there

is

little

true story

told of the

famous Nat Langham, whose boxing rooms
for so

in Castle Street

were

many

years the head-quarters of the best professional
It

boxers of the West End.

was

at a race meeting,

where

the crowd was densely packed and locomotion was
gigantic

difficult.

A

member of one
fistic art,

of the great

London Rowing Clubs who
'

prided himself upon his strength and a
ledge
'

good

practical know^-

of the

was working

his

way through the crowd

without

much

sparing the feehngs of the lesser mortals.
little

To

him, as he elbowed his way along, enters a

sallow-faced

middle-aged man, wdth a rather dogged though good-humoured
face.
'

Don't you make too free with your elbows

this

way,

young man,' was the remark of the pigmy to the giant. 'You might feel sorry for it' Goliath was dumb-foundered the by:

standers chuckled in a very aggravating manner.
fellow really

Did the

little

mean
really

to insult

him

?

Did the

little

laughing circle

around him

want

to see

an example made of their friend?

Evidently that was the idea.

Every feature
:

in

every face

seemed

to say as plainly as

spoken words

'

Go

for him.

Don't

THE ART OF BOXING
put up with his
chaff.'

165

And

he went accordingly, putting up his

hands
that

in the

most correct

style,

and leading

off with a left

hand

had

felled

many
is

a redoubtable athlete.

The

next thing
difficulty
all

that he

remembers

picking himself up with

some

from the ground, with a severe twitching and aching pain

round the

left

side of the body.

His immediate impulse was

to

rush on again to the attack, for he was not one to show the

white feather.
little

But the
?
'

oldest^ palest

and seediest-looking of the

knot of loafers laid his hand very gently on the big man's
'

arm.
that's

Are you mad
!

'

he asked, with ineffable scorn.

'

Why,
left

Nat Langham
on
his heel,

The amateur had
trifling

just

enough sense

to turn

and walk

off with the best grace

he could.
if

Nat thought no more of the
brushed a
fly off

episode than

he had

his weather-beaten face.

The
They
fighting

other counters are most properly called cross-counters.

are four in number,
is

and are considered,
all

as far as actual

concerned, the most damaging of
is

blows.

Com-

monest and most dreaded of all
at the head,

the right-handed cross -counter
:

which
left,

is

thus delivered
as
it

— Watch

for

your man's
left,

lead-off with the

and

comes out duck

to the

throw-

ing the weight of your

body on

to the left knee.
left,

At the same
and bring
it

time pass your right arm forward, outside his

home
head.

with

all

your strength 00 to the

left

side of his face or

The

result of this

manoeuvre

is

that the lead-off

arm
for-

passes over the right shoulder of the intended victim, entirely

missing his head

;

and the head of the
is

leader-off,

coming

ward with
dition

his blow,

projected in an utterly defenceless confist

on

to the countering
is

(Fig,

XIV.).

So severe

is

the

shock that the brain

shaken, and the neck almost dislocated,

while the hand and arm of the striker are apt to be badly
jarred,
is

even through the glove.

If the

mouth

of the leader-off

at all

open and the blow comes home on the lower side of

the face, a dislocation of the jaw,

more

or less severe,

is

almost

1

66

BOXING AND SPARRING
and
for

sure to follow,

some days afterwards

it

will

be matter of

pain and grief to the sufferer even to eat his food.
to this cross-counter
is

The answer
it is

to deliver the right at the face of the
this turning of the tables
left

counterer

;

and

to

guard against

well, while cross-countering, to

keep the

arm ready

to parry

the return blow.

Instead of thus countering on the head the blow

may be
will

aimed
often

at the ribs

;

and

in the case of a

tall,

bulky

man this

be

still

more

effective.

In such case not only the head

should be ducked, but the body lowered by bending both knees,
allowing the lead-off to pass clean overhead (Fig. XV.).
cross-counter
is

This

more dangerous than the
it

other^ exposing the

man who
hand
too
:

attempts

to

an upper cut from the opponent's right
is

but remember always, that that opponent

usually far

much

disabled by the cross-counter he has received to

think about any riposte.
with a blow from the

Of
fist

all

the

men who

have been killed
at

(and there was one such case

Christ Church, Oxford, within the

memory
to

of man), by far the

majority have

owed

their misfortune

right-handed cross-

counters coming

home on an
liver or a

untrained body, containing perdiseased heart.

haps a disordered

The

other two

cross-counters are less dangerous both to giver and taker.

The
harm-

head on

is

ducked

to the rights so that the lead-oif passes

lessly over the left shoulder,

and the

left fist

is

brought round

to the face, as in Fig.
if

XVL,
mark
;
'

or the body, as in Fig.

XL

In
is

the latter case,
often

the

'

happens to be
it
'

hit,
'

the blow

decisive of a

round

takes

the wind

out of the

recipient so effectually that for a few seconds
at
all.

he cannot breathe

Only a few more particular points seem to
a description of this elaborate
art,

call for notice in

which must be learnt by long
have been
fully

practice, after the elements of style

mastered.

And firs t of

'

feinting

'

and drawing.
'

'

An experienced professor can

Figure

XV. — Cross-cotdnter bodt-blow

THE ART OF BOXING
always
'

167

make

a fool

'

of his pupil by these devices.

A beginner
is

should resort to them only very sparingly.

Nothing

more

absurd and unwise than to be always dodging about, fidgeting
with the feet and fussing with the arms, in the hope of perplexing
the enemy.

Such

tactics tire the performer, and, unless

he

is is

very careful, expose
shifting

him

to

be

'

caught on the hop

'

as

he

ground or changing
he must,
it is

his attitude.

In 'free play' with
or he will

his teacher

true, feint

him and draw him,

n^ver get a blow
watchful,
parry.

in.

But while doing so he must be extra
for a

and ever prepared

speedy retreat or a quick

In a set-to with another beginner he should rely

much
best

more upon the quickness of
counters,
feint is a hit at the
is

his lead-off, the accuracy of his

and the speed of
body.

his step-in

and recovery.

The

pretended lead-off at the head, combined with a real

To Mraw' a man some part
mistake
it

of the head or

body

wilfully left open, or a

that the enemy, expecting

to

made on purpose, in the hope be made again, may venture on a
is

rash attack, when, instead of finding the error repeated, he
parried or dodged, and at the same time cross-countered.

is

Retreat-

ing precipitately whenever an adversary appears to be about to
deliver a

blow

is

a very favourite draw

:

and

then,

when

the

man

has been encouraged to
is

make
is

rushes or over-step himself,

a firm stand
counter.

made and he

effectively

stopped with a heavy

The
in his
will

very essence of the accomplished boxer
'

is
'

to

be found

power of judging distance and of

timing

his

man.

It

be a very long time before the novice knows with any sort

of certainty
will

when he

is

within hitting distance or n»t.

And

it

be

still

longer before he can see exactly

when he
on

is

likely to

catch a
foe.

man coming on

or to waste his effort

a retreating

Allusion has

already

been made

to the extraordinary

powers of judging and timing possessed by Tom Sayers.

But

it is

impossible to explain the innumerable signs and small indications

——
i68

BOXII^G

AND SPARRING
his
*

whereby a professor foresees the intended movements of
pupils or rivals.

The value of

timing

'

may be roughly summed
comes on
still,

up by saying
is

that

one blow planted
inflicted while

as the recipient
is

worth half-a-dozen
is

he

standing quite

and

a dozen w^hen he

in full retreat.

For the benefit of those who have short memories and small
opportunities for taking lessons, a few warnings

and maxims
'

may
little

perhaps be added, notwithstanding the
knowledge.'
:

trite

adage as to

a

On

the negative side

may be

placed the

following

Never open the hands, or the mouth.
Never shut the
eyes.
legs, or get

Never cross the Never
lose your

them

close together.

temper or your courage.
in a set-to with a stranger

Never enter or leave the ring
without shaking hands with him.

Never,
Never,

if

you can avoid
you can help
light.

it,
it,

work round
let

to your

left.

if

your opponent stand between

you and a strong

Never

let

your right foot be in front of the

left.

Never turn your back or run away.

Do

not rush after a

man who

is

retreating in

good

order.

Amongst
remembering
:

affirmative

precepts

the following are

worth

Hit with the big knuckles of the hand, and not with the

thumb

or small knuckles.
led-off,

Having
of distance.
If

whether you

hit or miss, get

away again out
be shot

you are the shorter man, do not

*

stand

still

to

at/ but

do most of the

leading-off.

Unless you can show that
cleverer

you are
will tell,

distinctly the quicker

and

man, length of reach

and you

will

pay the penalty of your inches.
lighter

If

you are much the

man, do not make your lead-off

Figure XVI.

Left-hand cross-counter

THE ART OF BOXING
heavy, but
^

169

draw your man, and
'

at

every opportunity counter

him with your whole strength and Having got home a hit, do not
for

weight.
at

once attempt to repeat

it,

you may very hkely be countered next time.
If

you are getting the best of a round be very

careful,

and

keep out of distance.

Let well alone, and 'spar for time.'

You

need not do better, and you

may do
if

worse.

Always

retain your 'form,' even

the other

man

displays

gross faults of style

and

attitude.

By

imitating his style

you

abandon one of your chief advantages.

A

word should be

said here as to the duties

and powers of

judges and referees.

There

is

this

unquestionable defect in

boxing with gloves, as compared either with pugilism or with
racing

and games of most

kinds,

that

it

depends upon the

judgment of the bystanders, or some of them, to decide which
is

the better man.

Something has already been said about
he must be trusted

the leading principles which should guide a judge in giving his
verdict.

For the

rest,

the matter than those

who

attend at

know more about matches which they know
to

he be

is

to determine.

And

the judges chosen should invariably

men who have

either actually fought in the ring or

won

the

best prizes of their day.

Amateurs are more often chosen than
be preis

pro essionals

;

and

rightly so, for they are less likely to

judiced or influenced by any party feeling.
difficult

But

their task

and unenviable
arbiters,

in the

extreme

;

and there are generally
critics

not wanting a set of ignorant but bumptious
to

who pretend

be the best

and discharge

volleys of abuse at the

who may have been chosen as most competent for the The leading clubs have been very fortunate in, for the office. most part, finding judges who utterly despised these attempts to
persons
bully them,

and continued

to

award the

title

of champion to

men who exhibited most science, men who relied upon brute force to

excluding the badly taught
gain

them the

victory.

It is

I70

BOXING AND SPARRING
to

much

be hoped that such

men

will

always be found to con;

tinue the best traditions of amateur boxing
latter is

for if

once

this

allowed to degenerate into glove-fighting, in accordance

with the wish of a certain clique, there will no longer be a

chance of getting respectable persons to compete or even
look on.
well

to

Hitherto the record of amateur champions reads
;

enough

and

it is

encouraging in a marked degree to the
future.

aspirant to

fistic

honours in the
shapes,

For on the

roll

appear

men

of

all

sizes,

and

builds.

The

tall,

the short, the

stout, the thin, the light

and the heavy, have
these competitions.

all

had

their

fair

share of victories in

all

The heavy-weight
lightrule,

championship has been won by a ten-stone man, and the
weight championship by one nearly
the giants have not done
to this
six feet

high.
list

As a

well

;

and
men.

in the

whole

of winners

day there are not above two or three
really big

at the

most who

can be described as
nor peculiar
to
activity,

Neither special strength,

nor any natural aptitude for boxing seems

be indispensable.
life,

One amateur who had begun
style

to learn

very late in

and whose
for the

by no means betokened parbegan by carrying
off the

ticular aptitude

science,

middle-weight championship, went on with taking the heavyweight,

and,

some time afterwards completed the work by
;

winning the light-weight
formidable competitors.

the victory in each case being over

The extended

existence of these

and

other amateur competitions, and of the assaults of arms and other
displays

given by the gymnastic and

athletic

clubs,

has kept alive amongst professionals the study and practice of

an

art

which would otherwise have almost died

out.

The

name

of Ned Donnelly has been already mentioned as an accomteacher,

plished

and

it

is

only

fair to

mention some of the

other professors, such as

Abe

Daltrey, Bat Mullins, Mr. Blake,
J.

Trooper Otterway, and Mr. A.

White (now

retired).

At the

elder University there was for a long time an excellent school

THE ART OF BOXING
conducted by Blake, who had been preceded there
times by the renowned
in

171

olden

Tom

Evans, a light-weight of Birmingit

ham.

Numerous

local

clubs exist, but
is

cannot be said that
or the representaboxers.

as yet the style there inculcated

first-rate,

tives very likely to tarnish the laurels of the

London

E. B.

M.

WRESTLING
BY

W.

ARMSTRONG

The Hank

WRESTLING
INTRODUCTION.
One
term.
is

confronted, at the very outset of an inquiry into the art

of wrestling, with

some

difficulty as to

an exact definition of the

Several of the best

modern

writers
it

on the
as
'

subject,

though

such writers are few indeed, describe
the antagonist to the ground.'

the art of forcing

But inasmuch as the antagonist
it

has already one or two feet on the ground,
necessary to go on and explain

becomes

at

once

how much
is

of

him besides
'

his feet

must come
Is
it

lo the

ground before he

considered to be
to

down.'

sufficient

for a

hand
it ?

or an

arm
even

touch the

floor ?
?

Or

must a knee
is

also touch

Or

is

this

not enough

One

landed

at

once amongst a host of different rules and authothat both the shoulders
is

rities,
flat

some of which say
before the bout

must come
Then,

down

allowed to be won, while others
of fi^nishing the struggle.

recognise

much
is,

easier

modes

again, there

or at least was, a whole school of wrestlers which
is

maintains that it

not even enough for a man to be stretched at full

length on his back.
position he may,
if

Even when he
is

is

in this rather hopeless

he can, throw

off his

opponent, and continue
'

the struggle until one of the pair

forced to cry

Hold enough.'
at

Accordingly, a proper treatise on wrestling cannot be confined
to

one or two systems of attack and defence, but must

any

176
rate explain,
if it

WRESTLING
does not accurately describe, the manoeuvres
in various countries

employed
will

and

places.

Even

in

England

it

be seen that there are four or more well-established schools

of wrestling, each of which recognises rules and tactics prohibited by the others.

The golden

age of this exercise, as well as of the

sister art

of

boxing, belongs to the ancient world, and to the Greeks.

In

those days the competitors thought
train for ten

it

well worth their while to
lists
;

months before entering the

and the

victor

not only became a hero amongst his fellow athletes and the

common

people, but was feted by the governments

and municito

palities of his native state,

upon which he was supposed

have

conferred a very real honour and glory.

He

returned in a sort of

triumphal procession to his

own city
in

;

privileges
states

and immunities
his

were

decreed to him

;

and

some

statue

was

allowed to be placed in the most important temples.

Especial

favour was shown in the great national games to this species of
competition, which was introduced in

them

earlier

than boxing,

and was believed
of the
statues

to

show

off the strength, activity,

and grace

competitor to more advantage than any other.

The

which have come down

to us

from the

classical age,

are familiar to almost everyone

who has
fair

ever visited a

museum

of sculpture, and they give a
offered

idea of the opportunities

by such a contest for the display of the muscles. None of the victors in this department of athletics was, or is, so
as

famous

Milo of Croton, who

six

times carried off the prize for

wrestling both at the
story
is

Olympic and the Isthmian games.

A curious
Taking

related of the

manner

in

which he encouraged the
for a wrestler.

growth of the muscles most necessary
a young
day,
calf,

he began by carrying

it

a certain distance every

and

as the animal
its

by almost imperceptible degrees grew
but the athlete was

heavier with

advancing age, the burden became by slow

and easy

stages

more and more grievous

;

INTRODUCTION
nevertheless able to continue his task until the calf
into a heifer

177

had grown

and the

heifer into a full-sized cow.

Some

of the earliest

records

of

the

Jewish and other

nations speak of wrestling as a

common

practice long before
angels,
it.

the historic period properly so called.

Gods and

demi-

gods and heroes, prided themselves on excelling in
times
lated
it

In such

would be combined naturally with boxing, and regurules at
all.

by no

The grand

fight

between Hercules and

the river god Acheloiis was (Oh, great shade of Sophocles, forgive
!)

a

'

rough-and-tumble.'

The combination was

revived

in the

Pancratium, and continued in the great gymnastic dis-

plays in Greece

and

Italy

;

but that was long afterwards,

when

the laws of each had been reduced to an elaborate code.

A

complete and no doubt very trustworthy picture of the contest,
as practised in early Greece,
is

presented in the matchless words

of

Homer, who devotes

thirty-nine of his rolling hexameters to

the match between Ajax and Ulysses.

The

prizes for the first

and second men were here

less

equal than in the boxing, for the

winner was to have a cooking utensil estimated to be worth as

much
Then came

as twelve oxen,

whereas the lady who was to be pre-

sented to the loser was only valued at the price of four oxen.
Ajax, the representative of bodily size and brute force,
forward,

and immediately
trickery.

after

him

Ulysses, the type of
for

artfulness

and
;

Both of them put on belts expressly

the occasion

but

it

does not appear that they

made use

of

these for obtaining a hold.

catching hold of

Nor was there any difficulty in one another. The arms were passed right
legs

round the body, and the
'

and bodies were inclined
It

slantingly
at all

like the rafters of a well-built roof.'
;

was not

un-

lawful to take a grip of the skin

and

as the struggle

went on

the pressure of the hard fingers raised big blood-coloured weals

on the

ribs

and shoulders of both the heroes.

No

progress,

however, was

made towards ending

the round, for the son of

N

178

WRESTLING

Laertes was just strong enough to withstand the forcible efforts
of the big man, and not quite able to overthrow him by main
strength or upset

him by any

stratagem.

So long did the well
Either do you

matched

struggle continue that the spectators were beginning to
'

be bored, when Ajax made a new suggestion,
lift

me up

bodily, or I will

lift

you

!

'

And
craft.

at the

same time he

made an attempt

to hoist his adversary into the

air.

Now

was

the time for the other to display his

As he was borne
and
then, striking

from the earth he threw

his weight forwards,

with his heel on the back part of the other man's knee, overthrew

him and
trip

fell

upon him.

In modern phraseology he

*

hammed

'

his adversary before the latter

had time

to swing

him over

or

him

up.

The second bout between

these redoubtable antagonists was
is

evidently a victory for Ajax, though the account

not so

clear.

When
And
men

Ulysses, giving the hug, attempted to

lift

up the
off the

giant,

he

could only just succeed in raising him a
in

little

ground.

doing

so,

by a great exertion of the back and knees,

one of

his

knees gave way and bent forward, letting down both

together.

Then

as they got

up and prepared
'

to

renew the

conflict, the

master of the sports interposed.

Do

not compete

any more or wear yourselves out with your

sufferings. shall

Both
have an

have shown themselves worthy of victory, and each
equal
prize.'
;

They appear

to

have been nothing loath to accept

the offer

and both, wiping
shirts,

off the dust with

which they were

covered, put on their

and walked

off to

make room

for

other contests.

In the

Roman

amphitheatre two sorts of wrestling were par-

ticularly distinguished, the upright
latter

and the recumbent.
but

The

had only been allowed

in

Greece in the pancratium
;

where boxing and wrestling were combined
clearly

it

appeals

frcm the Homeric passage that
^

in the early times,
'

even

in Greece, a

man who was once down was

not allowed to be

INTRODUCTION
further attacked.

179

And

it is

unnecessary to say more about this

rough sport of struggling on the ground, than that it was ended either by the death of the loser, who was occasionally strangled
outright, or

by

his lifting
it

up a

finger in token of defeat.

As

for

the upright wrestling,

seems that either no garments

at all

were

worn, as in the great games of Greece, or only a sort of girdle.

The hold was obtained
its

either

by the pressure of the arms or by

seizing the skin with the fingers,

and apparently each system had

own admirers and

its

own

period.

The

application of

oil to

the bodies could hardly have been for any other purpose than
to avoid the

chance of being pinched in

this painful

way

;

but

in after times the anointing with oil

was followed by a sprinkling

with sand, which neutralised to a large extent the effects of the
oil,

and made the hold with the
if

fingers

still

more
to

painful to the
it.

skin than

nothing at

all

had been applied
devoted their
;

In com-

mencing a bout the

athletes

first

attention to

obtaining a favourable hold

and
loose
'

their style

must therefore
had

have resembled our English

'

wrestling rather than the

Cumberland and Westmoreland
times to win
in later times
^

type.

A

victor

in early
;

the best of three falls/ as in our country
it

but

seems that he must win the best of
it

five.

In England

is

very remarkable

how

entirely different a

system was developed in different parts of the island.
ficient

A

suf-

reason

may perhaps be found
their

in the fact that for

hundreds

of years locomotion was so difficult that the local champions

seldom travelled out of

own neighbourhood. Four widely separate schools of wrestling have been known from time immemorial and each had its own persistent votaries, who maintained the superiority of their rules with as much zeal as the players of different football games. Of these the Devonshire
;

and Cornwall

styles are often
so, as it will

reckoned

in

one category
differ in

;

but

very improperly

be seen that they
the

a most

important particular.

Then comes

Cumberland and WestN2

i8o

WRESTLING
method, which achieved a wider renown, partly

moreland

because the North-country

men

addicted themselves with more

enthusiasm to

its

practice, but also

because a good sprinkling
started in the metrotheir favourite
sport,

of the northerners established in
polis a society for the

London

encouragement of

and held an annual
Thirdly there
also designated
is

prize

meeting on Good Friday.

the

mode

of wrestling called Moose,' and

sometimes by local names, which may probably
all

be regarded as the commonest of

the English styles. It

is

also

nearest to that which was practised in the prize ring,

and was

thus more familiar to the rank and

men than any other during all the last century. There are a good many allusions in the literature of England to this common form of the art, which
file

of sporting

has the great advantage of being fettered by few rules and yet
free

from any reproach of

brutality.

From

the most ancient

representations of English wrestling that
in

we possess it seems that Saxon times the hold was got with the open hand grasping
body or the tunic of the adversary,
those times a
or else a sort of

either the
scarf,

apparently put on for the occasion.

A

cock was
;

evi-

dently in

common
it

prize for

the victor

but

before the time of Chaucer
to offer a

had become the regular

practice

ram

for this sort of competition, as

may be

seen from

the character of the miller in his Canterbury Tales and from the
description of Sir Thopas, of

whom

the poet says that

Of wrastling there was none his pere, Where any ram shulde stonde.

On

special occasions the prizes were

more
^

dignified

and more

valuable, as at a grand gathering of

all

the west countrey

described in

*

A
A

Mery Geste of Robyn Hode.'
fayre

A A

full

game

there was set up
:

white

bull,

up ypryght
full

great courser with saddle and brydle

With gold burnished

bright

:

INTRODUCTION
A payre of gloves, a red gold A pipe of wine, good faye
:

i8i
ringe,

What man
The
meaning probably
coming from

beareth him best, ywis,

prise shall bear away,

that either one or two prizes w^ere offered for

divers competitions limited to

men

of certain weights or heights,

or

different counties of

England.

In London there were certainly in the time of the Plantagenets annual wrestling competitions on different feast days, and

notably on

St.

James'

Day and

St.

Bartholomew's.

In 1222 the
;

Londoners were challenged by the Westminster men

and the

match took place

in St. Giles' Fields, a

ram

being, as usual, the
;

prize of the victor.

The London men won
at
it

easily

and a return

match was proposed and held

Westminster on the

Lammas
bailiff

Day

following.

But before

could be concluded the

of

Westminster wnth other persons interrupted the proceedings,

and a pitched

battle

ensued, some of the Londoners being
city.

badly wounded in making their escape to the

In a some-

what later period Clerkenwell was the usual

trysting place for the
feast of

London
St.

wrestlers,

and the time

w^as

August about the

Bartholomew and following days.
is

A

picturesque account
'

of the proceedings
the

given in Hentzner's

Itinerary
city,

'
:

*

When

Mayor goes out
is

of the precincts of the

a sceptre (pro-

bably the mace), a sword and a cap are borne before him, and

he

followed by the principal aldermen in scarlet gowns, with

golden chains, himself and they on horseback.
arrival at a place

Upon

their
is

appointed for that purpose, where a tent

pitched for their reception, the

mob

begin to wrestle before

them, two
like

at a time.'

The growth
the
fifteenth

of archery

and other war-

pastimes drove wrestling somewhat out of vogue, at least
;

in

London

and

in

century

Stow complains
to the con-

that the three days in
tests at

August formerly consecrated

Clerkenwell had dwindled

down

to a single afternoon,

1

82

WRESTLING
less select.
'

and the assemblage was
the
sergeant,

He

seems to regret the
city,

absence on such occasions of
sheriff,

the officers of the

namely

and yeomen, the porters of the King's
city,'

weigh-house (now no such men), and others of the
formerly attended and Svere challengers of
all

who
the

men

in

suburbs to wrestle
at

for

games appointed.' At one of the matches
this occasion at least

Clerkenwell as late as in 1453 another tumult was excited

against the
to

Lord Mayor, who seems on

have been present, as in the old times.

In France the

practice of wrestling was apparently kept

up with a good deal
which was

of zest from the earliest times.

Shakspeare has given us a

tolerably graphic account of the continental style,

perhaps rougher than ours.

The Duke's

wrestler, in

'As You
as

Like

It,'

well as a

may have been an exceptionally skilful performer, man of gigantic weight and strength but he talks
;

of

laming or disabling any average performer as
of such injuries were a matter of
in the contest

if

the infliction

common

occurrence.

And
Apollo

which ensues the tables are turned upon him so
Orlando,

effectually, that

who resembled

his prototypes

and Theseus rather than Hercules,

at the first
life.

throw damaged

him

so severely as to endanger his

In relation to the

Shakspearean account of

this contest, a story is told of a public

performance in which a champion wrestler had already killed
the two sons of an old man,
all

when
his

their

youngest brother, despite
lists

the entreaties of the father, entered the

and

in a similar

w^ay
this

avenged the death of
shows that
in all

brethren.
in

The account

of

early

matches

Western Europe the

antagonists took off their shoes and

entered the ring with
Francis

stockings on.
at their

The bout between Henry VIII. and
in

L

famous meeting

France

is

described so differently
it is

by

different writers as to suggest the suspicion that

only a

myth.
In comparatively modern times roguery and rowdyism, which

INTRODUCTION
have been
fatal to so

183

many good English
seem
to

sports,

and which from

the accounts already referred to

have always attended the
;

wrestling ring, drove the exercise itself out of fashion

and

it

was relegated, as

far as the

metropolis and the larger towns were
It still

concerned, to bear-gardens and low taverns.

held

its

ground, nevertheless, with some honour at the wakes and

fairs in

country places, especially in the northern and western counties.

In an old

'

Spectator

'

is

an allusion to a parish where every

year a wrestling-ring was formed and a beaver hat was offered

by the squire

'

as a

recompense to him who gives the most
allured not only

falls.'

The company was
broached

by the prospect of seeing the
ceremony.
In most

sport but by the less classical attraction of a hogshead of ale,
for their delectation during the

of the western and midland counties a

man was

not accounted
leg

down

until

one of

his shoulders

and the heel of the

on the
that in

other side had touched the ground.

Carew declares
'

Cornwall about three hundred years ago,

Silver prizes for this
cir-

and other

activities

were wont to be carried about by certain
;

cumferanci, or set up at brideales

but time or their abuse hath
Nevertheless there are
the platforms at
fall,

now

(1602) worn them out of use.'

plenty of people
rural fairs

now

living

who can remember

where

local

champions wrestled

for a

though

silver prizes

were not

much

given except in the form of coins of

the realm.

At a

fair in

France only a few years ago one of the

professional athletes, wrestling with an amateur
himself,'

who

^

fancied

was unlucky enough, or perhaps ill-tempered enough,
fall.

to give the intruder a fatal

A

considerable revival of the art has taken place during

means of communication between town and town and county and county having made
the present century, the improved
it

easier for the local

champions
first

to try their skill against

one

another.

Some

of the

real

championship matches took
of the leading wrestlers

place in

Cornwall, where the pride

i84

WRESTLING
to

was unable
county.
is

brook the taunts of

rivals in the

neighbouring

The antagonism between Devonshire and Cornwall
and
as

perhaps stronger than between any two adjoining divisions
;

of England

each enjoyed a special reputation

for

proficiency in wrestling a grand

match had long been
different rules allowed
at

in con-

templation.
its details,

There was, however, much
by reason of the very

difficulty in arranging

on each
or other

side of the border.

The Devonians had

some time

grafted on to the antique practice of competing in thick stock-

ings a habit of wearing shoes

;

and by the abuse of

this latitude

of rules (for

it

cannot be otherwise regarded than as an abuse)

the shoes had been allowed to develop into hideous weapons

armed with a

thick sharp-edged sole.

The Cornish men, who
although they allowed

had never permitted such
the use of the foot in
'

eccentricities,

striking,'

stood out for a long time for

the exclusion of thick soles and the use only of soft slippers.
Eventually, in order that the match might not
fall

through, the

Cornish champion yielded the point, and the meeting took
place under rules prescribed by the other party.

A

graphic
at

though rather
the time.
class,
It

inartistic

account of the meeting was printed

describes both

men

as fine specimens of their

and well prepared

for the struggle.

The Cornish man
in enduring the

had, however, not so far mastered the kicking tactics as to be
able to escape severe punishment.
frightful
all

His pluck

blows aimed

at his shins
;

excited the admiration of

the impartial critics

but no one can read without some

disgust the description of the sufferings which he

had

to

endure

before he could get to close quarters and engage in the art of
wrestling, properly so called.

When

he succeeded

in this his

superiority seems to have

been apparent, and the damage done

to his understandings did not so incapacitate

him

as to prevent

him from
It will

discomfiting his adversary.

be gathered from what has been said that the West-

INTRODUCTION
country style
is

185
'

to a large extent

made up
'

of

out-fighting.'

The
w^ell-

men
their

stand, like Ulysses

and Ajax, wide

apart,

forming with

two bodies a
roof.'

sort of right angle

like the

beams of a

shaped

But

w^hile in this position

they not only struggle

to overbalance their
freely use their legs

opponent and
in the attack.
it

twist or swing

him

over, but
strikes

The Cornish man
as the

with his heel or instep, using
in the savate^

somewhat

French athletes

endeavouring to cut away the other man's legs
;

from under him and thus render him an easier victim
the Devonian not only does
his toes at the
this,

while

but aims vicious blows with

shinbone of the enemy, in the hope of inducing
or faintnessto yield the day.
is

him through pain

Another notable
is

peculiarity of the West-country style
artificial.

that the hold

altogether

Each man wears a
and of

short strong jacket

made

of un-

tearable material,

this his adversary gets a

hold as best

he can, endeavouring usually to

seize with

one hand the back

of the jacket behind the shoulder and with the other the sleeve
or

arm of

it.

School-boys in these two counties used to find

the

ordinary cloth school jacket well fitted for purposes of
;

wrestling

the tailors of Exeter and Plymouth had
for their juvenile

little

chance

of using
speedily

'shoddy'

customers without being

discovered.

The Cumberland and Westmoreland
on that
details

style is so fully treated later

need not be given
Catch as catch
in position,

here.
'

Loose
style,

wrestling,'

sometimes called the

'

can

'

requires

no elaborate placing of the men

and no

special formality in catching hold.

Kicking and even

striking with the foot,

though no shoes are worn, are usually

prohibited

;

and

it is

not allowed to catch hold of the hair or
tv/ist

the clothes, or to take a grip of the skin or flesh, or to

the

arms
until

or fingers.

In

many places a man

is

not considered
;

down

both shoulders are forced on to the ground

but a more

simple rule has been introduced in other clubs and places, of

1

86

WRESTLING
feet,

ending the round when any part of the body except the
knees, or hands touches the ground.

Modern

spectators

do not

much care about the recumbent style of wresthng, in which a man who is really down and underneath struggles, with very
small chances of success, but with laborious and tedious efforts
to

keep

at least

one shoulder
is

off the

ground.
stand facing one another
attitude.

Before the hold
in

taken the

men

a peculiar

and rather laughable

straddled apart, and the knees very
is

much bent.
;

The legs are The whole body

bowed forward from downwards just in front of
also
it

the hip joints

and the arms hang
be put out when

the knees, the open hands feeling
in readiness to

about, as
a

were, in the

air,

chance

offers

of getting a good grip.

The heads meanretreats in

while are held up, and the opponents eye one another keenly,

making slow and almost imperceptible advances and

a cautious, and to the bystanders a rather ludicrous, fashion*

Now

and then a hand
Then, again,

is

extended towards the back of the

adversary's neck, or towards one of his wrists as they

hang

in front

of him.
action.

it is

withdrawn with the same wary groping
is

At length a hold

taken, one

arm of each man

usually

resting

on the nape of the

other's neck, while the other grasps

his wrist.

The hold may be
;

got and lost or abandoned
is little

times in one round
it

and there

or

no

restriction as

many to how

may be
The

taken, whether

round the neck or over or under the
legs.

shoulders, or

on any part of the arms or
falls,

variation of

and of manoeuvres leading up
in the

to them,

are even

more endless than

Cumberland and Westmore-

land
'

style.

And

the

falls

are often

cross-buttock,'

when
flat

applied in this

Thus the encounter with skill and
more
severe.

force, causes the losing

man
on

to turn a

complete somersault in
'

the

air,

descending

his back.
is

The

cross-buttock

'

may
is

also be

employed when the hold
;

round the body and not

round the neck

and the discomfiture of the man so thrown

INTRODUCTION
In
all

187

increased by the action of the other hand grasping his wrist.
this

form of wrestHng
'

it is

possible to obtain that most fatal of

holds, the

head

in chancery.'

Occasionally a

man is thrown
and one near

without being grasped either round the body or round the neck.

His arm

is

seized with both hands, one at the wrist

the shoulder, this

arm

is

then drawn over the other man's shoulder,

and the victim

is

hoisted off the ground.

For tripping up the

enemy many of
available in the

the devices used by North-country wrestlers are

manner already described

;

and a man who

is

an adept

at this latter style will of

course endeavour to rush in

and get

as close a hold as he can of his
it

man.

This species of

encounter, admitting as
other,

does of
tactics

and displaying the

because they stand further apart,

much more variety than the of each man more clearly is much the more amusing

and

who are often immensely diverted by the quaint antics of the men in manoeuvring for a hold. In the German style of wrestling the question is not so much what you can do as what you may do. Almost all the refineintelligible to spectators,

ments of the

art are lost, as

it is

not allowed to trip up the
feet
'

adversary or entrap
or legs.

him by any ingenious movement of the
'
'

Neither

^

hamming nor back-heeling nor
'

^

chips

of

the sort so

much admired
;

in other countries are, consequently,
'

permissible

and even the

buttock

'

and

'

cross-buttock

'

are

barred by the rule that you must not turn round so as tc
present the back towards him.

Strength and endurance are the

main
is

qualifications for victory,

and the science
hold

that

is

acquired

chiefly

connected with obtaining or preventing a good hold.
object
is

The main
'

to obtain

'

full

'

by getting both arms

round the opponent's body below the arm-pits, instead of only

when one arm is below and the other over the shoulder. The hands are not obliged to remain locked, as in the Cumberland style, but may be shifted about so as to
half-hold
'

improve the hold, but

it is

altogether forbidden to catch hold

1

88

WRESTLING
As
is

of the legs or touch below the waist.
until

a

fall is

not counted
is

both shoulders touch the ground, a long struggle

apt to

follow

on the ground

after

one

man

down.
called

A form of wrestling sometimes seen in Switzerland and
*

swinging

'

requires a special costume, consisting of a strong

belt

and

stout drawers

and

shirt.

The

drawers are turned up
roll

above the knees, so that their lower edge forms a
like a

something

broad

gaiter,

and the

shirt is

similarly rolled

up above

the elbows.

A

hold

may be

taken either of the belt or the
as a

rolled shirt or trousers,

and these are used
round.

means of swing-

ing or twisting the

man

The Japanese have
which
is

long been particularly fond of wrestling,

displayed on public occasions and in the booths and

shows attended by the
places,
it is

the stout

common people. thick-set men rather
But
in

Here, as in most
than the
tall

and

slender

who have

the most success.

Japan the profes-

sional wrestlers

encourage to the utmost any predisposition
for stoutness
;

which they may have

and

their

most celebrated
fat

performers are usually what we should
It

call

enormously

men.

seems that in the

classic

age a similar idea prevailed to some
in training for the
^

extent,
tests of

and

athletes

who were

heavy con'

boxing and wrestling were fed upon

liberal allowances

of pork, cheese, and other fattening aliments.

The
for

neglect into which wrestling has fallen in most parts of
is

England, especially amongst amateurs,

not to be accounted

by any good reason.

The

chief enemies of the art are
in
its

often those

who should be most

favour,

i.e.

the school-

masters and the instructors at gymnasiums.

Both these have an
which they think

exaggerated dread of broken bones amongst their charges, and

do

their best to prohibit or discredit a sport

may

cause any unpleasantness between them and the parents or

guardians of their pupils.

As a matter of fact,

if

a proper

padded

or sanded place were provided for wrestling there would be ex-

INTRODUCTION
ceedingly
little

189

danger of such casualties
is

;

and the

spirit

of anta-

gonism which

ever strong amongst schoolboys

and gymnasts
provoking
of the

might be given
to the

free play in

an encounter which

is less

temper than most others.

The medical men

ancient world,

who had

the best opportunities of judging, pro-

nounced the exercise
certainly calculated to

especially beneficial to boys,

and

it

is

remove

as quickly as anything that
is

stiff-

ness of joints and awkwardness of body which

so

common
perhaps
in the

amongst youths

in these days.

Besides

this,

nothing

is

better as a test of endurance than a well

matched bout
by the

wrestling arena.

It

is

a pity that the Universities

and great
offer

schools and athletic clubs do not
prizes, to revive a sport
all

make

efforts,

of
in

which has been honourably regarded

former ages, and in which the English are probably

still

quite capable of excelling.

E. B.

M.

•I90

WRESTLING

CHAPTER
Why
some
sports

I.

CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND.
and pastimes become universally popular
the elements of popularity, never
it

within a very short time of their introduction, while others,

which seem

to

possess

all

extend beyond certain

districts,

is

impossible to explain.

Wherever a dozen Englishmen are collected together wickets
are sure to be pitched,

and there
?
'

are few parts of the globe in

which

'

How

's

that,

umpire

has not been heard.

K

quarter
at

of a century ago amateur running was almost unknown, yet
the present day the country bristles with athletic clubs,

many

of which contain
since,

men whose

performances would, a few years
Again, there are
localised.

have been accepted as remarkable.
sports

games and
ling,

which become thoroughly
the recreation in

Wrest-

which has been

Cumberland and Westin

moreland

for centuries, has

seldom found favour

any of the

Southern counties, with the exception of Cornwall and Devon-

Such a healthy relic of the good old times deserves the heartiest recognition, and being always reckoned a kind of twin
shire.
sister of

the 'noble

art,'

it

has a strong claim on
skill

all

advocates

of bodily exercises, in which strength and

are the principal

requirements.

In the

last

century the winner of a belt in Cumberland and
it

Westmoreland wore

during the day

it

had been won, and on
it.

the Sunday following attended his village church begirt with

On

the succeeding one he visited

some neighbouring place of

CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND
other young fellows, which was always granted.
practice of attending church
it is

191

worship in the same manner, and claimed precedence amongst

easy to find a

From this reason why the

parson of that period took so great an interest in the sport.

One incumbent was wont
Egremont,
records
too,

to boast that
it.

he was never thrown in

a ring and only once out of

who was

the
as

first

The Rev. Abraham Brown, of of whom we have any authentic
was the admitted
Littledale, for

of excellency

a

^buttocker,'

champion of

his district,

and the Rev. Osborne

many

years curate of Buttermere, on one occasion attended the
sports at

Crab Tree

Egremont

in

company with

his clerk, the

parson taking the
for running.

first

prize for wrestling
little
it

and the

clerk that

There

is

wonder, then, that the sport of

wrestling flourished
as

when

was supported by the clergy as well
^

by so many among the

classes

'

and the

'

masses

'

in the

two northern counties.

Down
to

to the present

day even, when two champions of the

North make a match, thousands attend.
be present
at
will

Those who happened

never forget the excitement created by the

match

Ulverstone between Atkinson, the Sleagill giant, and

Jackson, of Kennieside, and later at Kendal

when

Tom

Long-

mire vanquished Hawksworth of Shap.
in the

A wrestler is still a hero
village adjacent

North

;

and Dick Wright, of Longtown, a

to the

Knight of Netherby's domain, was as great a favourite

in

the district as Sir

James

himself.
in his

Had

the Northern counties

been polled, Dick Wright
at the

heyday would have come out
therein.

head

as the

most popular man
grassing

James Hogg, the
was
in the habit of
'

justly celebrated Ettrick
'

shepherd (who

his foes

on the Braes of Yarrow
been followed by our

in top

boots, a fashion that has not

modern champions, notwithstanding the example of some ancient heroes and Mr. William Litt) has occasionally introduced wresthng
in his tales
;

and the description of the bouts


192

WRESTLING
is

between Polmood and Carmichael
apology need be

one of the best

illustrations

of a North-country wrestling competition to be

found.

No

made

for giving

an extract

:

Sixteen then stripped themselves to try their

skill in wrestling,

and it having been enacted as a law that he who won in any one contest was obliged to begin the next, Polmood was of course one They all engaged at once by two and two, and of the number. eight of them having been consequently overthrown, the other
eight next

engaged by two and two, and four of these being
at the

cast,

two couples only remained. Some of the nobles engaged were so expert

exercise,

and opposed to others so equal in strength and agility, that the Some of them contests were exceedingly equal and amusing. It had always could not be cast until completely out of breath. been observed, however, that Polmood and Carmichael threw their
opponents with so much ease, that it appeared doubtful whether these opponents were serious in their exertions, or only making a show wrestle but when it turned out that they two stood the last,
;

all

were convinced that they were superior to the rest, either in strength or skill. This was the last prize on the field, and on the last throw for that prize the victory of the day depended, which each of the two champions was alike vehemently bent to reave from the other. .They eyed each with looks askance, and with visible tokens of jealousy, rested for a minute or two, wiped their Carmichael was extremely hard to please brows, and then closed. of his hold, and caused his antagonist to lose his grip three or four Polmood was, however, highly times and change his position. complaisant, although it appeared to every one beside that Carmichael meant to take him
at a disadvantage.

At length they

fell

and began to move in a circular watching each other's motions with great care. Carmichael direction, ventured the first trip, and struck Polmood on the left heel with It never moved him, but in returning it he considerable dexterity.
quiet, set their joints steadily,

forced in CarmichaeFs back with such a squeeze that the bystanders
affirmed they heard his ribs crash, whipped him lightly up in his arms, and threw him upon the ground with great violence, but

seemingly with as much ease as if he had been a boy. The ladies screamed, and even the rest of the nobles doubted if the knight

CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND
would
rise again.
;

193

He, however, jumped lightly up, and pretended his to smile, but the words he uttered were scarcely articulate may be better conceived than expressed. feelings at that moment A squire who waited the King's commands then proclaimed
Hunter, of Polmood, the victor of the day, and consequently entitled, in all sporting parties, to take his place next to the King, until by other competitors deprived of that prerogative.

Norman

This account

is

doubtless the creation of the Shepherd's

teeming brain, yet

Hogg was

evidently conscious

that the

practice of wrestling was not
nobility at that period.
prietors spent

uncommon among
own

the Scottish

In those days the great landed proestates.

much
in

of their time on their

Directly
in.

that ceased to be the case, degeneracy

and effeminacy crept

Those

exercises

which

it

had been the pride of

their

ancestors to excel were abandoned,

and afterwards few above

the rank of

yeoman chose

to exhibit in a ring either for their

own
with

pleasure or that of others.

For the better information of readers who are not conversant
'

the practice or theory of
it

Cumberland and Westmorewords
in ex-

land wrestling,'
planation
assailing
rally

may be

well to devote a few
to

of the terms

usually applied

the

methods of

an opponent so as to bring about

his downfall, gene-

termed 'throwing,' but by some hardy and unrefined
'

practisers of the exercise pithily called

felling

'

him.

Within the

last

dozen years Cumberland and Westmoreland

wrestling, as a science, has

made such
obsolete.

rapid strides that

of the old

'

chips

'

are

now

Being so well

easily stopped, few

good

wrestlers use

them

in the

many known and ring. The
itself,

old champions were no doubt mighty wrestlers, but a race of
professors has recently sprung

up which considers

and

perhaps with reason,
period.

far superior to

the heroes of any former
particularly clever

In the ring

at Carlisle

some

moves
o

have recently been witnessed, undreamt of a quarter of a century

194
ago, wlien

WRESTLING
Jameson and Wright held the pride of
place.

Few

of the past generation of wrestlers can be compared to the
present champions, Steadman and Lowden,

who

are each close
to
is

on 20

St.

weight.

The former

is

believed by

some

be the

most powerful wrestler ever known, and Lowden, who
inferior to his brother giant, possesses the

scarcely
figure

most magnificent

that has graced a wrestling arena within living

memory.

AVhen

Jameson and Wright wrestled the Frenchmen at the Agricultural
Hall in 1870, they acquitted themselves with credit, though
these wrestling matches with the
factory performances.

Frenchmen were not very
will

satis-

Frequenters of wrestling rings
not so

have

observed that there

is

much buttocking now
throwing his

as formerly.

The

old head hold, by which William Blair, of Solport Mill,
in the habit of

Cumberland, was
head,
is

men

over his

almost useless as a ^chip,' and regarded as an error by
It is

the talent.

necessary to warn the uninitiated against these

fancy buttocks and to
play

record
'

that they
is

when

a
'

'

liggin

doon

journey
'

come into Whencontemplated.
mostly
witnessing a
fair 'go.'

ever

much

gurnin'

and haudin'

are observable in a contest,

the spectator

may be

pretty certain

he

is

Jim
air,

Scott, of Carlisle, frequently

buttocked his
'

men

high in the

but then Scott was the most

commercial

'

performer of his
h.

time,

and had

little

trouble with his

men

in

consequence,
is

good wrestler who can throw an adversary, who
over his head,
is

an expert,

very rarely found.

Scott, however,

was con-

tinually doing this, although .Ben Cooper, of Carlisle,

and James

Pattison, of Weardale,

men

of his

own

build and weight, could

throw him in a genuine contest.
wrestler, but
lot

Pattison was not a showy

he was a grand

'

dagger to the grun,' wanted a
William Rickerby, again, one
disliked

of 'skifting,'and frequently grassed Dick Wright, the Border

champion, when the pair met.
of the best

men

of his time,

showy

wrestling,

was

always satisfied w^hen he threw his opponent, and considered

Catch hold style

V

CUMBERLAND AND WESTMORELAND
the

195

back-heel the

safest

and

best chip.

'

Laal

'

Tommy

Kennedy, the most accompHshed
holds the same views.

AVTCstler of the present day,

No

one ever saw Steadman or Lowden
:

perform any of these fancy moves

the two champions have

always been safe and steady goers, never throwing a chance

away, and at the time of writing both
the

still

continue to pursue

same

careful tactics.

Dick Wright was perhaps the most
;

attractive wrestler of

modern times

and the

agility

he some-

times displayed was marvellous.
sault

He

frequently threw a somer-

over his fallen foe, but then Wright was a very unsafe

wrestler,
inferiors.

and often went down before men considerably

his

The Cumberland and Westmoreland style of wrestling is now known throughout the length and breadth of the land; yet a brief summary of the rules and regulations laid down for the guidance of competitors may not be out of place here. On
taking hold, the wrestlers stand up, chest to chest, each placing
his chin

on

his opponent's

right

shoulder,

and grasping him
right of his
fairly

round the body, each having
antagonist.

his left

arm above the

When

both

men
;

have got hold and are

on

their guard, the play begins

and with the exception of kicking

they are allowed to use every legitimate means to throw each
other; but
if

either 'breaks his hold'
loser,

— that
man

is,

leaves loose

he

is

accounted the

and

if

either

touches the ground

with one knee only orany part of his body, though he
tain his hold,

may still
is

re-

he

is

not allowed to recover himself, but
fall

counted

as beaten.

If the

men

side

by

side, or otherwise, so that the

umpires cannot decide which was
technically called a 'dog
fall,'

first

on the ground,
to

it is

what

is

and has
is first

be wrestled over again
or
falls

;

but

if

the umpires can see the loser.

who

down

under, that
all

in is

Two

umpires and a referee decide

Cum-

rland and Westmoreland competitions— a practice that might

be imitated with advantage by

all

wrestHng communities.
o 2

196

WRESTLING
The
'

Druid,'

who was himself
'

a native of CarHsle, devotes
'

a chapter of his
skill,

Saddle and Siiloin

to a description of the

strength,

and prowess of the wrestling champions whose
honour among the people of Cumberland
gives us a definition of the principal

names
chips

are held in high

and Westmoreland, and
^
'

in

vogue with the Jacksons, Armstrongs, Longinires,

Wrights, Jamesons, and other proficients in the wrestling arenas

of Carlisle, Penrith, Kendal, and

many

other

little

towns

in the

two Lake counties.
practical wrestler,
Titt's
is

The

^

Druid,' however, w4io was not a

brief in his definitions, while Mr. William
subject,

treatise

on the same

written

sixty-five

years

ago,

is

diftuse in the extreme.

The

late

to elucidate the mysteries of the
intricacies

art

Ben Cooper's attempt has simply added more

and complications.
manner.

Let us endeavour to strike the
ins

happy medium and explain the
in the briefest possible

and outs of the science

97

CHAPTER
'chips/

IL

TPIE BACK-HEEL.

The

back-heel

is

the most natural of
or,

all

wrestling chips, as

it

comes
foot
It is
it is

readiest to the hand,

more properly speaking, the
to place his left
it.

foot of the youthful aspirant,

who has merely

behind

his opponent's right heel

and bend him over

both an offensive and defensive move.
to slacken the hold

One

w^ay to elude
;

and turn round

for the cross-buttock

another very effective

mode

of turning the tables

upon an op-

ponent

is

to

keep

his back-heel in,
it,

and by

falling apparently

backwards, you make a hank of

as your right foot will then
left leg,

be twisted, or rather crooked round his
be as near the ground as possible.
tight

which should
if

Consequently,

a very

hold

is

kept the leverage will bring your

man

underneath.

The
heel.

hipe can also be used
Directly

to the left with

when an opponent plies the backyour adversary comes with the back heel, lean your head low down, and throw your right leg
in order that
foot.

as high

up

as

you possibly can,

he may be unable

to reach the
larly clean
is

ground with either

This makes a particu-

fall,

especially as your adversary usually thinks

he

safe with the back-heel properly fixed in his case.

it

is

an unexpected

one

As

a general rule the back-heel should never
;

be taken out when once inserted

such a mistaken move

is

in

most cases

fatal,

as the wrestler then

mends

his

hold and you
wrestling

are at his mercy.

Any one who

has seen

much

when

198

WRESTLING
is

genuine struggles have been insisted upon must have observed
that the back-heel

about the

safest chip in the

whole cata-

logue,
left

and more frequently used than any

other.

When
his

the

back-heel has failed to floor an opponent, an expert at

the

game has sometimes been known
both
legs,

to back-heel

man
is

-with

but such cases are

rare.

Hamming
his

an
;

old-fashioned kind of back-heel,

now completely

out of date

any modern wrestler who endeavoured to throw

man by
to

catching him behind his knee with his heel would very quickly
find himself

on

his back.

For hamming or back-heeling
as near the

be

effective the

stroke

must be plied
in.

ground as

possible,

and

resolutely persevered

THE HANK.
This
is

a barbarous

and

unscientific chip,

its

principal re-

quirement being Aveight and strength on the part of the wrestler

who merely
wards
fall
is

turns his

left

or right side to his antagonist, clicks
calf,

his leg in the inside

below the

and by pulKng
This

his

man back-

enabled, on account of the leverage thus obtained, to
solidity.
is

on him with unpleasant

one of the most
;

dangerous and most uncomfortable throws imaginable

the

men

often^come to the ground glued together with a most unIf the

pleasant thud.

man who
it

is

uppermost

is

sometimes

thoroughly shaken, how,

may be

asked, does the poor fellow

underneath
*

fare ?

The hank has
it

settled

many

a North-country
to

fratch,'

and should any of our present boxers be induced
would be a powerful weapon
plies the

practise the move,

in his hands.

Whenever an opponent
deavour

hank, lean forward and en-

to get a better hold.
is

If the wrestler allows himself to
fall.

be pulled backward he

almost certain to lose the

The
it

chip was used by James Elliot, of Cumrew, near Carlisle, in
1835, but the old school would not take to
it,

and

said

was

^aboot nowt,' in fact a beaten man's chip.

Buttock

'CHIPS'

199

THE BUTTOCK.
This requires great strength and rapidity of execution.
is

It

accomphshed by slackening the

hold, turning quickly round,

getting your back under your opponent's stomach

and throwing

him bodily over your head.
to the
fact of the

The manoeuvre

is

more

suitable

North-country style of wrestling than any other, as the

hands being clasped secures the

assailant's grip

and
It

prevents his being pushed on to his face, as in loose holds.
is

a chip, however, always fraught with peril, as the slack hold of
if

the buttocker,

he misses his aim, enables
is

his

opponent to

gain a firmer grip, which he
in the

certain to

make

the best use of

commanding

position in which he finds himself

good

wrestlers attempt to buttock

one another, and the

Few move

can only be successful with a mediocre performer.

THE CROSS-BUTTOCK,
though not such a showy chip as the buttock,
one,
is

a very useful

and frequently comes

into play
his

when

the wrestler has got
to get

into difficulties

by allowing

opponent

behind him
is

during the struggle.

Should the stroke

fail,

there

no help
rule,

for the unfortunate cross-buttocker.

Down

he goes, as a

as his

opponent has obtained the same kind of grasping hold

which the

man who

misses the buttock affords his opponent.
differ

Euttocking and cross-buttocking

in this wise

:

in

the

former the wrestler adopts a loose hold, in order to get his

body underneath
for the

his

opponent, so as to throw him over his

back without tripping him.

A much

tighter hold

is

required
it

purpose of cross-buttocking your man, and

is

not

necessary to get so far underneath him, but the effort must

be seconded by the arms and upper part of the body, as otherwise the act of throwing the leg across both those of your anta-

20D
gonist

WRESTLING
would end
in disaster.

In short, the modes of assault
diversi-

and defence
fied that a

in buttocking

and cross-buttocking are so

volume might be

filled in illustrating this part

of the

subject only.

The

act of buttocking, slipping

from the side or
the science

breast, and, in fact, of everything that constitutes

of wrestling, depends

much upon

the different situations which

may

occur in a contest.

Generally speaking,

quickness in

assault

and promptitude

in judiciously

avaihng himself of any

circumstance that arises in a struggle

may be

called the dis-

tinguishing characteristics of a good and scientific wrestler.

THE OUTSIDE STROKE.
The
left,

safest

method of playing

this stroke is to half

lift

your

antagonist and strike

him along

his right leg

and

foot with your
is

taking care to twist

him round the
and

while. as

Another way
is

to cause your

man

to walk round,
it

he
if

lifting

his re-

ceding
will

foot, to strike

very smartly, which,

properly executed,
is

land him on his knee.
if

The
still

left

outside stroke

the best,
hold, but

because

you

fail

you are

able to keep a
is

good

a miss with the right outside stroke

fraught with danger.

Jonathan Whitehead, of Workington, used the right foot with
daring

shrewdness,

and Walter Palmer,

of
it,

Bewcastle,

in

Cumberland, was generally successful with
nent chip
it

but as a promiold-fashioned

is

now thoroughly

extinct.

An

method, also entirely abolished, was
his

for the assailant to thrust

knee outside of

his opponent's,
leg,

and the

foot inside the

ankle or small of the

thus placing a kind of lock upon the

knee and
tice,

leg.

Sixty years ago this was a very

common

prac-

when

strength alone often set science at defiance.

To

attempt such a
wrestler

move

in the present

day with even a moderate
assailant.

would simply insure the downfall of the

George Steadman, the Cumbrian champion, throws most of

his

Inside Loce or

Clice:,

Cornwall and Devo]

'

'

CHIPS

20I

men
larly

with the

left

outside stroke, in conjunction with a particuis

vigorous twistj which latter

frequently

enough

for

the

majoriiy of his opponents.

THE INSIDE
left leg

CLICK.

requires to be dexterously performed.

To

click

an opponent's
left,

with your right on the inside, or his right with your
is

seems easy on paper, but

very difficult

in

practice.
it

If
is

properly carried out, however, by an expert wrestler
clincher

a

and gives the adversary scarcely any chance whatever,
on the back of
his head.

as he usually falls

Thomas Roper,

of

Lamonby
Dees
at

(the

famous leaper who beat the Scotch champion
in 1849),

Edinburgh
his

was the

first

to introduce this chip,

and since and

day

it

has been brought to greater perfection by

John Graham, of

Carlisle,

John Robinson, of Cockermouth,

Tom

Kennedy, of Egremont.

THE CROSS
This
that
is

CLICK.

a near relation to the inside one, with this difference,
right leg with your right
it is

you click your antagonist's
your
left.

and

his left with

However,

not nearly so effective as

the other.

THE OUTSIDE
Generally speaking, this click
to in order to
is

CLICK.
a saving measure resorted
his legs
it

keep the wrestler on
lifted,

when

in

danger of

being thrown or

and frequently

results in the downfall

of his opponent.

For instance, should a
lifted,

man

feel

himself in

jeopardy of being

swung, or hiped, the best thing he can
as the back-heel

do

is

to click his foe

on the same principle
This

and

as near the

ground as possible.

click,

by the way,

is

202

WRESTLING
it is

a kind of back-heel, but as
it

considered a defensive move,

claims a distinct appellation.

To
heavy

a light-weight the outside click

is

invaluable,

and more
its

men

have been compelled to bite the dust through

agency than by any other means.

THE CHEST STROKE
is

the far-famed chip of the renowned Dick Wright, of Long-

town,

who used
It

it

with greater dexterity than any other wrestler
effec-

of his day.

can only be described as a peculiar and

tive jerk off the breast,

which no one previously, save Mossop,

of Egremont, was ever

known

to practise.

None

but those

whose chest and shoulders
the manoeuvre,

are well developed can succeed in

and the wrestler must be possessed of superior
is

strength and weight, or the experiment

certain to have

an

unfortunate result.
three times with
it,

Mossop threw Tom Longmire twice out of Dick Chapman, of Patterdale, twice and
;

William Jackson, of Kennieside,

one of the best wrestlers

Cumberland ever produced, was once thrown by Mossop by the Many years subsequently Dick Wright same manoeuvre.
floored

Jameson

in the

same way, and they
to

all

said afterwards

they did not

know how

meet

it.

THE HirE
is

one of the choicest chips that belong

to

the science of
far the

wrestling,

and makes one of the
fall,

easiest

and by

most

graceful

especially
is

when

successfully

performed.

The
left

right leg hipe

the best, because your right

arm him
and

is

under your

opponent's

left,

whereas by using the
his right

left
lift

leg hipe

— your

arm being above
the ground.

— you

cannot
left

so high from
miss,

If you

hipe with the

leg

and do

not throw your man, you are liable to get into a slack hold,

The Hipe

'

chips:

203

while he will improve his grip and then you are in his power.

In using the right leg hipe
the
left,

make your man go

quickly round to
left

and

lift

him, at the same time hoist up his

leg with

your

right, so
if

high that both feet must be off the turf; conse-

quently,

he cannot reach the ground with his right foot he
fall

must naturally
has
its

on

his back.
it

Although the
:

left

leg hipe

disadvantages
fail

has one strong point

Should your

antagonist

to

go down while you are trying to bring him

over with the hipe you have him in a grand position for the
buttock, as he will probably land on his
to
left
left

foot

;

all

you have

do

is

to cross his left foot wath
;

your

as rapidly as posis

sible to insure a victory

otherwise your defeat
'

inevitable, as

your opponent
less.

will

merely ^gather
little

his

hold and you are helpthe beginning of the

Hipeing was very

known

till

present century, and then only in certain parts of the country.

When

it

w^as

introduced to the champions of the Border
over half a century ago,
it

counties, a

little

completely revoluall

tionised the science of wrestling.

Among

the hipers of a

past

generation of wrestlers William Jackson, of Kennieside,

and

Tom
his

Pooley, of Longlands, were pre-eminent.

The former

swung
fell

man round
wrestler,

with the rapidity of lightning and seldom

with his opponent

that
his

any

when doing so, although it rarely happens no matter how expert he may be, can throw
Jackson and Pooley were
prowess in
to this circumstance their

man

without falHng on him.
tall

both very

men, and

hiping must, in a material degree, be attributed.
is

As

a rule

it

accounted the utmost
taller

folly for a short

man

to try to hipe

an

opponent much

than himself.

William Rickerby, one of

the best wTCstlers that ever lived, found this out to his cost

when

he attempted to hipe Ralph Pooley
in 1872.

in their

match

at

Liverpool

Pooley with his long reach stepped over Rickerby 's
in succession.

leg

and back-heeled him three times

204

WRESTLING
THE SWINGING
Swing your opponent
first

HIPE.
is

and hipe him while he

off the

ground.

THE HITCH OVER
is

a very unsafe chip, but

it

makes a clean
up

fall

when

it

comes
leg

off.

Turn your
his right
w^hile

left

side to your adversary,
inside, holding
it

and your

left

round

on the

as high as

you can,

and

your
left

man

is

standing on his
left after

left

leg quit his right
cross-

with your
buttock,

and

cross his
fall will

the

manner of the

and a good

be the

result.

THE HOLD.
Finally, the circumstance of taking hold, w^hile
it is

the most

frequent cause of dissension

among

wrestlers,

is

at

the

same

time the most

difficult for

an impartial spectator or umpire to

form a correct and decisive judgment upon.
interested spectator

The

biassed and

and the

w^ell-wishers

of either party are

often determined not to be convinced that the fault originates

with their favourite.

This being the case, those w^ho give the

prize ought always promptly to enforce the

judgment of the

umpire

whom

they have chosen.

The
wiio
is

rule for deciding the
is,

hold, notwithstanding the difficulty of the subject,
sufficiently intelligible to

we hope,
to
fill

any

man

competent

the

arduous position of umpire.
In taking hold you stand chest to chest, and, as you place
your right arm under your opponent's
further
left, it
is

evident the

you get your shoulder underneath, the more power you

must possess.
left

At the same time do not

forget to

keep your

arm

well

down

in order to prevent the right shoulder of
far

your antagonist from getting too

through.
if

A

great deal

depends on the hold you begin

with, for

you have a good

The Hold

'

chips:
at

205

grip you

may
if
it

safely

make play

once with a
it is

man

of your

own
try
:

weight, but
to

you have a bad hold
in the struggle
till
;

better to wait
this in

and

improve

and always keep

mind

never quit your hold
a
fall
is

you are on the ground, as many
fire

snatched out of the
turf.

an ace of the

There are

when the wrestler is within many other chips created by
These

the emergency of a struggle which the scientific wrestler can

adopt more

easily

than they can be described on paper.

remarks are not intended to instruct the

skilful wrestler,
;

who
they
art,

knows by
to

practice

more than precept can teach him

may, however, be useful to those not conversant with the

whom

an elaborate disquisition on the subject would be a

puzzle rather than a guide.

2o6

WRESTLING

CHAPTER

HI.

RING REMINISCENCES.

Those who have

never competed in a wresthng ring

will pro-

bably be unable to understand the feelings of two friends
they happen to be pitted together in the magic
ally if the friends
chill
is

when

circle, especi-

should meet in the

first

round before the
either

off their nerves.

Anyone who imagines

man can

do

his best

under the circumstances had better
will

try the experi-

ment, and he
the case
is

be immediately undeceived.

With a stranger
lugging
indeed,

quite altered.

There

is

far less hesitation in
;

him about and

getting the very best obtainable hold
is

many

a contest

lost

by a careless and
'

indifferent grip to

begin with, and through being too

cock-sure.'

That

it

requires a certain

amount

of pluck to wrestle suc-

cessfully in a public ring
is

surrounded by thousands of spectators
'

an obvious

fact,

and dyke-back

'uns

'

who could

'

fell

owt

at

heame,' have, on most occasions, been eager to ^patronise
*'

the

purchase

"

system

'

when confronted by an
first-class
^

antagonist in
'

the arena.

Frequently a
fall

ahint a dyker

has been
in a

known

to

before the clutch of a third-class
fair

man
is

com-

petition

when

felling

w^as the

order of the day.
the
^

If the
seat of

stomach, as a certain clever writer has asserted,
funk,'
it is

somew^hat astonishing that Cumberland and Westwrestlers,

moreland
in the

who

are amongst the foremost trenchermen

known

world, should suffer from this fearful malady.

RING REMINISCENCES
Without doubt wrestling
is

207
athletic

the

most popular

exercise in the classic Borderland,
ings
at

and the great annual meet-

Carlisle

and Grasmere are productive of the most

unparalleled excitement in the Northern counties.
the

Among

all

numerous gatherings of

a similar kind during the season

those two rings are looked upon as the spots where immortality
is

achieved, and w^here the best

men

in the country

assem-

ble once a year animated with the burning desire
history.

and overwhelming
of

of

stamping

their

names on

an undying page

The man who
better

has not a hobby of some kind must

be a poor creature indeed, and as the old farmer remarked

when
'

his
'

half w^as

^heckling'

him
'

for

attending a
lass,

main

in

company wnth

Professor Wilson,

Howt,

baud same

the gob.

Ivvery yen hes his hobby, and cock-feichtin's mine.'
old Professor was passionately fond of this

The grand

cock-fighting, but then he
wrestling, boxing,

was equally enthusiastic
athletic sports,

in regard to

and other

and

in the

December
on the

number of' Blackwood' (18^3) thus
subject of wresthng

delivers himself

:—

It

IS

impossible to conceive the intense interest taken by the

whole northern population in this most rural and muscular amuseFor weeks before the Carlisle great annual contest nothing else is talked of on road, field, flood, foot, or horseback we fear it is thought of even in church, which we regret and condemn and in every little comfortable public within thirty miles diameter the home-brewed quivers in the glasses on the oaken tables to knuckles smiting the board in corroboration of a Graham, a Cass, a Laughlen, Solid yaik,^ a Wilson, or a Weightman [names well, known in the wrestling world at that period]. A political friend of ours, a staunch fellow, in passing through the Lakes last autumn heard of nothing but the contest for the county, which he understood would lie between Lord Lowther (the sitting member) and Lord Brougham. But to his sore perplexity he heard the names of new candidates, to him hitherto unknown, and on meeting us at the
ment.
;
; ' '

'

2o8
best of inns, the

WRESTLING

White Lion, Bowness, he told us, with a downand serious countenance, that Lord Lowther would bs ousted, for that the struggle, as far as he could learn, would ultimately be between Thomas Ford, of Egremont, and William Richardson, of Caldbeck (two celebrated wrestlers), men of no landed property and probably Radicals. It is not easy, even for the most poetical and picturesque imagination, to create for itself a more beautifal
cast
sight than the ring at Carlisle.
there, all gazing anxiously

Fifteen thousand people perhaps are

on the candidates for the county.
the standing

Down

goes Cass, Weightman

member, and the agitation of a thousand passions, a suppressed shudder and an undergrowl
is

move

the mighty multitude like an earthquake

—no

savage anger,

no boiling rage of ruined blacklegs, no learing of mercenary swells, but the visible and audible movements of calm, strong, temperate English hearts, free from all fear and ferocity, and swayed for a few moments of sublime pathos by the power of nature working in
victory or defeat.

Professor Wilson gave

it

as his opinion that the greatest

number
at

of powerful

men he
Some
the

ever saw was in the wrestling ring

Carlisle

and

in the

General Assembly of the Church of
years prior to the above date Wilson,
sport
at

Scotland a.d. 1823.

who was promoting

Ambleside, wrote a very
there.

amusing account of the wrestling held
professor goes on to say
:

The

genial

Ambleside with Williams and George Fleming to see the wrestling. It was very good, a man from Cumberland with a white hat and brown shirt threatened to fling everybody and foight them afterwards. The foighting I put He stood till the last, but was thrown by a schoola stop to. master of the name of Robinson, cousin of the imp who used to
I

On Thursday

went

to

'

'

'

'

handsome inscription, From had then a number of single matches, the Professor Wilson.' We best of three throws, and Collinson of Bowness threw Robinson easily, he himself having been previously thrown by the Cumbrian One Dunkey, who had also been thrown for the belt, for the belt. then threw Collinson, and a tailor called Holmes threw Cumberbe
at Ellary,

who won

the belt with a

'

RING REMINISCENCES
land
;

209

a

little

fellow about the size of Blair [the Professor's son]

threw a

man

of six feet high

and

fell

upon him with

all

his weight.

Holmes

the tailor then threw

Rowland Long.

The

wrestling on

the whole gave the family great delight.

Ritson, a

Cumberland worthy, who had been a famous
tells

wrestler in his youth,

how he once
to lick.'

wrestled with
falls,

'

Kit

North

'

and threw him twice out of three
'

but he owned
at

the Professor was a
;

verra

bad 'un

Wilson beat him

jumping he could jump twelve yards

in three

jumps with a great
three-

stone in each hand; Ritson could only
quarters.
*

manage eleven and
field, an'

T' furst time

'at

Professor Wilson cam' to Wastd'le

Held,' said Ritson, 'he hed a tent set up in a
it

he gat

weel stock't wi' bread an' beef an' cheese an'

loike.

Then he
mair.

giddert

up

my granfadder,
Stable, an'

rum an' ale, an' sic an' Thomas Tyson,
add Robert Grieve

an' Isaac Fletcher, an'
an'

Jwosep

some

Then
rustle
t'

thur was rustlin' for buckskin breeks,

gurnin' for bacco thro' a horse-collar,
t'

and nowt wad
conclusion
o'

sarra but

Professor

wad

champion

at

t'

t'

spworts

;

there was a gay deed
a' life

an'

amang them you may be shure. It was mirth amang us as long as Professor Wilson was at
Mr.

Wastd'le Heid.'

The

late

Richard Margetson, who was many years

Chairman and Secretary of the Cumberland and Westmoreland
Wrestling Society in London, had the pleasure of shaking

hands with

*

Christopher North

'

after

one of

his

successes at

Windermere, the Professor declaring Margetson
wrestler in England.

to

be the best

Mr. Margetson had the distinguished

honour of winning
his majority.

thirty belts in

Westmoreland before attaining

Charles Dickens, too, found a subject

when he

visited the

Ferry sports at Windermere over a quarter of a century ago, and

saw

'

Bonnie

'

Longmire and

*

Bonnie' Robson meet to contest

the final

falls,

when

the latter was compelled to knock under.

2[o

WRESTLING
great humourist tells us that
to
'

The

the

champion
"

here,

who

was so good as

show us how

to

'^

take hold

the other day

in his garden, has left his

mark

indelibly in our back, besides

having compressed our ribs so that we cannot breathe right
yet/

In

the pages of

'

Household Words

'

Dickens described
beautiful surround-

the wrestling arena at
in gs

Windermere and

its

There

is

not,

we

believe, a

more charming spot

in all

England

than that afforded from the Ferry ring at Windermere. As we sit on its rude wooden stand, and look straight out to northward, six miles
of the blue lake
lie

immediately beneath

us,

gemmed with innumer-

and sprinkled with countless sails afar the able wooded grandeur of the mountain world, and near the beauty of the lake. What more would we of nature ? As for man in this small ring before
islets,

us, the

foreground of the picture there will be seen as splendid specimens of strength and form as Britain boasts of; the vigour of sinew, the shifts of suppleness, can be no further exercised than we The men shake hands before comshall see them used to-day. mencing in token of amity, nor indeed in the thick of the struggle,
while the face of one
is

over the shoulder of the other, and every

muscle

is

exerted to the uttermost, do these fine fellows exhibit any
It is

trace of savageness or personal animosity.

very possible that
in less

amongst these men the bubble reputation may be held
repute than a ten-pound note, and that various
little

arrangements
is

may be made beforehand
and
to the prejudice of

to the

advantages of their privy purses
fair felling,

honest and

but their case

quite exceptional.

Certainly two

will generally refuse to wrestle

men coming from the same place at all, and he who is considered the
for

better

man

'

stands

'

fresh

and ready

more

alien opponents.

Such a recommendation, coming from the pen of one of the
keenest observers of

human

nature the world has known, must

convince the most obdurate unbeliever in Cumberland and
W^estmoreland wrestling that the sport
character.
is

of a manly and noble

Dickens proceeds to say that

! '

RING REMINISCENCES
Good
and
often

211

wrestlers rarely hurt one another.

This quiet-looking
often

giant by our side

[Tom

Longmire],

who has been champion
is

and

will

be so again to-day, although he

nearly forty

— and more than twelve years past the wrestler's prime —has never
in his twenty years' experience once been hurt. He won his first man's belt when a lad of sixteen years old, and in his house across

the lake yonder, a clean neat little inn set in a wilderness of flowers, has no less than one hundred and seventy-four of these wrestling zones. Of all colours they are, and of all descriptions, from the broad

and unornamental town, to the splendid award of Newcastle embossed with the silver towers. It has come to the last round, and our giant friend has got but one foe to deal with, a true son of Anak, as tall if not so big as himself. He has got his work cut out for him, say the old hands, but success tas made him scmewhat overbold. How quietly he suffers those mighty arms to be placed around him, and those strong fingers to feel like one in the dark for a certain hold. Now they have gripped at an advantage and the foe is only w^aiting for him to have hold likewise He has holt he has holt Bonny Robson, Bonny Longsee how they grapple and strain. mire,' so interested this time in the individuals as to call them by their names instead of by the localities from which they come. Three to two on Langmire, two to one five to Langmire's down, Robson's felled him, and indeed it was so, very quiet but
plain,

Manchester-looking

belt,

won

at that matter-of-fact

!

!

'

:

very grim our giant looked.

^

It is

the best of three for the last round

quoth he, as he took up earth

hands to prevent them slipping, reminding us of the preparatory horn practice which the bull indulges himself in on the turf before he charges. This time it is two to one on Robson, who is indeed a very good man, but is felled nevertheless, and the third time he is likewise felled. So our giant friend has won his one hundred and seventy-fifth girdle after all.
in his

Among

a certain class of persons a foolish notion exists
is

that wrestling constitution,

so injurious to the frame that

it

destroys the
that a

and brings on so many aches and pains
in years
is

wrestler

when advancing

must necessarily be a

cripple.

On

the contrary, there

no more healthful and invigorating
since

exercise.

It is just forty-four years

Longmire wrestled
p 2

2 12

WRESTLING
in the

second to the celebrated William Jackson of Kennieside,
ring at Carlisle,

and a more vigorous man
relishes the

for his

age

it

would

be

difficult to find in
still

the three kingdoms.
^

Tom,

like a true

sportsman,

crack of the whip,' and
in

may be
Another

seen once at least every

summer
as

the ring at Grasmere sports,
for

where he has acted

umpire

many

years.

celebrated champion, Dick
the
first

Chapman

of Patterdale,
is

who took
still

prize at Carlisle in 1838, fifty years since,

hale
fre-

and
those

hearty.

Since

Chapman's retirement he

also

has

quently performed the duties of an umpire in the ring, and

who frequented
'

the Bride Kirk coursing meetings some
'

years ago, the

Druid

informs
^

us, will

remember

his directing

the beaters of the 380-acre

Tarnites,' as

head gamekeeper

to

Major Green Thompson, and always sweet on Beckford and

Sunbeam.

Many

years ago,

of light weights,

when James Scott of Carlisle (the prince 'Bonny Jim,' as he was called), Ben Cooper
Carlisle,

and Harry Ivison of
prime,

Thomas Davidson

of Castleside,
in their

Jonathan Whitehead of Workington, and others were
they were invited to
for the

the ancient stronghold of the
illustration of

Howards,

purpose of giving an

Cumber-

land and Westmoreland wrestling to the assembled guests,

who

were highly delighted

at

the

display.

The Howards have
As
far

always been patrons of the wrestling arena.

back as
at

1809 the then Duke of Norfolk frequently offered prizes
Greystoke Castle for wrestling.
sisted of

Those
sport.

trophies usually con-

buckskin breeches, and

fair felling

was always insisted

upon by the noble promoter of
that in October 181
for

Wrestling at that period

was becoming very popular in the Northern counties, and we read
1

twenty guineas were given to be wrestled

on the Swifts

at Carlisle during the race-meeting,

and

that

among
Earl
of

the spectators were the Marquis of Queensberry, the

Lonsdale,

Lord Lowther,

Sir

James

Graham

(of

RING REMINISCENCES
Netherby), Sir James

213

Graham

(of Kirkstone), together with a

great concourse of other gentlemen.

Let us

now

take a leap into the ring at Carlisle, a.d. 1809,

when the first recorded wrestling gathering took place in that now celebrated spot. The first prize, a purse with five gold
'

guineas in
'

it,

was contended

for at Carlisle Races, in

September

1809, and was

won by Thomas Nicholson
'

of Threlkeld.

^Two

purses of gold

were given the next year, and for three years in

succession Nicholson was the champion.

cross-buttock were the favourite chips,
the

The buttock and the and it is said many of
'

men
1

w^ere

struck from the ground upwards of five
fight a

feet.'

In

81

1

Nicholson was induced to
^

seaman of the name
half-hour's battle

of Ridley {alias the

Glutton

')

and a severe

took place, in which

Tom

acquitted himself to the satisfaction

of his numerous admirers.

He

was the fresher
falls

man when

the

combatants separated, and the hard
the
contest were rapidly placing
wrestler.

Ridley received during
at

him

the

mercy of the
hair's

accomphshed

Nicholson was within a
lbs.

breadth
not only

of 6 feet and weighed about 12 stone 8

He
some

w^as

the finest wrestler of his day, but he claims
tion

extra atten-

on the score that he was
far as

in

height, appearance, shape,

make, and even so
of

tone as voice, the exact counterpart

Jem

Belcher, whose portraits again bore a curious resem-

blance to 'the great Napoleon.'
AVilliam Richardson of Coldbeck, who,
it is

said,

had won
at that

240

belts,

was another famous wrestler who figured

period,

and w^hose cognomen of 'Belted Will' was probably

better earned than that of old
self

Howard

of Castle Dacre him-

From

this

time up to the year 1821 several champions of
ability figured in the arena, the best of the

somewhat unequal
collection being

James Scott of Canonbie,

in Dumfriesshire,

Robert Rowntree of Newcastle, and William Cass of Lowes-

214
water.

WRESTLING
Cass was a burly, thick-set man, 6
feet
i

and 17 stone weight, but John Weightman of Hayton, who came to
inch,

the front in 1822, overtopped

him by an inch

in height

and

weighed a stone more.
athlete

Weightman was a splendid-looking
by immense power and length of arm,
'

and won

his falls
'

but the celebrated

Belted Will
sixty

grassed him in
ago.
'

first-rate style
'

when

the pair

met

odd years

Geordie

Irving of

Bolton Gate, who was
quite a
'

5 feet

10 inches and 14 stone, seemed
as

bairn
*

'

in the
'

arms of such a Lifeguardsman

Weight-

man, but

Geordie

was a hero of dauntless pluck and feared

no man.
with the

His science was magnificent.
leg he

He

liked

a

tight

hold of his man, and as a right leg striker and cross-buttocker
left

was unsurpassed.

Irving threw the giant McLauchlin,

who was

6 feet 5 inches

and 20 stone weight,

in

1828,

amid the wildest excitement.
at Carlisle
'

Richard Chapman of Patterdale, who won the belt
four years in succession, was only
*

nineteen
in

come Martinmas

when he
'

first

appeared on the Swifts

1833 and carried

off

the honours of the day.

On

that occasion

Chapman
'

floored

Geordie

'

Irving

of

Bolton Gate,

and the old champion

clapped the lad on the back and said to him,
lad.

Man, thee

sel'

Nivver a

man

threw

me

in Carlisle

ring but he won.'

William Jackson of Kennieside followed close on the heels of

Chapman and won

at Carlisle in

1841-44.
is

Jackson was not

long in the ring, but his record

almost unsurpassed.
his day,

He

was undoubtedly the champion of

although he was

thrown

in the latter part of his career (185 1)

by Robert Atkin300/. at Ulver-

son, the Sleagill giant, in their great

match

for

stone.

Jackson stood 6

feet

i

inch and weighed 14 stone.

He

possessed a magnificent figure, was a grand 'takker hod,'
trouble.

and gave the umpires no
followed

Tom

Longmire, who

him

as

champion, had no chance with Jackson, and
in

was thrown by him

a

match with

great ease

;

yet

Long-


RING REMINISCENCES
mire was
a

' ;

215

splendid wrestler and held the

championship

many
of

years.

William Jameson of Penrith and Dick Wright
said
to

Longtown may be
really

have succeeded Longmire
scientific

but although Wright was a

particularly

wrestler,

he was

never in

it

with Jameson, who, on account of his

superior weight
points.

and

height, could worry the lesser

man

at all

Noble Ewbank of Bampton, a member of a famous

wrestling family, was always Wright's superior,

and would have

run Jameson very close had he persevered.
lacked perseverance and
zenith of his fame.
time,
fell

Ewbank, however,

out of the ranks almost in the
finest built

He

was one of the

men

of his

and divided the honours with Dick Wright

as the

two

best-looking wrestlers of their day.

Dick, with his black crisp

hair curling over his forehead, his face glowing with the hues of
health,

and

his

brawny arms folded over
thrown

his

muscular chest, was

the very type of a hero of the arena.
ever, completely

Ewbank and Wright are, how-

in the

shade by the present champions,

Steadman and Lowden, who have thoroughly eclipsed them.

Among
light prizes

light-weights

of the old school the

palm must

be given to John Palmer of Bewcastle, who won the heavy and
at Carlisle

in the

paralleled in wrestling history.

same year (1851) a feat unLike Lord Byron, Palmer had
it

a

^

gib

'

foot,

but he used to say

was

'

terrible

good

at the

click.'

Another clever wrestler was George Donaldson of

Patterdale,

who once threw

the celebrated William Jackson.

Like Harry Ivison of
hod,'

Carlisle,

he was a

^

verra slippery takker

and gave the umpires a heap of
rival,

trouble, unlike

Jonathan

Whitehead, Donaldson's

man and
and
'

took hold on the
leg Strieker,

who always stepped up to his instant. As a hipper, buttocker,
Jim Scott

right

Jonathan was supreme.

Bonny Jim,' who was in his time the 'prince of light-weights (or, more properly speaking, middle weights), was one of the most finished buttockers of modern times— he has already been

2i6

WRESTLING
At Whitehaven he
1864-65.
the ii stone prize nine years in succession, and stood
in the Carhsle ring in

mentioned, but must not be omitted here.

won

second to Jameson

Without
inferior to

doubt Scott was a grand

wrestler, but

he was

much

Ralph Pooley of Longlands, who defeated the accompUshed

WiUiam Rickerby

in a

match

at

Liverpool in 1872.

Rickerby
fully

was one of the best men that ever stripped, and
Scott's standard, yet

up

to

Pooley threw him three times

in succession.

Ben Cooper
lean rickle

of Carlisle,
banes,'

who was

Pooley's build

all

over,

^

a lang
the

o'

would have been a good match

for

Longlands champion, but Ben belonged to an
tion.

earlier genera-

As regards

science and a thorough knowledge of the art

of wrestling,

Tom Kennedy

of Egremont has no superior

;

but

he wants that which he can never have, namely an inch more
arm-reach and two inches more length to his legs in order to
enable him to take rank with Pooley as a champion middleweight wrestler.

In

this brief

summary

it is

impossible to mention one tithe

of the celebrated light-weight wrestlers
credit in the wresthng arena
will recur
;

who have

figured with

but such names as the following

to every lover of the exercise, viz. Walter Palmer,
Scott,

Jonathan Whitehead, Jim

Ben Cooper, James
Tifiin,

Patteson,

Joseph Allison, William Lawson, John

George Sanderson,

William Rickerby, Harry Ivison, John Graham of Carlisle, Ralph
Pooley, John

Wannop (now
named
comers.

a heavy-weight),

Tom

Kennedy,

Albert Canadus, John Simpson, John Robinson, &c., &c.
the way, the five last
their

By

are at the time of writing holding

own

against

all

Having mentioned the most prominent country champions
of the present century, the metropolitan exponents of the art

now claim attention. It is much plored that there are now fewer resident wrestlers than at any former period within the memory of
of wrestling

to
in

be de-

London

the oldest

RING REMINISCENCES
*

217

native

'

of the North

;

yet

no further back than 1865, when the

rules relating to athletic clubs were not so stringent as they are

now, there were wrestlers in
rivals.

London

fit

to

cope with any
the

A

quarter

of a

century ago,

when

Wrestling

Society stood almost alone, and before the amateur and professional definition existed, the old regulations

were

sufficient

;

but in the present day,
host of clubs
surely be
all

when

the society

is

only one

among

a

bidding for public favour, some attempt should
to

made

keep abreast with the times.

The
this
if

exclusion

of wrestling from the

programmes of

athletic clubs has for years

been gradually sounding the death-knell of
popular exercise

sport as a

among London men.

Yet

a few of our

leading athletes would take up the subject, or the Oxford and

Cambridge Athletic Club would import a
wrestler into their midst, wrestling might

skilled

Cumberland
as popular in

become

the South as

it is

in the present

day

in the

Northern counties.

The

origin of the

Cumberland and Westmoreland Wresthng
the exact date of
It
is,

Society in

London and
uncertain.
little

its

establishment are

somewhat

however, generally believed to
its

have existed a

over a century, the earliest mention of

annual gatherings being that the natives of Cumberland and

Westmoreland were

in

the habit of meeting on Kennington
to celebrate their favourite sports of

Common

on Good Friday

leaping and wrestling.

The

prizes

competed

for in those days

were insignificant in value and few in number, a belt being

awarded

to the

champion of the wrestling

arena,

and a

pair of

l:)uckskin gloves to the best leaper, in imitation of the prizes at

that time given for competition in

many

parts of

Cumberland

and Westmoreland.
In the year 1824 we find the
first

record of a code of rules

and a

staff

of officers appointed to carry out the sports and
society.

conduct the business of the

Since 1824 the annual
viz.

meetings have been held at the following places,

— Kenning-

'

2i8

WRESTLING
Common,
Chelsea,
St.

ton

Wood, Hornsey Wood House, Chalk Farm, Highbury Barn, Copenhagen House, Hackney Wick, the Welsh Harp, Agricultural Hall, and during the last fourteen years at Lillie Bridge, West Brompton. From the
John's
first

the wrestling

was very popular and well patronised,
northern residents
in the metropolis,

especially by the

two

hundred competitors frequently entering the ring
period.

at that early

The

first

noticeable incident in connection with the sports
first

took place in 1827, when the

prize

was won by Mr. William

Graham, a gentleman who subsequently became a partner
Nicholson's gin
distillery,

m

and who was

for a

number

of years

As a racing man few owners had more success than Mr. Graham, as, with the exception of
closely identified with the turf

the

Derby, nearly
looking over the

all
list

the coveted
of wrestlers

prizes

fell

to

his

share.

who have played an important and honourable part in the London ring, we may mention Richard Margetson, also Jos Wills, known as Major
'

On

Wills, for a long time vice-chairman of the Wrestling Society,

the chair, as previously mentioned, being occupied by Mar-

getson
3Q.

;

the

two were great

rivals

about the years 1838of Scuggerhouses,
or
wrestled.

Another good man was
not
particular
fell

Jemmy Haig
he
with the

who was

whether

fought

Jemmy
floored

used to
the

his

men

swinging hipe,
over
six

and
feet,

Major,

who stood

considerably

with proportionate girth, by that identical chip in 1839.

In

1840 George Brunskill, a Lifeguardsman, who was a very good

man, also went down before Jemmy's
find the
either

irresistible

hipe.

We
which
those

same Brunskill winning the says a good deal for him or
him.

first

prize in 1856,

else very little for

who opposed
sport
it

To add

lustre

to

the character of the
late

should be mentioned that the

George Moore,
a
fall

merchant, millionaire, and philanthropist,

won

or two at

RING REMINISCENCES
the

219

London

gathering during his
in the year

first

year in the metropoHs,

and one 'Jack Foster'
that time,

1856 distinguished himself
his

by grassing a Lifeguardsman nearly double

own

size.

At

and

for a

number

of years previously, the wrestlers

had
Mr.

drifted into a mischievous habit of using
it

assumed names.
in

'Jack Foster,'

has been ascertained, was none other than

George Tinniswood, a gentleman well known both

London and Cumberland. The name of George Moore cannot be found among the wrestling records of the period, but it is only reasonable to assume that when the future merchant prince 'peeled off' in the ring, his modesty prompted him to
assume a
disguise.

There was a John Dixon of King's
the years 1849
till

Meaburn who figured prominently about 1852, but when he met William Donald
match
1861.
at

of

Dearham

in

a

Highbury Barn

in

1850 he was easily defeated by the
prize in

countryman.

Another John Dixon won the London
time the

By

this

late

George Sanderson had made his
metropolitan wrestlers.

appearance

among

the

Sanderson
later,

won

his first prize at Carlisle in 1858;

and ten years

when
and

he confronted the invincible John Tiffin of Dearham
Agricultural Hall, he lifted the
'

at the

little

demon
to

'

off his legs

hiped him twice in succession.
Hall

Tiffin

wanted the Agricultural

Cup

badly to take

home

with

him

Cumberland, but
it

Sanderson told him there was only one way of getting
that

and
if

was by proving
t'

his superiority.

'

Thou'll hev to
'

fell

me

thou gets
thee
?
'

cup,'

quoth Sanderson.
'

Whae weighed
first
fall,
'

in for
'

then asks

Tiffin.

Whae

dista think but mesel', lad

?
'

replies Sanderson.

After Tiffin had lost the

Jock
'

Ward

of

Wigton exclaimed, 'Hes

that thing gittin' a

fa' ?

re-

ferring to Sanderson. 'Aye, lad,' retorted

Jim

Scott, 'that thing,

as thou ca's hun, could get a

fa'

oot

o'

thee or the best

man

at

9L stone that ever stripped

!'

About the year 1864 the

stal-

220

WRESTLING
Then came
to the

wart Richard Coulthard appeared on the scene and wrestled
well for a time.
front a

better wrestler

perhaps than either Sanderson or Coulthard in the person of
the popular
tionally

John Graham of good performer, and
ring.

Carlisle.

Graham was an
winning the
1 1

excepstone

his feat of

and

9^^

stone prizes in 1866 has never been surpassed in the

London

From 1861 up

to the present .time, with

the

exception of 1874-5-6, the country champions have taken
part in the Easter sports,

and have,
for the

as a matter of course,
;

secured the greater portion of the prizes on each occasion

indeed in recent years but
professors of the art would

country wrestlers the
a poor show.

London

make but
well

Since John

Graham's time John Wannop has been the most distinguished
performer,

and

is

certainly

worthy of

being

ranked

amongst the best

wrestlers resident in the metropolis during

the last quarter of a century, such as George Sanderson,

John

Graham, Isaac Stamper, John Simpson, Thomas Atkinson,
Richard Coulthard, John Irving, &c., &c.

221

CHAPTER

IV.

STYLES AND SYSTEMS.

Half

a century ago a fierce rivalry existed between the two

counties of

Devon and Cornwall, and ever

since that period

meetings have frequently occurred between picked men, notably

about the time when Abraham Cann was the pride of the

Devonshire
favourite

folks,

and kicking

w^ith

heavy boots

w^as

the

mode

of grassing an

opponent.

Fortunately, the

practice of the rival counties has since

been assimilated, and
from Cann, of

we hive no

involved challenges

now

like that

whom

the Cornishman sang that he

Was
To
There
period
is

not the

man

wrestle with Polkinhorne.
at

none of the ^toe' business now which
the Cornwall and

one

Devon wrestling meetings such brutal exhibitions. During Abraham Cann's time, however^ the boot w^as the chief weapon of warfare, and when he met the

made

'

'

Cornish champion Polkinhorne there
wrangle about the
'

is

said to

have been a big

shoeing

'

of the champions, Polkinhorne in
his

the end waiving the point

and allowing
it

opponent

full liberty.

Another authority

states that

was Cann who offered ad:

vantageous terms to his adversary in the following words
'

Polkinhorne,

I will

take off

my

stockings and play bare-legged

with you, and you
shoes that

may have two of the hardest and heaviest can be made of leather in the county of Cornwall,

222

WRESTLING
shall

and you
to

be allowed to

stuff yourself as
size of a

high as the armpits

any extent not exceeding the
I will further

Cornish peck of wool,
if

and

engage not to kick you

you don't kick me.'

We

are also told that in the actual contest, two falls out of

three,

Polkinhorne (who weighed 3

st.

4

lbs.

more than

his

oppoas

nent) cased his shins with leather,

and rehed on the hug

opposed

to the kick, while the

Devonshire

with kicking shoes of a most appalling

man was furnished pattern. The match
in

took place

at

Morris

Town

near Plymouth in 1826

the

presence of a large gathering

— it

is

said that close

on 10,000

people paid for admission to the ring, and quite that number

looked on from the
to the
fall.

hills

outside

— and resulted in a draw owing
the

complicated nature of the West-country definition of a

Polkinhorne's shins had been fearfully mangled, while the

hide of

Cann was red and raw from the dreadful hug of Cornishman. The two champions did not meet again in But apart from all ring, though Cann issued a challenge.
it

the
this

is

the purest imaginable nonsense to consider

Cann

— who

was only a light-weight and double jointed

—a

Champion.
himself a

He

was undoubtedly floated into notoriety by certain absurd
framed
in

rules

such a way that one
all

man might show

superior wrestler

through a contest, and yet be prevented
his

from winning, while
until

opponent, although repeatedly thrown
jelly,

almost

shaken to a
to

by

artfully landing

on

his

stomach when unable

keep

his foothold

on the ground,

might eventually save the money of his supporters and make
a draw of a contest in which he had been clearly overmatched.

No amount

of argument can bolster

up a

set of regulations

under which a

man may be thrown no end
and
yet,

of times by a better
fall

wTestler than himself,

because he does not

on

the

requisite

number of

'points,'
finally,
all

may resume

the

struggle,

weary the spectators, and
the result undecided, and

by means of a quibble, leave
gift

because he has the

of falling


STYLES AND SYSTEMS
upon
the
his

223

paunch instead of on

his back.

It

would be well

if

promoters of wrestling throughout the kingdom would
in a fair

compare the English systems
order that one standard

and impartial

spirit,

in in

method might be decided upon
wrestling districts could
all

which the experts from

all

meet and

compete on equal terms.

This would abolish
is

that cavilling

nonsense as to which system
in each,

the best,

who
lot,

are the best

men

and who
title

is

the champion of the

and of England.

Tom

Sayers's

of

Champion

of England stood out in noble

contrast

to the

miserable striving after such distinctions as

champion of Devon, Cornwall, Lancashire, or Cumberland and
Westmoreland.

On

beginning operations in the ring the Cornwall and

Devon men
above the

—who,

by the way, wear strong linen jackets
to catch in a
is

assume a stooping position and are supposed
waist, but they feint
for

hold

and dodge about
the

wearisome
arrived
in
at.

manner sometimes
Kicking
stocking
is

hours before any climax

now forbidden and
In order to be

men compete

their

feet.

fairly

thrown two shoulders and

one hip must be on the ground or two hips and one shoulder,
it

matters not which, and a

man must be thrown
his

flat

on

his

back before any other portion of
ere

body touches the earth a decision can be given against him. Hauling and mauling
in Lancashire

on the ground, as
less

and French

wrestling, are usehis nether

expedients
is

;

and a competitor who pitches on
legs,
all.

extremity

allowed to rear himself up on his
if

and renew
Directly a

the struggle as

he had never been down

at

competitor feels himself in danger of being thrown he gets to
grass

on the

flat

of his

paunch

if

possible, in order that he shall

not be thrown on his back.

Judging

this style of wrestling is

by no means

easy, as a

slippery player

purposes, yet

may be thrown flatly enough for by an adroit movement may raise

all

practical

either a hip

224
or shoulder

WRESTLING
and so create the impression
that he has not really
his

been put down, and a clever player when hardly bringing

man down on
does, give

all

the required points might, and frequently

him
is

a slight jerk.

This move
;

is

usually practised
if

when
if

a

man
i.e.

over or under thrown

of course

the

fall

is

under,

not thrown enough, the jerk would be forward, and

overthrown then the jerk would be backward.
easily discern this,
falls,

An

expert

can

but outsiders often clamour loudly over
is

these

and a weak judge

liable to

be influenced.

With
any

regard to collaring, a

man must

not take the two collars of
at

his opponent's jacket in

one hand, nor can he do so

time during the play.

Some men have
behind

a trick of slipping their

hand under the jacket up

their

opponent's

back,

bringing the hand over his shoulder and then grasping hold of
the opposite jacket collar, the tightened jacket enabling the
wrestler to hold

on

like

grim death.
it is

In Devonshire

this is

disallowed, but in Cornwall

up

to the

present sometimes

permitted.

No

competitor
belt, or

is

allowed to take hold of his

opponent's drawers,

handkerchief, but he

may

grasp

the bottom corners of his jacket.

Three minutes are allowed
fifteen

between each bout, and usually
'

minutes between each

back,' or fair

fall.

The
and
'

great

amount of unsatisfactory judging, and the haggling
'

fratching

inseparable

from

West-country

wrestling

meetings in London, have been the means of wiping out nearly
all

traces of Cornwall

and Devon

wrestlers, as a body,

from the
little

metropolis, a circumstance

much

to

be regretted, as a

more unity among the patrons

of the sport, a revision of their
fall-,

rules, especially relative to their definition of a

and a com-

plete revolution of the wrestling

'

uniform

'

of the competitors,

would have

insured the popularity of the exercise.

As an
in

illustration of the absurdity of the old fossilised regulations in

question, one case will

suffice.

At a wrestling gathering

The HeavE; Cornwall and Devon

STYLES AND SYSTEMS
London some
years ago,

225

John Graham, the celebrated Cumberno

land wrestler, threw an opponent no fewer than sixteen times,

but on each occasion the verdict was

'

fall.'

Now, under
state that

Northern laws, or any other laws which merely

one

man
the

shall

be

fairly

and squarely thrown, Graham's opponent
at the

would have

been defeated
'

very

first

trial,

whereas
lost,

men

ultimately

tossed

up

'

and the Cumbrian
Yet, in spite of
all

his

opponent securing the

verdict.

these fatal

objections to their rules,

Cornish and Devonshire wrestlers
is

maintain that their system

the best of

all

known methods
will

throughout the world.

Surely the majority of athletes, and
in
this

especially those interested

ancient sport,

agree
'first

that a

moment
to lose
'

of resolute and scientific exertion on the
principle
is

down

worth a week's barn-door fowl

sparring in canvas jackets,

and dog-fighting on the ground, and

must create more enthusiasm and excitement than any amount
of such wearisome and unscientific
toil.
it

In the limited space

at

command

will

be impossible to
to this

enter into the details of attack

and defence peculiar
it

fashion of wrestling.
correct

At the same time

an erroneous impression that

exists

may be well to in many minds

to the effect that the

Devon and Cornwall
;

styles of wrestling

are two different systems

indeed, the difference between the

two
sive

is

really

now

so slight that the better
'

and more comprehenof play practised
this

term to apply to both would be,
is

West-country wrestling.*

True, there

a decided variation in the

mode

by wrestlers hailing from the respective counties, but
scarcely affects the
practical
result.

The Devon
noted
for

style

was

formerly principally characterised
while the Cornishmen were, and are
heaving.

by kicking and
still,

tripping,

hugging and

These distinguishing

features, however, are not

now

confined to the two counties in any separate degree, as the

Devon

players are fairly well

up

in the

Cornish

peculiarities.

Q

226

WRESTLING
all

Again, Cornishmen have not been at
kicking, while at the

averse to a bout at

same time

their tripping

accomplishments

have always been quite equal to anything their rivals have displayed in that
line.

Probably the chief difference in the two

styles— now that kicking has, except on rare occasions, been
discontinued in De/onshire
question
of,
'

is

to
'

be traced to the vexed

What

constitutes a

fair

back

fall

'

?

The

'

fair

back

fall

argument has always been the bone of contention
one of the most serious drawbacks

between the two counties, and between both wTCstlers and
judges,

and

is still

this ancient

pastime has to contend against.

Undoubtedly, the numerous

unsatisfactory decisions given from time to time in consequence

of the multitude of loopholes always gaping wide open for a

wrangle in West-country wrestling conditions have been the
principal cause of the decline
polis.
It is w^ell

and

fall

of the sport in the metrolocal

known,

too, that in
is

matches decided
in

in
is

Cornwall the strictness which
not
observed.

the

rule

Devonshire

In the first-named county, a wrestler might
his

be pitched on
rolled over

side or shoulder and,

if

kept moving, be

on

his back,

and thus have a
on

fall

decided against
to

him
fair

;

whereas in Devonshire matches, a
fall

man

be thrown a

back

must be pitched
*•

flatly

his back, as previously

stated.

In a

three-point

'

match two shoulders and one hip
at

or two hips
time.

and one shoulder must touch the ground
four-point
'

one

In

'

matches both shoulders and hips must

reach the ground simultaneously, and this before hand, arm,
knee, or any portion of either throivn or thrower reaches the
earth.

Not much
style of

fault

can be found with the Cornwall and Devon
efforts

going to work, but the frantic and hair-splitting
wrestling in both

of

some of the promoters of
line of

counties to
for

draw a
all

demarcation betwixt the two systems, which

practical purposes are one, are simply incomprehensible y

STYLES AND SYSTEMS
and why the three and four points
be abolished in favour of
puzzled
all 'first

227
fall

definition of a

cannot

down

to lose/ has for years

wellwishers and admirers of the sport

who

are un-

connected with the counties.
it

Judging
difficult

this style

of wrestling as
tasks

now

exists

is

one of the most
face,

and unsatisfactory

anyone can possibly

as a tricky performer after being
in

thrown has only to move a hip or shoulder
in order to secure another trial
;

an expert manner
inferior

and frequently an
darkness sets
in,

wrestler can carry

on

this

game

till

or until

the time for adjournment arrives, in order to

make

a draw of a

contest in which he stood no earthly chance had the conditions

been reasonable.

A

firm referee can often prevent this kind of
is

manoeuvre, but a timid one

more frequently influenced and
most imperative.

alarmed by outside clamour, and as a rule refuses to interfere
just at the point

when

decisive measures are
at

Perhaps a retrospective glance
the past

some of the heroes of
readers.

may be

interesting to

many

Undoubtedly

the greatest West-country contest of the century was that which

took place between Cann and Polkinhorne (already referred

^.o).

Abraham Cann

is

next

heard of at

the

Golden Eagle, a
defeated

tavern in the Mile

End Road, where he met and

Gaffney, a gigantic Irishman, in the best of five back
staking 60/. to his opponent's 50/.
place, in

falls,

Subsequently, at the
first

Cann same
his

an open competition, Cann took
second honours.

prize,

and

brother James gained

Among

those

who

competed were
Saunders.

Chappell,

Copp Thorne,

Finney,

Parish,

Jordan (the Devonshire

giant),

Middleton, Clargoe, Pyle, and

Again, at Leeds, in 1828, there was a large gathering of
wrestlers, including

elephant

'),

Abraham Cann, James Stone ('the Wrexford, Bolt, and Jordan. Cann and the
'

httle
little

elephant took
'

first

and second honours

respectively.

In June
for a

1828 one Oliver, a Cornishman, defeated James Cann

Q

2

22 8

WRESTLING
20/. at

purse of

the Eagle Tavern, City

Road and
;

in the

same
Irish-

month George Saunders,

a Cornishman,

met the huge

man
five

Gaffney at the Wellington Grounds, Chelsea, the best of

back

falls

(without boots),

when

the latter won.

Shortly

afterwards the parties met at
further match.

Tom

Cribb's, but failed to ratify a
at

Another wrestling meeting was held

the

Wellington Grounds in June of the same year.

The company

numbered
and Talbot
court;

upwards of i,ooo, one hundred of
Lords Falmouth, Clanwilliam,
Sir

whom

were

noblemen and gentlemen of high
;

position, including Earls
Elliott,

Grey

and Walls-

Hon. Mr. Fortescue;
Bart.
;

John

Shelley, Bart.; Sir Charles

Lemon,

Sir J.

Bamfyld, &c. &c.

Twenty-eight wrestlers

entered the ring

—thirteen Devon men, the same number from
The
last

Cornwall, one Cumberland man, and one Irishman.

named was placed with Mossop, who wrestled

the Cornishmen; the
at the

Cumbrian (Henry
John's

Cumberland and Westmoreland
St.

Sports in 1830-32, held at the Eyre Arms,

Wood)

being told off on the side of the Devonians.
play resulted as follows
:

The double
Cann, Thorne,

— Standing, Devon
Pyle,
:

:

J.

Batstone,

Steers,

Kerslake,

Copp, Avery, Perry, and

Mossop.
Cocks.

Standing, Cornwall

Oliver, Trewick, Johnson,

and

The men were then matched
:

in the following order

for triple play

— Oliver threw James Cann, Thorne threw JohnCopp threw Mossop.
For
Copp,

son,

Cocks threw Batstone, Trewick threw Kerslake, Steers

threw Perry, Pyle threw Avery, and
the final seven
Pyle,

men
;

were

left

in, viz.

Devon— Steers,

and Thorne

Cornwall

— Oliver,

Cocks, and Trewick,

Pyle odd man. Oliver threw Thorne

easily,

Trewick threw Copp,

and Steer threw Cocks
Steers.

;

Trewick threw Pyle, and Oliver threw
in favour of Oliver,

Trewick then resigned
12/.

who took

the

first prize,

Poor Abraham Cann

in his latter days fell into difficulties

;

but after the fight between Sayers and

Heenan

in

i860 a

suf-

STYLES AND SYSTEMS
ficient

229
of 20/.

amount was

collected to secure
live

him an annuity

a year.

This he did not

long to enjoy, as he died from

the effects of an accident shortly afterwards.
wrestler

The famous

old

was buried

at

Colebrook, where an unpretending stone

marks

his last resting-place.

After Cann's time there w^as a lack of wrestlers in both
counties for several years.

Chappell was for a brief period

Devon champion, but ultimately he gave way to Tom Cooper, who for years carried all before him in his own county. W. Pollard, a Cornishman of herculean build, and possessing some science, then appeared on the scene but he could
considered the
;

not withstand the fearful kicking Cooper administered to him.

Cooper attended

all

the big meetings held at Plymouth, and was

looked upon as the undoubted champion, until
light-weight, lowered his colours

Sam Rundle,
years

a

some twenty-one

ago —

the

same Sam Rundle who recently wrestled with Carkeck the
In his prime Rundle was one of the best wrestlers

American.

Cornwall ever produced, but his struggle (considering his age

and weight) with the young giant Carkeck must have been a
veritable farce.

The American

is

a splendid wrestler,

and sub-

sequently

threw the Cornishman Jack Smith at the Royal
ease.

Aquarium, AVestminster, with absurd

Among

Devonians who have distinguished themselves

in
J.

the wrestHng arena

may be mentioned

S. Oliver,

J.

Slade,

Burley, George Bickle,

H. Ash, D. Tapper, T. Belworthy, H.

Belworthy, Chudley, Marshall, &c.
fine

A

little later

came another

batch of men, which included R. Baker,
Hutchings,

J.

Milton, T. Baker,

F.

Battishill,

W. James, R. Pike, C. Leyman, Drew, S. H. Holman, W. Ford, George Stone, G. Bickle, Hill,
numbers among
Grose, A. Ellis,
J.
its

Chaniberlain, Greenslade, S. Howard, &c.

Cornwall

champions Joe

Menlar,

W. Pucky, M.

Wakeham,

T. Stone, H. Stone,

T. Bragg, Lucking, Williams, Pearse, Marks, Phil, Hancock,

230
the Kittos (one of

WRESTLING
whom
faced George Lowden, the

Cumbrian
Bassett,

champion,

at

LilHe
giant),

Bridge a few years ago, but was easily
A. James, Foster, Major

thrown by the

Ham,

W. Hendra, J. H. Tressada, Jack Smith, W. Tressada, (S:c. A great many names have of course been omitted. The principal Cornish and Devon chips
P. Carlyon, E. Williams, J. Carkeck,

are the Cross-buttock, the Fore-lock, the Back-lock, the Back-

heave, the Belly-heave, the Heaving-toe, the Flying Mare, and

The Hipe and Double Nelson are unknown among West-country wrestlers. Formerly, when kicking was
the Back-heel.
fashionable in Devonshire,
it

was considered a sign of cowardice
off,

for a wrestler to take his shoes

the soles of which some-

times contained a steel plate artfully inserted between the plies

of leather.

When this was the case

the boots of the competitors

have been known to run over with blood.

With regard
tion that
it

to Lancashire wrestling

there can be

no ques-

is

the most barbarous of the English systems,

and more nearly approaches the French dog-fighting
tumbling than any other
fists
is

and

— a fair stand-up fight with the
Open
in

naked

the merest skim-milk, in fact a perfect drawing-room

entertainment, in

comparison.

competitions such as

take place
wall

in

Cumberland and Westmoreland and

Corn-

and Devon are almost unknown

in Lancashire, contests
'

there being

mostly confined to matches under the

gaffer

'

system.
'-

A

local writer delivers himself to the following effect
is

:

A

Lancashire wrestling-match

an ugly sight
the

:

the fierce

animal passions of the

men which mark
and

struggles of

maddened

bulls,

or wild beasts, the savage yelling of their
finally the clog

partisans, the wrangling,
settles all disputes

business which

and knotty

points,

are simply appalling.'

In

all

matches the wrestlers compete

in stockings or barefooted,
attire.

a pair of bathing-drawers usually completing their

The

men

are allowed to catch hold practically just as they please,

Half Nelson, Lancashire

STYLES AND SYSTEMS
other's ears, or

231

but the rules state they must not scratch, throttle, pull each

commit any

unfair act.

Rubbing the body
is

or

limbs with grease, resin, or any pernicious drug
bidden.

also for-

In the thick of the

fray,

should the wrestlers get en-

tangled with the boundary of the ring, they must draw off and

renew the contest with the same hold as they

left

off with.

Should any match not be concluded on the day appointed,
both

men must

meet, weigh, and begin wrestHng at the same
;

time and place day by day (Sunday excepted) until finished
the decision of the referee in any
stakes to be given

match

to

be

final,

and the

up accordingly.
one

Should the referee not be
minutes from the time

chosen

in

the articles, and the wrestlers or backers be unable
in fifteen

to agree about appointing

of entering the ring, the manager or his deputy shall
selection.
fall.

make

The men

are allowed fifteen minutes
fall

between each

If a wrestler gain a

and neglect or

refuse to continue
;

the contest, his opponent shall claim the stakes

or in the

event of a wrestler gaining a throw he can claim the stakes
in the

absence of any arrangement to conclude the match.
in
is

Any

dispute arising, not provided for

the articles, to be
;

settled

by the

referee,

whose decision

final
is

and

as

he

is

supposed to be a competent person, he

invested with

full

power

to act in

any emergency.

On

the other hand, should

that functionary act

on the testimony of others when he has
a circumstance not unusual, the parties
select

missed seeing a
interested
especially

fall,

can,

and must, depose him, and
the
fall
is

another,

when

a

disputed

one.

In an open

competition the management can disqualify a referee for in-

competence or

inattention,

but

when

a

fall

is

not disputed

the referee can continue to act.

In the event of a new referee

being selected during the progress of a match the wrestlers

must begin afresh

as

if

no

fall
is

had been contested.

The
and

position of referee, however,

always a

much

easier one,

232

WRESTLING
satisfactory to all parties

more

concerned,

when he

is

assisted

by two umpires.
w^hile a

Wrestling
is

men

are impulsive beings,

and

competition

proceeding the judges have anything
Generally speaking,

but a rosy time of

it.

when
is

a close

fall

takes place, the two competitors crowd round the umpires and

clamour

for a verdict.
folly,

This course of action

the greatest

imaginable

as

it

prevents the necessary consideration and
;

consultation,

and often hurries the decision
wrestle over again
that
is

whereas

if

the

judges were afforded the opportunity of exchanging opinions
in private, the order to
' '

would be of more
better
all

frequent

occurrence, as
contest

generally a
in
'

decision

when a
purposes,

has

resulted

what,

to

intents

and
is

should be recorded a

dog

fall.'
;

Throttling

a

mighty factor in Lancashire wrestling
in the rules
it is

although forbidden

often resorted to with impunity.

As

the two

shoulders must be held on the ground for the space of several

seconds in order to constitute a
the practice of throttling,
difficult to prevent.

fall

in this style of wrestling,
is

when

the Lancastrian blood
rules laid

up,

is

At the same time the
opponent
in

down
*

for
is

the guidance of the

competitors distinctly state that

it

unfair to try to injure an

any tender part of the

body, or to throttle him.'

Again, a

man on

his

hands and

knees must not be choked by being pulled upwards by his
opponent, but either party
so long as the referee
is

may

break

fingers, or

arms

either,

satisfied that

such a circumstance has

arisen solely in the struggle for the mastery,

and not through
to disqualify

any desire to act

unfairly.

The

referee has

power

any competitor who may act unfairly
maiming,
knees
<&:c.

in regard to throttling,

Generally speaking, a

man on
neck
is

his

hands and

will get
;

on

his feet before his

dislocated from

behind

but a wrestler cannot be prevented from putting his
his opponent's neck,

arm round
throttling.

which

is

quite distinct from

STYLES AND SYSTEMS
Cornwall and Devon wrestling,
all

233

Probably the most dangerous move in Lancashire and
in fact in the catch -hold

system
very

round,

is

what

is

called the

'Double Nelson.'

It is

difficult to play,

however, and seldom comes into operation.

To
his
his

get behind an opponent, place both arms under his,

and

clasp your hands round the back of his neck

and thus bend

head

forw^ard

till

his

breastbone almost gives way because
is

neck refuses to be dislocated,
all

the most dangerous

and

brutal of
wrestling.

the

many methods

that belong to the science of
'

It is

almost impossible to bring the

Double Nelhis

son

'

into operation with a stout bull-necked

man, because

bulk prevents the hands from meeting behind his head.

same

difficulty,

however,

is

not experienced

slender build has to be performed upon.

when a Then it becomes
likely to ensue,

The man of

the most formidable manoeuvre a wrestler can employ, and,

owing
it

to the frightful

consequences that are
all

ought without doubt to be barred on

occasions.

To

convey some notion of what a Lancashire wrestling-match
is

like,

probably a better illustration cannot be supplied than

the following graphic description of a contest that took place
in

New York

a few years ago between Acton and Bibby for
articles stipulated that the contestants
;

1,000 dols.

The
fall,

could

take any hold they pleased
constitute a

two shoulders on the ground to
for
rest

and t^n minutes allowed

between

each

fall.

From
to

the

first

the

'

little

demon/

as

Acton was
like a

called^
ball.

went

in

win and handled his heavier opponent
Fair.

rubber

Such a

bewildering gyration of heads, legs, and arms was never seen out of

Acton belied the adage of Sir Boyle Roach, that no man can be in two places at one time unless he's a bird. He was part and parcel of Bibby's anatomy. Their legs were interlaced, their arms were locked, and their heads bobbed together but, contrary to popular expectation, Bibby was the under dog in the struggle all through. Except for a brief period now and then, Bibby
;

Donnybrook

234
insisted

WRESTLING

upon keeping on all-fours, excepting when he was standing on his head or sprawling flat on the carpet. Bibby tried the 7'6le of the bull in the china-shop, and made an effort to demolish the little
Lancashire

man

;

but, like a flash, the latter

made

a double back-

and passed Bibby's bumped form and the platform. Bibby next assumed the attitude of a quadruped, and after that was hardly allowed to stand erect like a man. That first kick was his last.^ There was no kick in Bibby. Acton literally mopped the floor with him. Three successive times was Bibby placed upon his head, and it was only by the exercise of his wonderful acrobatic powers that he saved himself from a fall. The audience were fearfully excited. The men had assumed the elasticity of eels, and the sinuosity of their movements was surprising even to veteran wrestlers. Acton was a veritable old man of the sea, and clagged to Bibby like wax, making him bite the dust first, last, and all the time and after forty minutes of almost ceaseless toil Bibby was planted squarely on his back. After this Bibby was floored in six minutes and properly sat upon, and Acton declared the victor.
action spring
'

^

'•

;

Fortunate

it is

for the

human race

in general that Lancashire

wTCStlers are mostly small
fiercest

men, Acton and Bibby, the two

exponents of
ft.

this

uncivihsed fashion of wrestling, being

only

5
I T

5 in.

in height

and lo^ stone weight and

5

ft.

4

in.

and

stone weight respectively. Snape, the Lancashire black-

smith,

who was

to the fore in

1872, and could at that time

have throw^n the whole
contrast to
close

human

race at catch-holds, was a striking
as

Acton and Bibby,
stone.

he stood 6

feet

and weighed

on 20

This same Snape wrestled a match with

Sam
ease

Hurst, the Staley bridge Infant,

who was thrown wath absurd
Before this took place

by the herculean blacksmith.
at

Snape had been defeated
champion,
recently a
in the

Bolton by Dick Wright, the Border
style.

Cumberland and Westmoreland
in

Quite

match took place

Her

Majesty's Opera House,

Melbourne, between
Miller.

Tom

Cannon, a Lancashire man, and one
Before the

A

brief reference to the struggle will serve as another
first fall

illustration of the ferocity of these contests.

STYLES AND SYSTEMS
was recorded
in

235

Cannon's favour hardly

six

minutes had elapsed,
ribs

and

it

was then discovered that one of Miller's
its

had been

dragged from

position,

and the

cartilage torn away.

With

dogged Lancashire
in,

instincts Miller obstinately refused to give

and

actually wrestled for six minutes longer,

being then

thrown a second time.

Among

all

the

different

styles of wrestHng, the

French

system for downright absurdity bears off the palm
following rules will amply testify
1.
:


strictly

—as

the

The

wrestlers are only allowed to take hold

from the

head, and not lower than the waist.
2.

Taking hold of

legs

and tripping are

forbidden.

3.

The

wrestling

is

with open hands, and the wrestlers are

not allowed to scratch, strike, or to clasp hands.

Clasping hands
their

means
within

that the wrestlers shall not clasp

one of

hands
round

the

other,

nor interlace their

fingers,

but they are

allowed to grasp their
their opponent's
4.

own

wrist

to tighten their hold

body or otherwise.
must have
their hair cut short, also their

The

wrestlers

finger-nails,

and they must wrestle

either barefooted or with

socks.
5.

If

one of the wrestlers

fall

on

his knee,

shoulder, or

side,
6.

they have to start again.
If the wrestlers
roll

over each other, the one whose
is

shoulders shall touch the carpet
7.

deemed conquered.
same
time, so as to be

To

be conquered,

it is

necessary that both shoulders of

the fallen shall touch the ground at the
fairly

seen by the public.
against

When Jameson and Wright competed
1870,

Le Boeuf and
the

Dubois, the French champions, in the Agricultural Hall in
the

English

wrestlers

were entirely ignorant of

French mode of wrestling
contest.

until a few days before the actual

On

the other hand, the

Frenchmen had been tutored

236
in the

WRESTLING
Cumberland
style for several

weeks beforehand by two

expert

Cumberland

wrestlers.

It will

be remembered that the Englishmen were victorious

own style, and the Frenchmen in theirs, and that the latter won the toss for choice of style for the odd fall, and conLuck undoubtedly played the best sequently the match.
in their

chip in the contest, for had the Border champions
their

won

the toss

opponents would not have had a leg to stand on.

As an

exposition of the system of wrestling peculiar to the two countries

the competition

may be The

said to have fulfilled the

most sanguine

expectations, but as a test of the merits of the

men

it

was a

downright

failure.

provisions of the French code of rules

are directly antagonistic to the very elements of a struggle,

while the English rules allow unlimited action so long as the

hold remains unbroken.

Take away the

chips for knocking
is

your

man down and
left

the clicks for keeping yourself up, there

nothing

but weight and strength to battle with.
at all points,

Wright

and Jameson were cramped
of their opponents' system.

being utterly ignorant

of those ground manoeuvres which seemed to be the backbone

With our notions of

fair

play,

a struggle on the ground has certainly a savage look about

The Cornish style with its jacket- grasping and its Hhree is child's-play in comparison with the French points down
it.
'

fashion of going to

work

;

indeed

it

is

only approached in

savage brutality by the system of wrestling which finds favour
in Lancashire.

In concluding this chapter on Wrestling
recapitulate
wrestling.

it

may be

well to

what constitutes a
First

fall

in

some of the
is

styles of

man down, any

point,
;

the loser in

the

Cumberland and Westmoreland style two shoulders on the ground in the French or Graeco -Roman style any point down
;

in the Catch-hold style
style
;

;

two shoulders down

in

Lancashire

two hips and one shoulder, or two shoulders and one

STYLES AND SYSTEMS
hip, excepting
*

237

when the arrangement is for four points/ in the Cornwall and Devon style. A great many of the other so-called systems are governed
left

by such ridiculous rules that they are best
'

alone.

When
if

the
it

catch-hold

first

down

to lose' style

becomes universal,

ever

does, wrestlers will then have an opportunity of competing
their merits,
^

on

inasmuch as each would have the advantage of

adopting what was best in his
could acquire from others.
exercise,

own

style, as well

as

what he

In

this

way the real purposes of the
throwing your opponent
in the

whether

for

pastime or defence, would be best proin

moted, as the victory would consist
only, instead of rolling

him on the ground
'

French mode,

or struggling for

'

three points

like the

men

of Cornwall

and

Devon.

APPENDIX
BY
E.

CASTLE

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^,
A
COMPLETE and
critical

bibliography

is

not only the most

efficient

help that can be afforded to the pursuit of original

inquiry on any particular subject, but, as

had

to

hunt

for small details

know who have and cross-references among old
all

books and MSS., often proves of value to investigators of
other and not even necessarily cognate matter.
it

On

this plea

can be urged that everyone who has had occasion to write
in leaving a record,

on out-of-the-way studies does useful work
not only of his

own

surmises

or conclusions, which
all

may

or

may

not be worth having, but of

the utilisable materials he

has discovered.

The

panegyric of
It

'

bibliography,' however,

is

not needed in

these times.

has become a recognised and useful bypath
;

in the field of literary pursuits

and

so,

although devoted to a

very restricted subject, the present small contribution to booklore
'

may
Soon

prove of interest to

many
of
'

besides devotees of the

noble

art.'

after the

publication

Schools and

Masters of

Fence

'

— from
and

which work the bulk of bibliographical notes

on

writings anterior to the present century are taken in this

volume
to date,

— the writer was urged to complete the bibliography up
to publish
it

in a separate

form

;

since then

it

was

thought that such a work might form an interesting appendix to

'

242

APPENDIX
'

the

fencing

'

volume

in the

Badminton

Library.

The com^

pilation purports to give a concise bibliographical account of
all

works relating to fencing, whether by masters,

dilettanti

'

or simple collectors of books, from that undiscoverable treatise

of Francisco
in 1474,

Roman, reported to have been printed at down to the latest publications of May 1889.
so to restrict the
it

Seville

As it is logically impossible the word fencing as to apply

meaning of

only to the

more handy

weapons, rapier, small-sword, or sabre, especially when keeping historical considerations in view,
it is

here accepted in

its

broadest etymological sense— namely, the art of fighting with

weapons retained in hand. This meaning
to the

is

equally as applicable

German

Fechtkunst, the Italian Scherma^ the French

Escrime^ and the Spanish Destreza as to the English Art of

Fence (or defence).

Such a catholic view, unfortunately,
to include a great

entails

an obligation

number
for

of manuals of mere military exercises.

Tiresome and

prolific as

much

of this literature

is

— that devoted
left

to bayonet practice

instance
to

it

could not well be

out

of account

when we had

admit the more ancient and

curious treatises on the cognate art of wielding halbert, pike,
flail,

or two-hand sword, together with the rare works
*

on

that

scientific

tossing

'

of

banners which,

in

the

seventeenth

century especially, was considered as akin to fencing proper.

The
tion,

cataloguing rules here

employed are those of the
replaced by a

Library Association of the United Kingdom, with the excep-

however, that the alphabetical order
chronological arrangement,

is

strictly

not

only of the authors

themselves, but of their different works and editions.
are

There

many reasons
all

for this departure

from the more usual plan of

collecting
will,

the works of an author under one heading, which
this
*

no doubt, be appreciated should
for reference.

Bibliography

be used

The

chief interest

of old works on

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
fencing
lies in their
'

243
to

value to the antiquarian
'

much more than

the strictly

practical
to

fencer.

It was, therefore,

thought more

advantageous

allow every work to be found by reference to

the marginal dates, so that anyone wishing for information con-

cerning a particular period in any country might find out at a
glance whatever fencing literature was available for his purpose.

This

is

obviously simpler than hunting alphabetically through

a mass of

names

all

probably unfamiliar.
of the older treatises are profusely

A

large

number

and

splendidly illustrated, and the costumes, arms, details of orna-

mentation, architectural designs, even landscapes, can be of
use to
artists,

while the armorial plates which often

accompany

the old-fashioned elaborate dedications are of interest to the
heraldic

and genealogical student; even the copious ^padding,'
which so often swells the volumes

sometimes gravely philosophic, or merely of poetic, anecdotic,

and contemporary

interest,

of ancient masters of the sword,
value.

may on

occasions prove of

The important
whenever possible
on

task of verification has been gone through

—a

very necessary precaution, considering

the want of accuracy, or even of tolerable care,
this topic,

shown by

writers

ancients especially, in their spelling of

names

and

their statements as to date
It

and

size.

may be

of interest to mention here the few authors

who

have attempted an investigation of what had been written before

them on the
Carranza, the

art of fence.
'

In the sixteenth century the great

father of the science of

arms

'

in Spain, in the

seventeenth the Marcelli of
Pallavicini, left

Rome and
lists

the Sicilian Morsicato

more

or less copious

of fencing books, which

remain to

this

day our only authority

for the dates
la

and existence
Torre,

of the works of Francisco

Roman, Pedro de

Jayme

Pona of Perpignan, and Pietro Moncio, none of which seem yet
to

have been discovered.

Many

of the

more important authors
R 2

244

APPENDIX
cross-references, but in the eighteenth century our only
is

in their national or personal vindications afford of course useful

copious and reliable authority
versities of

that

'

ornament of the Uniapparently to

Goettingen and Helmstadt/ Friedrich A. Kahn.
the

Among
have
art is
felt

more modern masters, the

first

an

historical,

not merely controversial, interest in his
'
'

Jean Posselier, fencing-master to the Mousquetaires Gris

of the Garde Royale, and better

known under
data,

the assumed

name some

of Gomard.
fifty

He

collected

often

imperfect,

on

works, and used those that he could read

— namely,

the French and

some

Italian

—as materials
later

for very superficial

and one-sided
was

history of the fencing art.
its

Gomard's short sketch, notwithstanding
freely

want of accuracy,

drawn upon two years

by Marchionni (the
practised in

reputed inventor of the giuoco misto,
Italy),
*

now much

who,

after

pruning the French work of some obnoxious

chauvinistic'' theories,

completed the analysis of certain national

authors,
'

and used

it

as the bibhographical introduction to his

Trattato di Scherma/

The

^

Dictionnaire Raisonne d'Escrime of
'

J.

A. Embry, and

Terwangue's 'Reflexions Techniques
same, offering as they do
little

et

Historiques' on the

to satisfy the expectations raised

by

their 'elastic' titles,

need only be adverted
attempts at
critical

to

here pour

memoire.

All these

first

bibliography were

followed, with
w^ork of

much

better success, in 1882

by the well-known

M. Vigeant, whilom professor

in the select fencing-rooms

of the Cercle de

TUnion

Artistique and of the Hotel

du Figaro.

This celebrated teacher possesses the most complete collection

known

of books on swordsmanship, and on what the Italians

call Scienza cavalleresca, generally.

Moreover, as he considers
artistic Parisian

no clothing

that the

most cunning and

book-

binder can devise too magnificent for the books he loves with
the complicated love of a master, a bibliomaniac

and a

writer,

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIAIICATORIJE:
it

245
its

must be owned that

his collection

is

quite unique of

kind.

In 1882 M. Vigeant published his

first

work,

*

La

Bibliographie

de TEscrime Ancienne

et

Moderne/ and undoubtedly succeeded
volume much of the keen
treasures.
it
is,

in attaching to that neat little

interest

book-collectors feel

for

their

Unfortunately, this
to the notes of

attractive production, valuable as

owing

such an expert swordsman,

is

not only very incomplete, but
Suffice
it

also full of errors concerning foreign books.

to say

that

M. Vigeant only mentions some two hundred works,
of them,

many
under

indeed,

merely from hearsay,
of their
six
titles

so to
into

speak,
;

very

free

translations

French

whereas there were upward of
before 1882.

hundred works published
French portion
is

What had been done by M. Vigeant

for the

of the Bibliography of Fencing (the part which alone

nearly

complete in his work) was attempted soon

after for the Italian

by

Signor Masaniello Parise, but with less elaborateness, in the
preface to his 'Trattato Teorica-Pratico di Scherma.'
This,

however,

is

rather a carelessly

drawn catalogue, which gives no
is

detail as to size, printer's

name, or engravings, and

on the
it

whole unworthy of the sohd and otherwise excellent
introduces.

treatise

Fencing-masters

are, as a rule, too entirely practical to care
;

much
ficial

for

book-lore

the few

names

hitherto

mentioned may
a super-

be said to include

all

those

who have taken more than
art.

notice of the literature of their

Among
this

amateurs, on the other hand, and bibliophiles, the

subject has attracted

more

attention, but only those to
for materials

whom

work

is

directly indebted

can be noticed

here.
lists
'

Some

little-known works were discovered in the copious
'

of 'Books on Swordplay

given by Mr.

W.

F. Foster in
in

Notes and Queries,' Series
'

iv. vol. v.,

and not a few
'

Almi-

rante's

Bibliografia Militar,'in

Mariano d'Ayala's

Bibliografia

246
Italiana Militare/

APPENDIX
and
in

the article

'

Fechtkunst

'

of Meyer's

Cyclopaedia.

Of more

recent authorities, the best thanks are due to Dr.

K. Wassmannsdorff of Heidelberg, the author of erudite essays
contributed to

German periodicals on
more
especially the

ancient guilds of swords'

men and

masters,

Marxbriider,' as well as

several pamphlets

on subjects connected with swordsmanship.
is

Dr. Wassmannsdorff

also the fortunate

owner of a most

valuable collection of ancient books relating to every kind of
sport
;

to Lieut.-Colonel

Max Jahns, of the Grand General Staff,
on the universal
Fambri
;

in Berlin,

who

in the course of his researches

history of the art of

war has come across numerous old German

MSS.
to
in

relating to fencing

and fencers

;

to the Cavaliere

of Venice, one of the best authorities on the sword in Italy

Don Manuel
Madrid
;

7?rco del Valle, librarian of the King's Palace
lastly, to

and^

Dr.

a learned and enthusiastic

Thomas Windsor, of Manchester, book-collector, who rarely allows a
it

catalogue, in whatever language
notice.

be,

to escape his critical

At an

early stage of the author's attempt to

complete and
'

bring up to date the bibliography which prefaced

Schools and

Masters of Fence,' the want was strongly
assistant to collect

felt

of a competent

and

classify

works from

all

countries.

This

help he had the good fortune to find in Mr. Carl
of the author of the well-known
'

Thimm, son

Bibliographia Shakespeariana,'

and himself a devoted student of bibliography and book-lore.
Notwithstanding
all

this valuable help,

it

can hardly be
;

assumed
be said

that the present
is

volume

is

exhaustive
of
all

all

that can

that

it

contains the matter

existing biblio-

graphical accounts

on the

subject

of fencing,

and a very

great deal more, discovered either

by mere good luck or by

curious searches in public and private libraries and in old bookstalls

and

catalogues.

BIBLIQTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
As, however, interesting but forgotten works often
light in the

247

come

to

most unHkely quarters — a curious find of
the writer in the library of the Inner
^

this sort

was

lately

made by
know

Temple
'

— should
happen
Science
to
'

any reader of the

Bibliotheca Artis Dimicatorias
*

of any treatise or disquisition on the

Noble

unnoticed therein, he would confer a favour by send-

ing an account of the
c

same

to the compiler.

E. C.
41

Hill Street, Berkeley Square, W.
October 1889.

248

APPENDIX

BIBLIOTPIECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^,
DUTCH.
1607
Spiessen.

Gheyn

(J.

de).

—Wapenhandelinghe
Amsterdam.

van Roers Musquetten ende

117 plates.

Folio.

1650 1671

Thibauld. Ars digladiatoria. Folio. Amsterdam. Bruchius (Johannes-Georgius) [Scherm- ofte Vecht-Meester der

wyd-vermaerde Academic]. Grondige Beschryvinge van de Edele ende Ridderlycke Scherm- ofte Wapen-Konste, &c. Oblong 4to. Leyden. [Portrait of the author by Van Somer, and 143 copperplates,] 1674 Fetter. Worstelkunst m. prachte Radier von Romeyadi Hodghe. Amst. 4to. 1866 Regoor (M.) De Schermkunst voor het volksonderwijs geschikt gemaakt. 8vo. 's Gravenhage. [Schermmeester in de G. Vg. Lycurgus-Achilles en 1887 Hesse (G. Olympia, &c., &c.]— Handboek ten gebruike bij het schermonderwijs op den degen en de sabel, ten dienste van liefhebbers, meesttrs en onderwijzers. Opgedragen aan den weledelen zeergeleerden Heer Dr. Johan Georg Mezger. Apeldoorn Laurens Hansma. [42 figures in the text.] 8vo.

)

:

ENGLISH AND AMERICAN.
1489 The fayt of amies and chyvalrye, whiche translaycyon was fynysshed the viij day of juyll the said yere (1489) was emprynted the xiiij day of juyll the next folowing. In fol. goth. [This work was translated and printed by Caxton from the French of Christine de Pisan.] 1594

Grassi (Giacomodi).

— Giacomo di Grassi, his true Arte of Defence,

by infallable demonstrations, apt Figures, and perfect Rules the manner and forme how a man, without other Teacher or master may safelie handle all sortes of weapons as well offensive as defensive.. With a treatise of Disceit or Falsinge and with a waie or meane by private Industrie to obtaine Strength, Judgment, and Activitie. First written in Italian by the foresaid Author, and Englished by J. G[eronimo ?] gentleman. 4to. London. His practise, in two bookes the first intreat1595 Saviolo (Vincentio). ing of the use of the Rapier and Dagger, the second of honour and honourable quarrels. 4to. London. Printed by John Wolfe. Dedicated to the Earl of Essex.] [6 woodcuts in the text. [This work is generally believed, and with good reason, to be alluded to by Shakespeare in As you like it.' It is very illustrative of allusions both in Shakespeare and Ben Jonson. Some copies contain eleven leaves
plainlie teaching
:

;

'

less

than the above, marked with a kind of flower.
I

The

first

leaf of

sheet

and twelve additional leaves inserted in its place, forming the complete book as in this copy. I'he second leaf of sheet I
cancelled,

was

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
H

249

In some copies, both the cancelled leaf and 2. is erroneously marked the additional sheet occur, but the former is certainly out of place, being repeated. There are, therefore, three different kinds of copies, all virtually Between Gg and Hh are also two leaves, the first marked ^|, perfect. forming a chapter of the Duello or Combat.' Quaritch Catalogue of Books. Supplement 1875-77, p. 138.] Paradoxe of Defence, wherein is proved the true 1599 Silver (George). ground of fight to be in the short ancient weapons, and that the Short Sword hath the advantage of the long sword or long rapier, and the weaknesse and imperfection of the rapier fight displayed. Together with an admonition to the noble, ancient, victorious, valiant, and most brave nation of Englishmen, to beware of false teachers of defence, and how they forsake their own naturall tights with a brief commendation of the noble science or exercising of arms. 8vo. London. [Woodcuts in the text.]
'

;

Gheyn (J. de).— [Enghsh translation of his work from the Dutch.] Amsterdam. See Dutch,' 1607. 161 1 Mars His Feild or The Exercise of Armes, wherein in lively figures is shewn the Right use and perfect manner of Handling the Buckler, Sword, and Pike. With the wordes of Command and Brefe instructions correspondent to every Posture. i2mo. London.
1608
Folio.
'

[16 copperplates with explanatory legends.

1617 Sv\^ETNAM (Joseph). The Schoole of the Noble and Worthy Science Being the first of any Englishmans invention, which professed of Defence. the sayd Science So plainly described that any man may quickly come to the Then true knowledge of their weapons with small paines and little practise. reade it advisedly, and use the benefit thereof when occasion shall serve, so shalt thou be a good Common-wealth man, live happy to thy selfe and comfortable to thy friend. Also many other good and profitable Precepts for the managing of Quarrels and ordering thy selfe in many other matters. London: 4to. Printed by Nicholas Okes. [Dedicated to Charles, Prince of Wales. 7 woodcuts.] the gentleman's armorie, 1639 Turner (Sir James). Pallas armata wherein the right and genuine use of the rapier and the sword is displaied.
;

No

text.]

:

i2mo.
1640

London.
(?)

Hales.

—The Private School of defence.
is

[This work

mentioned

in

Walton's
.

'

The compleat
.

Angler,'

ist

edition, 1653, p. 3.]
^Sir James). Pallas armata A 2nd edit. H[ope] (W[illiam]). Scots Fencing Master, or Compleat smallswordman, in which is fully Described the whole Guards, Parades, and Lessons belonging to the Small-Sword, &c. By W. H. 8vo. Edinburgh: John

1683

Turner

1687

— —

.

Reid.

[12 copperplates, out of the text.]

The Sword-Man's Vade-Mecum, or a preserva1691 H[ope] (W[illiam]). tive against the surprize of a sudden attaque with Sharps. Being a Reduction of the most essential, necessary, and practical part of Fencing, into a few special Rules. With their Reasons: which all Sword-Men should have in their memories when they are to Engadge but more especially if it be with Sharps. With some other Remarques and Observations, not unfit to be known. By W. H. i2mo. Edinburgh John Reid.
; :

1692 Hope (Sir W., Kt. The fencing-master's advice to his scholar: or, a few directions for the more regular assaulting in schools. Published by way of dialogue for the benefit of all who shall be so far advanced in the art, as to be fit for assaulting. Small 8vo. Edinburgh John Reid.
)
:

1692 Hope (Sir W., Kt.)— The compleat Fencing-Master in which is fully Described the whole Guards, Parades, and Lessons, belonging to the Small-Sword, as also the best Rules for Playing against either Artists or others,
:

250
with Blunts or Sharps.

APPENDIX
:

Together with Directions how to behave in a single illustrated with figures Engraven on Copper-plates, 2nd edition. representing the most necessary Postures. 8vo. London

Combat on Horse-back
Printed for
title,

:

Dorman Newman,
is

at the King's

Arms

in the Poultrey.
'

copperplates, out of the text. This work, with a different in every other respect a reproduction of the Scots Fencing Master.']
[12

2nd edition. 1694 Hope (Sir W. Kt.) Sword-man's Vade Mecum. i2mo. London Printed by J. Tailor. [The title of the second edition only shows a little difference in the
,

:

spelling.]

The English Fencing Master, or the 1702 and 1705 Blackwell (Henry). Compleat Tutor of the Small-Sword. Wherein the truest Method, after a MatheShewing also how necessary it is for all matical Rule, is plainly laid dow^n. Gentlemen to learn this Noble Art. In a Dialogue between master and Adorn' d with several curious postures. 4to. London. scholar. 24 copperplates, out of the text, folded. [5 woodcuts, in the text. Dedicated to C. Tryon, Esq., of Bullick, Northants.J
1707 Hope (Sir William, of Balcomie, Bart.) [Late Deputy-Governour of the Castle of Edinburgh]. New, Short, and Easy Method of Fencing or the Art of the Broad and Small Sword, Rectified and Compendiz'd, wherein the Practice of these two weapons is reduced to so few and general Rules, that any Person of indifferent Capacity and ordinary Agility of Body, may, in a very short time, attain to, not only a sufficient knowledge of the Theory of this art, but also to a considerable Adroitness in Practice, either for the Defence of his life, upon a just occasion, or preservation of his Reputation and Honour in any Accidental Scuffle, or Trifling Quarrel. 4to. Edinburgh: James Watson. [One large folded sheet, containing 16 figures engraved on copper.]

—A

:

The English Master of Defence or the Gentleman's 171 1 Wylde (Zach. Al-a-mode Accomphshment. Containing the True Art of Single-Rapier or Small Sword, withal the curious Parres and many more than the vulgar Terms of Art plainly exprest with the names of every particular Pass and the true performance thereof; withal the exquisite Ways of Disarming and Enclosing, and all the Guards at Broad-Sword and Quarter-Staff, perfectly demonstrated; shewing how the Blows, Strokes, Chops, Thro's, Flirts, Slips, and Darts are 8vo. York: Printed by John perform' d with the true Method of Travesing. White, for the Author.
)
; ;

1714
or the

Hope

(Sir

William, of Balcomie, Bart.)
;

— New Method of Fencing,

True and Solid Art of Fighting with the Back- Sword, Sheering-Sword, Small-Sword, and Sword and Pistol freed from the Errors of the Schools. 2nd Edition. 4to. Edinburgh Printed by James Watson. 1724 Hope (Sir William, Bart.) A Vindication of the True Art of SelfDefence, with a proposal, to the Honourable Members of Parliament, for erect:

Recommended to all Gentlemen, but ing a Court of Honour in Great Britain. To which is added a Short but very useful particularly to the Soldiery.
memorial for Sword Men. 8vo. Edinburgh: William Brown and Company. [The same plate as that which appears in the work published by Sir W. Hope in 1707, and a frontispiece, representing the badge Gladiatorum ScoHcorum.^ 1725 Hope (Sir William, Bart.) Observations on the Gladiators' StageLondon. Fighting. 8vo.

or the expert sword-Man's companion an account of the Author's life and his transacTo which is annexed the art of gunnerie. tions during the wars with France. i2mo. Glasgow. Printed by James Duncan.

1728

McBane

(Donald).

—The

:

True Art

of self-defence, with

[Portrait of

McBane, and 22

plates, out of the text.]

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^

251

1729 Hope (Sir William, Bart.)— A Vindication of the True Art of SelfDefence, &c. 2nd edition. 8vo. Printed by W. Meadowes in London. [Same plate and frontispiece. Dedicated to the Right Honourable

Robert Walpole.]

Valdin. The Art of Fencing, as practised by Monsieur Valdin. London Printed by J. Parker. [' Most humbly dedicated to his Grace the duke of Montagu.'] 1730 B[lackwell] (H[enry]). The Gentleman's Tutor for the Small Sword or the Compleat English Fencing Master. Containing the truest and shewing how necessary it is for all plainest rules for learning that noble Art
1729
8vo.
:

;

;

gentlemen to understand the same, in thirteen various lessons between Master and Scholar. Adorn'd with several curious postures. Small 4to. London. [6 woodcuts.] 1734 L' Abb AT. The Art of Fencing, or the Use of the Small Sword. Translated from the French of the late celebrated Monsieur L'Abbat (Labat), Master of that Art at the Academy of Toulouse, by Andrew Mahon, Professor i2mo. Dublin Printed by James Hoey. of the small-sword.

:

[12 copperplates, out of the text.]

1735 L'Abbat. by Andrew Mahon.

—The
2nd

edition.

Art of Fencing, i2mo,

ko..

London

Translated from the French Richard Wellington.
:

treatise on fencing in the shape of an 1738 (J.) [Captain]. album of fifteen copperplates, engraved by Scotin, with one column of text. Folio.

Miller

—A

true

The use of the Broad Sword. In which is shown the (T. ) fighting with that weapon, as it is now in use among the Highlanders deduc'd from the use of the scymitar, with every throw, cut, guard, and disarm. 8vo, 48 pp. Norwich: M.Chase.
1746

Page

method of
;

1747

Godfrey

(John) [Captain].

—A

Treatise

upon

the useful Science of

Defence connecting the Small and Back Sword, and shewing the Affinity between them. Likewise endeavouring to weed the Art of those superfluous, unmeaning Practices which over-run it, and choke the true Principles, by reducing it to a narrow Compass, and supporting it with Mathematical Proofs. Also an Examination into the Performances of the most noted masters of the Back-Sword, who have fought upon the Stage, pointing out their Faults, and 4to. London Printed for the Author by T. allowing their Abilities. Gardner.
:

1750
cing.

(.?)

An album
4to.

of copperplates representing various attitudes in fenI'explication g^n^rale des prin-

Oblong

1763
R.

Angelo.
Dodsley.

Date about 1750. L'Ecole des Armes, avec

cipals attitudes

et positions

concernant I'Escrime.

Oblong

folio.

Londres

:

&

J.

[Dediee a Leurs Altesses Royales les Princes Guillaume-Henry et Henry-Frederic. Forty-seven copperplates, out of the text.]
1765
Hooi^er.

Angelo.

— L'Ecole

des Armes,

&c.

Oblong

folio.

London:

S.

[A second edition of M. Angelo's work containing same plates, but with two columns of text, in French and English.]
dictionary explaining the terms, guards, and 1767 Fergusson (Hary).— positions, used in the art of the small sword. 8vo. [No place, no printer's [' Hary name.] is thus on the tide, and at page ii.
'

a

1771-2 Lonnergan (A.) The Fencer's Guide, being a Series of every branch required to compose a Complete System of Defence, Whereby the Admirers of Fencing are gradually led from the First Rudiments of that Art, through the most complicated Subtilties yet formed by imagination, or applied

]

2 52

APPENDIX

to practice, until the Lesson, herein many ways varied, also lead them insensibly on to the due Methods of Loose Play, which are here laid down, with every In four parts. Part i and 2 contains Precaution necessary for that Practice.

such a general explanation of the Small Sword as admits of much greater Variety and Novelty than are to be found in any other work of this kind. Part 3 shews, in the Use of the Broad Sword, such an universal knowledge of that Weapon, as may be very applicable to the use of any other that a man can lawPart iv is a compound of the Three former, explaining fully carry in his hand. and teaching the Cut and Thrust, or Spadroon Play, and that in a more subtile and accurate manner than ever appeared in Print. And to these are added Particular Lessons for the Gentlemen of the Horse, Dragoons, and Light Horse, or Hussars, with some necessary Precautions and an Index, explaining every term of that Art throughout the book. The whole being carefully collected from long Experience and Speculation, is calculated as a Vade-mecum for gentlemen of the Army, Navy, Universities, &c. 8vo. London.

Fencing Familiarized, or a new treatise on the Art of Illustrated by Elegant Engravings, representing all the different Attitudes in which the Principles and Grace of the Art depend; painted from 8vo. London. hfe and executed in a most elegant and masterly manner. The text [Facing the above title is its exact translation into French. Frontispiece and eight folded plates, engraved by is in both languages. Ovenden. Olivier was educated at the Royal Academy of Paris, and Professor of Fencing in St. Dunstan's Court, Fleet Street.]
1771-2

Olivier.

Sword

Pjay.

man's Companion

The Army and Navy Gentle(J. )[of the Royal Navy]. or a new and complete treatise on the theory and practice of Fencing, displaying the intricacies of smallsword play, and reducing the Art Illusto the most easy and familiar principles by regular progressive Lessons. trated by mathematical figures and adorned with elegant engravings after paintings from Hfe, executed in the most masterly manner, representing every material Large 410. London James Lavers. attitude of the Art. [Frontispiece engraved by J. Newton from a drawing by Jas. Sowerby, and 8 plates drawn by the Author and engraved by J. Newton.]
17 80-1
: :

McArthur

1780
J.

Olivier.

— Fencing Familiarized, &c.

2nd ed

tion.

8vo.

London:

Bell.

[Dedicated to the Earl of Harrington. Same frontispiece as in first but the plates are different, being drawn by J. Roberts, and engraved by D. Jjnkins, Goldar, W. Blake, andC. Grignon.] 1784 McArthur (J.) The Army and Navy Gentleman's Companion, &c.
edition,

2nd

edition.

[Dedicated to John,

a general expla1787 Translated nation of the principal attitudes and positions pecuUar to the Art.

London J. Murray. Duke of Argyll] Angelo (Domenico). The School of Fencing, with
Plates.
410.
:


'

by Rowlandson. Oblong 4to. London. [This work was translated into French and reproduced, together with the plates, under the head Escrime,' by Diderot and D'Alembert in their
'

Encyclop^die.']

The Art of Fencing, 1787 Underwood (James) [of the Custom House]. or the use of the small sword. Corrected, revised, and enlarged. 8vo. Dublin Printed by T. Byrne. [Dedicated to His Grace, Charles, Duke of Rutland,]
1790
lessons,

:

Anti-Pugilism, or the science of defence exemphfied in short and easy Whereby for the practice of the Broad Sword and Single Stick. gentlemen may become proficients in die use of these weapons, without the help of a Master, and be enabled to chastise the insolence and temerity, so fre-

quently met with, from those fashionable gentlemen, the Johnsonians, Big bennians, and Mendozians of the present Day a work perhaps, better calcu;

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
:

253

lated to ext'rpate this reigning and brutal folly than a whole volume of sermons. By a Highland officer. Illustrated with copperplates. 8vo. London Printed for J, Aitkin. [4 copperplates, drawn by Cruickshank. ]

1796
8vo.

Rules and Regulations for the Sword Exercise of Cavalry.
[29 folding plates.]

Royal

London.

1797 Leach (Richard) [Sergeant in the Norfolk Rangers]. The words of command and a brief explanation, embellished with engravings, representing 8vo. Newcastle. the various cuts and attitudes of the new sword exercise.

The Art of of the Royal Westminster Volunteers]. 1798 RowoRTH (C. defence on foot with the broad sword and sabre, uniting Scotch and Austrian methods, into one regular system. To which are added remarks on the spa2nd edition. 8vo. London Egerton. [Plates.] droon.
)
I

:

Treatise on the new broad sword exercise, with 14 divisions of movements as performed at Newmarket. i2mo. [5 plates.] 1798-9 RowLANDSON (T.) Hungarian and Highland broad sword. Twenty-four plates, designed and etched by T. Rowlandson, under the direction of Messrs. H. Angelo and Son, Fencing Masters to the Light Horse Dedicated to Colonel Herries. Voluntee-s of London and Westminster. Oblong folio. London Printed by C. Roworth. 1799 Angelo (Domenico). The school of fencing, &c. Translated by Rowlandson. 2nd edition. 8vo. London. London. [6 engravings.] 1799 Sword Exercise for Cavalry. 8vo. 1800 Sinclair (Capt. of the 42nd Regt.) Cudgel-playing modernised, and improved or the science of defence exemplified in a few short and easy lessons for the practice of the broad sword or single stick on foot. 8vo.

1798

Pepper (W.

)

[of the

Notts Yeomanry Cavalry].

:

;

London
1802

:

J.

Bailey.

[Coloured frontispiece and folding plate.]

(Robert) [of Boston, U.S.] Rules and regulations for the sword exercise of the Cavalry. To which is added the review exercise. The 2nd American from the London Edition. Revised and corrected by Robert Hewes, teacher of the sword exercise for cavalry. 8vo. Philadelphia M. Carey. [28 plates.]
:

Hewes

1804 The art of defence on foot with the broad-sword and sabre. Adapted also for the Spadroon, or cut-and-thrust sword. Improved and augmented with the ten lessons of Mr. John Taylor late Broadsword Ma-ter to the Light Horse Volunteers of London and Westminster. Illustrated with plates by 8vo. London. R. K. Porter, Esqr. [This is a reproduction of Roworth's book (see 1798) with a number of alterations and additions, and fresh drawings.] treatise on the science of defence for the 1805 Gordon (Anthony). sword, bayonet, and pike in close action. 4to. London. [19 plates.]

—A

1805 Mathewson (T.) [Lieutenant and Riding Master in the late Roxbrough Fencible Cavalry]. Fencing familiarised, or a new treatise on the art of the Scotch broad sword, shewing the superiority of that weapon when opposed to anenemy armed with a spear, pike, or gun and bayonet. 8vo. Salford Printed by W. Cowdray, junr. [34. illustrations.] 8vo. 1809 Roland (J.) The amateur of fencing. London: T. Eger-

:

ton.

t8i2

Craig (Robert H.) — Rules and
8vo.

the cavalry.

Baltimore.

1 8 17 Angelo. A treatise on the utility and advantages of fencing, giving the opinions of the most eminent Authors and Medical Practitioners on the important advantages derived from a knowledge of the Art as a means of self defence, and a promoter of health, illustrated by forty-seven engravings. To which is added a dissertation on the use of the broad sword (with six descrip-

regulations for the sword exercise of [26 plates.]

1

'

254
tive plates).

APPENDIX

Memoirs of the late Mr. Angelo and a bio.^raphical sketch of Foho. London: Published by Mr. Chevalier St. George, with his portrait. Angelo, Bolton Row, and at his fencing academy. Old Bond Street. [Containing the same plates as the Ecole des Amies of the author's father, a portrait of St. George, engraved by W. Ward from a picture of Bronn, and six plates engraved and designed by Rowlandson, under the care of Angelo himself, in 1798-9.]
' '

An improved system of fencing, wherein the use of (C.) rendered perfectly plain and familiar being a clear description and explanation of the various thrusts used, with the safest and best methods of parrying, as practised in the present age. To which is added a
1819

Martellt
is

the small sword

:

on the art of attack and defence. 8vo. London J. Bailey. [One folding plate with 12 figures.] 1822 A Self-Instructor of the new system of Cavalry and Infantry Sword Exercise comprehending directions for preparatory motions, assaults, guards, attack and defence, and divisions, as performed on foot, also as performed when mounted, with instructions for the old sword exercise and its attack and defence together with directions and some useful remarks on the Lance Manchester Bancks & Co. 8vo. Exercise. [One large folding plate, coloured, showing target and numerous
treatise
:

:

:

:

figures. ]

fully

(Le sieur Guzman). The modern Art of Fencing, careand augmented with a technical glossary by J. T. Forsyth. [22 coloured plates.] i8mo. London: S. Leigh. System of fencing as arranged and systemati1823 D'EoN (Frederick). In thirty-one sections, for cally taught by Frederick D'Eon, fencing-master.
1822
revised

Rolando

the

first

quarter's tuition.

i2mo.

Boston.
treatise

—A 1823 Edinburgh. 8vo. of fencing. 1824 Roland (George). —A
Roland
(George).

on the theory and practice of the
[12 plates.]

art

treatise

on the theory and practice of the
[12 plates.]

art

of fencing.

Royal 8vo.

London.

1827

Roland
[5

(George) [Fencing-master

of the

and Military Academy, &c., &c.] Edinburgh. 8vo. fencing by George Roland.
Scottish Naval

—An

Royal Academy, the introductory course of

lithographed platts.]

sic). The Art of fencing, wherein the rules St. Angelo (a pupil of instructions with all the new thrusts and guards which have lately been introduced into the Fencing Schools are in this v/ork, that every one should be competent to meet his antagonist. For of late years our neighbours on the continent have been our superiors in that of all others, the most useful, necessary, and gentlemanly Science. Sm. 8vo. London T. Hughes.

1830

and

:

[One foldmg
1 83

plate.]

Art of Fencing.
exercise.'

sword

8vo.

London

Corrected and revised by the author of the T. Hughes.
:

'

Broad-

Easy and Familiar Rules for attaining the art of attack and defence 1 83 1 on foot with the broadsword, to which are added instructions for using of the London T. Hughes. 8vo. single stick. [One folding plate with 12 figures, being the same as those given in the pamphlet by a pupil of St. Angelo. 1835 Angelo (Henry) [Superintendent of Sword Exercise to the Army]. Instructions for the sword exercise, selected from His Majesty's rules and reguLondon Clowes & 8vo. lations, and expressly adapted for the yeomanry.
:
'

:

Sons.

1837
plates.

Roland
8vo.

(George).
:

—An

introductory course of Fencing.

With

5

London

Simpkin, Marshall.

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^

255

1840 Walker (D.) Defensive Exercises, containing Fencing, the Broad[Figures in the text.] i2mo. London H. Bohn. sword, &c.
:

1842

The

Infantry

Sword

Exercise.

Revised edition.

8vo.

London

:

W.

Clowes

&

Sons.

(23rd April.)

(D. ). Defensive exercise, containing wrestling, boxing, 1842 fencing, the broadsword, &c. New edition. i2mo. London H. G. Bohn.
:

Walker

184.5

[With 100 woodcut illustrations.] Wright (T.) and Halliwell
[Vol.

(J.

O.)

— Reliquiae

antiquae.

8vo.

London.
sword,' from

L, pp. 308, contains a poem 'On fencing with the two-handed MSS. Harleian 3542, of the 15th century, in the British
(Geo.)

Museum. ]
1846 Simpkin.

Roland

— Introductory Course of
on
Fencing,

Fencing.

8vo.

London:
on
8vo.

Observations 1846 Wilkinson (Hen-y) [M.R.A.S., Gunmaker]. i2mo. London. 3rd edition. swords, addressed to civihans.

1850

(?)
:

Gribble.
Whittaker.

—Treatise

Horsemanship,

&c.

London

The SwoM Exercise 1850 Wayn (Henry C.) [Brevet Major, U. S. Army]. arranged for military instruction. Published by authority of the War Department. 8vo. Washington: Printed by Gideon & Co. [23 plates.] i. Fencing with the small [In two parts with separate title-pages, sword, arranged for instruction in squads or classes. Washington, 1849, pp. 62, II plates. 2. Exercises for the broadsword, sabre, cut and thrust, and stick. Washington, 1849, PP- 43> ^^ plates.] 1852 LocKWOOD (Henry H.) and Seager (E.) Exercises in small arms and field artillery arranged for the naval service under an order of the Bureau of Ordnance and Hydrography of the Navy department. [104 plates. ] Large 8vo. Philadelphia Printed by P. K. and P. G. Collins. [Part iv. pp. 151-168, small and broad sword exercises.]

;

:

,

1853

1854
8vo.

Burton Roland
:

(R. F.)

—A system of Bayonet Exercise. 8vo. London. (Geo.) — Introduction to Fencing and Ciymnastics. Royal
and Lance
exercise, &c.,
:

London

Simpkin.

1858
&c.

Instructions for the Sword, Carbine, Pistol London J. Parker «& Sons. 8vo.

New

1859 Berriman (W. M.) York.
)

— Mihtiaman's Manual and sword play.
of attack

i2mo.

1859 Meickle (R. 8vo. small sword, &c.

i860 Fencing.
1861

—The Fencer's Melbourne. Chapman (George). — Method
Folio.
:

manual, a practical treatise on the [With illustrations.]

and defence

in the Art of

London Clowes & Sons. Berriman (M. W.) — Militiaman's Manual and sword-play without
2nd edition. [12 plates.]
i2mo.

a master.

New York

:

D. van Nostrand.

Foil practice 1861 Chapman (George). with a review of the art of fencing, according to the theories of La Boessiere, Hamon, Gomard, and 8vo. London: Clowes & Sons. Grisier. [4 lith. plates.]
;

1861
exercise,

Stephens (Thomas). A new system of broad and small sword comprising the broad sword exercise for cavalry and artillery, and the
edition.
:

small sword cut and thrust practice for infantry and navy. 2nd Svo. Milwaukee Jermain & Brightman. [62 illustrations.]

1862
attack

Griffiths (T.) Modern Fencer, with the most recent means of and defence. i2mo. London Warne.
:


256
1862
1

APPENDIX
The
Infantry

Swcrd

Exercise.

Revised edition.

i2mo.

London.

862 HuTTON (A. ) [Lieut, her Majesty's Cameron Highlanders]. — Swordsmanship. Writtf^n for the members of the Cameron Fencing Club. 8vo. Simla printed at the Simla Advertiser Press.
:

1862 McClellan (George B.) Manual of bayonet exercise: prepared 8vo. for the use of the army of the United States. Philadelphia. 1863
edition.

Berriman (W. M.)
i2mo.

— Militiaman's
:

Manual and sword

play.

3rd

New

York.
for the regu-

1863

lation clubs.

Gymnastic Exercises, system of fencing, and exercises Demy i2mo. London Horse Guards.

1864
edition.

i2mo.
'

Berriman (W. M.) — Militiaman's Manual and sword New York Van Nostrand.
:

play.

4th

1864

Chapvtan

A

sequel to

(George). Notes and observations on the art of fencing. Foil Practice.' Part i, No. i. 8vo. London Clowes & Sons.
:

1867 1868
1871

HuTTON (Alfred)
8vo.
(T.)

[Lieut. King's

Dragoon Guards].
Clowes
;

— Swordsmanship

and Bayonet-fencing.
Griffiths
of attack and defence.

London

:

W.
:

&

Sons.

— The Modern Fencer
London
London
:

with the most recent means

i2mo.
i6mo.
(A. F.)

Warne.

Instructions for the Sword,
cavalry.

Carbine, Pistol, and Lance Exercise.

For the use of
1873
ercise.
1871;

War

Office.
;

Corbester
8vo.

—Theory of fencing
new system
of

with the small sword exfor Infantry.

Washington.
(R. F.)
:

Burton
London

—A

Sword Exercise

Post 8vo.

Clowes.

1880 Lessons

Waite
and
[\A^ith

(T.

M.

)

[Professor of Fencing, late 2nd
:

in Sabre, Singlestick,

to use a cut

thrust sword.
(R.)

Sabre and Bayonet and Sword Feats 8vo. London Weldon & Co.
of

Life Guards]. or how
;

34 illustrations.]

1882

Castellote
Lock.

— Handbook

Fencing.

i8mo.

London

:

Ward &

1882 HuTTON (Alfred) [late Captain, King's Dragoon Guards]. The Cavalry Swordsman. Bayonet fencing and sword practice. 8vo. London
:

W.

Clowes
1883
:

&

Sons.
(T. A.)

McCarthy

London
1884

— Quarter-Staff. A practical manual. 2mo. [With 23 figures.] Castle (Egerton) [M.A., F.S.A.l — Schools and Masters of Fence
Sonnenschein

&

Co.

from the middle ages to the i8th century. Illustrated with reproductions of old London: Bell & Son. engravings and carbon plates of ancient swords. 4to. [141 woodcuts in the text. Engraved frontispiece and 6 carbon plates.]
1884 Elliott (Major W. J.) [^ate of H.M. War Department^.— The Art of Attack and Defence in use at the present time. Fencing: Sword against Sword Boxing. 8vo. or Bayonet, Singlestick, Bayonet against Sword or Bavonet [With figures.] London Dean & Son.
;
:

1885

Infantry
:

Sword and

Carbine, Sword-Bayonet

Exercise.

32mo.

& Polden. A New Book of Sports. 1885 London R. Bentley & Son.
Chatham
Gale
:

Reprinted from the

'

Saturday Review.' 8vo.

1886

[Backsword and Schlager, pp. 137. Rapier and Dagger, pp. 146.] Shakespearian Swordsmanship. [An article in the Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News,' No.
'

646, April 24, 1F86, pp. 1666-1668.]

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
1886
1887

257

Boxers and Fencers.
[Article in
'

New York
(Henry).

Herald,'

December

ECKFORD
[The
'

— Fencing and the New York Fencers.
vol.
xxxiii.

3.

Century Illustrated Monthly Magazine,'
(Dr.
)

No. 3

[January], pp. 414-421.]

Illustrated Naval and Dec. 4to. London. [With photolithographs.] 1888 Dodge (Theodore C.) [Colonel U.S.A.]— Fencing. (Two numbers in Harper's Young People,' April 14 and April 21.) [Numerous cuts in the text.] 1888 HuTTON (Alfred) [late Capt. King's Dragoon Guards]. - Cold Steel a practical Treatise on the sabre, based on the old English backsword play of the eighteenth century, combined with the method of the modern Itahan school. Also on various other weapons of the present day, including the short swordbayonet and the constable's truncheon. Illustrated with numerous figures, and also with reproductions of engravings from masters of bygone years. 8vo.

1888

Barroll

— Some observations on Fencing.

'

and

Military Magazine,' Nov.

'

:

London

:

W.

Clowes & Sons.
[Portrait of the author

and numerous engravings.]
'

Illustrated Naval and Mihtary 1889 Barroll (Dr.) The Sabre. zine,' Feb. April, May. London. [With photolithographs.]

Maga\_n.d.'\

Benard.

Waite

(J.

— Eleven plates on Fencing, containing 48 Positions. M.) — Sword and Bayonet Exercise.
\n.d.'\

4to.

Manuscripts.
'

On fencing

with two-handed Sword.' [A poem from MS. Harleian 3542, of the

15th

century,

British

Museum. The names of yo^ Pushes as they British Museum, Additional, No. 5540.

are to be learned gradually. Folios 122-123.] [Date, middle of the 17th century.]

[MS.

FRENCH.
Paris. 1533 (?) La noble science des joueurs d'esp^e. 4to. 1535 La noble science des joueurs d'esp^e. [Ici commence un tres bean livret, contenant la chevaleureuse science des joueurs d'esp^e, pour apprendre a jouer de I'esp^e k deux mains et aultres semblables espies, avec aussi les braquemars et aultres courts cousteaux lesquels Ion use a une main. .] At the end Imprim6 en la ville Dan vers par moy, Guillaume Wosterman, demourant k la licorne d'or. 4to. Antwerp. 1535 (1538?). [Black letter. 14 whole page and 12 half page woodcuts.]
.
.
:

1573 Sainct-Didier (Henry de) [Gentilhomme Proven9al]. Traict^ contenant les secrets du premier livre sur I'esp^e seule, mere de toutes armes, qui sont esp^e, dague, cappe, targue, bouclier, rondelle, I'esp^e^ deux mains et les deux espies, avec ses pourtraictures, ayant les armes au poing pour se deffendre et offencer k un mesme temps des coups qu'on pent tirer, tant en assaillant qu'en deffendant, fort utile et profitable pour adextrer la noblesse et suposts de Mars redig^ par art, ordre et pratique. Dedi6 a la Maiest^ du Roy tres chrestien Charles neufiesme. A Paris, imprim^ par Jean Mettayer et Matthurin Challenge. Avec privilege du Roy. 4 to. Paris. [Portrait of the author, of the King, and 64 woodcuts in the text.] 1588 Polycarpe (de St.) Sonnets contre les escrimeurs et duellistes. Paris Jamet Mattayer. Petit in-4to.
:

:

S

258
1596
;

APPENDIX
Arbeau
(Thoinot).— OrcMsographie, m^tode
et t^orie

en forme de

discours et tablalure pour apprendre k dancer, battre le tambour, jouer du fifre tirer des amies et escrimer, avec autres honnestes exercices fort conet arigot Jean Tabourot. Lengres par Jehan dez Preyz. venables a la jeunesse. [Woodcuts. ] Lengres. 4to. Traits, ou instruction pour 1609 Cavalcabo (H.) et Patenostrier. tirer des amies, de I'excellent scrimeur Hyeronims Cavalcabo, Bolognois, avec un discours pour tirer del'esp^eseule fait par le deffunt Patenostrier, de Rome. Traduit d'ltalien en fran9ois par le seigneur de Villamont, chevalier de I'ordre
.
.

.

de Hierusalem et gentilhomme de la chambre du Roy. Chez Claude le Villain. Rouen. i2nio. 1610 Desbordes. Discours de la th^orie, de la pratique et I'excellence Nancy chez Andie. des amies. 4to. 1610 Sauaron (Jean) [Maistre, sieur de Villars, Conseiller du Roy, President & Lieutenant General en la Seneschaussee d'Auvergne, & siege Presidial a Clairmont]. Traicte De I'Espee Fran9oise. Au Roy Tres-Crestien. Paris Adrian Perier. L'art militaire pour I'infanterie, 1615 Wallhausen (Jean-Jacques de). auquel est monstre le maniement du mousquet et de la pique, &c., descrit en langage allemand et traduit en fran9ois. Small 8vo. Franckfort.

:

[Numerous copperplates.]
618 Breen (A. van). Piques, Espies et Targes
1

— Le maniement d'armes de Nassau avecq Rondelles,
;

representez par Figures.

Folio.

Escrime nouvelle ou theatre auquel 1619 GiGANTi (Nicolat) [Venetien]. sont representees diverses manieres de parer et de frapper, d'esp^e seul et d'esp^e et poignard ensemble, demontr^es par figures entaill^es en cuivre, public en faveur de ceux qui se delectent en ce tres noble exercice des armes, Apud Ja. de Zeter. Obet traduit en langue fran9oise par Jacques de Zeter. long 4to. Francofurti. [Portrait of the author and 42 copperplates out of the text.]
1628 Thfbault (Girard) [d'AnversJ. Academic del'espee, ou se demonstrent par reigles mathematiques, sur le fondement d'un cercle myst^rieux, la th^orie et pratique des vrais et iusqu'a present incognus secrets du maniement Leyde. des armes, a pied et k cheval.. Folio. [Frontispiece, portrait of Thibauld, 9 plates containing the coats-ofarms of the nine kings and princes who subscribed to this work. 46
copperplates folio
size.]

La Haye.

(Charles) [Breton]. Le maistre d'armes liberal, traittant de la th6orie de l'art et exercice de I'esp^e seule, ou fleuret, et de tout ce qui s'y pent faire et pratiquer de plus subtil, avec les principales figures et postures en taille douce contenant en outre plusieurs moralitez sur ce sujet. Dedi^ a Rennes, chez Nosseigneurs des Estats de la province et duch6 de Bretagne. Rennes. [4 copperplates, out of the text ] 4to. Julien Herbert.

1653

Besnard

;

A
.

1668
Folio.

Thfbault
Bruxelles.

(Girard).

—Acad^mie

de

I'espde.

.

.

2nd

edition.

De la Touche [Maistre en fait d'armes a Paris, des pages de la de ceux du due d Orleans]. Les vrays principes de I'esp^e seule^ Paris Fran9ois Muguet. Obi. 4to. dediez au Roy. [Portrait of la Touche, 35 copperplates, out of the text.] Essai sur l'art des armes, opuscule 1672 NoRO WiLLARDS (Comte de). 8vo. Paris, chez Seneuse. d^di^' au mar^chal de Turenne. 1676 Le Perche (Jean-Baptiste) [du Coudray]. — L'exercice des armes ou Pour ayder la m^moire de ceux qui sont amateurs le maniement du fleuret. de cet art. Chez N. Bonnard. Oblong 4to. Paris. [35 copperplates.] Le maistre d'armes ou l'exercice de 1686 LiANCOUR (Wernesson de) D^di^ k Monseigneur le due de Bourgogne. I'esp^e senile dans sa perfection.
1670
reine, et

:


BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
Les attitudes de ce
A. Perelle.

259

A

livre ont est^ poshes Dar le sieur de Liancour et gravies par Paris. Oblons^ 4to. Paris, chez I'auteur.

[Portrait of the author

and 14 copperplates, out of the
i2mo.
Toulouse.
maistre d'armes.
la ville et

text.]

Labat. L'art de I'esp^e. [With copperplates.] 1692 Liancour (Wernesson de). Oblong 4to. Amsterdam. edition.
1690 1696

— Le

.

.

.

2nd

Labat

[Maitre en

fait

d'armes de

acad^mie de Toulouse].
;

dedi^ a MonL'art en fait d'armes, ou de I'^p^e seule, avec les attitudes sei^neur le comte d'Armaignac, Grand ecuyer de France, &c. 8vo. Toulouse [12 copperplates, out of the text.] J. Boude.
:

Questions sur 1701 Labat [Maitre d'armes a Toulouse]. d'armes, ou de I'ep^e, dedi^^ Monseigneur le due de Bourgogne. louse G. Robert.
:

l'art

en

fait

4to.

Tou-

De Brye (J.) [Maistre en fait d'armes). L'art de tirer des armes, D^di^ a Monseigneur le marechal due de Villereduit en abr^g^ methodique. Paris C. L. Thibourt. roy. 8vo. [Frontispiece and medallion portrait of the Dauphin.]
1721
:

1721 Beaupr^ (Jean Jamin de) [Maitre en fait d'armes de Son Altesse S. Electorale de Baviere, a la celebre University d'Ingolstadt]. M^thode tres facile pour former la noblesse dans l'art de I'^p^e, faite pour Futility de tous les amateurs de ce bel art. On trouvera en ce livre, ranges en ordre, tous les mouvements g^n^ralement bien expliqu^s qui sont necessaires a bien apprendre et a enseigner a faire des armes, en allemand et en fran9ais, avec 25 planches qui repr^sentent toutes les principales actions, a la derniere perfection. Ce jeu est choisi de I'ltalien, de I'Allemand, de I'Espagnol et du Fran9ais, et compost de mani^re, par sa grande pratique, qu'on peut I'appeller le centre des armes. Dedi^ k Son Altesse Electorale de Baviere. 4to. Ingolstadt. [25 copperplates, out of the text.]

1731
Paris.

De Brye

)

(J.

— L'art de

tirer

des armes.

.

.

.

2nd

edition.

8vo.

De la beauts de I'escrime de I'^p^e, 1732 Basnierres (Chevalier de). 8vo. Paris, chez Thiboust. dedi^ au marechal de Villars.
Nouveau traits 1736-7 GiRARD (P. J. F. )[Ancien officier de Marine]. de la perfection sur le fait des armes, dedi^ au Roi. Enseignant la maniere de combattre, de I'^p^e de pointe seule, toutes les gardes etrangeres, I'espadon, les piques, hallebardes, &c. tels qu'ils se pratiquent aujourd'hui dans l'art militaire de France. Orn^ de figures en taille douce. Obi. 4to. Paris. [Frontispiece and 116 copperplates, out of the text, engraved by Jacques de Favanne.]
,

1737
taille

Le Maistre
1740

[Maistre en fait d'armes de I'acad^mie de Strasbourg]. d'armes, ou I'abr^g^ de I'exercice de I'^p^e. Orn^ de figures en i2mo. Strasbourg. [16 copperplates, out of text.] douce.

Martin
GiRARD
4to.

(P. J. F.)

—Nouveau Traits

de

la Perfection sur le fait des

Armes, &c.

I'acad^mie de Lyon]. Les vrays principes de 1742 r^p^e, dediez a Monseigneur le due de Villeroy. 8vo. Amsterdam.

La Haye. Charpentie [de

Nouvelles et utiles observations pour bien tirer des 1749 ^AS (Fran9ois). Basle. armes. 8vo. [Dedicated to the Colonels of the Basle troops and MM. J. Bourcard and Abel de Wettstein.J

1750

Le Perche
Oblong

2nd

edition.

4to.

(Jean-Baptiste) [du Coudray]. L'exercice des armes. Paris. [With the addition of 5 plates.]
S 2

26o
1752
edition.

APPENDIX
De Chevigny. — Science des personnes de Tome vii. chapter x. i2mo. Amsterdam.
cour
et

d'^p^e.

2nd

[A chapter dedicated to the art of fencing. 8 folded copperplates.] Principes 1754 GORDINE (Gerard) [Capitaine, et maitre en fait d'armes]. Dedi^ a S. A. Jean-Theodore, due des Deuxet quintessence des armes. Bavieres, cardinal de la sainte ^glise romaine, 6veque et prince de Liege, &c. 4to. Liege S. Bourguignon. [20 copperplates, out of text, by Jacob.]

:

des Armes, avec I'explication g^n6rale des prin-' cipales attitudes et positions concernant TEscrime. Oblong folio. Londres R. & J. Dodsley. [Dediee a Leurs Altesses Royales les Princes Guillaume-Henry et Henry-Fr^d6ric. Forty-seven copperplates, out of the text.]

1763

Angelo. — L'Ecole

:

1763 M^moire pour le sieur Menessiez, Maitre en fait d'armes et maitre des pages de M. le comte de Clermont. Contre la Communaut^ des Maitres en fait d'armes. At the end De I'imprimerie de C. F. Simon, imprimeurs de la Reine, et de I'Archevech^, Rue des Mathurins. 4to. Paris.
:

1765 Angelo. Londres.

— L'Ecole
text in

des Armes, &c.

2nd

edition.
first

Oblong

folio.

[This edition contains the

same

plates as the
It

(vide 1763), but has

two columns of in London.]

French and Engiish,

was printed byS. Hooper

1765 O'SuLLiVAN (Daniel) [Maitre en fait d'armes des academies du Roi]. L'escrime pratique ou principes de la science des armes. 8vo. Paris Se:

bastien Jorry.

[Syndic-garde de la Compagnie des maitres d'armes de la plus certaine de se servir utilement de r^p^e, soit pour attaquer, soit pour se defendre, simplifi^e et demontr^e dans toute son ^tendue et sa perfection, suivant les meilleurs principes de th^orie et de pratique adopt^s actuellem^nt en France. Ouvrage n^cessaire a la jeune noblesse, aux militaires et a ceux qui se destinent au service du Roy, aux personnes me me qui, par la distinction de leur ^tat ou par leurs charges, sont obligees de porter I'^p^e et a ceux qui veulent faire profession des armes. Dedi^ a Son Altesse Monseigneur le prince de Conty. Tome premier. 8vo. Tome second, contenant la refutation des critiques et la suite du meme 1766.

1766-7

Paris].

— L'art des armes, ou la maniere

Danet

;

traits.

8vo.
*
*

Paris.
*

T767.

[Frontispiece

and 43 copperplates, out of the

text.]

de l'art des armes, |La Boessiere]. Observations 1766 pour servir de d(§fense ^ la verity des principes enseign^s par les Maitres d'armes * * maitre d'armes des academies du Roi, au nom de sa de Paris par M. compagnie. 8vo. Paris. 3rd edition. L'Ecole des Armes, &c. Oblong folio. 1767 Angelo. Londres. 1770 Battier. La th^orie pratique de l'escrime, pour la pointe seule, i2mo. Paris. avec des remarques pour I'assaut.
sur le traits
"^^

— —

1771-2

London.
veau

Olivier [Professor of Fencing in Of the Royal Academy of Paris].
maniere de se
[Frontispiece
servir

— L'art des armes

St.

Dunstan's Court, Fleet Street,
simplifi^.
:

NouBell.

traits sur la

and

8vo. Londres 8 plates, out of text.]

de

I'ep^e.

Jean

La th^orie pratique de l'escrime pour la pointe [or Battier]. remarques instructives pour I'assaut et les mo\ ens d'y parvenir Paris. par gradation. Dedi^ k S. A. S. le due de Bourbon. 8vo. [One engraving.] 1775 Navarre (C.) [Maitre d'armes de la premiere compagnie de la maison du Roi]. L'art de vaincre par I'^p^e, d^di6 k messieurs les Gardes-du1772

Batier

seule, avec des

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
Corps du Roi de la compagnie de Noailles. Avec approbation de Paris. i8mo.
tirer

261

la

compagnie.
I'art

1775 Freville (Chevalier de). Petersbourg. 8vo. des amies.

1776 des armes.

— Maximes et instructions sur Freville (Chevalier de). — Maximes et instructions sur
.
.

de
tirer

I'art

de

.

2nd

edition.

8vo.

Leipsig.

1778 Demeuse (Nicolas) [Garde-du-Corps de S.A.S. le Prince Eveque a Nouveau traits de I'art des armes, dans Liege et Maitre en fait d'armes]. lequel on ^tablit les principes certains decet art, et oii Ton enseigne les moyens Ouvrage n^cessaire aux personnes les plus simples de les mettre en pratique. qui se destinent aux armes et utile a celles qui veulent se rappeler les principes i2mo. Liege Desoer. qu'on leur a enseign^s. [4 copperplates, out of text.]

:

1782 Bremond (Alexandre, Picard). 8vo. Turin. armes.

— Traits

en raccourci sur

I'art

des

2nd

traits de I'art des armes. [Contains 14 plates.] 1787 Danet [Ecuyer, Syndic-Garde des ordres de la Compagnie des Maitres en fait d'armes des Academies du Roi en la ville et Fauxbourgs de Paris, L'art des armes, oii Ton aujourd'hui directeur de I'Ecole Royale d'Armes]. donne I'application de la th^orie a la pratique de cet art avec les principes m^2nd edition. 2 vols. 8vo. thodiques adopt^s dans nos ^colesroyales d'armes. Paris. [45 copperplates, out of text.]

1786

Demeuse

(Nicolas).

— Nouveau
Desoer.

.

.

.

edition.

i2mo.

Liege

:

1787

(?)

Angelo
is

[This

Escrime [Diderot et D'Alembert's Encyclopedic]. (D.). a reproduction and translation of Angelo's work published in

London

in 1787.]

1795 Planches de L' Encyclopedic M^thodique. Nouvelle edit"on enrichie de remarques. Dedi^e a la serenissime Republique de \'enise. Art Militaire, Folio. Padova. Equitation, Escrime, &c.

— L'art des armes Paris, 1799 Freville (Chevalier de). — Maximes Leipsig. 8vo. des armes. 3rd edition. 1800 Demeuse (Nicolas). — Nouveau trait6
St.

1798 [An Jacques.

vi]

Danet.

.

.

.

3rd edition.

B^lin, rue

2 vols.

8vo.

et instructions sur l'art

de
.

tirer

de l'art des armes Imprimerie de Blocquel. To the original text is added a Dici2mo. Lille and Paris. lionnaire de l'art des armes. [14 copperplates, different from the previous editions.] L'escrime appliqu^e a l'art militaire. 1801 Bertrand [Maitre d'armes].
.

3rd edition.

8vo.

Paris.

1804 SAINT-MARTI^^ (J. de) [Maitre d'armes imperial de 1' Academic Theresienne]. L'art de faire des armes r^duit a ses vrais principes. Contenant tous les principes n^cessaires a cet art, qui y sont expliqu^s d'une maniere claire et intelligible. Cet ouvrage est compost pour la jeune noblesse et pour les personnes qui se destinent au metier de la guerre, ainsi que pour tous ceux qui portent I'^pee. On y a joint un traits de I'espadon, oii Ton trouve les vrais principes de cet art, qui y sont expliqu^s d'une fa9on ais^e, et qui est rempli de d^couvertes vraiment nouvelles. Dddi^ a S.A.R. Monseigneur Tarchiduc Charles. Vienna. 4to. [72 figures.]

Essai sur l'art de l'escrime. 8vo. Nantes. 1815 Moreau. 1815. 1816 MuLLER (A.)— Theorie sur l'escrime a cheval, pour se d^fendre avec avantage contre toute espece d'armes blanches. 4to. Paris.
[51 plates.]

1817 Chatelain.— Traite d'escrime a pied et a cheval, contenant la demonstration des positions, bottes, parades, feintes, ruses, et gen^rale-

J

262
ment tous
Maginel.
les

APPENDIX
coups d'armes connus dans
[9
les

Academies.

8vo.

Paris

:

lithographed plates. 1818 La BoESSifeRE (M.) Traits de I'art des armes k I'usage des profesParis. 4to. seurs et des amateurs.

Chatelain. Trait(§ d'escrime, k pied et a cheval, contenant la 18 18 demonstration des positions, bottes, parades, feintes, ruses, &c. 2« Edition.
8vo. I.yon.

Avec planches.

Paris.
(Justin).

1820

Lafaugere

[2 folding plates.]

Xiphonomie, ou I'art de I'escrime, 1821 L[homandie] (P. F. poeme didactique en quatre chants par P.-F.-M. L., Amateur, ^leve de feu Texier de la Boessiere. 8vo. Angouleme Imprimerie Broquisse.
; :

—Traits M.) — La
—Traits
le

de

I'art

de

faire

des armes.

8vo.

1825 Lafaugere (Justin). Paris Bouchard.
:

de

I'art

de

faire

des armes.

8vo.

1826

Theories 6trangeres sur

maniement du

sabre.
I'art

Manuel de gymnastique suivi d'un Traits sur 1827 Hamon (P. G.) [Lithographed plates.] 8vo. Londres. des armes.
1828

FouG^RE. L'art de ne jamais etre tu^ ni bless^ en Duel, sans avoir aucune lefon d'armes, et lors meme qu'on aurait affaire au premier Tireur de I'univers. i2mo. Paris. [A copperplate.] 1828 MuLLER (Al. Th^orie sur I'escrime k cheval, pour se d^fendre avec avantage contre toute espece d'armes blanches. 2^ Edition. Paris Cor[With an atlas of 54 plates.] dier. 1830 (?) DoNON [Ex-Adjudant-Major des ci-devant lanciers polonais], 8vo. L'escrime moderne ou ncuveau traits simp]ifi6 de l'art des armes.
pris
)

:

[13 plates in ouiline.]

1830

Ghersl— Traits

sur I'Art de faire des Armes.

8vo.

Paris.

Ecole du tirailleur, ou maniement de la baion1832 PiNETTE (Joseph). i8mo. Paris nette appliqu6 aux exercices et manoeuvres de I'infanterie.
:

Dumaine.
1836

[32 figures.]

De Bast

(B.)

— Manuel d'escrime.

8vo.

Bruxelles

:

H. Dumont.

[7 folding plates in outline,

and a lithographed

portrait of the author.]

1836 MuLLER (Al.)— Maniement de la baionnette appliqu6 a I'attaque et Paris. ^ la defense de I'infanterie. 4to. [20 plates.] 1838 Lafaugere (L. J.) — Nouveau manuel d'escrime. Nouvelle Edition. [Manuels-Roret.] i2mo. Paris.

1840
natation

(?)
:

Dictionnaire des Arts Acad^miques
faisant partie

:

Equitation, escrime, danse,
Paris.

de

1'

Encyclopedic

4to.

[16 plates.]
l'art

1840 L[homandie] (P. F. M.) poeme didactique en quatre chants.
[1840] aionnette,

— La
8vo.

Xiphonomie, ou

de I'escrime,

Angouleme

:

Lefraise.

Selmnitz

1

d'attaque et Paris et Bruxelles.

[Capitaine de Tarm^e saxonne]. De I'escrime a la ou instruction pour I'emploi du fusil d'infanterie comme arme de defense. Traduit de I'allemand par J.-B.-N. Merjay. i2mo.
n.d.
(J.)

[4 plates

comprising 12 figures.]

1841 Paris Garnier.
:

Lafaugere

— L'Esprit

de I'escrime; [Portrait of the author.]

poeme

didactique.

8vo.

1842
et
les

Escrime k la baionnette (Extrait de I'instruction provis. sur I'exercice manoeuvres des bataillons de chasseurs a pied). 32mo. Strasbourg
:

Levrant.

1842
184.3

Roger
DoNON.

(M.)

— Manuel

— Principes d'escrime.
:

i2mo.

Paris.

traite simplifie.

i2mo.

des armes ou guide d^s professeurs. Paris Imprimerie de A. Appert.

Nouveau

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
1843

263

EscHER

(J.

Baptiste).

La Th^orie de rescrime, en1845 PosSELLiER (A. y. J.) [dit Gomard]. seign^e par une m^thode simple, bas^e sur I'observation de la nature prec^d^e d'une introduction dans laquelle sont r^sum^s tous les principaux ouvrages sur Paris Dumaine. Tescrime qui ont paru jusqu'a ce jour. 8vo.
; :

— M^thode d'escrime. —
[20 plates.]

8vo.

Fribourg.

1846

PiNETTE

Paris: Dumaine.

et le duel. 8vo. Paris Grisier Gamier. [Engraved portrait of the Chevalier de Saint-Georges, and 10 lithographed plates.] Refutation de I'escrime a la ba'fonnette, de M. 1847 PiNETTE (Joseph). Gomard. 8vo. Paris Dumaine. Th^orie de I'escrime k la baionnette. i8mo. 1847 PiNETTE (Joseph). [16 figures.] Paris Dumaine. L'Escrime a la bai'onnette, ou 1847 POSSELLIER (A. J. J.) [dit Gomard]. Ecole du fantassin pour le maniement du fusil comme arme blanche. 8vo.

1847

— (Augustin). — Les armes
:

Ecole du tirailleur, &c. 8^ Edition. (Joseph). Vide ist edition, 1832.] [32 figures.
:

i8mo.

— —

:

Paris.

[36 plates.]

1849-50 [Revue Arch^ologique, tome
I'art

Henry.— Sur

de I'escrime en Espagne au moyen age,
6, p. 583.

8vo.

Paris.

1849-50.]

1851 (?) Th^orie pratique sur I'art de la savate (appel^e chausson ou adresse parisienne) et de la canne avec demonstration expliqu^e de la lecon 8vo. Paris. par un amateur, eieve de Michel, dit Pisseux, Professeur.
. .

.

1855
sur le

ROBAGLIA

(A.

)

— Escrime-pointe.
i6mo.

Nouvelle th^orie, d^di^e k I'armee,
:

maniement de rep^e.

Metz

Verronnais.

[8 plates.]

I'art

1856 Embry (J. A.) Dictionnaire raisonn^ d'escrime, ou Principes de des armes d'apres la m^thode enseign^e par les premiers professeurs de France, pr^c^d^ de I'histoire de I'escrime et de I'analyse de Thistoire de France dans ses rapports avec le duel, i*"*^ et 2® parties. In-8, avec 8 pl. Toulouse. [L'ouvrage, compose d'environ 700 pages, sera divise en 4 parties, et paraitra en 2 series: i^'® serie, comprenant I'histoire de I'escrime; I'analyse de I'histoire de France, dans ses rapports avec I'escrime etL e Une nouvelle edition de cette V^ sene a ete annoncee en 1859, duel. en vente a Paris chez M. Bohin de Corday, 18, quai de la Megiseerie. La 2" serie, qui sera publiee en deux parties, renfermera un Traite theorique sur I'art des armes et le Dictionnaire raisonne d'escrime.]
[Professeur d'escrime et de canne]. ornee de 60 figures, indiquant les poses et Paris [chez I'auteur, passage VerdeauJ. [Portrait of the author and 4 plates.]

1856

Larribeau

— Nouvelle
les

theorie

du jeu de

la canne,

coups.

i2mo.

(A1.) Traite d'education physique, comprenant la natak la baionnette, la boxe fran9aise, I'escrime a I'epee, la gymnasGand. [With an atlas of 56 plates. ] Gr. in-8. tique. 1859 D'AzEMAR. Combats k la baionnette. Theorie adoptee en 1859 P^^ I'armee d'ltalie commandee par I'Empereur Napoleon IH. i6mo. Torino.

1857

Lemoine

tion, I'escrime

i860 Provost (Pierre). 8vo. I'enseignement mutuel. i860
fleuret et

SiEVERBRUCK
a I'espadon.

(J.)

4to.
(le

1862
Paris
:

BazancourT-

—Theorie pratique de I'escrime simplifiee pour Londres Nissen Parker. — Manuel pour I'etude des regies de I'escrime au Paris Tanera. baron Cesar — Les Secrets de 8vo.
:

et

:

de).

I'epee.

Amyot.
;

1862 Blot (Jacques Antoine).—L'Ecole de I'escrime 32mo. Paris Marpon. tique k I'usage de I'armee.
:

petit

manuel pra-

264
1862
i'aisaut.

APPENDIX
CoRDELOis
Gr. 8vo.

[Professeur d'escrinie]. Le9ons d'armes. Du duel et de Paris Tanera. [28 plates comprising 42 figures.]
:

1862

Lozfes (Bertrand).

—Th^orie de rescrime simultan^e.

'^

i8mo.

Paris

:

Dumaine.
1863 Grisier (Augustin). Les armes et le duel. Preface anecdotique par Alexandre Dumas. Notice sur I'auteur par Roger de Beauvoir. Epitre * * et du comte d'l * * *. en vers de M^ry. Lettres du comte d'H 3^ Edition, revue, corrig^e et augment^e. Gr. in-8. Paris Dentu. [Portrait of the author by Lassalle and drawings of E. de Beaumont.]
:

1864
Paris.

Grisier (Augustin).

— Les

armes

et

le

duel.

2^ Edition.

8vo.

1864
1864

MiLLOTTE.

—Traits d'escrime,
(A.)

Pomte.

i8mo.

Paris

:

Dumaine.

ment de

Theories sur le maniearmes, simplifi^ et d^montr^ suivant tous les principes th^oriques et pratiques pr^c^d^ de quelques notices et de recueils histoiiques. i2mo. Paris Fontenay.
I'^p^e

RoBAGLiA
ou

— Cours
:

complet d'escrime.
;

I'Art

de

faire des

manuel complet d'escrime, ou Traits Nouvelle Edition, entierement refondue et orn^e de vignettes intercal^es dans le texte. i8mo. Paris Roret.
1865
(J.)

Lafaugere'
faire des

— Nouveau

de

I'art

de

armes.

:

[Woodcuts
:

in the text.]

1866 Instruction pour I'enseignement pr^paratoire de I'escrime k I'^p^e. i8mo. Pans Dumame. [9 lithographed plates.] 1866 Notice biographique sur Jean-Louis et son Ecole. 8vo. Montpeiller
:

Richard. [Attributed to General

D
:

,

a pupil of Jean-Louis.
fait

Lithographed
la ville

portrait.]

et

1867 Statuts et reglemens faits par les maitres en fauxbourgs de Paris, 1644. Paris Henri Daressy.
1869

d'armes de

Bonaparte

duit a sa plus simple expression utile.

(Prince Pierre-Napoleon). 2e Edition.
g^n^ral).

— Le maniement de I'ep^e
In
121110.

r6-

Paris

:

Impri-

merie Aubry.
1869

1872
I'escrime.

1872

— Lemons d'armes. 4to. Lyon. colonel]. —Annotations m^thodiques succinctes de K. de) 8vo. Paris L^autey. Lemerre. Legouve (Ernest). — Un tournoi au XIX« 4to.
Campenon
(C.
(le

[le

et

:

siecle.

1872 Trait^s du duel judiciaire, relations de pas d'armes et tournois par Olivier de la Marche, Jean de Vilhers, seigneur de T Isle-Adam, Hardouin de La Jaille, &c. Publics par Bernard Prost. 8vo. Paris L. Willem.
;
:

CoRDELOis. Lecons d'armes. complete sur I'art de Fescrime. 2® Edition. [Portrait and 28
1873

Du

Th^orie duel et de I'assaut. Paris J. Dumaine. 8vo.
:

plates.]

Reflexions techniques et historiques sur Tescrime, 1874 Terwangue. Lille Meriaux. par un ancien amateur. 8vo. L'dcole de I'escrime, &c. i2mo. Paris. 1875 Blot (Jacques-Antoine).
:

L'escrime rendue facile et classique. Traits 1875 GiLLET (x^uguste). th^orique et pratique a 1' usage de I'enseignement et des amateurs d'apres les i8mo. Paris Dumaine. [With figures.] lefons de M. Lacrette.
:

1875 Instruction pour I'enseignement pr^paratoire de I'escrime a Tep^e, suivie du reglement provisoire pour 1' organisation de I'enseignement gratuit et obligatoire de I'escrime dans I'arm^e, 28 avril 1872, modifie par la circulaire du 7 d^cembre 1872. i8mo. Paris: J. Dumaine. [With plates.] 1875

Manuel pour I'enseignement de

la

gymnastique et de I'escrime, public

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
par ordre de M.
le

265
Paris
:

Ministre de la marine et des colonies.

i8mo.

J.

Damaine.
:

[With numerous

figures.

]

Les salles d'armes de Paris. 1875 Saint-Albin (A. de). [With copperplates.] Glady freres. Paris
1876
Paris
:

Roy. Bvo.
8vo.

Legouv^ (K.)— Deux
Ollendorff.

^p^ei bris^es

(Bertrand et

Robert).

1877 RoBAGLiA (A.) De I'escrime d'apres les regies et les principes de nos meilleurs professeurs La Boessiere, Gomard, Lhomandie, Jean-Louis, Lafaugere et Grisier, pr^c^dee d'une notice historique sur le fleuret et les salles Paris: F. Vernay. d'escrime. 8vo. [16 plates.]
:

1878
Paris
:

Manuel d'escrime approuv^ par

le

ministre de la guerre.

32mo.

Dumaine.

[40 figures.]
et

1879

Manuel de gymnastique (gymnastique d'assouplissement
; :

gymnas-

tique appliqu^e, natation, boxe franfaise, baton et canne) i8mo. Paris le Ministre de la guerre, le 26 juillet 1877.

approuv^ |:ar M. J. Dumaine.

[With numerous
1881

figures.]

Manuel
i8mo.

mai

1877.

d'escrime, approuv^ par M. le Ministre de la guerre, le 18 Paris J. Dumaine. [With figures.]
:

1882
1882
1882 1882
8vo.

Andre

(Emile).

R. (P. de).

— Coulisses et salles d'armes. 8vo. — Dialogue de salle sur de I'escrime.
I'art

Paris.

8vo.

Geneve.

Vaux

(Baron
(F.
)

de).

— Les hommes d'^p^e.

8vo.

Paris.

[42 portraits

and copperplates.]
et

ViGEANT
:

Paris

1883

— La bibliographic de I'escrime ancienne [Witn 5 woodcuts.] M^RIGNAC (Emile). — Histoire de I'escrime dans tous
Motteroz.
Gr. 8vo.

moderne,

les

temps

et

dans

tOLis les

pays. Tome I, Antiquity. [With engravings.]

Paris

:

Rouquette.

tion.

Un maitre d'armes sous la Restaura1883 ViGEANT [maitre d'armes]. Small 8vo. Paris. [With etched frontispiece (portrait of Jean-Louis) and vignettes.]

1884 Brunet (Romuald). Traits d'escrime pointe, et cont e-pointe. i2mo. Paris Rouveyre. [5 drawings by E. Chaperon, and 27 plates.] 1884 Lafaugere (L. J.) Nouveau manuel complet d'escrime. Nouyelle Edition, entierement refondue. i8mo. Paris Roret. [With figures in the text.] 1884 La Marche (Claude).— Traitd de I'dp^e. 8vo. Paris Marpon et Flammarion. [Illustrated.] Guide du duelliste ind^hcat. 8vo. Paris Fressc. 1884 Leroy (Charles).
:

:

:


:

:

1884 Dejey.

RoBAGLiA [Le

Capitaine].
de).

— L'escrime

et le duel.

i2mo.

Paris

.

1884

Vaux

(Baron

— Les

duels c^lebres.

Preface par A.

Scholl.

Grand
Paris.

8vo, illustre.

Paris

Rouveyre.

1884

ViGEANT

[maitre d'armes].

— Duels de

maitres d'armes.

Small 4to.

[With frontispiece
1885
pentier.

(portrait of Bertrand)

and a few

vignettes.]

Bettenfeld (Michel).— L'art de

I'escrime.

i2mo.

Paiis

:

Char-

1885
poraine.

CORTHEY (A.)— Le
8vo.

fleuret et I'^p^e.

Etude sur I'escrime contema
cheval.

Paris
(le

:

Giraud.
capitaine).

1885

DfiRUE
Paris
:

— Nouvelle
[Illustrated.]

m^thode d'escrime

i2mo.

Lahure.


266
1885
ix.

APPENDIX
Lagrange
[J.

(F.)

— L'escrime

Soc. de rn6d. et pharm.

et ses effets sur la colonne vert^brale. de la Haute-Vienne. Limoges. 8vo.

pp. 133-139.]
Scholl.
et

Le duel et rescrime. (Paris lUustr^, No. 31 [i juin 1885].) Tavernier (Adolphe). — L'art du duel. Preface par Aur^lien Nouvelle Edition. i2mo, illustr^. Paris Marpon et Flammarion.
1885
1885
:

t886

MfiRiGNAC
[Illustrated.]

(E.

)

— Histoire de
Gr. in
8.

tous les pays.

Tome IL

Paris

rescrime dans tons Rouquette.
:

les

temps

dans

1886 Provost (C.) Th^orie pratique de Tescrime. Avec la biographie Paris de Provost pere, par A. Tavernier. Gr. in-8. De Brunhoff.
:

[With
1886

plates.]

Pans

Tavernier (A.) Amateurs et salles d'armes de Paris. Marpon et Flammarion. [Illustrated ] Le jeu de I'ep^e. Le9ons de Jules Jacob 1887 Jacob (Jules).
:

i2mo.
r^dig^es

par Emile Andr^, suivies du duel au sabre et du duel au pistolet et de conseils aux t^moins. Prefaces de MM. P. de Cassagnac, A. Ranc et A. de la Forge. 8vo. Paris Paul Ollendorff. 1887 Robert (Georges) [professeur d'escrime au Lyc^e Henri IV et au college Sainte-Barbe], La science des armes, I'assaut et les assauts publics, le duel et la lefon de duel. Avec une notice sur Robert aine par M. Ernest Legouv^ de 1' Academic fran9aise, et une lettre deM. H^brard de Villeneuve, president de la Societe d'encouragement de l'escrime. Paris Garnier. 4to. [Portrait of Robert the Elder, vignettes, 57 figures, and 8 folding
:

:

analytical tables.]

1887

Saint-Albin

preface de Vigeant.

(Albert de). 8vo. Paris.

—A

travers les salles d'armes, avec

une

[12 engravings in in the text.]

photogravure by Louis Regamey, and one vignette
Petit
:

1888 1888

Blot
suivi

(J.

A.)

— L'ecole de l'escrime.
duel.

de I'arm^e,
et les

du code du

32mo.

Paris

Marpon

manuel pratique al'usage et Flammarion.

Castle (Egerton) [membre du London Fencing Club]. L'escrime escrimeurs, clepuis le moyen age jusqu'au i8me siecle. Traduit de I'anglais par Albert Fierlants. 4to. Ollendorff. Paris [Frontispiece, 160 illustrations, 6 carbon plates.]
:

Desmedt (Eugene). La science de l'escrime. Avec une preface Waller, un Dictionnaire de I'epee et un Guide des escrimeurs. 8vo. Bruxelles. [15 phototypes.] 1888 Daressy (Henri) [membre honoraire de I'Acad^aiie d'armes]. Archives des maitres d'armes de Paris. 8vo. Quantin. Paris
1888

de

Max

:

[Illustrated.]

1888 Le salut des armes. (Issued under the authority of the Academic d'armes, attributed to Vigeant.) 8vo. Paris: Paul Schmidt.

1889 Vigeant [maitre Dessins de Fred. Regamey.

d'armes k
8vo.

Paris].
:

— L'almanach

de

l'escrime.

Quantin. [Numerous photogravi res. ]
Paris

Redacteur en chef, Emile Andrd 1889 (periodical) L'Escrime fran9aise. (Bi-monthly review devoted to the interests of French swordsmanship, 60 centimes.) Paris, 12 Rue de la Grange 4to. Bateliere.
:

(?)

Mauroy

(Victor).

— Memento

de I'escrimeur.

(D^di6

aux profes-

seurs bretons.)

Manuscript.
Sloanian.

No. 1198, folio 40, 23 lines, in the British Museum. [About the end of the 17th century.]

1


BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
267

GERMAN.
1799 BuRGMATER (Hans). Weiss Kunig. Suite de 237 planches grave^es Folio. sur bois d'apres les de-sins et sous la conduite de Hans Burgmaier. Vienne. [Plates No. 37, 38, 39, and 56 interest the fencer. J

1516

Paurnfeindt (Andrae)
ritterlicher

Ergrundung

Kunst der Fechterey.

[Freyfechter zu Wien in Vien.

Oesterreich].

The following four works, which show hut slight differeiices (in arrangement especially ), were printed between 1530 and 1558.

title a?id

Mit sampt verborgenen 1531 (?) Der altenn Fechter anfengliche Kunst. heymlicheytten, Kampffens, Ringens, Wertlens. &c. Figiirli h llirgemalet. Bisher nie an tag kommen. Zu Frankfurt am Meyn Chr. Egen. 46 pages. [Woodcut on title-page. At the end Zu Franckfurt am Meyn, bei Christian Egenolph.]
:

:

Der

alten Fechter griindliche Kunst.

Mit sampt verborgenen heym-

lichten, Kampffens, Ringens, Werffens, &c. Figiirlich fiirgemalet. Bisher nie an tag koiTien. 48 pages. [Woodcut on title-page.]

Fechtbuch Die Ritterlicbe, manliche Kunst und handarbeyt Fechtens und Kempffens. Auswarem ursprunglichen grund der Alten, mit sampt heymlichen Geschwindigkeyten, in leibs noten sich dts Feinds trosthch gemalt. Zu Franckfort am Meyn, bei Chr. Egenolff. 46 pages. [Woodcut on title-page.] Die Ritterliche, MannHche Kunst und handarbeyt 1558 Fechtbuch. Fechtens und Kempffens, &c. Zu Franckfurt am Meyn, bei Chri. Egen. Erben. [At the end
:

MDLVIII.]

1570

Meyer

(Joachim) [Freyfechter zu Strasburg].

— GriindlicheBeschreiam Weynmarkt zum
dimicatoriae.
4to.

bung der Freyen, Ritterlichen und Adelichen Kunst der Fechtens in allerley gebreuchlichen Wehren, mit vil schonen und niitzlichen Figuren gezieret und furgesteliet. Oblong 4to. Strasburg.
[Getruckt zu Strasburg bey Thiebolt Berger Treubel. Numerous woodcuts.]

1579
1610

GUNTERRODT

(A.)

—De

veris

principiis

artis

Wittemberg.

Meyer

(Joachim) [Freyfe hterzu Strasburg].
&c., &c.

— Griindliche BeschreiLeipzig.

bung der Freyen,
Willers.

2nd edition. Oblong 4to. Augspurg. [Getruckt zu Augspurg bey Michael Mauger, in verlegung Eliae
73 woodcuts.]
(C. von).

1611
161

Bononien

HuNDT

Fechten und

(Mich.) Ein new Kiinstlich Fechtbuch Balgen, u.s.w. 4to. Leipsig.

— Neu Kiinstlich Fechtbuch.

im Rappier zum

1612 SuTORiUM (Jacob) [Freyfechter von Baden]. New Kunstliches Fechtbuch, das ist aussfiihrhche Deschription der Freyen Adelichen und Ritterlichen Kunst dess Fechtens in den gebreuch lichsten Wehren, als Schwerdt, Diisacken, Rappier, «S:c. &c. Franckfurt Wilhelm Hoffmans. 4to. [Gedruckt zu Franckfurt am Mayn durch Johann Bringern. Woodcuts.] 1612 Cavalcabo (Hieronimo). Neues Kunstliches Fechtbuch des Weitberiimten und viel erfahrnen Ttalienischen Fechtmeister Hieronimo Cavalcabo, von Bononien Stievorn, aus dem geschrieben welchem Exemplar durch Monsieur de Villamont, Ritter des Ordens zu Jerusalem, &c. (S:c. in franzosische Sprache transferirt. Nun aber alien Loblichen Fechtkunst Liebhabern zu gefallen aus gemelter franzosischer Sprach verdenselt durch Conrad von
, :

,

,

Einsidell.

Oblong

4to.

Jena.

[Six copperplates, out of the text.]


268
1617

APPENDIX
Wallhausen
Folio.
/J.

F. von).

— Kunstliche Picquen Handlung.
Franckfurt.

Darin-

nen

Schrifftlich

und mit Figuren
Hanover.

dieser adelichen Exercisiren angewiesen

und

gelernt wird.

1619 1619 burg.
S.

Garzonius.

—Allgemeiner Schauplatz.
)— Cours
v. d.

KOPPEN

(

Joach.

Fechtkunst.

Small

folio.

Magde-

1619 Fabris (S.) Der Kunstreichen imd weitberiimeten Fechtmeisters Leyden. Fabris Italianische Fechtkunst. Folio, [Printed by Isaack Elzevier, and dedicated by the same to Gustavus Adolphus. The copperplates of the first edition are replaced by woodcuts (192).]

1619 K5PPEN (Joach. ) Newer diskurs von der rittermassigen und weitberiihmten Kunst des Fechtens, u.s.w. Small foho. Magdeburg.

1620 SCHOFFER (Hans Wilhelm) [von Dietz, Fechtmeister in Marpurg]. Grundtliche und eigentliche Beschreibung der freyen Adelichen und Ritterlichen Fecht-Kunst im einfachen Rappir und im Rappir und Dolch, nach Italianischer Manir und Art, in zwey underschiedene Biicher ferfast, und mit 670 schoenen und nothwendigen Kupfferstucken gezieret und for Augen gestellt. Oblong 4to. Marpurg Johan Saurn.
:

1622

GiGANTi's Theatre (see Italian, 1606 French, 1619). Obi. 4to. [An edition appeared as a French and German translation in Franck;

furth.]

berg].

(Sebastian) [Kriegsmann und Freyfechter von NiirnKunstlich Fechtbuch zum dritten mal auffgelegt und mit vielen schoenen Stucken verbessert. Als des Sig. Salvator Fabris de Padua und Sig. Rud. Capo di Ferro, wie auch anderer Italienischen und Franzosischen Fechter. Niirnberg Simon Halbmayerr. Obi. 4to.

1630

— Neu

Heussler

:

Kriegsiibung u.s.w. den frischanfahenden Fechtern und 1637 Salgen. Soldaten fiir erst nutzlich und nothig zu wissen.

Kurze Unterrichtung belangend die Pique, die 1657 Pascha[ll] (J. G. Fahne, den Jagerstock. Das Voltesiren, das Ringen, das Fechten auf den Wittenberg. 8vo. Stoss und Hieb, und endUch das Trincieren verferrtigts.
)

1659 Pasche (J. G.) Kurtze doch Grlindliche Unterrichtung der Pique, den Trillens in der Pique, der Fahne des Jagerstocks, Trincierens, Fechtens auf den Stoss und auf den Hieb, <&c. Mit Kpf. Osnabruck.
1659 Pascha[ll] (J. G.)— Kurze doch Grlindliche Unterrichtung den Pique, den Trillens in der Pique, die Fahne, den Jagerstock, Trincieren, Fechtens auf den Stoss und auf den Hieb, <S:c. 8vo. Osnabruck.
1660

Meyer

(Joachim) [Freyfechter zu Strasburg].
edition.

— Griindliche BeschreiAugsburg.

bung der Freyen, (&c., &c. 3rd [Numerous woodcuts.]
1661

Oblong

4:0.

Paschen (Johann

Georg).

— Kurze, jedoch

handehid vom Fechten auf den Stoss und Hieb.

deutliche, Beschreibung Folio. Halle in Sachsen.

Deutliche und Grlindliche Erkla1664 L'Ange (J. D.) [Fechtmeister], rung der AdeHchen und Ritterlichen freyen Fechtkunst. Oblong 8vo. Heidel[Portrait of Daniel L'Ange, by Metzger, and 61 copperplates.] berg.

Kurze, jedoch deutliche Beschreibung 1664 Paschen (Johann Georg). handelnd vom Fechten auf den Stoss und Hieb. 2te Aufl. Foho. Halle in
Sachsen.

1664
1665

Triegler (Jo. Ge.). Neues Kiinstliches Fechtbuch. 4to. Leipsig. Heussler (Sebastian). Kiinstliches Abprobirtes und Niitzliches

BIBLIOTHECA ARJIS DIMICATORI/E
Oblong 4to. seinen Leib defendirn kan. [124 copperplates.]
1667

269

Fecht-Buch von Einfachen und doppelten Degen Fechten, damit ein ieder Nurnberg.

Paschen
Paschen

(J.

G.)— VoUstandige
G.)

Fecht-, Ring-

und Volligier-Kunst.

Small
Small

folio.

Leipsig.
(J.

1673 1677

folio.

d' arme di Salvatore Fabris, Herrn Salvatore Fabris, Obersten des Ritter-Orders der Sieben Hertzen, Italianische Fechtkunst. Von Johann Joachim Hynitzchen, Exercitien Meister. 4to. Leipsig. [German translation parallel with the Italian text. The plates are the same as in the original edition, with the addition of one representing the monument erected to Fabris's memory in Padua, his native town, and of a portrait of a certain Heinrich, who seems to have patronised this repro-

—VoUstandige Fecht-, Fabris (Salvatore). — Scienza e pratica
Leipsig.

Ring- und Voltigier-Kunst.

Capo

deir ordine dei sette cuori.

Das

ist

:

duction of the great master's work.l Der Kunstliche Fechter, oder Beschreibung 1679 Verolinus (Theodor), 4to. Wurzburg. des Fechtens im Rappier, Dlisacken, und Schwerdt.

Der adelichen gemiithen wohlerfahrne 1683 Paschen (Joh. Georg). Exercitien-Meister, d.i. VoUstandige Fecht-, Ring- und Voltigier-Kunst. Small Franckfurt und Leipsig. foho.
1706

Uffenbach.

1713 Fabris (Salvator). Leipzig. production.] 4to.

— Fechten England. Wien Lenz. — [A second edition of the Italian and German
in
(?)
:

re-

171 3 Schmidt (Johann Andreas) [des H. Rom. Reichs Freyen Stadt Niirnberg, bestellter Fecht- und Exercitien-Me'ster], Leib-beschirmende und Feinden Trotz bietende Fecht-Kunst, oder leichte und getreue Anweisung auf Nebst einem curieusen UnterStoss und Hieb zierlich und sicher zu fechten. Obi. 8vo. Nurnberg Weigel. richt vom Voltigiren und Ringen.

:

[Portrait of the author in his

own

fencing school, 84 copperplates, in
Ritterliche

and out of the
1715

text.]

Doyle

(Alexander).

— Neue

Alamodische

Fecht-

und

Schirm-Kunst. Das ist Wahre und nach neuester Franzosischer Manier eingerichtete Unterweisung wie man sich in Fechten und Schirmen perfectioniren und Denen respectiven Herren Liebhaberen zu besserer Erleuterung verhalten soUe. rait 60 hierzu deutlichen Figuren herausge^eben von Alexander Doyle, aus Irrland geburtig. (i) Ihrer Churfurstl. Gnaden zu Maintz verordneten Hof~ Fechtmeistern. Obi. 4to. Nurnberg.
1715 Fecht-Boden (der geoffnete) auf welchen durch kurtz gefasste Regeln gute Anleit. z. rechten Fundament der Fecht-Kunst gegeben wird. Mit 8 Kupfertaf. 8vo. Hamburg.

1716-17 Heussler (Seb.) Stuck in einfachen Rappier, &c.
1729

Doyle

— Neues Kunstliches Fechtbuch, 2 Theile. Nurnberg. (Alexander). — Neue Alamodische Ritterliche
Obi. 4to.

darinnen 54
Fecht- und

Schirm-Kunst.

2te Aufl.

Niirnberg.

(Anthon Friedrich) [Fechtme'ster auf der Georgius Augus1739 Anfangsgriinde der Fechtkunst nebst einer tus Universitat zu Goettingen]. Vorrede von dem Nutzem der Fechtkunst und den Fortzligen dieser Anweisung. Goettingen. 4to. [Portrait of Kahn and 25 copperplates, out of the text, engraved by F. Fritsch.]

Kahn

1749 1750

Schmidt (Johann Andreas)
8vo.

[Fecht-

und

Exercitien-Meister.]
8vo.

Griindlich lehrende Fecht-Schule.

Schmidt (Johann

Andreas).

Nurnberg. Fecht-Kunst.

Nurnberg.

1750.

:

270
1760 Christfels Schwabach Enderes.
:

APPENDIX
(P.

E.)— Jiidische

Fechtschule.

8vo.

Onoldst

und
:

1760
Stein.

Schmidt

(Joh. Andre).

Lehrende Fechtschule. [Copperplates.]
der Fechtkunst,
fechten.
d.

8vo.
&c.,
4to.

Nurnberg
&c.

1761
Aufl.

Kahn
e.

(A.

F.)

—Anfangsgriinde
Kunst, auf

Neue

Mit

Anh.

iiber d.

Hieb zu

Helmstadt

Weygand.

[25 copperplates.]

Uebungen auf den furstlichen 1764 Weischner (S. ) [Hauptmann]. Sachsischen Hof und Fechtboden zu Weimar. Verb, und verm. Aufl. 8vo.

Weimar
1765

:

Hoffman.

Weischner

(S.)

[Hauptmann].
2te Aufl.
F.)

— Uebungen
Bvo.
:

auf den furstlichen
:

Hof

und Fechtboden zu Weimar.
1766

Weimar

Hoffman.

Weischner

(C.

— Ritterliche
4to.

Geschicklichkeit

im

Fechten

durch ungezwungene Stellungen.
1771
ter.

Weimar

Hoffmann.

[30 copperplates.] Ranis (Heinrich Christoph). Konigl. Commissarrii und FechtmeisAnweisung zur Fechtkunst fiir Lehrer und Lernende. Bvo. Berlin Mylius. [Copperplates.]

:

1776 1777 Breslau

Temlich.
:

1780 Hieb, wie auch
u.

—Anfangsgriinde der Fecht-Kunst. 8vo. Halle. Vester (E. F. W.) — Einleitung zur adehchen Fechtkunst. 8vo. Korn. Schmidt (Joh. Andr.) — Fechtkunst, oder Anweisung in Stoss und
zum Ringen und
Voltigiren.

i2mo.

Nurnberg
8vo.

:

Schneider

W.
1780 1780
'

Schmidt.

—Fechtkunst auf Stoss und Hieb.
'

Leipzig.

Will's Historisch-dinlomatisches Magazin fiir das Vaterland. [Bd. H. iiber die Fechtschulen zu Niirnberg,' also Seite 264, iiber die Marxbriider.']

Systematische Abhandlune: von 1783 Haspelmacher (Jh. Geo. Hnr.). den schadlichen Folgen einer nicht auf sicheren Regeln gegriindeten FechtGr. Bvo. kunst, nebst einer Anweisung wie man solche vermeiden kann. Helmstadt Fleckeisen. Versuch iiber das Contrafechten auf der rechten 1786 Roux (Heinrich). und linken Handnach Kreuzler'schen Grundsatzen. 4to. Jena Croker.
:

Bemerkungen iiber die verschiedene 1792 Behr (Fr. Art zu fechten einiger Universitaten, von einem fleissigen Beobachter. Bvo. Halle Dost. ViETH (G. U. A.) Versuch einer Encyklopadie der Leibesiibungen. 1791;
:

— L.) — Fliichtige

:

2 Theile.

Bvo.

Berlin.

[A short

article

on fencing

in vol.

ii.,

1796 TiMLiCH (K.) Griindliche Abhandlung der Fechtkunst auf den Hieb zu Fuss und zu Pferde. Wien. ite Theil, oder Lehrbuch Lehrschule der Fechtkunst. 1797 Schmidt. 4to. Berhn fiir die Cavalerie zum vortheilhaften Gebrauche des Sabels. [8 copperplates. Maurer. 1798 Roux (J. Ad. K.')— Griindhche und vollstandige Anweisung in der deutschen Fechtkunst auf Sloss und Hieb aus ihren innersten Geheimnissen wissenschafdich erlautert, u.s.w. 4to. Jena Wolfg. Stahl. [Copperplates.]

p. 496.]

:

]

:

1799 HOYER (G. V.) Gottingen. 1799 Roux (J. A. K.) 2te Aufl. Jena.

— Geschichte — Grundrisz

der Kriegskunst
d.

(Fechten).

2

Bd.

Fechtkunst, als gymnast. Uebung.

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
1799

271

bung

betrachtet.

1802

der Fechtkunst als gymnastischer UeJena. Kothen Aue. Die Fechtkunst auf Universitaten. Bvo. [Copperplates.]
(J.

Roux

Ad.

K.)— Grundriss

Gr. 8vo.

:

1802 Venturini (G.) Die Fechtkunst auf Stosz und Hieb, in systemat. Uebersicht fiir Offiziere, und zum Gebrauch in Kriegsschulen. 8vo. Braun[Copperplates.] schweig.
1803
fechten,
e.

Roux

(J.

Ad. K.)
f.

—Theoretisch-practische
'

Anweisung zum HiebFiirth.

Leitfaden

d.

miindl. Unterricht.

Gr. 8vo.
fiir

1804

Roux

(J.

A. C.)

— Das Fechten auf Stoss und Hieb.
Gymnastik
die Jugend.'

[Article in Gutmuth (E. C. F.), Schnepfenthal. J 8vo.

2teAufl.

1807 Roux (J. W.) Anleitnng zur Fechtkunst nach mathemat.-physikal. Grund-atzen. 4t(). Jena: Hennings. [10 copperplates.] Die Fechtkunst auf den Stosz. 1807 TiMLiCH (Karl). i2mo. Wien Copperplates. ] Tendler. 1809 Venturini (G.) Die Fechtkunst auf Stosz und Hieb, &c., &c.

— —
:

:

[

2te Aufl.

8vo.

1816
Berlin
:

Jahn

(F. L.)

Hannover Hahn. und Eiselen (E.)— Die deutsche Turnkunst.
list

Gr. 8vo.

Reimer. [Contains a
(J.
z.

of

'

altera Fechtbiicher.'

2 copperplates.]

— Die deutsche Fechtkunst, enthalthe theoret.Gr. 8vo. Jena. Stoszfechten, &c. Ad. K.) — Grundriss der Fechtkunst als gymnastischer 1817 Roux Leipzig Barth. Uebung betrachtet. Gr. 8vo. Jena Fr.) — Griindl. Anweisung zur deutschen Fechtkunst Schmidt 1817 auf Stosz und Hieb. 4to. Dresden Arnold. 1818 Eiselen (E. W. B.) — Das deutsche Hiebfechten der Berliner Turn1817 Roux prakt. Anweisg.
A. K.)
(J.

u.

:

(Jh.

:

schule.

8vo.

Berlin

:

Diimmler.

Theorie der Fechtkunst, eine analytische Darstellung sammtlicher Nach dem Traits d'escnme par Chatelain, Stellungen, Stosse Paraden, u.s.w. Leipzig. nebst einer Anleitung iiber das Hiebfechten. 4to.
1819

1820 LuPSCHER (Ant.) und Gommel (Fr.)— Theorie der Fechtkunst. Eine analytische Abhandlung sammtl. Stellungen, Stosze, Paraden, Finten u.s.w., iiberhaupt aller Bewegungen im Angriffe u.d. Vertheidung. Nach der Traits d'escrime par le Chevalier Chatelain frei bearbeitet. Nebst einer Anleit. Wien Tendler. 8vo. iiber das Hiebfechten.
:

[With 2 tables and 20
1820
Gr. 8vo.

plates.]

PoLLNiTZ

(G.
:

L. von).

— Das

Hiebfechten zu

Fusz und Pferde.
Voltigirkunst.

Halberstadt

Briiggemann.

1822

DiJVAL (Jeanet).— Theoret. Anweisung zur Fecht- und
Miinchen
[i

Qu.

4to.

Fleischmann. plate and 60 figs., lithographed.]
:

PoNiTZ (Karl Eduard). Die Fechtkunst auf den Stoss Grund-atzen des Herrn von Selmnitz. 8vo. Dresden Arnold.
1822
1823
8vo.
:

;

nach den
In'anterie.

Bajonet-Fechtlehre

fiir

die Grossherzogliche

badensche

Mannheim.

1824 Werner (J. A. L.) Versuch einer theoretischen Anweisung zur Fechtkunst im Hiebe. Qu. 4to. Leipzig Lehnhold.
:

[20 copperplates.]
Aufl.

Das Hiebfechten zu Fuss und Pferde. 1825 PoLLNiTZ (G. L. von). Halberstadt Briiggemann. Gr. 8vo.
:

Neue

1825

Selmnitz

(Ed. von) [Ritter].— Die Bajonettfechtkunst, oder Lehre

272

APPENDIX

des Verhaltens mit d. Infanterie-Gewehre als Angriffs-und Vertheidigungswaffe. Dresden. ler Theil. Gr. 8vo. [lo folio copperplates and one vignette.]

1826
stadt
:

Thierry.

Pajonett-Fecht-Schule in 21 Darstell. mit Erlaut. [The text is lithographed.]

4to.

Hermann-

1826 EiSELEN (E. W. B.) Abrisz des deutschen Stoszfechtens, nach 8vo. Berlin Diimmler. Kreuszlers Grundsatzen dargestellt.
:

1826 WiELAND (Jh.) Anleit. zum Gebrauch des Bajonets oder kurzer Unterricht des Wesenthchsten dieser Fechtkunst. 8vo. Basel Schweighauser.
:

Die Fechtkunst 9uf den Stoss nach den 1828 PONITZ (Karl Eduard). Neue wohl. Ausg. 8vo. Dresden Grundsatzen des Herrn von Selmnitz.
:

Arnold.

1829 Die Anwendung des Bajonets gegen Infanterie und Kavallerie in konigl.-Danischen Armee (aus d. Danischen iibertragen von den Kapitan i2mo. Braunschweig Vieweg. Jensen).
:

d.
v.

Die Kunst, aus jedem Zweikampfe 1829 FoUGERE (J.) [Fechtmeister]. lebend und unverwundet zurlickzukehren, selbst wenn man niemals Unterricht im Fechten gehabt, und es auch mit dem groszten Schlager oder Schiitzen der Welt zu thun hatte. In loVorlesungen. Aus dem Franzosischen. 8vo. Leipzig
:

Rein.

Ueberdie thiiring. Fechterfamilien Kreussler. (Prof.) Thliringer Volksfrcund.' 1829, Nr. 43, Seite 345.] Selmn'itz (Ed. von) [Ritter]. Die Bajonettfechtkunst. (Vorrede zur ];.83i Leipzig. 2teAufl.) 8vo. 1832 Selmnitz (Ed. von) [Ritter]. Die Bajonettfechtkunst. 2te Aufl. Mittler. [10 copperplates.] Berlin
1829 [Vide
'

GoTTLiNG

— —

:

p.

1833 Werner (J. A. 257 auf Hieb, p. 236).
;

L.).

— Die

Gr. 8vo.

ganze Gymnastik (Fechten auf Stoss, Meissen Goedsche.
:

1834

RiEMANN

Kreussler' s

Vollstand. (Heinr.) Grundsatzen. 8vo. Leipzig

:

Anweisung zum Stoszfechten, nach Engelmann.

1834 Segers (J.)— Anleitung zum Hiebfechten mit Korbrappier, Sabel und Pallasch, zum Selbstunterricht auf deutschen Universitaten undmit besonBonn Habicht. 8vo. derer Riicksicht auf das Militar herausg.
:

[38 figures.]

1835 Praktischer Unterricht in der Bajonetfechtkunst, der schweizerischen 8vo. Bern. [52 figures.] Infanterie ge\Aidmet. ^^ 18^6 Bajoneiir-Reglement fiir die Groszherz. Hessische Infanterie. Lex.
8vo.

Darmstadt

:

Leske.
(J.)

1836

Segers

— Anleitung

[55 lithographs

]

zen und Erfahrungen herausg.
[16 figures.]

Stoszfechten, nach eigenen GrundsatGr. 8vo. Bonn Habicht.
:

zum

1837

NovALi

(K. von).

— Germanisches Turnbuch,

oder die Reit-, Jagd-

und Fechtkunst, nach den neuesten Grundsatzen dargestellt. Ein Hand- und Hausbuch fiir Ritterguts-Besitzer, Offiziere, Forstbeamte, Akademiker, &c. Augsburg Jenisch u. Stage. Gr. 8vo. 1837 Segers (J.) Anleitung zum Hiebfechten mit Korbrappier, Sabel und Pallasch, zum Selbstunterricht auf deutschen Universitaten und mit 2te verm. Aufl. 8vo. Bonn be~ond. Riicksicht auf das Militar herausg.
:

:

Habicht.

Ls^ figures.]

1838 Christmann(F. C.) und Pfeffinger (Dr. G.) Theoreti^ch-praktische Anleitung des Hau-Stossfechtens und des Schwadronhauens, nach einer

Verhalten des Degen- oder Sabelganz neuen Methode, nebst einem Anhange Offenbach a. M. 8vo. fiihrenden gegen der Bajonnetisten,' &c., &€.
:
'

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORLE
1838

273

Thalhofer (Karl) und Isnardi (Mich.)—Theoret.-prakt. Anzur Fechtkunst a la Contrepointe. Nebst e. Anleitung zur Vertheidigung leitung mit d. Sabel oder Degen den Bajonnetisten von Tallhofer. Mit i Heft figuren.

—Theoretisch-praktische Anleitung zur Fecht[80 lithographed Pesth. Qu. kunst. Jagd1839 NovALi (K. von^. — Germanisches Turnbuch, oder die Stage. und Fechtkunst, &c. 2te Aufl. 8vo. Augsburg Jenisch Bagel. 8vo. Wesel von). — Das Bajonetfechten. 1840 Rhein
1839
4to.

Gr. 8vo.

Wien Heubner. Chappon (Louis).
:

[59 lithographed plates.]
plates.]

Reit-,

:

u.

(A.

:

[8

lithographed plates.]
(K.)

1840
terricht

ROHNE

— Grlindlicher Unterricht im Hiebfechten, zum SelbstunGr. 8vo.

und zur Fortiibung.
[10 plates.]

Quedlinburg

:

Basse.

1840 Roux (W.) Anweisung zum Hiebfechten mit ^raden und krummen Nebst einer Einleitung vom Prof. Dr. K. H. Scheidler. Qu. gr. 8vo. Klingen. [36 plates.] Jena Mauke. 1840 Seidler (E. F.) [Stallmeister].— Anleitunor zum Fechten mH dem Sabel und dem Kiirassierdegen, zuvorderst dem Unterrichte in KavallerieAbtheilungen angeeignet, nebst Bemerkungen flir den ernstlichen Kampf zu Fuss u. zu Pferde. 8vo. Berhn. [i copperplate.]
:

1840
liber

Scheidler

(K.

H.)— Ueber

die Geschichte der Fechtkunst, so wie
(s.

den w^ahren Werth und die Vorziige des Hiebfechtens

184T

KOTHE
MuLLER
Roux

(Fried.)

— Das

W.

Roux, 1840^

Ganze der Fechtkunst, oder ausfuhrhche

Lehrbuch
(Bd.
I.

die Fechtkunst in ihren verschiedenen Zweigen grlindhch zu erlernen. das Stossfechten, m. Fig.) 8vo. Nordhausen.
(Frz.)

T841

—Fecht-Unterrcht
Prag
:

mit

dem Feuer-Gewehre,

eigent-

lich Bajonetfechten.

Kl, 8vo. [6 lithographs. ]
(J.

Haase Sohne.

das Verhaltniss der deutschen Fechtkunst Alls'emeinen, als auch fiir Universitaten insbesonAuf besondere, mit Berticksichtigung der Mittel die Duelle zuverhiiten, S:c. deres Verlangen des nun mehr verstorb. Verfassers z. Druck be^ordert u. vollendet von W. Roux. 8vo. Erfurt Hennings u. Hopf.
1841 A.

K.)— Ueber

zum Ehrenduell sowohl im

:

Vorschriften liber den Bajonet-Fechtunterrichtf. Truppen. Carlsruhe. [6 plates.]
1 841

d.

Grossh. badenschen
31 Inf.
8vo.

1842 Instruction iiber das Bajonetfechten Regt. 8vo. Erfurt.
1843

fiir

das K. Preuss.
Sachs.

Dresden

u.

Anleitung Leipzig

zum
:

Floretfechten Arnold.

fiir

die R.

Infanterie.

1843 SCHETDLER (Dr. K. H.) Nochmalige Erorterune der Frage Hieb oder Stoss ? Eine hode^etische Vorlesung. 8vo. Jena Frommann. Anleitung zum Fechten mit dem 1843 Seidler (F. F.) Stallmeister]. Berlin Gr. 8vo. Sabel u. dem Kiirassierdegen, &c., &c. 2te verm. Aufl.
:
:
|

:

Mittler.

[i copperplate.]

1843 Vorschriften fiir den Unterricht 32mo. Amberg. bayer. Infanterie.

im Bayonnet-Fechten der Konigl.

1844

Ballassa

(C.

K. K.) [Maiorl

— Fechtmethode.
'

Eine

rationell^,

vereinfachte und schnell faszhche Fechtiibung des Sabel s gee^n den Sabel, und dieses gegen das Bajonet und die Picke. zum Hauen, Stephen und Pariren. Eigens fiir die Cavallerie, nach den aus der Feld- u. Friedens-Praxis geschopften Grundsatzen in 25 Tabellen, nebst einem kleinen Anhang Ueber das KunstQu. gr. 4to. Pest. fechten.' [19 figures. ]

1844

Rhein

(A.

von\— Das

Baionetfechten. 2te Aufl. [10 plates, giving 35 figures.]

Wesel: Bagel.

T

274
1844
(?)

APPENDIX
Schneider
u.

(H.) Fechtkunst. Gruber's Encyklopadie, ite Sec, Bd. 42, S. 204 u. ff.] 1845 Franckenberg-Ludwigsdorff (M. von).— Das Bajonetfechten. Nach den Grundsatzen der neutren Zeit umgeandert. 8vo. Munster Wundermann. [6 copperplates.]

[Vide Ersch

:

1845
ster
:

Franckenberg-Ludwigsdorff
f.

Stoszfechten, als Voriibung

d.

(M. von). Das Fleurettiren oder Hiebfechten und Bajonettiren. 8vo. Mun-

Wundermann.

[3 plates of figures.]

1845 Vorschriften fiir den Unterricht im Fechten u. Voltigiren der konigl. i6mo. Straubing Schorner. bayer. Kavalerie.
:

1847
1849

JAHN

L.)— Deutsche Turi>kunst. Gr. 8vo. Berlin: G. Reimer. [Seite 281 Ordnung der Fechtschulen.'] Bottcher (A. M.) Die reine, deutsche Stoszfechtschule nach E. W.
(F.

— —

'

B. Eiselen ausfuhrlich bearbeitet.

Gr. 8vo.

GorLtz

:

Heinze

&

Co.

[25 figures.]

1849

Roux

(F.

A.

krummen

Klingen.

W. L.) 2te Aufl.

—Anweisung zum Hiebfechten mit
Qu. 8vo.

graden und
]

Jena

:

Mauke.

[36 figures.

[Einleitende Bemerk. liber die Geschichte der Fechtkunst, namentlich auf unsern deutschtn Universitaten, Seite 22.]

1849 Roux (F. A. W. L.) Die Kreussler'sche Stossfechtschule, zum Gebrauch f. Academieen u. Militarschulen, nach mathemat. Grundsatzen. Imp. 4to. Jena Mauke. [Portrait of the author and 120 figures drawn from nature, litho:

graphed. ] Ausfiihrliche 1849 SuTOR (J.) New kiinsiliches Fechtbuch, das ist Deschription der Freyen Adelichen und Ritterlichen Kunst des Fechtens in den gebrauchlichsten Wehren, als Schwerdt, Dusacken, Rappier, &c,, &c. Neu herausgegeben wort- und bildgetreu nach dem Original. 4to. Stuttgart [89 woodcuts.] J. Scheible.

:

:

Auszug aus
:

Erste Anleitung des Soldaten in der eigentHchen zerstreuten Fechtart. d. Werke des Obersten Grafen v. Waldersee, Die Methode zur Kriegsgemassen-Ausbildung der Infanterie f. das zerstreute Gefecht.' 8vo. MaiiiZ V. v. Zabern.

1850

'

1850

Reihenfolge der

Kommandsworter
Gr. i6mo.

f.
:

das Bayonnet-Fechten der
Kaiser.
&c. Gr. 8vo.

konigl. bayer. Infanterie.

Miinchen

1850 Arnold.
1851

Werner
Fehn
:

(J.

A.

L.)— Mihtar-Gymnastik,

Leipzig

:

(A.)

Hannover
1851
zig
:

Riimpler.

Heinze

(A.

Weber.

la 1851 Ott (Jos.) pointe f. den Stosz und Hieb. Zum Unterricht in Fechtschulen sowic zur Selbstbildg. nebst den Verhaltgn. im Zweikampfe, General-assaut, Duell od. Wettkampf, m. Rechts-Links-Kunst- und Naturfechten, u. e. Arb. Geschichte Olmiitz Holzel. Gr. 8vo. d. Duells.' 3 Blicher. [i Buch des Stossfechten, 192 S. mit 47 lith. Taf. in qu. 4to.]
' :

—Die Fechtkunst mit Stosz- und Hiebwaffen. Gr. 8vo. [34 Leip8vo. C.) — Katechismus der Bajonetfechtkunst. contre[Unterlieut.] — Das System der Fechtkunst a
figures. ]

1851
zig.

Pinette

(J.)

— Katechismus

der Bayonnetfechtkunst.

8vo.

Leip-

[16 figures.]

Neue illustrirte Fechtschule. Nach 1851 ToLLiN (F.) [Fechtmeister]. der neuen und naturgemaszen Methode des Prof. Heinr. Ling dargestellt u. m. zahlreichen, nach der Natur gez. lllustr (in Holzschn. ) versehen. 8vo. Grimma Verlags Compt.
:

1852

B** (Dr.)

—Anleitung

das Contraschlagen in kurzer Zeit griindhch

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
:

275

zu erlernen, nebst einem Anhange iiber die steile Auslage und das Sabel8vo. Bonn Henry A. Cohen. [With figures.] schlagen.
Bajonettfechten. Leicht faszliche Darstellung, dasselbe in kurzer wie solches ohne Zeit griindlich zu erlernen, nebst kurzer Auseinandersetzg. hohe Kosten in der Schweiz einzufiihren. Bvo. Chur Hitz. 1852. [6 figures. ]

1852

Das

,

:

1853 ROTHSTEIN (H.) Das Bajonetfechten nach dem System P. H. Berlin Schroeder. 8vo. Ling's reglementarisch dargestellt. [2 lithographs, comprising 32 figures.] ite u. 2te un1853 RoTHSTEiN (H.) Anleitung zum Bajonetfechten. 8vo. Berlin Schroeder. verand. Abdr. [One lithograph containing 11 figures.]
:

:

1854 Leitfaden fiir den Unterricht im Stockfechten zum Gebrauche der K. K. Mihtar-Bildungs-Anstalten. 8vo. Wien.

1854
1855
Eiselen.

Vorschriften

zum Gewehrfechten.
M.)

8vo.

Schwerin.
Stossfechtschule

BoTTCHER
2te Aufl.

(A. 8vo.

— Die
:

reine,

deutsche

nach

Gorlitz

Heyn.
:

— von Ferdinand 1856 Fehn (A.) — Die Fechtkunst mit Stoss- und Hiebwaffen. 2te Aufl. 8vo, Hannover C. Meyer. [34 figures.] 1856 Ott (Jos.) — Das System der Fechtkunst a la contrepointe den Stosz und Hieb. Holzel. 2te Aufl. Olmiitz den Unterricht im Sabelfechten. 8vo. 1857 Dierkes (A.) — Leitfaden Prag Hess. 8vo. Berhn 1857 RoTHSTEiN (H.) —Anleitung zur Bajonetfechten. Schroeder. [3 figures.] Mauke. 1857. 1857 Roux. — Deutsches Paukbuch. 410. Jena [6 photolithographed 1858 GORNE (von), SCHERFF (von), und Mertens. — Die Gymnastik und die Fechtkunst in der Armee. 8vo. Ferlin Mittler. 1859 Hermann (A.) — Grundziige einer Anleitung zum Sabelfechten. i6mo. Pest Geibel. 1859 Meyer (Oscar). — Das Fechten des Cavalleristen mit dem blanken
1856 Liebsch.

Fehn

(A.) Fechtschule, mit Originalzeichnungen 8vo. Hannover C. Meyer^ 2te Aufl.

:

f.

:

fiir

:

:

:

figures.

]

:

:

Waffen (dem Sabel und
8vo.
Trier.

Pallasch), zu Fuss und zu Pferde. [6 plates.]

Mit Zeichnungen.

i860 D'AZEMAR (Baron) [Obst.] Theorie der Kampfe mit dem Bajonett, angenommen im J. 1859 von der italien. Armee unter Napoleon HI. aus (des
verf.)

System der neueren Kriegfiihrg. In's Deutsche iibertragen von Lieut. Breslau Kern. Gr. 8vo. i860 Ballasa (C.) [Major]. Die militarische Fechtkunst vor dem Feinde. Eine Darstellg. der im Kriege vorkommenden Fechtarten d. Bajonets gegen das Bajonet, d. Sabels gegen den Sabel, u. der Lanze gegen die Lanze, m. Beseitigg. aller beim Kunstfechten vorkommenden, vor dem Feinde abernicht fiiglich anwendbaren Stiche, Hiebe u. Paraden zum Gebrauche f. Infanterie u. Kavallerie, m. 26 (Hth.) Abbildgn, nebst e. Anh. iiber das Kunstfechten m. dem Sabel. Qu. gr. 4to. Pest Geibel. [One Hthograph containing 16 figures.] i860 ROTHSTEIN (H.) Das Bajonetfechten nach dem Systeme Ling's.
Rich. Stein.
:

:

2te Aufl.

8vo.

Berlin

:

Schroeder.

Armee.

Anleitung zur Betrieb der Gymnastik und der Fechtkunst in der v. Decker. Berlin Dargestellt nach den 1861 Die zerstreute Fechtart der K. K. Cavallerie. allerhochsten Bestimmgn. v. e. K. K. Officier. i6mo. Wien Pichler's Wwe. und Sohn. T 2
1861
8vo.
:
:

276
1861

APPENDIX
Franckenberg-Ludwigsdorff (Hauptm.
von).

— Betrachtung-en

iiber das Bajonettfechten iind

den bisherigen Betrieb desselben in der Armee. Ein Vortrag gehalten zur Anregg. der Besprechung im Officier-Corps. 8vo. Berlin Mittler u. Sohn.
:

1861 Hermann (A. )— Schliissel zur Kunst des Rapieri6mo. Linz Banner. a la contrepointe.
:

und Sabelfechtens

1861
Berlin
:

Strantz
Springer.

Schlagen und Turnen

(Gust.) [Prem. Lieut.]— Leitfaden zum Stoszfechten, fiir die konigl. Militar-Reitschule zu Schwedt. Gr. 8vo.

Theorie der Fechtkunst, nebst e. Anleit. zum 1862 Albanesi (Carl). Hiebfecbten und zum prakt. Unterrichte. Gr. 8vo. Wien Pichler's Wwe. u. Sohn. [3 folio plates photographed, containing 12 sketches.]
:

1862 Stocken (Hauptm.) Uebungs-Tabellen fiir den systematischen Betrieb der Gymnastik und des Bajonnetfechtens bei der Infanterie. ite u. 2te Berlin Schroeder. Aufl.
:

1863 Grlindliche Bajonnet-Fechtschule zur Ausbildung der Lehrer und Cassel Gr. 8vo. Feyschmidt. Vorfechter in der Armee.
:

[With
T863
Sabel.

figures.]

ROTHSTEIN (H.)— Das
8vo.

Stoss-

und

Hiebfechten mit Degen
k.

und

Berlin: Schroeder.

[40 figures.]

1864 Bergauer (Josef) [Lieut, ite Klasse des k. Regt.] Methodischer Leitfaden fiir das Sabelfechter. i plate.] [Selbstverlag des Verfassers.

38 Linien Infanterie

i2mo.
8vo.

1864

Metz

(A. E. von).

—Fechtbuch

fiir

die Prim-Auslage.

Wien:
ti-

Braumiiller.

Die Grundsatze der zerstreuten Fecht^rt in ihrer prak 1864 E. V. S. i6mo. Wien Seidel u. Sohn. schen Anwendung naher beleuchtet. [3 lithographed plates. ]
:

1864
:

Stocken (Hauptm.) — Uebungs-Tabellen

fiir

den systematischen
Infanterie.

Betrieb der Gymnastik Berlin Schroeder.

und des Bajonnettfechtens bei der

3te

Au fl.

Anleitung 1864 Wassmanmsdorff (Karl). Leipzig: Keil. deutschen Turnvereinen. 8vo.

zum Gewehrfechten auf den
[6 figures.]

1865 Abanderungen zur Instruktion fiir den Betrieb der Gymnastik und Gr. 8vo. Berlin des Bajonetfechtens bei der Infanterie vom 19 Octobr. i860. v. Decker. [14 woodcuts in the text.]
:

1865
1865
3te Aufl.

und Handbuch der deutschen Fechtkunst. 1865 Frankfurt a. d. Oder Harnecker. Svo. [3 lithographs and 7 tables.] 1865 RiJCKER (Prem. Lieut.) Vergleichung der Bajonnettfechtens der i6mo. Luxemburg: Heintze. preuszischen und franzosischen Armee. [9 lithographed plates.] 1865 Unterrichts-Plan fiir den Betrieb des gymnastichen Unterrichts auf den koniglichen Kriegsschulen, unter zu Grundlegg. der allerhochst genehmigten Abandergn. und Zusatze zur Instruction fiir den Betrieb der Gymnastik und Gr. Svo. Berlin des Bajonettfechtens bei der Infanterie vom 19 Octb. i860. V. Decker. 1866 QuEHL (Fr. W.) Anweisung zum Fechten auf Stosz und Hieb, mit einer Anleitung zum Unterricht groszerer Abtheilungen im Fechten ins besondere i6mo. Erlangen Besold. [26 plates.] in Turnvereinen.
:

— Lenz. Berlin 8vo. LuBECK (W.) — Lehr)
:

Happel (J.) — Das Freifechten. 8vo. Zusammenstellung von Lenz (G. F.

Leipzig

:

Weber.

Schriften iiber Leibesiibungen.

:

:

iS33

Qyetii.(F.

W.)— Anweisung TMni Bayon-tfechten.

8vo.

Berlin.

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^

277

1867 Roux. Deutsches Paukbuch. 2te Aufl. Fol. Jena: Mauke. 1867 Stocken (Hauptm.) Lectionsgang fiir den Unterricht im Stoszund Hiebfechten als AnhaU fiir den Lehrer. 8vo. Berlin Schroeder.

:

1867

Stocken (Hauptm.) — Uebungs-Tabellen
Gymnastik und des Bajonnetsfechtens
:

fiir

Betrieb der

bei

den systematischen der Infanterie. Nebst

einem kurzen Lection sgange fiir den Unterricht im Stosz und Hiebfechten. 4te Aufl. BerHn Schroeder. 8vo. 1868-9 Di^ geschlossene und zerstreute Fechtart [das Exerciren und PlanLindemann. kehi] der Infanterie. 8vo. 1-3 Abth. Stuttgart 1868 MoNTAG (J. B.) Neue praktische Fechtschule auf Hieb und 8vo. Erfurt Stoss, sowie auch Stoss gegen Hieb und Hieb gegen Stoss. Bartholomaus. [30 figures.] 1869 HoRNSTEiN (L.) Die Fechtkunst auf den Hieb. Fine Skizze. QuerMiinchen J. A. Finsterlin. [38 figures.] folio. 1870 S. (v.) Hiilfsbuch zum Betriebe der Gymnastik u. d. Bajonetfech:

:

:

tens fur Offiziere
2te u. 3te Aufl.

und

32mo.

Unteroffiziere der preuszisLh-norddeutschen Infanterie. Nordhausen Eick.
:

1870

Wassmannsdorff

(Karl).

—Sechs

Fechtschulen

(d.

i.

Schau- und
;

Preisfechten) der Marxbriider und Federfechter aus den Jahren 1573 bis 1614 Niirnberger P^echtschulreime v. J. 1579 und Rosener's Gedicht Enrentitelund Lobspruch der Fechtkunst v. J. 1589. Fine Vorarbeit zur einer Geschichte Heidelberg Karl Groos. der Marxbriider und P'ederfechter. 8vo.
: :

1872 Praktische Anleitung zum Unterricht im Stossfechten. Schroeder. [With woodcuts. ]

8vo.

Berlin:
P.

1872 RoTHSTEiN (H.) Das Bajonetfechten nach dem System Ling's reglem. dargest. 8vo. Berlin Schroeder. 2te Aufl.
:

H.

Sebetic (Raimund). Theoretisch-praktische Anleitung zum Unterim Sabelfechten. Zum Gebrauche fiir Truppenschulen sowie zur Selbstbildimg leichtfasslich und voUstandig nach der k. k. osterreich. Armee eingefiihrten Fecht-Methode bearb. Gr. 8vo. Wien Gerold's Sohn.
1873
richte
:

[2

lithographed plates comprising 14 figures.]

1874
terie
z.

Gebrauch

fechten.

Unterofliziere d. preuss. Infanf. Ofliziere u. bei Ausbildg. d. Mannschaft in d. Gymnastik u. im Bajonet5te Aufl. i6mo. Potsdam Doring.
Hiilfs:

und Handbuch

1874
Kl. 8vo.

Praktische Anleitung zum Unterricht im Stossfechten. Berlin Schroeder. [Figures in the text.]
:

2te Aufl.

1874
fechtens

32mo.
1875
fechten.

Hiilfsbuch zum Betriebe d. Gymnastik u. d. BajonettOfticiereund Unterofticiere d. preuss. -norddeut. Infanterie. 7te Aufl. Nordhausen Eich.
S. (von).
f.
:

Chalaupka
Fiir

(Lieut. Frz.)
[i

— Leitfaden
Armee.

zum
8vo.

Truppenschulen der

k. k.

Teschen

Unterricht im SabelProchaska.
:

lithographed plate.]
Bajonettfechten der
Infanterie.

1876
Berlin
:

Vorschriften iiber das Mittler u. Sohn.

Gr.

8vo.

1877 Happel (J.)— Das Gerathfechten. Das Sto:k-, Stab-, SabelSchwertfechten. 8vo. Antwerpen. [51 figures in the text.]

und

1877-8
fanterie fechten.

Hiilfs- und Handbuch fiir Offiziere und Unteroffiziere d. preuss. Inzum Gebrauch bei Ausbildg. d. Mannschaft im Turnen u. Bajonetts Nach den allerhochsten Vorschriften vom 6 April 1876 in tabellar.
v. e.

Form
f.

bearb.

preusz. Offizier.

8te Aufl.

i6mo.
d.

Potsdam
d.

:

Doring.

1877

S. (von).

— Hiilfsbuch zum Betriebe

Turnensu.

Bajonettfechtens

Offiziere
u.

und

Unteroffiziere d. deut.

Infanterie.

8te Aufl.

Nordhausen

:

Eick

H.

278

APPENDIX —

1878 Bluth (Prem. Lieut.) Praktische Anleitung zum Unterricbt im Kieblecnten. Nach der bei der konigl. Central -Turnanstalt eingefuhrten Lehrmethode bearbeitet. 8vo. Berlin Schroeder. [18 woodcuts in the text.]
:

1878
pier-

Effenberger
Sabelfechtens.

und

(Ant.) Leitfaden zur praktischer Erlernung d. 8vo. Pola Schmidt.
:

Rap-

1878
tens.

Fehn

8vo.

Heidelberg

(Aug.) [Univ. Fechtlehrer], Die Schule Koester. [With drawings.]
:

d.

Manschettfechs

1878

Hulsbuch zum

Betriebe d.

Turnens

u.

d.

Bajonettfechtens der

Zusammengestellt nach den neuesten Vorschriften zum prakt. Gebrauch und zum Anhalt v. B. i6mo. Torgau Jacob.
Infanterie.
:

dung und Vorsteilung der II.
zusammengestellt.
8vo.

Anleitung zur AusbilBajonetfechtklasse. Nach den Vorschriften iiber das Bajonetfechten der Infanterie aus dem J. 1876 und eigenen Erfahrgn.
(Jul.)

1878

Lancke

[Prem. Lieut.]

— Praktische

Mainz

:

V. von Zabern.

Nach der 1879 Praktische Anleitung zUiH Unterricht im Stossfechten. bei der konigl. Ceatral-Turninstalt eingefuhrten Lehrmethode. 3teverb. Aufl. Berlin Schroeder. [Figures in the text.] 8vo.
:

(B.) Anleitung zum Betriebe d. Stosz- und Hiebfechtens und Turnanstalten, wie auch zum Selbstunterricht f. Liebhiber der Fechtkunst zusammengestellt u. bearb. 24mo. Wiesbaden: Limbarth.

1879

Weiland
BolgA*^

Fiir Militarschulen

1880
pest.

(Frz. von)

[Oberlieut.]— DieRegelnd. Duells.

8vo.

Buda-

d.

Arleitung fur Officiere und Unterofficiere beim Ertheilen 1881 B. (von). i6mo. Hannover Unterrichts im Turnen und Bajonettiren. Helwing.
:

Bericht iiber den Fechtbetrieb von Ende 1877 bis Anfang 1881 im markischen Turngau im VIII. Kreise (Rheinlandund Westfalen) der deutschen Die Hiebfcchtlehre. Kl. 8vo. Iserlohn. Turnerschaft. Hierbei ein Anhang.

1881

1 88 1

Eiselen

(E.

W. B.)— Das
J.

net

v.

dessen Schiiler G. im

1825.

8vo.

Sabelfechten. Berlin

:

Manuscript, ausgezeichLenz.
8vo.

188 1

Hergsell

(Gustav).

— Die

Fechtkunst.

Wien
3te

:

Hartleben.

[22 plates.]

1881
Aufl.

SebetiC (Raimund) [Oberheut.
Debreczin
:

]

— Duell-Regeln.

unverand.

i2mo.

Csathy.

1881 Lenz (G. F.) Zusammenstellung von Schriften iiber Leibesubungen[Turnen, Heilgymnastik, Ringen, Spiele, Turnlieder, Schwimmen, Eislauf, Fechten und Turniere.] Herausgegeben von G. F. Lenz, unter Mitwirkg. von E. Angerstein, N. J. Cup^rus, G. Eckler, &c. 4te stark verm. Aufl. Gr. Lenz. Berlin Svo. 1882 Anleitung zum Gewehrfechten. 8vo. Dresden Meinhold u. Sohn.
:
:

1882
schulen.

Eiselen

(G.

W.

B.)

—Das deutsche Hiebfechten der Berliner
:

TurnBott-

und mit Abbildgn. versehen von Turnlehr. A. W. Lahr Schauenburg. 8vo. cher und Dr. K. Wassmannsdorff.

Neu

bearb.

Leitfaden zum Unterrichte im Rappier-, 1882 Feldmann (Jos.) [Major]. Gr. 8vo. Wiener-Neustadt Lentner. Sabel-, Bajonet-und Stockfechten.
:

1882 Lion (J. C.) Das Stossfechten, zur Lehreund Hof Grau u. Co. Bild dargestellt. Gr. Svo.
:

Uebungin Wort und

[26

woodcuts

in the text.]

1882 &c. &c.

MONTAG

(J.

B.)— Neue

2te verb, setir verm. Aufl.

praktische Fechtschule auf Hieb Gracklauer. 8vo. Leipzig
:

und

Stoss,

[Plates.]

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
1882
R.

279

(Hauptmann

von).

—Anleitun^
:

zum Kontrabajonettfechten im
fiir

Anschusz an den Ent vurf der provisorischen Vorschriften ten der Infanterie. i2mo. Berlin Liebel.
1882 Vorschriften Mittler u. Sohn. 1883
fiir

das Bajonettfech:

das Bajonettfechten der Infanterie. Gr. 8vo. Berlin

Bluth (Hauptm.) — Praktische
:

Anleitung

zum

Unterricht im Hieb-

fechten. Nach der bei konigl. Militar-Turnanstalt eingefiihrten b arb. 2te verb. Aufl. 8vo. Berlin Mittler u. Sohn. [18 vi^oodcuts in the text.]

Lehrmethode

1883 Auslage.
1883.

Metz

(Alex.

Hrsg. im

J.
:

8vo.

Wien

Edler von) [Gen. Major]. Fechtbuch fiir die Prim1863, nach genauer Durchsicht neu aufgelegt im J. Seidel u. Sohn.
Betriebe
d.

1883
tens
f.

S. (von).

— Hiilfsbuch zum

Turnens und

d.

Bajonettfech:

Unteroffiziere der deutschen Infanterie. iite nach den neuesten Vorschriften voUstandig ungeand. Aufl. 32mo. Nordhausen EigenOffiziere u.
dorf.

Die Fechtkunst mit dem krum[Univ. Fechtmeister]. Praktische Anleitung zum Mihtarfechten (Hieb und Strich) und zum deutschen kommentmaszigen Studentenfechten. Gr. 8vo. Straszburg i. E. R. Schultz & Comp. [22 plates from photographs.]
1884
B. (von).

men

Sabel.

:

1884
Aufl.

8vo.

1884 bildung der Mannschaft im Turnen und Bajonettfechten. Zusammengestellt nach den bis 9 Nov. 1882 ergangenen Bestimmgn. ite u. 2te Aufl. 24mo. Potsdam Doring.
:

BoLGAR (Frz. von) [Oberlieut.]— Die Regeln d. Duells. 2te verm. Wien Seidel u. Sohn. Hiilfsbuch fiir den Infanterie-Unteroffizier zum Gebrauch bei Aus:

1884
tens
f.

Hiilfsbuch zum Betriebe d. Turnens und d. BajonettfechS. (von). Offiziere und Unteroffiziere der deutschen Infanterie. i2te Aufl. 32mo.
:

Nordhausen
1884

Eigendorf.
fiir

Vorschriften
Vorschriften

das Hiebfechten. das Stossfechten.

Gr. 8vo.

Berlin

:

Mittler u. Sohn.
:

1884
1885
richts

fiir

Gr. 8vo.

Berlin

Mittler u. Sohn.

Officiere und Unterofficiere beim Ertheilen d. UnterRajonettiren. 2te nach den allerhochsten und neuesten Vorschriften bearb. Aufl. von v. B. i6mo. Hannover Helwing.

Anleitung

fiir

im Turnen und

:

und Unterofficiere beim Ertheilen im Turnen und Bajonettiren. 2te nach den allerhochsten und neuesten Vorschriften bearb. Aufl. i6mo. Hannover Helwing.
1885
)

Fehn (W.

—Anleitung
)

fiir

Officiere

d. Unterri( hts

:

Das kommentmaszige Fechten 1885 Fehn (W. [Univ. Fechtmeister]. mit dem deutschen Haurappier Rechts und Links. Gr. 8vo. Straszburg i. E. Schultz & Comp. [24 plates from photographs.]
8vo.

:

1885 Fehn (W. ) — Entwurf einer Instruction fiir deutsche Hiebfechtschulen. Straszburg i. E. Schultz & Comp. [With photographic plates.]
:

1885 Hergsell (Gustav). Hartleben.

1885 Roux Eine Anleitung zum Lehren und Erlernen des Hiebfechtens aus der verhangenen und steilen Auslage mit Beriicksichtigung des akad. Comments. Gr. Svo. [100 tinted Hthographic figures.] Jena Pohle.
:

— Unterricht im Sabelfechten. Gr. 8vo. Wien (Ludwig Caesar) [Univ. Fechtmeister]. — Die Hiebfechtkunst.

:

Die Fechtkunst mit dem Haurapier unter 1885 SCHULZE (Friedrich). besonderer Beriicksichtigung des Linksfechtens, mit Uebungsbeispielen. Gr. Heidelberg Bangel u. Schmitt. [5 photographs.] 8vo.
:

1885

WiELAND

(B.

)

— Praktisches Handbuch der Fechtkunst

fiir

Truppen-

28o
schulen,

APPENDIX
:

Militarbildungsanstalten, Turnschulen und Fechtvereine, sowie Freunde und Liebhaber der Fechtkunst. Gr. 8vo. Wiesbaden R. Bechtold

& Comp.
Lose Worte liber die Bestimmungsmensuren der deut1885 RiELECH (F. schen Couleurstudenten. 8vo. Breslau V. Zimmer.
)
:

1886

Feldmann
Hergsell

(Jos.) [Major].

— Leitfaden
2te Aufl.
u.

Rapier-, Sabel- u. Bajonettfechten.

zum Unterrichte im Stock-, Lex. 8vo. Wien Seidel und
:

Sohn.
1887
hofer's

(Gustav)
d.

[Hauptmann
Large

Landesfechtmeister].

—Tal-

Fechtbuch aus

Jahre 1467. [268 photographic plates.]

410.

Prag

:

Calve.

Fechtbuch aus dem Jahre 1467, gerichtliche und 1887 Talhoffer. andere Zweykampfe darstellend. Herausgegeben von G. Hergsell. 4to. [With 268 plates.] Prag. 1887 Wassmannsdorff (Dr. Karl). Aufschliisse iiber Fechthandschriften und gedruckte Fechtbiicher des 16 und 17 Jahrhunderts in einer Basprechung von G. Hergsell Taihoffers Fechtbuch aus d.^m Jahre 1467. 8vo.

:

Berhn

:

Gaertner.

[Reprinted from the

'

Monatsschrift

fiir

das Turnwesen.']

Manuscripts.

Mair
Bibl.

(Conrad).

— Ein Fechtbuch.

MSS. Kgl.

Bibl.

Dresden.

in the Konigl. Dresden. [Contains numerous well-drawn coloured illustrations of Fencing.] Kreussler. Fechtschule. MSS. Kgl. Bibl. Dresden.

Paulsen (Hector

Mair) [Biirger zu Augsburg].

—MSS.

GREEK
1872 Pyrgos (N. Pyrgu, Didaskalu en
S.
tei

(Modern).
Xiphaski'a kai Spathaskia

)— Hoplomachetik^
arith. 178.

stratiotikei scholei.

En

Ath^nais

:

hypo N. Typographeion

K.

Blastu,

hodos Hermu.

8vo.

1876 Pyrgos (N.) Encheiridion praktikes spathaskias. Meros proton. Askesis kata xiphon hypo N. Pyrgu, Didaskalu tes hoplomachetikes en tei scholei ton euelpidon kai tu ekpaideutiku lochu. Athenesi (timatai drachm es).

Typois Andreu Koromeda.

8vo.

ITALIAN.
1509 1532 1531

nova, dove sono tutti documenti e vantaggi che si ponno havere nel mestier de I'armi d'ogni sorte, novemente correcta ei stampata. i6mo. Vinegia Per N. d'Aristotile, detto Zappino. [A few woodcuts, unconnected with the text. Maestro generale de 1' arte de 1536 Marozzo (Achille) [Bolognese. Mutinae, in sedibus venerabilis D. Antonii Berr armi.] Opera nova. 4to.
li
:

MoNCio (Pietro). — Opere di scherma. LuCA (Guido Antonio di). — (?) .... Manciolino (Antonio) [Bolognese]. — Opera

]

golae sacerdotis ac civis Mutin.

XXHL

Idus Mail.

[82 woodcuts.]


BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
1550
edition.

281
.

Marozzo
410.

(Achille)
:

Venetia

[di Bologna].— Opera nova Stampata per Giovane Padouano, ad
.

.

&c.

2nd
de

instantia

Marchior Sessa.
15^3 giornate
1553

Le tre (Marc' Antonio) [gentil'huomo napolitano]. al intorno alia disciplina dell' Arme, espezialmente della spada duca di Sessa. 8vo. Napoli.
d'
:

Pagano

Agrtppa

(Camillo)
4to.

[Milanese].
:

un dialogo
1560

di filosofia.

Roma

Trattato di Scientia d' arme, con Per Antonio Blado, stampadoreapostolico.
Venice.

[Portrait of the author, 55 copperplates in the text.]

Obi. 24mo. di metter mano alia Spada. [42 plates of Fencing, the text also engraved.]

Modi

Arte dell' Armi. Ricorretto, et 1568 Marozzo (Achille) [Bolognese]. ornato di nuove figure in rame. 4to. Venetia Appresso Antonio Pinargenti. [Copperplates in the text.
:

1568
1568

(?)

Marozzo
4to.

(Achille).

Aggripa

(Camillo).

—Trattato
:

—Opera Nova
di

]

.

.

.

&c.

3rd edition.
et

410.

Scienza

d'

arme

un dialogo

in

detta materia.

Venetia Appresso A. Pinargenti. [Portrait of the author and 49 copperplates in the

text.]

1569
tratta di

(Domenico) [gentilhuomo grisone]. tutto quello che ad un soldato convien saper.

Mora

soldato, nel quale si 8vo. Venezia Grififio.
11
: '

di) [da Modena. Some copies bear da Corregio ']. adoprar sicuramente 1' arme si da offesa come da difesa con un trattato dell' inganno et con un modo di esercitarsi da se stesso per acquistare Venetia Appresso Giorgio de' Cavalli. 4to. forza, giudicio et prestezza. [Some copies bear the indication appresso Giordano Ziletti. Portrait

1570

Grassi (Giacomo

Ragione

di

;

:

'

'

of Grassi

and copperplates

in the text.]

Del Arte di scrimia (M. Giovanni dall') [Bolognese]. Ne' quali brevemente si tratta dello Schermire, della Giostra, del1' ordinar battaglie. Opera necessaria a Capitani, Soldati et a qual si voglia Gentil'huomo. 4to. Venetia Appresso G. Tamborino.
1572
libri tre.
:

Agocchie

Lo Schermo. Nel quale, per 1575 ViGGlANi (Angelo) [Bolognese]. via di dialogo si discorre intorno all' eccelenza dell' Armi et delle lettere, et intorno all' offesa et difesa. Et insegna uno Schermo di Spada sola sicuro e Venetia singolare con una tavola copiosissima. 4to. Appresso Giorgio Angelieri. [9 copperplates in the text.]
:

1584

Fallopia
et

Nuovo
Ventura. 1587
1588

breve

modo

(Alfonso) [Lucchese. Alfiere nella fortezza di Bergamo]. Bergamo 4to. Appresso Comin di schermire.
:

Ghisliero

(Federico)

[da Alessandria].

— Regole
. .

di molti

cava-

gliereschi esercitii.
giani, 15751. vezzi. 4to.

4to.

Parma.

Viz AN I (Angelo) [Bolognese]. Lo wSchermo &c. (see Vig2nd edition. All' illustrissimo signore, il sig. conte Pirro MalBologna Gio. Rossi. [The text is slightly altered from the ist edition, and a portrait of the author added to the plates.] 1601 DocciOLTNi (Marco) [Florentino]. Trattato in materia di scherma. Nel quale si contiene il modo e regola d' adoperar la spada cosi sola come accompagnata. 4to. Firenze Nella stamperia di Michelangiolo Serniatelli.
.
:

:

1603

Cassani (Giovanni Alberto)
il

Kssercitio Militare,

Spada
edition.

et dell'

[di Frasinello di Monserrato]. quale dispone 1' huomo a vera cognitione del Scrimire di ordinare 1' Essercito a battagha &c, &c. 4to. Napoli.
. .
. ,

1604

Agripa
4to.

(Camillo). Venetia.

—Trattato

di Scienza d'

Arme

.

.

.

&c.

Third

282

APPENDIX

1606 Fabrts (Salvator) [Capo del ordine dei sette cori]. De lo Schermo, Fol. overo scienza d' arme. Copenhassen Henrico Waltkirch.
:

[Frontispiece. Portraits of Christian author. 190 copperplates in the text.]

IV.

of

Denmark and

of the

tate diverse
;

(Nicoletto) [Vinitiano]. Teatro nel qual sono rappresenmaniere e modi di parare et di ferire di spada sola, e di spada e dove ogni studioso potra essercitarsi e farsi prattico nella proflessione pusrnale Venetia Appresso Gio. Ant. et G. de Franceschi. Obi. 4to. deir Armi. [Frontispiece with the Medici arms, portrait of the master, and 42

t6o6

Giganti

:

copperplates, out of the text.]

1608 Giganti (Nicoletto).— Teatro Venegia.

.

.

.

&c.

2nd

edition.

Obi. 4to.

1609
si

Alessandri (Torquato d').— 11 cavalierecompito

:

dialogonel quale

discorre a' ogni scienza e del modo d' imparare a schermir con spada bianca, 8vo. Viterbo. e d fendersi senz' armi.
"da Cagli. Maestro dell' eccelsa natione Siena Gran simulacro dell' arte e dell' uso della Dedicato al serenissimo Sig. don Federigo Feltrio della Rovere, scherma. principe dello stato d' Urbino. Obi. 4to. Siena Apresso Saluestro Marchetti e Camillo Turi.

1610

Capo Ferro

(Ridolfo)

alemanna

nell' inclita citt4 di

.

:

[Portraits of the

Duke

d*

Urbino and of Capo Ferro.
dell'

13 copperplates

out of text.]

1610 Sereno (B. a piede, alia sbarra et
16 10

)

—Trattato

uso della lancia a cavallo, del combattere
4to.

dell'

imprese
E.

et inventioni cavaleresche.
d').

Napoli.

Alessandri (Torquato

1613 BoTCCio (G. ) [Edited by Antonio Quintino]. Gioelo di sapienza, nel quale si contengono mirabili secreti e necessarii avertimenti per difendersi dagli huomini e da molti animali &c. Nuovamente dato in luce da me Antonio Quintino, ad Instanza d' ogni spirito gentile. i2mo. Stampata in Milano et ristampata in Genova per Pandolfo Malatesta.
. .

— Precetti sulla Scherma. —

Bvo.

Roma.

.

[Portrait of the author

and 15 woodcuts
dell'

in the text.]
. .

16 r5

Verona. 1618

4to. —Arte Armi &c. 5th edition. contenLoMBARDELLi (Orazio). — Giocello di sapienza, nel quale

Marozzo

(Achille).

.

si

gono

arme, con 1' inclinazione dei dodici segni celesti et 8vo. Firenze, alle scale di Badia. deir arte del puntar gli scritti. [8 woodcuts.]
gli av'si d'

il

memorial

1619 1619

Gaiani Gaiani

(A.

G. B.

)

— Discorso

del tornear a piedi.

4to. la

Genova.

(Gio.

Battista) [Alfiero].— Arte di

maneggiar

Spada a
1-oano
:

Opera per le nuove osservationi gia desiderata. Appresso Francesco Castello.
p'edi et a cavallo.

4to.

1621
Sienna.

PiSTOFiLO (Bonaventura).

tratta per via di Teoria et di Practica del

&c. si Oplomachia, nePa quale maneggio e dell' uso delle armi. 4to.
.

.

.

1624

Fabris

Opera
Per
il

di Salvator Fabris.

Delia vera practica e scienza d' armi (Salvator). Folio. Padova Per Pietro Paolo Tozzi.
:

.

.

.

&c.

1627
1628

Ferrone.

PiSTOFiLO (Bonaventura) [Ferrarese]. II Torneo. ^to. Bologna [Frontispiece and 114 copperplates, no text.]
(Nicoletto).

:

Giganti

—Teatro

.

.

.

&c.

2nd
d'

edition.

Obi. 4to.

Padua

:

Per Paolo Frambotto.

1628

Alfieri (Fiancesco Ferdinando) [Maestro

arme

dell' illustrissima

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
accademia Delia
Sardi.

283
:

di Picca. 8vo. Parma. and copperplates.] 1640 Alfieri (Francesco) [Maestro d' arme dell' ill'"''^ accademia Delia in Padova]. La Scherma. Dove con nuove Ragioni e con Figure, si mostra arme e il sito, possa il la perfezione di quest' arte, e in che modo secondo Padova Per Seb. Sardi. Cavaliere restar al suo nemico superiore. Obi. 40. [Portrait of author and 37 copperplates.]

1628

— La Bandiera. Obi. Vezzani (Antonio). — L' Esercizio accademico
in Padova].

410.

Padova

Presso S.

[Numerous copperplates.]
[Portrait

1'

:

L' esercizio 1641 Cere>A (Terenziano) [Parmegiano, detto 1' Eremita]. della spada regulato con la perfetta idea della scherma. Opera utile e necessiria a chiunque desidera usjire vittorioso dalli colpi della spada nemica. 4to. Ancona M. Salvioni.
:

1643 GaALDO (Galeazzo). Per Tebaldini.

1644 (?) schermo,
1645

— maneggio delle armi. 8vo Alfieri (Antonio). — Quesiti del cavaliero instrutto 8va. Padova. con risposte del suo maestro. Alfieri (Francesco). — La Scherma &c. 2nd
II

(?).

Bologna

:

nell' arte dello

le

.

.

.

edition.

4to.

Ancona.
1653
4to.

Alfieri

(F.)
si

Lo Spadone.
Padova:
1653

Dove

[Maestro d'arme dell' ill^f^ academiaDel ain Padova]. mostra per via di figura il maneggio e 1' uso di esse.

S. Sardi.

[Numerous copperplates.]

Alfieri (Francesco).

— L' arte

di

ben maneggiare

la

spada.

4to.

Padova.

[Copperplates.]

Compendio del giuoco mo1654 Jacobilli (Frances :o) [da Foligno]. derno di ben maneggiare la spada. 8vo. Padova. Pentateuco politico, owero cinque 1655 Alferi (Antonio) [da Aquila]. d'singanni spada, tamburo, piffero, scudo, tromba al duca di Guisa per r invasione del regno di Napoli 1' anno 1654. 4to. Aquila. [Published under the anagrammatic pseudonym, Arenif Atonoli.]

:

:

1660

Senesio (Alessandro)
Folio.

[gentil'

huomo

Bolognese].

II

vero maneggio

della spada.

Bologna: L'Herede

di Benacci.

[14 copperplates, out of text]

1664
1668
8vo.

Quesiti del cavaliere instrutto

nell' arte della

scherma.

8vo.

Padova.

Bresciani (Marin) [maestro d' armi Ferrarese]. Li trastulli guerrieri. [With figures.] Delia scherma napoletana, discorso 1669 Mattei (Francesco Antonio). prlmo, dove, sotto il titolo dell' impossibile possibile, si prova che la scherma sia scienza e non arte si danno le vere norme di spada e pugnale discor o secondo, dove si danno le vere norme di spada sola. 4to. Foggia Novelio de
Brescia.

;

:

Bonis.

1670
tano].

—La

Pallavijini (G useppe Morsicato) [Maestro di scherma PalermiScherma illustrata, per la di cui teorica e prattica si puo arriva'^e

con facilt^ alia difesa ed offesa necessaria nel occasion! d' assalti nemici. Opera utilissima alle persone che si dilettanodi questa professione, con le figure della scienza prattica dichiarate coi 1 )ro discorsi. Folio. Palermo Domenico Frontispiece and 31 copperplates.] d' Ansel mo.
:
|

1671

Gessi

cavaleresche.

1672

— La spada di honore, libro Bologna. Gessi (B.) — La spada di honore, libro
(B.)

I.

(unico) delle osservazioni

4to.

I.

(unico) delle osservazioni
Folio.

cavaleresche.

8vo.

Milano.
(Fr.) [Bresciano].

1673

Marzioli

[Numerous

Precetti militari. plates.]

Bologna.


284
1673

APPENDIX

illustrata,

Pallavicini (Giuseppe Morsicato). La seconda parte della scherma ove si dimostra il vero maneggio della spada e pugnale et anco il modo come si adopera la cappa, il brochiero e la rotelladi notte, le quali regole non sono state intese da nessuno autore. Folio. Palermo Domenico d' Anselmo. [Frontispiece and 36 copperplates.]
:

(Giuseppe). Trattato di scherma Siciliana, ove si seconda intentione, con mia linea retta difendersi di qual si voglia operatione di resolutione, che operata per ferire a qualnnque, o di punta, o taglio, che accadesse in accidente di questionarsi. Con expressione di tutte le regole che nascono di seconda operatione. i2mo. Palermo Carlo Adamo.

1673

ViLLARDiTA

monstra

di

:

:

1678
d'

ToRELLT (Carlo).— Lo splendore
di

arme esposto a somiglianza
Napoli.

della nobilta napoletana, giuoco. quello intitolato le chemin de I'honneur.
:

4to.

1680
4to.

Monica

(Francesco

della).

— La

scherma napolitana, discorso due.

Parma.

1682 GoRio (Gio. Pietro) [Milanese]. Arte di adoprar la spada per sicuramente ferire e perfettamente diffendersi. Dedicata e consegrata al noma Conte Pirro Visconti Borromeo Aresi. bvo. e merito dell' illustriss"^^ Sig Milano Federico Francesco Maietta. [Portrait of the author.]
:

1683

Alfieri (Francesco).
Obi. 4to.

2nd

edition.

Arte Padova.

di

ben maneggiare

la

Spada

.

.

.

&c.

1686 Marcelli (Francesco Antonio) [Maestro di scherma in Roma]. Regole della scherma insegnate da Lelio e Titta Marcelli, scritte da Francesco Antonio Marcelli, figlio e nipote, e maestro di scherma in Roma. Opera non meno utile che necessaria a chiunque desidera far profitto in questa professione. Dedicata alia sacra real Maesta di Christina Alessandra regina di Suetia. Regole della scherma. Parte seconda Parte prima Regole della spada sola. Nella quale si spiegano le regole della spada e del pugnale insegnate da Titta Marcelli con le regole di maneggiar la Spada col brochiere, targa, rotella, In 2 parts. cappa, lanterna col moHo di giocar la spada contro la sciabola.
:

:

;

;

4to.

Roma.
i6d8

[Frontispiece.

Copperplates in the

text.]

Vezzani

(Antonio).
di)

1696

Mazo

(Bondi

—L' Esercizio Accademicodi Picca. 8vo. Libro [da Venetia]. — La spada maestra.

Parma.
dove
si

trattano i vantaggi della nobilissima professione della scherma, si del caminare, Venetia girare e ritirarsi, come del ferire sicuramente e difendersi. Obi. 4to. Dominico Lovisa. [80 copperplates. ]

:

171 1

Giuseppe
Napoli.

d'

Alessandro (Giuseppe d'). — Pietra paragone de' Cavalieri di D. Alessandro Duca di Pescolanciano, divisain cinque hbri. 8vo (?).

(Costantino) [detto 1' Anghiel maestro di scherma Mesprattica necessaria all' huomo overo modo per superare la parte prima. 4to. Roma Luca Antonio fo! za coir uso regolato della spada [Portraits, woodcuts in the text.] Chracas.

1714

sine>e].

— Scienza

Calarone

:

:

:

1758 1759
1761

Marco Marco

(Alessandro

di) [pro'essore di

scherma Napoletano].
8vo.

— Ragiotratta

namenti accademici intorno
particolare intorno

all'

arte della scherma.

Napoli.
si

(Alessandro di).— Discorsi instruttivi ne' quaU Napoli. 8vo. all' arte della scherma.

in

Marco (Alessandro di) [professore di scherma napoletano, maestro due coUegj Capece e Macedonio e d' altri cavalieri]. Riflessioni fisiche e geometriche circa la misura del tempo ed equilibrio di quello e della natural disposizione ed agilta dei competitori in materia di scherma e regolamenti essenziah per saggiamente munirsi da ogni inconsiderato periglio sul cimento i2mo. Napoli. della spada nuda.
de'

1

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DJMICATORI.E
T775

285

Bremond
nonche

(A. Picard).

de' professori

de' dilettanti

nelle principal! citt^ d'

Milano.

suHa scherma, aggiunta la notizia distinguono in quest' arte medesima Europa, trad, dalla franc, nella lingua toscana. 8vo. [Portrait of Saint-Georges.]
che
si

—Trattato

Mangano (Guido Antonio del) [Pavese]. Riflessioni filosofiche 178 sopra r arte della scherma. 8vo. Pavia. Trat tatosuUa scherma traduzione 1782 Bremond (Picard Alessandro).

:

dalla francese nella

hngua toscana.
(Nicola
di)

8yo.

Milano

:

Pirola.

1783
della

Gennaro
MiCHELi

[dottore awoccato].
II.
(?).
:

— Compnnimento
di

I.

:

scherma e de' Gladiatori. Componimento suUa lode della scherma e de' gladiatori, &c. 8vo
1798

aggiunta

al

primo,

Venezia.

(Michele). Trattato in lode della nobile e cavalleresca arte della scherma. Diretto ai nobili e cittadini Toscani. 8vo. Firenze
:

Nella stamperia granducale.

1800

Bertelli

(Paolo).

— Trattato

di

Scherma.

8vo.
;

Bologna.

1803 Rossaroll (Scorza) [capitano de' zappatori] [capitano di artiglieria]. La scienza della scherma. 4to.

Grisetti
Milano.

(Pietro)

[10 folding plates.

J

,

.

i8ti &c.
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Rossaroll
2nd

(Scorza) e
4to.

Grisetti

(Pietro).

— La scienza della scherma
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edition.

Napoli.

18 18 Rossaroll (Scorza). larga. 8vo. Napoli.

—Trattato della spadancia o della spada 1818 Rossaroll (Scorza). — Scherma della baionetta astata. 8vo. Napoli. 1820 FroRio (Blasco). — Di risposta ad alcune dimande scherma, lettere &c. 8vo. Catania. Blasco Florio della scherma. 4to, Messina: 1825 Florio (Blasco). — Discorso G. Fiumara. della scherma. 1828 Florio (Blasco). — Discorso 2nd edition. Catania. 4to. 1829 Weiss (Giuseppe). — Istruzione sulla scherma a cavallo. Napoli.
di

di

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.

sull' utilita

sull' utilita

1830
1835

Weiss
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(Giuseppe).

Scherma

della baionetta.

4to.

Napoli.

MuLLER
.

(Alessandro).
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II

alia difesa &c. . 8vo. Torino. 1835.

con 53
(conte

figure.

della baionetta all' attacco ed Traduzione italiana dalla 2* francese del

maneggio

1837

Gambogi

Michele).

—Trattato
4to.

sulla
:

scherma.

Adorna

di

figure incise

da Giuseppe Rados. Obi. [56 hthographed plates.]

Milano

R. Fanfani.

1840 Maneggio della sciabola per uso della brigata lancieri, redatta di una guardia di ufficiali della stessa arma. Napoli. 1842 Bertolini (Bartolomeo). Trattato di sciabola, con 10 tavole. 8vo.

Trieste

1844
1846

— La scienza della scherma. Catania. Abbondati (Niccolo). — Istituzione di arte ginnastica per
Florio
(Blasco).

le

truppe

di fanteria di wS. M. Sicilia.na, compilata sulle teorie de' piu accurati scrittori Napoli. antichi e moderni. 2 vols. 8vo.

di

1847 Marchionni (Alberto). Trattato di scherma sopra il nuovo sistema giuoco misto di scuola italiana e francese. 8vo. Firenze. [5 lithographed folding plates and woodcuts in the text.]

1850 1850
Ferrara.

Blengini (Cristoforo). Teoria della soherma. Giuliani (Bolognini Giuseppe). Sul maneggio

della

sciabola.

286

APPENDIX —
sulla

11 bersagliere in campagna ed istruzione 1851 Spinazzi (Pietro). scherma della baionetta, corrtdato di tavole dimostrative. Geneva.

1852

ScALZi (Paolo
ScALZi (Paolo
[30 plates.]

de'). de').

1853

— La scherma esposta — La scuola della spada.

in lezioni.

Svo.

Genova.

8vo.

Genova.

1853 Caccia (Ma-similiano).—Trattatodi scherma ad uso del R. esercito. jWith plates.] Torino. Svo. 1856 Giuliani (Bolognini Giuseppe). Teorie sulla sciabola per una Ferrara. scuola di contropunta di genere misto.

1856
lata 8vo.
'

:

Florio (Blasco).— Osservazioni critico-apologetiche all' opera intitoIstituzione di arte ginnastica,' dirette aiprofessori di scherma in Napoh. Florio
(Blasco).

Catania.

1858
1861
sciabola.

— Blasco Florio

ai professori di

scherma.

Catania.

1862

1864

— Trattato teorico-pratico della scherma per Tambormm (Carlo). — Trattato di scherma alia sciabola. Genova. Blengini (Cesare Alberto). — Trattato teorico-pratico di spada e
Cerri
(Giuseppe). Milano.
Istruzione per la scherma del bastone ad uso dei bersaglieri.

sciabola, e varie paratedi quest' ult.mo contro la baionetta e la lancia. Operetta Svo. Bologna. illustiata da 30 figure incise, con ritratto dell' autore.

1864

Livorno.
alia

1864 ViTi (Giovanni Battista) [avvocato]. Genova. Svo. sciabola.

— Brcve

trattato di

scherma

La scuola della spada. 1868 ScALZi (Paolo de'). [With figures.] Firenze. Svo. aggiunte.
1868


.

Seconda edizione con
:

alia scuola

— Manuale della scherma di sciabola. i2mo. With plates.] Parma. 868 Ferrero (Gio. Battista). — Traitato di scherma sul maneggio della Torino. sciabola. 1868 Radaelli (Giuseppe). — Istruzione pel maneggio della sciabola, Firenze. del Frate. pubblicata dal capitano Cerri (Giuseppe). — Trattato teorico-pratico della scherma di bas186S
normale
di fanteria
7

Mendieti a-Maglioco

(Salvatore) [Furiere

maestro di

scherma

S.

tone, col

modo

di difendersi contro varie altre

armi

sia di

punta che

di taglia

Milano.

La scherma della sciabola o del bastone a due 1S70 Falciani (Alberto). Pisa. mani, brevemente insegnata nella lingua del popolo. i2mo.
1870

Strada

(Enrico) [generale di cavalleria].

(Viitorio) [Maestro d' ?rmi]. Trattato di scherma 1870 teorico-pratico illustrato della moderna scuola italiana di spada e sciabola. Svo. [Frontispiece and 29 hthographed plates.] Bologna.

LaviBERTINI

—Scherma e —

tiro.

Napoli.

1871 Enrichetti (Cesare) [Maestro-capo e direttore di scherma alia Trattato elementare teorico-practico di scherma. scuola centrale di Parma]. Paima. [6 hthographs.] Svo.

1874

Cesar ANO
Doux. Roma. Radaelli

(Federico)

[di

Napoli].
di

—Trattato
i

teorico-pratico

di

scherma della sciabola, con appendice
riguardanti la scherma.

tutti

regolamenti cavallereschi
il

Milano.

1875-6
Radaelli.

II

maneggio

della sciabola secondo

metodo

di

scherma

Istruzione per la scherma di sciabola e di (Giuseppe). 1876 spada del Prof. Giuseppe RadaeUi, scritta d' ordine del Ministero della Guerra Milano. 4to. [lo folded lithographs.] dal Capitano S. del Frate.

,

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1^76
sciabola.

287

Gandolfi
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(Giovanni).
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— Metodo

teorico-pratico

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Torino

Borgarelii.

1S77

secondo

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Angelini (Achille). Osservazioni metodo Radaelli. Firenze.

sul

maneggio

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1878 Perez (G.) II sistema di spada Radaelli, giudicato scherma. 4to. Verona Tip. di Gaetano Franchini. [7 folded lithographed plates.]
:

dall' arte

della

— Sul metodo scherma Radaelh, sul sistema 1880 Pagliuca (Giovanni). — Cenni scherma Radaelh. Torino. 1881 RosARi [con Cariolato e Belmonte]. — Torneo internazionale tenuto in Milano. Napoli Ferrante. 8vo. 1884 Parise (Masaniello). — Trattato teorico-pratico della scherma di
1878

Forte

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di

lettere

critica.

Catania.

di

critica

di

:

spada
8vo.

e sciabola.

Preceduto da un cenno storico sulla scherma e sul duello.

Roma.

[Numerous

figures in the text.]

1885
di

Frate

(Settimo del) [capitano J.
di

— Istruzione per

la

scherma

di

punta

Giuseppe Radaelli, professore
8vo.

scherma
di

ministero della guerra.

Milano.

e ginnastica, scritta d' ordine del [10 lithographed plates.]

1885
pratico, duello.

Rossi (Giordano). Scherma con cenni storici sulle armi e
8vo.

spada e sciabola. Manuale teoricosulla scherma, e principah regole del

Milano.

[54 figures in the text.]

1888
lini.

maneggio
1888
bola.

Resurrtctio. Critica alle osservazioni sul (Cavaliere Jacopo). della sciabola secondo il metodo Radaelli dtl Generale Achille Ange8vo. Firenze Tipografia Niccolai.
:

Gelli

Masiello
Firenze

8vo.

(Ferdinando). G. Cjioelli.
:

— La
and

scherma

italiana di

spada

e di scia-

[Numerous

plates

figures in the text.]

Giornale di scherma, ginnastica &c. 1888 (periodical) Cappa e spada. diretto da Luigi Sertini. (Monthly review chiefly devoted to the interests of Firenze, Via Nazionale 14. Italian swordsmanship.) 4to.

La scherma collettiva quale mezzo di educa1889 Gelli (J.) [Cavaliere]. zione fisica. Con 32 tavole dimostrative. 8vo. Tipografia Niccolai. [Figures in the text.]
Manuscripts.

Monomachia ovvero arte di 1550 (?) Altoni (PVancesco di Lorenzo). scherma, cui segue un trattato del Giuoco della spada sola. Firenze.
1590
(?)
;

Scherma
4to.

Palladini (Camillo) come arte della scherma
1'

— [Bolognese]. — Discorso
e neccssaria a chi
si

sopra

1'

arte della

diletta d'

Arme.

Ob:.

[42 drawings in red cha^k, imitated from the plates of Agrippa's work. In M. Vigeant's collection, Paris.]

Fiore Furlan [de Civida]. [Vellum MS. with pen and ink and gold
Series V., vol.
iv.

sketches.

See N. and Q.

p. 414.]

LoviNO (Giovanni Antonio) [Milanese]. Opera into: no alia Practica e Theoria del ben adoperare tutte le sorti di arme overo la Scienza dell' Arme. 4to. Vellum. [In the Bibhotheque Nationale, Paris.]
;

British
Italian.

Museum.
folios.

47

Additional, No. 23223. treatise [Date, end of 17th century.]

A

on

fencing

in

APPENDIX
1678 (?) Texedo (Don Pedro) [de Taruel. Sicilia].— Escuela en la berdadera destreza de las armas. (Dedicated to Don Fern. Joach. Faxardo de Requesens y Zuniga.) Sm. 4to. Palermo (?)
[Portrait of the author,

and

figures.]

LATIN.
1579
tus brevis.

.

GUNTERRODT
4to.

(Henri Witebergae.

a).

— De veris principiis

artis dimicatorias tracta-

Ivsti Lipsi SaturnaHvm sermonum libri duo 1604 LiPSius (Justus). qui de Gladiatoribus. Editio ultima et castigatissima. Cum aeneis Figuris. Antverpias, ex officina Plantiniana, apud Joannem Moretum. 4to.
;

Manuscript.
DtJRER (Albert).— Oplodidaskalia, sive armorum tractandorum meditatio. [MS. in the Magdalenenbibliothek, Breslau. Quoted by Lenz in his Zusammenstellung v. Schriften liber Leibesiibungen.']

'

PORTUGUESE.
1685
I.uis (Thomas).

—Tratado

das li9oes da Espada preta, e destreza

com que hao de usar os jugadores della. Foho, 29 pag. i lamina. Lisboa. Espada firme o firme. Tractado para o 1744 Martins Firmr (Manuel)
jogo de espada preta e branca. Bvo, fol. xxxvi-86. Evora. Resumo breve do jogo de florete em 1804 Carvalho (Rodriguez de). dialogo para qualquer curioso se applicar ao serio estudio desta brilhante arte. Traduzido dos melhores auctores Franceses. 8vo. Lisboa. Instruc9ao do jogo 183Q Mello Pacheco de Resende (Jos6 de). d'espada a pe e a cavallo para ser posto em pratica na eschola militar, e nos corpos de cavallaria e artilheria montada do exercito do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro

— —

:

Brasileira.

1842

OsORiO Y Gomez (don Pedro
:

1.

—Tractado de esgrima a p^ e a cavallo,
do -florete ou o jogo da espada que Commercial. [24 plates.]

se ensina por principios o manejo Large 8vo. Lisboa Typ. se usa hoje.

em que

RUSSIAN.
1817 Valville. Traits sur la contre-pointe. Obi. 4to. St. Petersbourg: In French and in Russian.] [24 copperplates. Charles Kray. 1843 Nachertarich Pravil Fechtovaljnavo iskoostva risoonkami v pyakti Fekhtovaljnavo Sochinenich Pomoshtchnika glavnavo. tchnactyahkh. Ootchitelyah Otdyailjnavo Gvardeickavo Korpoosa. 4to. Sanktpeterboorg Sokolova.
:

SPANISH.
1474
1474

Pons
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[or

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A

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data.l

BIBLIOTHECA ARTIS DIMICATORI^
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289
410
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Bartolome Perez.

1569 Carranza (Jeronimo de). y de la agresion y defension Christiana.

— De la
4to.

filosofia

de

las

armas, de su destreza

Luciferi

Fano (vulgo San Lucar).

1582 Carranza (Jeronimo de). — Libro que trata de la filosofia de las armas y de su destreza y de la agresion y defension Christiana. 410. Lisbon and San Lucar de Barrameda. [Portrait of Carranza.] T599-1600 NarvAEZ (D. Luis Pacheco de). Libro de las grandezas de a Espada, en que se declaran muchos secretos del que compuso el comendador Geronimo de Carranza. En el cual cada uno ?e podra licionar y deprender a solas, sin tener necesidad de maestro que lo ensefie. 4to (80 pliegos). Madrid

:

J.

Iniquez de Lequerica. [Portrait of Don Luis, 2 figures and 155 diagram woodcuts in the
text.]

1600

Carranza
4to.

2nd

edition.

(Jeronimo Madrid.

de).

—De

la filosofia

de las armas

.

.

.

&'C.

1608 Narvaez (D. Luis Pacheco de). Cien conclusiones, o formas de saber, de la verdadera destreza. fundada en ciencia, y diez y ocho contradicFolio. clones a las de la comun. Madrid Luis Sanchez,
:

1602

Narvaez (Don

destreza de las

Luis Pacheco de). Compendio de la filosofia y armas de Geronimo de Carran9a. 4to. Madrid Luis Sanchez,
:

t6i6
mihtar.

[Woodcuts in the text.] Ayala (Don Atanasio de).— El bisofio instruido en
8vo.

la disciplina

Madrid.

t6i8 Narvaez (Don Luis Pacheco). Carta al pnrecer acerca del libro de Geronimo de Carranfa. Mayo. 8vo. Madrid. 1623

Duque de Cea

De Madrid

diciendo su en quatro de

PizARRO
libro

Defensa del

(D. Juan Fernando). de Carranza sobre ello.

—Apologia de
8vo.
:

la destreza

de las armas.

Trujillo.

Modo facil v 1625 Narvaez (Don Luis Pacheco de) [Maestro del Rey]. nuevo para examinarse los Maestros en la destreza de las armas ventender sus cien conclusiones o formas de saber. Madrid Luis Sanchez. 8vo.

— En?ai1o y desengaiio de los errores armas. Madrid. que se han querido introducir en destreza de — Engano y desengano de los errores 1636 ToBAR (Don Pedro Mexia armas. Madrid. en dest'-eza de —Advertencias para ensenanza 1639 Narvaez (Don Luis Pacheco de armas, destreza de a pie como a cavallo. 4to. Madrid. — Epitome de ensenanza de 1639 Vfedma (Diaz y destreza
163c;

Narvaez

(D. Luis

Pacheco
la

de).

las

4to.

de).

la

las

4to.

de).

la

la

las

asi

de).

la

la filosofia

matematica de
1640 1642
4to.

las

armas.
(Luis

8vo.

Cadiz.
de).

Carmona
Cala

Mend^z

— Compendio en defensa de
de).
:

la doctrina

y destreza de Carranza.
Cadiz.

4to.

Sevilla.

(Cristobal de). (D.

1658
Src.

Narvaez
edition, to

—Desengano de la Espada y Norte de diestros. Luis Pacheco — Modo para examinarse
facil
. .

often added Adicion a la filosofia de las armas. Las diez y ocho contradicciones de la comun destreza, por el mismo autor. Ano M.DC.LX. 8vo. Zarago9a Pedro Lanaja.

2nd

which

is

:

1

de
en

las

665 Mendoza (Don Miguel Perez armas. 4to. Madrid.

de).

— Defensa de
:

la doctrina

y destreza

1667
el

PoRRES
la

(D.

Gomez

Arrias de).
4to.

— Resumen

manejo de

Espada.

Salamanca

de la verdadera destreza Melchor Estevez.

U

290
1672

APPENDIX
Narvaez
de
(D. Luis

Pacheco de) [Maestro del Rey].
las

— Nueva ciencia
8vo.

y

iilosofia

la destreza

de

armas, su "teorica y practica.

Madrid.

1672 Mendoza y Quixada (Don Miguel Perez de). Principles de los cinco sujetos principales de que se compone la filosofia y matematica de las Pamplona. armas, practica y especulativa. 8vo.

Miguel Perez de) [Maestro de la desde la verdadera destreza de las armas, en treinta y ocho asserciones resumidas y advertidas con demonstraciones practicas, deducidas de las obras principales que tiene. 4to. Madrid.
1675
treza].

— Resumen

Mendoza y Quixada (Don

Cornucopia numerosa. Alfabeto 1675 Lara (D. Caspar Agostin de). breve de principios de la verdadera destreza y filosofia de las armas colegidos de las obras de Luis Pacheco de Narvaez. 4to. Madrid.
Francisco Antonio) [Cavallero del Orden de la verdadera destreza y filosofia de las armas. Dedicado a la Sacra y Real Magestad del Rey Nuestro Sefior Don Carlos Segundo, Monarca de E'>pana y de las Indias. 4to. Madrid Antonio de Zafra. [16 copperplates.]
1675
Calitrava].

Ettenhard (Don

— Compendio de los fundamentos de

:

To the above is generally found a smaller w^ork entitled Siguese el papel de Juan Caro, en que impugna la obra con Quince Oiepciones, y la respuesta de el Autor a ellos. [i copperplate,]
:

1688 Aranda y Morentin (Antonio Arrieta). Resumen de la verdadera destreza para saber los caminos verdaderos de la batalla. 8vo. Pamplona.

Rada (Lorenz de). Respuesta filosofica y matematica en la cual se a los argumentos y proposiciones que a los profesores de la verdadera destreza y filosofia de las armas se han propuesto por un papel expedido sin
1695
satisfece

nombre
1697

d'autor.

4to.

Madrid

:

Diego Martinez, Abad.

ano y Espanol.

Francisco Antonio de). Diestro ItaliExplican sus doctrinas con evidencias mathematicas conforme a los preceptos de la verdadera destreza y filosofia de las armas. 4to. Madrid Manuel Ruiz de Murga. [4 copperplates.]
:

Ettenhard y Abarca (Don

1697
8vo.

Sylva

(D.

Diego Rejon

Orihuela.

la 1732 Cruzada y esgrima de espada, y con armas dobles, que aprobo don Luis Pacheco de Narvaez. y las oposieiones que dispuso en verdadera destreza de ella. 4to. Zara-

— Definiciones de ciencia de armas. Peralta (Manuel). — Las tretas de vulgar y comun
de).

la

las

goza.

Nobleza de la espada, cuyo resplendor se 1705 Rada (Lorenz de), expresa en tres libros, segun ciencia, arte y experiencia. Folio. Madr d Diego Martinez, Abad. [16 copperplates.]
:

llustracion de la destreza Indiana (Santos de). epistola Maestro de campo Don F. Lorenz de Rada &c. &c. sobre varios discursos publica'ios por el en la que intitulo defensa de la verdadera Sacola a luz el Capitan Diego Rodriguez de Guzman destreza de las armas. Lima. 4to. &c.

1712

La Paz

;

oficiosa al

.

.

.

.

.

.

Carta, de la destreza de las 1724 Aznar de Polanco (Juan Claudio). &c. 4to. Madrid. armas, respuesta a un papel de titulo destreza vulgar
:

.

.

.

de

las

1731 NovELi (D. Nicolas Rodrigo). Madrid. armas. 8vo.

— Crisol

especulativo de la destreza

1758 Perinat (D. Juan Nicolas) [Maestro de esgrima en la real academia de Cavalleros Guardias Marinas]. Arte de esgrimir florete y sable por los

principios

seguros, faciles y intelligibles. [36 copperplates.]

mas

Oblong

4to.

Cadix.

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El palo y el sable, 6 teori'a para el perfec1851 CoRxfis (Don Balbino). cionamiento del manejo del sable por la esgrima del palo corto en 25 lecciones. Madrid (Publicidad). [37 lithographs.] Obi. i2mo.
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(D. Jaime) [Profesor de esgrima en el de la verdadera esgrima del fusil 6 carabina Toledo: J. Lopez Fando. [2 plates.]

y

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del francos de Th. Pinette.

observar por Real 6rden de 13 de setiembre de 1859. Cadiz. [3 plates.
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la

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1864

Heraud y Clavijo

que se i2mo.

trata de la Paris.

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1878 Merelo y CasaDemunt (D. Jose) [Profesor de esgrima].— Manual de esgrima, recapitulacion de las tretas mas principales que^onStituyen la verdadera esgrima del sable espaiiol y del florete. Oblong 8vo, Madrid R.
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de),

DuenAS

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Gregorio) [Profesor de esgrima de la academia de florete. 8vo. Toledo.

1885

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Seville
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— La espada.

Apuntes para su

historia

en Espana.

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(Francisco). Uso de la espada en todas las naciones. SosA (Don Manuel). ^Nueva ciencia de la destreza de las armas. Labra (Rafael M.) Las armas en Madrid observaciones sobre
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MiLLA

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,

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ii.

p. 81.]

Manuscripts,

Rodriguez del Canto
vechado en
la ciencia

Diego).— El discipuloinstruidoydiestro aprophilosophica y mathematica de la destreza de las armas.
(D.

[T7th century.]
Ejercicios de las armas.

[i6th century.

In Bibliot. del Escorial
intelligencia de
la

(iv.

Garcia

(F.

Francisco).

—Verdadera

a. 23)].

annas del comendador Geronymo
[17th century.]
lujuria,

destreza de las Sanchez Carranza de Barreda.

Los cinco libros sobre la ley de la (Jeronimo Sanchez de). de palabra 6 de obra, en que ss incluyen las verdaderas resoluciones de la honra, y los medios con que se satrsfacen las afrentas. |to. Sevilla, p. 300, 1616 Carranza (G. S. de). Discurso de armas yletras, sobre las pa^abras del proemio de la instituta del Emperador Justiniano &c, 4to, p. 28.

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1750-60 (?) A. C. O. [' Un afficionado ']. Libro de armas y doctrina para resguardo de los afficionados de dicha ciencia con contras y explicaciones de toda la arte que se encierra en la espada, hecho por un afficionado. [No date or place, bound 8vo form, with engraved title-pages and 12 copperplates by A. Sant Croos. In the possession of Captain A. Hutton.J Historia de la esgrima y de los desafios 1837 Oliver (don Antonio). [In the library of D, Joaquin Maria Bover.] MS. 4to.
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1843 Mentzer (T. a. v.).— Svenska Kavalleriets faktning, enligt Gene8vo. Stockholm. ralen m. m. Grefve G. Lowenhjelm's method. 1843 Faktning.

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8vo.

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Norstedt

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kongk

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bajonett- och sabelfaktning for 21 pi. i2mo. Stockholm
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sabelfaktning.
:

Norstedt 1882

:


;

INDEX
AMA
Amateur Athletic
its

BOX
Club,

Bazancourt, Baron de, quoted,
3. 29, 31-33, 38 Beat, the, in fencing, 52 Belt, the, in boxing, 125

encouragement of glove146

fighting,
*

Hode,' on wrestling, 180 quoted, Angelo, quoted, 1 1, 20, 23, 24 Appel, the, 41, 102
Assault, the, in fencing, 103

A MeryGeste of Robyn

Beranger's verse, on boxing in

England, 146 Bertrand, his skill, energy, and
vanity, 25-27

Attacks, simple, in fencing:
the
straight
thrust,

48

;

the

Betting on boxing, 137 Bibliotheca Artis Dimicatoriae,

disengage, 48;
in

to disengage

upper lines, 48 ; to disengage from high to low,
the

248 Boxers ; see under Pugilists Boxing, history of, 117 ;
maeval practice,
sary
tablishment,
preliminaries
to its

pri-

49
to

;

coupe or cut-over, 49
the coupe, 49
;

;

120; neceses-

make

the
to

counter -disengage,

49;

120

;

wrestling
1

counter-disengage on a change

in conjunction with,
classical

20- 122

;

from quarte to tierce, 49 simple parries as against, 50 ; on the sword attack by
:

and other illustrations, 123-132 first authentic account of a merry mill,
;

pressure,

52

;

the beat,

52

;

the scrape, 52 ; the twist, 53 ; twist and lunge, 53 ; to avoid

125 130

;

a Virgilian maul, 128use 131 of
;

;

the
in

caestus

or

and

to parry, 54

;

to parry the
at-

flanconnade,
tacks, 88
tions,
;

54;— false

attacks on prepara-

middle ages, 133 ; Missot's account of its popularity in the time of George I., 133 the old
glove,

the

;

89

;

renewed attack, 90

school, 135;
listic battles,

number of

pugi-

Attitude in fencing, 2
Authorities on fencing, see

Ap-

136; Slack and Pettit's encounter, 136; heavy
the
last

pendix

betting in

century,

;96

INDEX
BOX
EXT
deaths
in
;

137

;

rarity

of

prizefights,

137

duration of

Byron, Lord, quoted, on boxing, 139
CtESTUS, the, 120, 125, 131 Carew, quoted, on wrestling, 183 Castle, Egerton, quoted, 4, 21,
28,

battles, 137 ; the silver age of the prize ring, 138 ; Lord

Byron's
the

139 ; George IV.'s admiration of
prize
ring,

proficiency,

139

;

Tom

no

Sayers, his courage,

method,
pugilism,

140
143

;

and decadence of
skill,

Chaucer, quoted, on wrestling, 180
Chips,' 197 Clerkenwell, as a trysting place
*

;

the only true
;

and correct style, 144 glove fights under the Queensberry
rules,

for

London
Steel'

wrestlers, 181

145

;

Beranger's verse,
of
;

'Cold
Cornish

(Captain
184,

Hut185,

146
in

;

influence
146, 147
:

amateur

ton's), III note

clubs,

instructions

wrestling,

the art
;

— use

of the feet,

221, 225, 230

148

pose of the body and
of
the arms,

Counter - disengage,
fencing,

the,

in

position

150;

49

methods of defence :— the stop by countering, 152 ; the retreat in good order, 153 ;
ducking, 153
slipping,
;

Coup d'arret, 28, 91 Coup de temps, 28
Coupe, or cut-over, 49 Cumberland and Westmoreland wrestling, 190-208 Cumberland, Duke of, his interest in prize-fighting,

side step, 154

;

guard w^ith the arm, 155 ; methods of attack — the lead-off with the
154;
;

137

left,

157-160;
;

leading
;

off

with the right, 160
ing, 157, 161

in-light-

DilVELOPPEMENT,
ing,

the, in fenc-

combinations of

and defence, 162 ; difference between a lead-off and a counter, 163 ; a device
attack

39 Devonshire wrestling, 184, 185, 221, 225, 230 Dickens, Charles, quoted, on
wrestling, 209

with a telling

effect,

163

;

the

giant amateur and

Nat Langand drawdistance

ham,
ing,

164
;

;

cross-counters,

Disengage, the, in fencing, 48 Doigte, or finger-play, 51 Donnelly,
Professor, his

165, i66

feinting

book

166

;

judging

on boxing, 148
*

and timing, 167 ; warnings and maxims for those with short memories and small
opportunities, 168
duties of judges
;

Druid,' quoted, on wrestling,

196

Ducking,

in

boxing, 153
the,

important
referees,

and

Engagement,
43
;

in fencing,

169 170

;

amateur competitions,

change

of,

Extension, the,

and double, 47 in fencing, 40

1

1


INDEX
297

FEI
Feints, 54
Fencers, celebrated
:

FEN
Fencing,

development

of,

i

;

perfection of the attitude, 2
effect

;

Agrippa, Camillo, 9, 10, 16, 22 Angelo, II, 20, 23, 24
Bagger, Austen, 18
Bazancourt, Baron de,
31, 32, zz. 38
3, 29,

of the introduction
;

of

firearms, 4
Italian

pre-eminence of
defects
7
;

and Spanish swords;

men, 6

the rapier, 6

;

of the early Italian method,
literature,

Bertrand, 25-27, 31, 33, 45 Besnard of Rennes, 12

8

;

value

of
'

the

Capo Ferro,
Chiefe, 18

Ridolfo,

1
1

Castle, Egerton, 4, 21, 28,

10

Cordelois, 28

Danet, 14 De' Grassi, Giacomo, 9 De la Torre, Pedro, 8, 243 De la Touche, 13

punta sopramano,' 10; the lunge, ii rise of the French school, 12 the riposte de pied ferme,' 13 ; use of the left hand, 13 ; the German and Spanish schools,
point,

9

;

Viggiani's

;

;

'

15, 16

;

introduction into Eng;

land,
lian

17

treatment

of Ita-

De

Liancourt, 13

Docciolini, 11

Ducoudray, 12 Fabris of Bologna,
Grisier,

; 19 ; 23 ; pedantry, 24 ; advent of Bertrand, 25 ; the coup de

swordsmen in England, on a platform, 20 masks,

1

temps and
practical

cotip (Tarret^

28
:

;

Giganti, Nicoletto, 11

instructions

in

28

explanation
terms,

of

technical

Labat, 13

Legouve, 26, 30
Manciolino, Antonio, 9 Marozzo, Achille, 9, 31

35, 36 ; how to hold the foil or sword, 36 ; the
positions, 37, 38 ; guard, 39 ; lunge or extension, 40 ; the

Meyer, 10 Moncio, Pietro, 8, 243 Pacheco de Narvaez, Luis, 16 Pona de Majorca, Jayme, 8 Possellier (Gomard), 28, 244 Prevost, Pierre, 26, 28 Rocko, 17 Rocko, Jeronymo, 18
Francisco, 8, 243 St. Didier, 12
Saviolo, Vincentio, 11, 18
Silver,
Silver,

lines,

engagement, 43 ; change of ; engagement and double engagement, 47 ; simple attacks,
43
;

simple parries, 44

48

;

simple parries as against
attacks,

simple

50
51

;

finger-

play or doigte,

;

attacks

on the sword, 52;
counter-parries, 56

feints,
;

54

;

Roman,

reversed

counter-parries
poses),

(contre-op-

George, 11, 17, 18

58 ; how to nullify or avoid simple parries, 59 ;
to

Toby, 18
M., 112

and
61
;

meet

these

attacks,

Viggiani, 10

how

to nullify or avoid
;

Waite,

J.

{See also Appendix.)

counter-parries, 62 and to meet these attacks, 62 ; how

298

INDEX
FEN

LUN
Godfrey, Captain, quoted, iii,

to frustrate a change of engagement and avoid a simple

parry

in

the

upper

lines,

63 64

;

meeting these attacks,
various manners of nulli-

114 Grecian wrestling, 176 Guard, the, in fencing, 37, 39,

;

40

fying

two

simple

parries,

65 ; meeting these attacks, 66 ; methods of nullifying a counter and simple parry,

Hamming,
Heenan,

198

his fight with Sayers,

66

;

defences
;

against

these

attacks, 68

various ways of

141-143, 155 Hentzner's Itinerary, quoted, on
wrestling, 181

nullifying
parries,

reversed
;

counter-

69

modes of meet-

Hogg, James, quoted, on wrestling,

ing these attacks, 69 ; methods of avoiding a reversed counter

192
Sir William, quoted,

Hope,

and simple parry, 70
ing these attacks,
riposte,

;

meet;

20 Hutton, Captain, quoted, 114

71

the

74 ; methods of meeting forms of the riposte, ^'j ;
ripostes with a change of line,

Judges

of boxing, 169

or with a feint or other pre-

vious movement, 79 ; ripostes with a pause (ripostes a temps
perdu),
'^%

Lancashire
*

wrestling,

230-

85 ; the counterriposte, 86 ; quitting blades,
;

234 L'Ecole des Amies,' story concerning, 20 see Appendix
;

false attack,

88

;

attacks

'

on preparations, 89 ; renewed attack, 90 ; the stop-thrust
(coup
the
d'arret),
;

Le9ons d'Armes,' Cordelois', 28 see Appendix
;

91

;

time;

thrusts, 91

time-parries, 93

Left-handed fencers, 108 Legouve, M., quoted, 26, 30 Les Secrets de I'Epee,' Bazan' '

remise,

95

;

redoubling,

97

;

the

salute,
;

98
also

;

the

assault,

fencers,

103 108 ;

left-handed
see

see Appendix court's, 29 Lessons in Sabre, Singlestick, &c.' (Waite's), 112
;

under

Liement d'octave, 53
Lines, the, in fencing, 43
Litt,

Attacks, Parries, Ripostes

Finger play, 51 Flanconnade, the, 53, 54, ^% Foil, the, how to hold, 36

William,

his

treatise

on

wrestling, 196

French wrestling, 235
Froisse, the, 52

London, the, Cumberland and Westmoreland Wrestling Society,
'

217
the, in fencing, 37, 40,

Lo Schermo,' 10
53

Lunge,

Glove-fighting, 144


;


INDEX
299

;

MAS
Masks, 23, 24 Milo of Croton, 176
Missot, quoted, 133

PAR
how
to frustrate

a change of

engagement,
simple
lines
;

and

avoid
the

a

parry in

upper

Opposition,

in fencing,

36

*

Paradoxe
17
:

of

Defence,' the,
the

Parries
four
;

— eight simple, 44
:

;

which may be abandoned, 45 manner in which the four essential are made from engagement in quarte, tierce, and seconde, 46 in septime,

engaged in quarte, engaged in tierce, 63 ; how to meet these attacks :— quarte, engaged in 64 ; engaged in tierce, 64 to frustrate a double engage and avoid a simple parry, 64 to frustrate a change from one high line to the other, and
63
;
;
;

nullify a

counter-parry, 64

;

various manners of nullifying

two simple parries
quarte, 65

:

— engaged
and

;

in quarte, to avoid tierce
;

47

;

simple, as against simple

56 engaged in quarte to parry
;

attacks,

50

counter,

from engagement in seconde to nullify septime

counter- quarte, 57 ;from tierce to parry counter tierce, 57 ;

from seconde to parry counterseconde, 57 ; from septime
to parry counter septime, 57
;

how 58 to nullify or avoid simple
reversed
counter,
;
:

engaged

in quarte to nullify
;

parry in quarte, 59

from en;

gagement in quarte, 59 from engagement in tierce, 60 from engagement in seconde, 60 from engagement in septime, 60 ; for meeting attacks described with engagement in quarte, 61 engaged in
;
;
;

and seconde, 65 ; to avoid septime and seconde from septime, 65 ; how to meet from engagethese attacks ment in quarte to meet onetwo-three, 66 ; from engagefrom ment in tierce, 66 seconde and septime, 66 methods of nullifying a counter engaged and simple parry engaged in in quarte, 66
:

;

:

;

tierce,

67

;

defence against

these

attacks
;

quarte, 68

engaged in engaged in tierce,
:

68

;

ways of

nullifying
:

re-

versed

counter-parries
in quarte,

— en-

;

gaged
in

tierce,

61
in

;

how

to nullify or
:

tierce,

69

;

69 ; engaged methods of
:

avoid

counter-parries

— enavoid

gaged
in

quarte
;

to

counter-quarte, 62
tierce

engaged
counter-

meeting these attacks engaged in quarte, 69 engaged in tierce, 70 ; methods of
;

to
;

avoid
to

avoiding a reversed counter

tierce,

62
:

how

meet these
in quarte,
tierce,

and simple parry
in

attacks

— engaged

quarte,

70
;

;

62

;

engaged in

62

;

tierce,

71

—how

— engaged — engaged in
:

to

meet


^PO POS
these
attacks
;
:

INDEX
PUG
in

— engaged
:

Pugilists

qiiarte, 71

engaged

in tierce,

time-parries, 93 Positions, the, in fencing

72

;

first,

third, 38 Z1 ; second, 37 Preparations in fencing, attacks
;

on, 89

and wrestlers: Cocks, 228 Cooper, Ben, of Carlisle, 194, 212, 216 Cooper, Tom, 229 Copp, 227, 228 Coulthard, Richard, 220
Cribb,

Pronation, in fencing, 35
Pugilists

Tom, 139

and wrestlers

:

Daltrey, Abe, 170

Atkinson,

Acton, 233, 234 Robert
giant), 191,

(Sleagill

214

Davidson, Thomas, of Castleside, 212 Dees, 201 Dixon, John, of King's Meaburn, 219 Donald, William, 219 Donaldson, George, of Patterdale, .215

Atkinson, Thomas, 220

Avery, 228 Baldwin, 143
Batstone, 228
Belcher, Jem, 138, 213

Bendigo, 139, 140 Bibby, 233, 234
Blair,

Donnelly, Ned, 155, 170 Dubois, 235
of

William,

Solport

Elliot,

James, of Cumrew, 198

Mill, 194

Blake, Mr., 170

Tom, 171 Ewbank, of Bampton, 215
Evans,
Figg, 135 Finney, 227
*

227 Broome, Harry, 140 Broughton, Jack, 135, 138 Brown, Rev. Abraham, of Egremont, 191
Bolt,

Ford, Thomas, of Egren.ont,

208

Brunskill, George, 218

Burke, Deaf, 139, 140 Canadus, Albert, 216

Jack (Mr. Tinniswood), 219 Gaffney, 227, 228 Goss, Joe, 144
Foster,

George

Cann,

Abraham,

221,

222,

Graham, John,
201, 220, 225

of

Carlisle,

227 Cann, James, 227, 228 Cannon, Tom, 235 Carkeck, 229 Carmichael, 192 Cass, William, of Loweswater,
213, 214 Caunt, Ben, 140 Chapman, Dick, of Patterdale,
202, 212, 214 Chappell, 227, 229

Graham, Mr. William, 218
Gretting, 135 Gully, 138

Haig, Jemmy, 218 Hawksworth, of Shap, 191 Heenan, 141-143, 155 Sam (Staleybridge Hurst,
Infant), 143,
Irving,-

234
of

Geordie,

Bolton

Gate, 214
Irving, John,

Clargoe, 227

220

9


INDEX
301

PUG
Pugilists

PUG
:

and wrestlers Ivison, Harry, of 212, 215 .Jackson, 138, 139


Carlisle,

Pugilists

and wrestlers

:

Pearce (the

Game

Chicken),

138
Perrins, 137 Perry, 228

Jackson, William, of Kennie-^ side, 191, 202, 203, 212,

Perry (Tipton Slasher),

138,

214 Jameson, William, of Penrith,
194, 215, 235

140
Pettit,

136

Pipes, 135

Johnson, 1 37, 228 Jordan, 227

Polkinhorne, 221, 222
Pollard,

W., 229

"

Kennedy, Tom, of Egremont, 195, 201, 216 Kerslake, 228 Kitto, 230 Langham, Nat, 164

Polmood, 192
Pooley,

Pooley, Ralph, 203, 216 Tom, of Longlands,

203
Pyle, 227, 228

Le

Boeuf, 235

Littledale, Rev.

Osborne, of
191,

Richardson, William, of Caldbeck, 208, 213
Rickerby, William, 194, 203,

Buttermere, 191

Longmire,

Tom,

202,
195,

216
Ridley (the Glutton), 213 Ritson, 209 Robinson, John, of Cockermouth, 201, 216

209, 211, 214, 215

Lowden, George,
215, 230

194,

Mace, Jem, 1 43 McLauchlin, 214 Margetson, Mr. Richard, 209, 218 Mendoza, 138
Miller, 235

Robson, 209 Roper, Thomas, of Lamonby,
201

Moore, Mr. George, 218, 21 Mossop, Henry, 202, 228
Mullins, Bat, 170 Nicholson, Thomas, of Threlkeld, 213

Rowntree, Robert, 213 Rundle, Sam, 229 Sanderson, George, 219, 220 Saunders, George, 227, 228
Sayers,

Tom,

138,

140-144,

Oliver, 227, 229

155, 167 Scott, J., of Canonbie, 213
Scott, Jim, of Carlisle,

Otterway, Trooper, 170
.

194,

Paddock, 140, 143
Palmer, John, of Bewcastle,

212, 215, 216

Simpson, John, 216, 220
Slack, 136 Smith, Jack, 229 Snape, 234

215 Palmer, Walter, of Bewcastle, 200
Parish, 227
Pattison, James, of Weardale,

Spring, Tom, 139 Stamper, Isaac, 220 Standing, 228

194

3o:

INDEX
PUG
:

Pugilists

and wrestlers Steadman, George, 194, 195, 200, 215 Steers, 228

TWr
ripostes,

77

;

ripostes with a

change of
79 80 82

line, or

with a feint

or other previous
;

movement,
quarte,
tierce,

after a parry in

Stevens, 137 Stone, James, 227

;

after

a parry in

;

after a parry in seconde, after a parry in septime,

Thorne, 227, 228 Tiffin, John, of Dearham, 219 Trewick, 228

84 84

;

;

ripostes

with

a

pause
;

(ripostes a

Wannop, John, 216, 220 Ward, Jem, 139
Weightman, John, of Hayton,
214 Whitehead, of Jonathan, Workington, 200, 212, 215 Wills (Major), 218

temps perdu), 85 the counter-riposte, 86

Sabre,
*

the, 112

Salute, the, in fencing, 98

Saturday Review

'

on boxing,

Wormald, 143
Wrexford, 227 Wright, Dick, of Longtown,
191,
194,

145 Savate, the, 132
*

Schools and Masters of Fence,

195,

202,

215,

from the Middle Ages to the Eighteenth Century,' 4, no,
241
;

{See also

234, 235 list of

see

Appendix

Devon and Cor-

nish wrestlers, pp. 229, 230)

Scrape, the, 52 * Secrets de I'Epee,' 3 Siamese boxing, 131
Singlestick, iro

QuARTE, meaning

of the word,

Sparring, 146
Stop-thrust, the, 91

35 Queensberry, Marquess
Quitting blades, 88

of,

his

Stow, quoted, 181
Supination, in fencing, 35 Sword, the, how to hold, 36

rules for glove fights, 145

Rapiers, 6
Redoubling, in fencing, 97 Remise, the, in fencing, 95 Reprise d'attaque, 90 Ripostes: the direct riposte, 75 the Bertrand riposte (tacthe au-tac) from quarte, 75

Tac-au-tac,
*

the,

75-78
;

Theorie de I'Escrime,' 28

see

Appendix
Thrust, the straight, 48 Tierce, explanation ofthe term, 35
Time-parries, 93 Time-thrusts, 91 * Tom Brown's Schooldays,'

;

;

same,

after

parryipig

tierce,

in

76
77 77

;

the same, from seconde,
the same, from septime,

Tromper une parade,
Twist, the, 53

-^d

;

;

—method

of meeting these

Twist and lunge, 53

'

;

INDEX
USE
UsET^UL Science of Defence
(Captain Godfrey's), III

--

303

WRE
186;
falls,

buttock,
fashion,
ing,'

186; the cross186 ; the German
;

187
;

Swiss

'

swing-

188

the art in Japan,

Waite,

J.

M., quoted, 112

188

;

localisation of, in
;

Eng-

Waster, the, no, in Wilson, Professor, quoted, on wrestling, 207, 208 ; his encounter with Ritson, 209

land,

190 Northern counties, 190; the
Ettrick Shepherd's account of
the contest between Polmood and Carmichael, 192 decline
;

popularity in the

Works on

Dutch, 248 English and American, 248 German, 267 French, 257 Italian, 280 Greek, 280 Latin, 288 Portuguese, 288 Russian, 288 ; Spanish, 288
fencing
;

;

of buttocking, 194 ; rules observed in contests in the

;

Cumberland and Westmoreland style, 195 ; chips :— the back-heel, 197 ; the hank,

;

Swedish, 292
Wrestlers
;

198

;

the buttock,

199
;

;

the

see

under Pugilists

cross-buttock,
stroke,

199
201

outside

and wrestlers
Wrestling Society, the, 217
Wrestling,
term,
definition
;

200

;

inside click, 201
;

cross

click,

outside
;

of

ihe

click,

201

;

chest stroke, 202
;

176 176

;

its golden age, 175 honours accorded to

the hipe, 202
hipe,

the swinging
hitch
over,

204
the

;

the

the wrestler in ancient Greece,

204

;

hold,

204

;

Proof

Milo of Croton, 176 account of the Homer's match between Ajax and
; ;

fessor

Wilson's
207, 208

account

contests at Carlisle and
side,
;

Amblehis en-

and

Ulysses, 177

;

in the
;

Roman
early

counter

with

Ritson,

209

;

amphitheatre,

modes
prizes

in

178 England,
given,

Charles Dickens's description
of a contest at Windermere, 210,

usually

179 180

;

;

211

;

healthfulness

of
re-

competitions in
181
181,

London

in

the sport,

21

1

;

the
at

first

the time of the Plantagenets,
;

corded gathering

Carlisle,

matches
182;

at

Clerkenwell,

in

France,
*

182,

183

;

the contest in
It,'

As You
182;

prominent country wrestlers, 213-216 metropolitan exponents of the art,

213

;

;

Like
its

182

;

an anecdote
o.t

in connection therewith,

the

decadence, 183
fairs,

;

wakes

and
the
or

183

;

the revival of

art,

183

;

West-country
;

methods, 184, 185
'

the loose,

catch as catch can,' mode,
;

217-220 establishment of Cumberland and Westmoreland Society in London, its rules and places of 217 meeting, 218; near assimilation of Devon and Cornwall match between styles, 221
;
;

;

185

attitude before the hold.

Cann and Polkinhorne, 222

;

304

INDEX
WRE
WRE
methods,
a

Western
223
;

Counties

description of the

results of unsatisfactory
;

judging, 224 chief differences in the Devon and Cornish
systems, 225
;

method, throttling, 232
shire
;

what
fall,

constitutes

a

fair

back

226
;

;

the

Nelson, 233 and Bibby's contest in New York, 233 rules of the French
;

Lanca230-234 the Double account of Acton
; ;

heroes of thepast, 227

lists

of

system,

renowned Western wrestlers, the principal Cor229, 230 nish and Devon chips, 230
;

of

fall,

various orders 235 the catch-hold 237
;
'

;

first

down

to

lose

'

style,

;

237

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