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Siti Nurulhuda Mohd Imran March July 2012

At the end of week 3, students should be able :


To identify the sources of water in Malaysia. To understand the types of water treatment.
To outline the intake component.



Water resources are sources of water that are useful or potentially useful to humans. Uses of water include agricultural, industrial, household, recreational and environmental activities. Fresh water is a renewable resource, yet the world's supply of clean, fresh water is steadily decreasing. Water demand already exceeds supply in many parts of the world, and as world population continues .to rise at an unprecedented rate, many more areas are expected to experience this imbalance in the near future

Sources of fresh water ;

Surface water includes rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Sub-surface water pumped from wells that are drilled into aquifers Desalination artificial process by which saline water is converted to fresh water Frozen water make use of icebergs

Groundwater constant composition high mineral content low turbidity low color low or no D.O. high hardness high Fe, Mn

Surface water
variable composition low mineral content high turbidity colored D.O. present low hardness taste and odor

Water treatment describes those processes used to make water more acceptable for a desired end-use. The purpose; remove existing contaminants in the water, of reduce the concentration of such contaminants returning water that has been used back into the natural environment without adverse ecological impact.

Remove iron, which leaves rust-colored stains on clothing, sinks, tubs, etc.

Reduce hardness, or dissolved minerals, which decrease the effectiveness of soap and cause "scale" in water heaters, boilers, etc.
Remove dissolved gases, such as hydrogen sulfide, which can contribute to taste and odor problems.

Hardness is measure of polyvalent cations (ions with a charge greater than +1) in water.

Hardness generally represents the concentration of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions, because these are the most common polyvalent cations.
Other ions, such as iron (Fe2+) and manganese (Mn2+), may also contribute to the hardness of water, but are generally present in much lower concentrations.

A term often used to characterize the ability of a water to:


soap scum Ca2+ + (Soap)- Ca(Soap)2 (s)


the amount of soap needed cause scaling on pipes cause valves to stick due to the formation of calcium carbonate crystals leave stains on plumbing fixtures

Carbonate Hardness

called "temporary hardness" because heating the water will remove it. When the water is heated, the insoluble carbonates will precipitate and tend to form bottom deposits in water heaters.


Mg2+ associated with HCO3-, CO32-

Non-Carbonate Hardness

permanent hardness because it is not removed when the water is heated. It is much more expensive to remove non-carbonate hardness than carbonate hardness. Mg2+ associated with other ions, Cl-, NO3-,



Total Hardness

- the sum of all polyvalent cations


- the amount of calcium and magnesium ions (the predominant minerals in natural waters)

Description Soft Moderately hard Hard Very hard

Hardness range (mg/L as CaCO3) 0 - 75 75 - 100 100 - 300 > 300


per liter (mg/L) as calcium carbonate (most common) parts per million (ppm) as calcium carbonate grains per gallon of hardness (to convert from grains per gallon to mg/L, multiply by 17.1) equivalents/liter (eq/L)

Precipitation Topsoil

CO2 + H2O H2CO3

Limestone CaCO3(s) + H2CO3 Ca(HCO3)2 MgCO3(s) + H2CO3 Mg(HCO3)2

Raw Water Softening Filtration Disinfection Storage

Typical plant treating hard groundwater

Primary objectives are to

1. 2.

Remove suspended material (turbidity) and color Eliminate pathogenic organisms

Treatment technologies largely based on coagulation and flocculation

Removal of turbidity :

rapid mix tank 2. flocculation tanks 3. settling (sedimentation) tanks


Screen Surface water from supply Rapid Flocculation Rapid Sand Mix Basin Filter
Disinfection Storage

Sedimentation basin


To Distribution System

Screening The first step in purifying surface water is to remove large debris such as sticks, leaves, trash and other large particles which may interfere with subsequent purification steps.

Aeration - process of providing oxygen to the water. Exposure to oxygen in the air will oxidizes some of the compounds e.g.; iron and manganese creating insoluble particles which can be filtered from the water.

Examples of aeration chemistry; of reduced metals (oxidation)


4Fe2+ + O2 + 10H2O 4Fe(OH3)(s) + H+2Mn2+ + O2 + 2H2O 2MnO2(s) + 4H+


of dissolved gases (degasification)

H2S(aq) H2S(g)

Coagulation & flocculation

Particle diameter (mm) 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001

Size typical of Pebble Coarse sand Fine sand Silt Large colloid Small colloid

Settling velocity 0.73 m/s 0.23 m/s 0.6m/min 8.6m/d 0.3m/yr 3m/million yr

Finely dispersed solids (colloids) suspended in wastewaters are stabilized by negative electric charges on their surfaces, causing them to repel each other. Since this prevents these charged particles from colliding to form larger masses, called flocks, they do not settle. To assist in the removal of colloidal particles from suspension, chemical coagulation and flocculation are required.

Chemicals are mixed with water to promote the aggregation of the suspended solids in to particles large enough to settle or be removed. coagulants provide positive electric charges to reduce the negative charge of the colloids.

As a result, the particles collide to form larger particles (flocks).

High energy rapid-mix is used to properly disperse the coagulant. Proper contact timing in the rapidmix is typically 1 3 minutes.

Rapid mixing is required to disperse the coagulant throughout the liquid.

Various types of coagulants are being used to condition water before sedimentation and filteration.
The most widely used coagulants are:

Aluminum sulphate Poly aluminum chloride Lime

For alum : Optimum pH = 5.5 to 6.5 Operating pH = 5 to 8

Used to blend chemicals and water being treated

Retention time from 10 - 30 sec.

Mechanical mixing using vertical-shaft impeller in tank with baffles

Following the first step of coagulation, a second process called flocculation occurs. A gentle mixing stage, increases the particle size from submicroscopic micro-floc to visible suspended particle. High molecular weight polymers may be added during this step to help strengthen the floc, add weight and increase settling rate.

Paddle units rotate slowly, usually <1 rpm Velocity of water: 0.5 - 1.5 ft/sec

Design contact times for flocculation range from 15 20 minutes to an hour or more.

Factors influencing coagulation & flocculation; turbidity, pH and color. Once the floc reached it optimum size and strength, the water is ready for sedimentation.

Sedimentation, Filtration and Disinfection

Sedimentation in potable water treatment generally follows a step of chemical coagulation and flocculation Particles grouped together into flocs of a bigger size.

This increases the settling speed of suspended solids and allows settling colloids.
Water resides in sedimentation tank for at least 3 hours and the flocs settle out and collect at the bottom.

Sedimentation tanks can be of different shapes, often rectangular or circular.

They are sized in order to have an optimal sedimentation speed.

If sedimentation speed is too high, most particles will not have sufficient time to settle

If the speed is too low, the tanks will be of an excessive size.

There are four types of sedimentation processes:

Type 1 - Dilutes, non-flocculent, free-settling. (Every particle settles independently.) Type 2 - Dilute, flocculent. (Particles can flocculate as they settle.) Type 3 - Concentrated Suspensions, Zone Settling (Sludge Thickening).

Type 4 - Concentrated Suspensions, Compression (Sludge Thickening).

Filtration is the process of removing solids from a fluid by passing it through a porous medium. Coarse, medium, and fine porous media have been used depending on the requirement. Filtration in water treatment can be carried out using simple slow sand filters or, as is more usual for flocculated water, rapid gravity sand filters.


1 to 2 meters deep, can be rectangular or cylindrical in cross section length and breadth of the tanks are determined by the flow rate desired by the filters, which typically have a loading rate of 0.1 to 0.2 metres per hour



sand filters use biological processes to clean the water

Slow sand filters work through the formation of or Schmutzdecke in the top few mm of the fine sand layer consists of bacteria, fungi, protozoa As water passes through the Schmutzdecke, particles of foreign matter are trapped media and dissolved organic material is adsorbed and metabolised by the microorganisms.

exceptionally good quality with 90-99% bacterial reduction.


sand filters use relatively coarse sand and other granular media to remove particles and impurities that have been trapped in a floc through the use of flocculation chemicals and flocs flows through the filter medium under gravity or under pumped pressure and the flocculated material is trapped in the sand matrix.


Rapid sand filters must be cleaned frequently, often several times a day, by backwashing, which involves reversing the direction of the water and adding compressed air.

The particles in the filter become suspended, releasing the trapped particles.


to operations aimed at killing or rendering pathogenic microorganisms


is different from sterilisation which is a complete destruction of all living matter. is one of the most commonly used disinfectants for water disinfection usage of ozone is also become more widespread.



It is relatively cheap and extremely soluble. Chlorine kills pathogens such as bacteria and viruses by breaking the chemical bonds in their molecules.

Chlorine can be applied to water in gaseous form (Cl2) or ionized solids [Ca(OCl)2, NaOCl]

The chemical reaction is governed primarily by pH and temperature. Other factor include types of chlorine, contact time and types of organism, concentration

Cl2 (g) +

pH dependent essentially complete within a few milliseconds

H2O HOCl + H+ + Cl-


H+ + OCl-

HOCl is about 80 - 100 times more effective than OCl- for E. Coli [HOCl] + [OCl-] = free available chlorine


Combined chlorine NH2Cl (monochloramine) is 60 -80 times less effective but longer lasting

+ NH3 = NH2Cl + H2O

Hypochlorite salts: NaOCl and Ca(OCl)2

more expensive to purchase easier to handle more common for small supplies

Chloramines (NH2Cl, NHCl2, NCl3)

longer contact time if primary disinfectant used in combination with other disinfectants very effective must be produced on site

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)


very powerful oxidant kills cysts no taste and odor problems widely used in Europe no residual more expensive than chlorine (produced onsite)



effective bactericide and viricide water must be free of turbidity and lamps free of slime and precipitates no residual protection


and CHBr3

CHCl3, CHCl2Br, CHClBr2

sound epidemiological evidence linking THMs to gastrointestinal tract cancers current regulations require water supplies to limit total THM levels, new rules reduce them



new rules require limits for 5 compounds


and Chlorite

new rules


pH Adjustment


for softened water

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 Purpose is to reduce pH following softening (pH > 11 required for Mg removal)



hydroxide addition for surface

coagulant chemicals reduce pH increase pH to reduce corrosivity

2. Polyphosphate addition

for corrosion control as it forms a protective film on pipes Also helps to control lead levels in tap water as it complexes with lead

3. Fluoride addition

H2SiF6 React in water to yield fluoride ion (F-) Well documented that fluoride levels of ~ 1 ppm reduce incidence of dental caries (cavities)

either as NaF, Na2SiF6,

4. Advanced Oxidation Processes improved disinfection oxidize synthetic organic chemicals taste and odor control 5. Activated carbon adsorption remove recalcitrant synthetic organic chemicals, THMs, taste and odor compounds concern with bacterial growth problems 6. Membrane process discriminate on both size and chemistry selective removal including desalinIzation

Sludge from clarifiers

Finished water

1. Dewatering
Lagoons Sand-dying

beds Freeze treatment Centrifugation Vacuum filtration Continuous belt filter press Plate Pressure filters

2. Ultimate Disposal

storage Landfilling Land application soil amendment Reclamation/recycling new products Ocean dumping banned in US

1. Water treatment process flow Physical Chemical Biological

2. Additional Treatment 3. Residual Management