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E LTECHS E&C C ORPORATION S EPTEMBER 15, 2007 ETAP T ECHNICAL I NFORMATION P
E LTECHS E&C C ORPORATION S EPTEMBER 15, 2007 ETAP T ECHNICAL I NFORMATION P

ELTECHS E&C CORPORATION

SEPTEMBER 15, 2007

ETAP TECHNICAL INFORMATION POINTERS

ETAP TIP – No. 009

Transient Stability – Events & Actions

Applicable ETAP Versions: 5.5.0, 5.5.5, 5.5.6 (For lower versions, some of the descriptions and procedures below may differ in some ways)

Event is any occurrence (intentional or unintentional) in an electrical system that may affect the stability limit of the power system. We can simulate this phenomenon in the Transient Stability module of ETAP.

In Transient Stability simulation, we specify events with corresponding actions. The “Events” are the instances (time) the incidents in the electrical system occur while the “Actions” are the incidents that occur at a particular “Event”. One or more actions may be associated with one particular event.

The following actions can be simulated in ETAP:

Device Type Setting 1 Setting 2 Bus Cable Line Impedance Circuit Breaker SPST Switch Fuse
Device Type
Setting 1
Setting 2
Bus
Cable
Line
Impedance
Circuit Breaker
SPST Switch
Fuse
Contactor
Generator
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Time(sec) for % change
Time(sec) for % change
Utility
Synchronous Motor
Induction Motor
-
-
Time(sec) for % change
-
-
-
Time(sec) for % change
-
-
Lumped Load
MOV
Wind Turbine
Wind Turbine (Zone)
None
Actions
3 Phase Fault / Clear Fault
Fault / Clear Fault
Fault / Clear Fault
Fault / Clear Fault
Open / Close
Open / Close
Trip
Open / Close
Ref. Machine / Droop / Isoch/
Start / Loss Excitation /
Generation Impact
Generation Ramp
Voltage Impact
Voltage Ramp
Delete
Ref. Machine
Voltage Impact
Voltage Ramp
Delete
Accelerate
Load Impact
Load Ramp
Delete
Accelerate
Load Impact
Load Ramp
Delete
Load Impact
Load Ramp
Delete
Start
U-D Wind Disturbance
Wind Gust / Wind Ramp
U-D Wind Disturbance
Wind Gust / Wind Ramp
Load Flow (no action)
-
% of total length
% of total length
% of total length
-
-
-
-
-
-
% change in electrical power
% change in electrical power
% change in reference voltage
% change in reference voltage
-
-
% change in reference voltage
% change in reference voltage
-
-
% change in loading
% change in loading
-
-
% change in loading
% change in loading
-
% change in loading
% change in loading
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Time(sec) for % change
-
-
Time(sec) for % change
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Illustration: E LTECHS E&C C ORPORATION S EPTEMBER 15, 2007 ETAP T ECHNICAL I NFORMATION

Illustration:

Illustration: E LTECHS E&C C ORPORATION S EPTEMBER 15, 2007 ETAP T ECHNICAL I NFORMATION P

ELTECHS E&C CORPORATION

SEPTEMBER 15, 2007

ETAP TECHNICAL INFORMATION POINTERS

Using the “Example-ANSI.oti” sample project, suppose that a 3-phase fault will occur at Utility, 34.5 kV “Main Bus” and will be cleared after 0.1 sec. After this disturbance, will the generator “Gen1” stay in synchrony with the Utility?

Utility Utility 1200 1200 MVAsc MVAsc 1 3 Phase Fault Occurs 34.5 34.5 kV kV
Utility
Utility
1200 1200
MVAsc
MVAsc
1
3 Phase Fault Occurs
34.5 34.5
kV
kV
Main Bus
Main Bus
2
After 0.1 sec, the fault is cleared
Gen1
Gen1
7.5 7.5
MW
MW
T1
T1
T2
T2
15/10/5 MVA
15/10/5 MVA
10
10
MVA
MVA
Sub2A
Sub2A
Sub 3
Sub 3
Sub2B
Sub2B
4.16 4.16
kV
kV
13.8
13.8
kV
kV
13.8
13.8
kV
kV
T4
T4
1.5 1.5
MVA
MVA
Bus1
Bus1
Sub2A-N
Sub2A-N
0.48 0.48
kV
kV
Syn1
Syn1
Mtr2
Mtr2
CAP1
CAP1
1250 1250
HP
HP
450 450
kvar
kvar
2500 2500
HP
HP
Sub3 Net
Sub3 Net
DC DC
System
System

Illustration

Refer to “Toolbars Map” on page 8 of ETAP TIP No. 003 to map out the toolbars that will be identified in the succeeding procedures.

Procedure:

1. Activate the “Study View” one line diagram presentation by clicking its window (or you can go to “project view” and double click “Study View” folder)

2. Switch to Transient Stability Analysis Mode by clicking the icon on the “Mode” toolbar.

Mode by clicking the icon on the “Mode” toolbar. 3. Create a new study case (by
Mode by clicking the icon on the “Mode” toolbar. 3. Create a new study case (by
Mode by clicking the icon on the “Mode” toolbar. 3. Create a new study case (by

3. Create a new study case (by copying an existing one) by clicking the icon toolbar

(by copying an existing one) by clicking the icon toolbar on the “Study Case” www.etap.com 2

on the “Study Case”

copying an existing one) by clicking the icon toolbar on the “Study Case” www.etap.com 2 of
E LTECHS E&C C ORPORATION S EPTEMBER 15, 2007 ETAP T ECHNICAL I NFORMATION P
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4. The “Duplicate Study Case” dialog box will be displayed as shown in Fig. 1.

a. Select the existing study case to be copied i.e. “TS”.

Say

b. Enter a unique name for the new study case.

“Case-1”

c. Click “Ok” button

4.a 4.b 4.c
4.a
4.b
4.c

Fig. 1

5. Select the study case which was created in Step 4 on the “Study Case” pull down box. See Fig. 2.

6. Click on “Edit Study Case” Fig. 2

box. See Fig. 2. 6. Click on “Edit Study Case” Fig. 2 button to specify the

button to specify the study conditions for “Case-1” study case.

See

5 6 Fig. 2
5
6
Fig. 2

7. The “Transient Stability Study Case” dialog box

Click the

will be displayed as shown in Fig. 3. “Events” Tab.

7
7

Fig. 3

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8. On the “Events” tab, existing events and actions will be seen that were inherited from the “TS” study case copied in Step 4. Delete these and create new events and actions based on the illustration on page 2. See Fig. 4

a. Select “Even1” ID

Note: Notice that a “*” symbol is prefixed with the ID. The presence of the “*” denotes that the event is active which means that it will be considered during the simulation.

b. Click “Delete” button

c. Do similar actions to delete “Event2”

d.

Click “Add

dialog box will be displayed.

button.

The “Event Editor”

9. On the “Event Editor” dialog box shown in Fig. 5, do the following:

a. Type “E1” on the “Event ID” text box

b. Type “0.5” on the “Time” text box

Note: 0.5 is the time in second at which the event occurs.

c. Click the “OK” button

9.a 9.b 9.c
9.a
9.b
9.c

Fig. 5

10. With the Event ID “E1” active (selected) on the “Events” Frame of the “Events” dialog box, click the “Add” button at the “Actions” frame (See Fig. 6). The “Action Editor” dialog box will be displayed.

8.a 8.c 8.b
8.a
8.c
8.b

Fig. 4

Notice 10
Notice
10

Fig. 6

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11. As per the Illustration on page 2, do the following on the “Action Editor” dialog box shown in Fig. 7:

a. Select

“Bus”

on

“Device Type”.

the

b. Select “Main Bus” on the “Device ID”.

c. Select “3PhaseFault” on the “Action.

d. Click “OK” button.

12. Follow Step

9

to

add the

11.a 11.c 11.b 11.d
11.a
11.c
11.b
11.d

Fig. 7

second event with the following data:

Event ID E2 Time 0.6 sec

Note: For the time, we specified 0.6 second since as per the Illustration on page 2; the fault will be cleared after 0.1 sec. Since E1 will occur at 0.5 sec, E2 must occur at 0.6 sec to get a difference of 0.1 sec fault clearing time.

13.

Associate an action to event “E2” by following Steps 10 and 11. select the following:

Device Type Bus Device ID Main Bus Action Clear Fault

At the “Action Editor” dialog box,

Action Clear Fault At the “Action Editor” dialog box, Fig. 8 The end result should look

Fig. 8

The end result should look like Fig. 8

14. For this particular exercise, maintain the existing setting on the “Solution Parameters”

frame.

Explanation of the parameters:

Total Simulation Time – The period in second to be considered in the simulation. This time should be greater than the time of the last event.

Simulation Time Step – The integration time step in the simulation. The program performs calculation at every interval of this time step.

Plot Time Step – This is the interval in multiple of the Simulation Time Step at which ETAP records the results of the calculation. This determines the resolution of the output Plots (graphs).

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15. Since the concern is to verify the response of the Gen1 due to the disturbance, instruct the program to create plot profiles for the Gen1. See Fig. 9.

a. Click the “Plot” tab.

b. On

the

“Device

Generator”.

Type”,

select

“Syn

c. On the “Plot Options” select “Gen1”.

d. Click the “Plot & Tabulate” check box to leave a check mark, or just click directly at the “Plot/Tabulate” column adjacent to

“Gen1”

e. Click “OK” button to close the study case.

15.a 15.b 15.c 15.d 15.d 15.e
15.a
15.b
15.c
15.d
15.d
15.e

16. Now, run the simulation. On the “Study Case”

Fig. 9

toolbar, select “Prompt” from the “Output Report” pull down box. The program will prompt for a filename of the output report for the study case

“Case-1” when the simulation is ran. See Fig. 10.

16
16
“Case-1” when the simulation is ran. See Fig. 10. 16 Fig. 10 17. On the “Transient

Fig. 10

17. On the “Transient Stability” toolbar, click “Run Transient Stability” button, see Fig. 11.

18. The “Output Report Filename” dialog box will be displayed (due to Step 16) as shown below. Type “R-Case1” and click “OK” button. The program will proceed with the calculation.

“OK” button. The program will proceed with the calculation. 17 Fig. 11 www.etap.com 6 of 8
17
17

Fig. 11

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19. When the calculation is completed, a “Transient Stability Time-Slider” dialog box will be displayed. This slider allows for animation of the result of simulation at different points in time. See Fig. 12.

a. Click the “Toggle Action List” button to show the “Action List”

b. Click and drag the “Slide Pointer” towards right.

c. Notice the “Action List” is populated with the events, associated devices, and the corresponding actions in chronological order.

d. Notice also how the One Line Diagram presentation animates while moving the “Slide Pointer”.

20. To

view

the

performance

of

19.b 19.a 20 19.c
19.b
19.a
20
19.c

Fig. 12

Fig. 13

Gen1, on the “Transient Stability” toolbar, click the “Transient Stability Plots” button. See Fig. 13.

21. On the “Transient Stability Plot Selection” dialog box, do the following (See Fig. 14):

“Syn

a. On

the

“Device

Type”,

select

Generators”

b. On the “Device ID”, select “Gen1”.

c. There are 11 Plots available for the Syn. Generator device. But in this exercise, view only the “Power Angle (Relative)”. Click the “Uncheck All” button.

d. Check the “Power Angle (Relative)”

e. Click “OK” button.

21.d 21.a 21.b 21.c 21.d
21.d
21.a
21.b
21.c
21.d

Fig. 14

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22. The output plot is displayed in Fig. 15. Looking at the profile, when the fault occurred, the generator power angle swing to 80 deg (approx). After the fault was cleared, it oscillated and was damped gradually approaching closely to its initial position . Based on this behavior, Gen1 stays in synchrony with the utility.

. Based on this behavior, Gen1 stays in synchrony with the utility. Fig. 15 www.etap.com 8

Fig. 15