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Android Development Tutorial

Based on Android 4.0 Lars Vogel

Version 9.8 Copyright 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Lars Vogel 20.02.2012
Revision History

Revision 0.1



Revision 0.2 - 9.8

07.07.2009 - 20.02.2012

bug fixing and enhancements

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 4.0 (Ice Cream Sandwich).

Table of Contents 1. What is Android? 1.1. Android Operation System 1.2. Security and permissions 2. Android components 2.1. Activity 2.2. Views and ViewGroups

2.3. Intents 2.4. Services 2.5. ContentProvider 2.6. BroadcastReceiver 2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets 2.8. Other 3. Android Development Tools 3.1. What are the Android Development Tools? 3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine 3.3. How to develop Android Applications 4. Android Application Architecture 4.1. AndroidManifest.xml 4.2. R.java and Resources 4.3. Assets 4.4. Reference to resources in XML files 4.5. Activities and Layouts 4.6. Activities and Lifecycle 4.7. Context 5. Installation 5.1. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux 5.2. Eclipse and automatic Android SDK 5.3. Manually install Android SDK 5.4. Install a specific Android version 5.5. Android Source Code 6. Android virtual device - Emulator 6.1. What is the Android Emulator? 6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD 6.3. Emulator Shortcuts 6.4. Performance 6.5. Hardware button 7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device 8. Error handling and typical problems 8.1. Clean Project 8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb) 8.3. LogCat 8.4. Emulator does not start 8.5. Error message for @override 8.6. Missing Imports 8.7. Eclipse Tips 9. Your first Android project 9.1. Create Project 9.2. Two faces of things 9.3. Create attributes 9.4. Add UI Elements 9.5. Edit UI properties 9.6. Code your application 9.7. Start Project 10. Starting an deployed application 11. Menus and Action Bar 11.1. Definition of menu entries 11.2. Action bar tabs 11.3. Context menus 12. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar

12.1. Project 12.2. Add a menu XML resource 13. Preferences 14. Tutorial: Preferences 14.1. Using preferences 14.2. Run 15. Layout Manager and ViewGroups 15.1. Available Layout Manager 15.2. LinearLayout 15.3. RelativeLayout 15.4. GridLayout 16. ScrollView 17. Fragments 17.1. Overview 17.2. When to use Fragments 18. Fragments Tutorial 18.1. Overview 18.2. Create project 18.3. Create layouts for landscape mode 18.4. Create Fragment classes 18.5. Create layouts for landscape mode 18.6. Activities 18.7. Run 19. DDMS perspective and important views 19.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server 19.2. LogCat View 19.3. File explorer 20. Shell 20.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell 20.2. Uninstall an application via adb 20.3. Emulator Console via telnet 21. Deploy your application on a real device 22. Thank you 23. Questions and Discussion 24. Links and Literature 24.1. Source Code 24.2. Android Resources 24.3. vogella Resources

1. What is Android?
1.1. Android Operation System
Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. The Android Software Development Kit (Android SDK) provides all necessary tools to develop Android applications. This includes a compiler, debugger and a device emulator, as well as its own virtual machine to run Android programs.

Android is currently primary developed by Google. Android allows background processing, provides a rich user interface library, supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries, access to the file system and provides an embedded SQLite database. Android applications consists out of different components and can re-use components of other applications if these applications declare their components as available. This leads to the concept of a task in Android, an application can re-use other Android components to archive a task. For example you can write an Application which integrates the a map component and a camera component to archive a certain task.

1.2. Security and permissions

During deployment on an Android device, the Android system will create a unique user and group ID for every Android application. Each application file is private to this generated user, e.g. other applications cannot access these files. In addition each Android application will be started in its own process. Therefore by means of the underlying Linux operating system, every Android application is isolated from other running applications. A misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications. If data should be shared the application must do this explicitly, e.g. via a Service or a ContentProvider. Android also contains a permission system. Android predefines permissions for certain tasks but every application can also define its own permissions. An application must declare in its configuration file (AndroidManifest.xml) that it requires certain permissions. Depending on the details of the defined permission, the Android system will during installation either automatically grant the permission, reject it or ask the user if he grants these permissions to the application.

If for example the application declares that is requires Internet access then the user need to confirm this during installation. This is called "user driven security". The user decides to grant a permission or to deny it. If the user does not want to give all permissions required by the application, this application cannot be installed. The check of the permission is only performed during installation, permissions cannot be denied or granted after the installation. Typically not all users check the permissions in detail but some users do and if there is something strange with them, they will write bad reviews on the corresponding Android markets.

2. Android components
The followings gives a short overview of important Android components.

2.1. Activity
represents the presentation layer of an Android application. A simplified (and slightly incorrect) description is that an Activity is a a screen. This is slightly incorrect

as Activities can be displayed as dialogs or transparent. An Android application can have several Activities.

2.2. Views and ViewGroups

are user interface widgets, e.g. buttons or text fields. The base class for all Views isandroid.view.View. Views often have attributes which can be used to change their appearance and behavior.

A ViewGroup is responsible for arranging other Views e.g. they are layout manager. The base class for a layout manager is android.view.ViewGroups. ViewGroup also extends View. ViewGroups can be nestled to create complex layouts. You should not nestle ViewGroups too deeply as this has a negative impact on performance.

2.3. Intents
are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other components of the Android systen, e.g. from Services or Activities. An

application can call a component directly (explicit intent) or ask the Android system to evaluate registered components for a certain Intents (implicit intents). For example the application could implement sharing of data via an Intent and all components which allow sharing of data would be available for the user to select. Applications register themselves to an intent via an IntentFilter.Intents allow to combine loosely coupled components to perform certain tasks.

2.4. Services

perform background tasks without providing an UI. They can notify the user

via the notification framework in Android.

2.5. ContentProvider

provides an structured interface to data. Via a ContentProvider your

application can share data with other applications. Android contains an SQLite database which is frequently used in conjunction with a ContentProvider to persists the data of the ContentProvider.

2.6. BroadcastReceiver
can be registered to receives system messages and Intents. BroadcastReceiverwill get notified by the Android system if the specified situation happens. For example a BroadcastReceivercould get called once the system completed its boot process or if a phone call is received.

2.7. (HomeScreen) Widgets


are interactive components which are primary used on the Android

homescreen. They typically display some kind of data and allow the user to perform actions via them. For example a Widget could display a short summary of new emails and if the user select a email it could start the email application with the selected email.

2.8. Other
Android provide much more components but the list above describes the most important ones. Other Android components are "Live Folders" and "Live Wallpapers". Live Folders display data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

3. Android Development Tools

3.1. What are the Android Development Tools?
Google provides the Android Development Tools (ADT) to develop Android applications with Eclipse. ADT is a set of plug-in which extended the Eclipse IDE with Android development capabilities. ADT contains all required functionality to create, compile, debug and deploy Android applications from the Eclipse IDE and from the command line. Other IDE's, e.g. IntellJ, are also reusing components of ADT. ADT also provides an Android device emulator, so that Android applications can be tested without a real Android phone.

3.2. Dalvik Virtual Machine

The Android system uses a special virtual machine, i.e. the Dalvik Virtual Machine to run Java based applications. Dalvik uses special bytecode which is different from Java bytecode. Therefore you cannot run standard Java bytecode on Android.

3.3. How to develop Android Applications

Android applications are primary written in the Java programming language. The Java source files are converted to Java class files by the Java compiler. Android provides a tool dx which converts Java class files into a dex (Dalvik Executable) file. All class files of one application are placed in one compressed .dex file. During this conversion process redundant information in the class files are optimized in the .dex file. For example if the same String in different class file is found, the .dex file is stored only once and reference this String in the corresponding classes. .dex files are therefore much smaller in size then the corresponding class files.

The .dex file and the resources of an Android project, e.g. the images and XML files are packed into an .apk(Android Package) file. The program aapt (Android Asset Packaging Tool) perform this packaging. The resulting .apk file contains all necessary data to run the Android application and can be deployed to an Android device via the "adb" tool. The Android Development Tools (ADT) allows that all these steps are performed transparent to the user; either within Eclipse or via the command line. If you use the ADT tooling you press a button or run a script and the whole Android application (.apk file) will be created and deployed.

4. Android Application Architecture

4.1. AndroidManifest.xml
An Android application is described in the file AndroidManifest.xml. This file must declare all components, e.g. Activities and Services of the application. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" package="de.vogella.android.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter>

<action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity>

</application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" />


The package attribute defines the base package for the following Java elements. The Android Marketplace requires that very application uses its own unique package. Therefore it is a good habit to use as package name your reverse domain name. This will avoid collisions with other developers. and android:versionCode specify the version of your application. versionNameis what the user sees and can be any string.

must be an integer. The Android Market determine based on versionCode if an update of an Android applications on devices is required. You

typically start with "1" and increase this value by one, if you roll-out a new version of your application. The tag <activity> defines an Activity, in this example pointing to thede.vogella.android.temperature.Convert class. An intent filter is registered for this class which defines that this Activity is started once the application starts (actionandroid:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" ). The category definition category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" defines that this application is added to the application directory on the Android device. The @string/app_name value refer to resource files which contain the actual values. This makes it easy to provide different resources, e.g. strings, colors, icons, for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications.

The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest.xml" file defines the minimal SDK version for which your application is valid. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions.

4.2. R.java and Resources

The " gen " directory in an Android project contains generated values. R.java is a generated class which contains references to certain resources of the the project. These resources must be defined in the res directory and can be XML files, icons or pictures. Via XML files you can for example define values, menus, layouts or animations. If you create a new resource, the corresponding reference is automatically created in R.java. These references are static int values and define ID's for the resources. The Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource via these ID's. For example to access a String with the reference id R.string.yourString use the methodgetString(R.string.yourString));. R.java is automatically created by the Eclipse development environment, manual changes are not necessary.

4.3. Assets
While the directory res is contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory assetscan be used to store any kind of data. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and thegetAssets() method .

4.4. Reference to resources in XML files

In your XML files, e.g. your layout files, you can refer to other resources via the @ sign. For example if you want to refer to a color you defined as resources you can refer to it via @color/your_id or if you have defined a "hello" string as resource you can access it via @string/hello .

4.5. Activities and Layouts

The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. The layout defines the include Views (widgets) and their properties. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML. You typically uses Java code to generate the layout if you don't know the content until runtime; for example if your layout depends on content which you read from the Internet. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the folder /res/layout . This file specifies theViewGroups, Views, their relationship and their attributes for a specific layout. If a UI element needs to be accessed via Java code you have to give the UI element an unique id via the android:id attribute. To assign a new id to an UI element use @+id/yourvalue. By conversion this will create and assign a new id yourvalue to the corresponding UI element. In your Java code you can later access these UI elements via the methodfindViewById(R.id.yourvalue). Defining layouts via XML is usually the preferred way as this separates the programming logic from the layout definition. It also allows the definition of different layouts for different devices. You can also mix both approaches.

4.6. Activities and Lifecycle

The operating system controls the life cycle of your application. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application, e.g. because of an incoming call. The Android system defines a life cycle for activities via pre-defined methods. The most important methods are:

- called if the activity is stopped. Used to save data so

that the activity can restore its states if re-started onPause() - always called if the Activity ends, can be used to release resource or save data

- called if the Activity is re-started, can be used to initialize fields

The activity will also be restarted if a so called "configuration change" happens. A configuration change for example happens if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertical or horizontal). The activity is in this case restarted to enable the Android

platform to load different resources for these configuration, e.g. layouts for vertical or horizontal mode. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your activity definition in your AndroidManifest.xml. The following activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible).

<activity android:name=".ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity>

4.7. Context
The class android.content.Context provides the connections to the Android system. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. Context also provides access to Android Services, e.g. theLocation Service. As Activities and Services extend the class Context you can directly access the context viathis.

5. Installation
The following assume that you have already Eclipse installed. For details please see Eclipse Tutorial

5.1. Pre-requisites for using a 64bit Linux

The Android SDK is 32bit, therefore on an 64bit Linux system you need to have the package ia32-libs installed. For Ubuntu you can do this via the following command.

apt-get install ia32-libs

Please check your distribution documentation if you are using a different flavor of Linux.

5.2. Eclipse and automatic Android SDK

Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available components for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl.google.com/android/eclipse/. If you are not familiar with the Eclipse update manager the usage is described in Eclipse update manager. After the new Android development components are installed you will be prompted to install the Android SDK. You can use the following wizard or go to the next section to learn how to do it manually.

5.3. Manually install Android SDK

The previous step downloads the Android SDK automatically for you. You can also download the Android SDK from the Android SDK download page. The download contains a zip file which you can extract to any place in your file system, e.g. I placed it under "c:\android-sdk-windows". Avoid using spaces in the path name otherwise you may experience problems later. You also have to define the location of the Android SDK in the Eclipse Preferences. In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via Windows Preferences. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK.

5.4. Install a specific Android version

The Android SDK Manager allows you to install specific versions of Android. Select Window Android SDK Manager from the Eclipse menu.

The dialog allows you to install new packages and also allows you to delete them. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons". Select the Google API 14 (Android 4.0) version of the SDK and press "Install".

Press the "Install" button and confirm the license for all packages. After the installation completes, restart Eclipse.

5.5. Android Source Code

The following step is optional. 5.5.1. As of Android 4.0 During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available as Android uses a lot of defaults. As of Android 4.0 the Android development tools provides also the source code. You can download it via the Android SDK Manager by selecting the "Sources for Android SDK".

The sources are downloaded to the source directory located in "path_to_android_sdk/sources/android-xx". xx is the api level number (15 for 4.0.3). In the Eclipse Package Explorer, right click on your android.jar and select Properties Java Source Attachment. Type in the source directory name and press OK. Afterwards you can browse through the source code. 5.5.2. Prior to Android 4.0 For earlier versions Haris Peco maintains plugins, which provide the Android Source code code. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adtaddons.googlecode.com/svn/trunk/source/com.android.ide.eclipse.source.update". More details can be found on the project website.

6. Android virtual device - Emulator

6.1. What is the Android Emulator?
The Android Development Tools (ADT) include an emulator to run an Android system. The emulator behaves like a real Android device (in most cases) and allows you to test your application without having a real device. You can configure the version of the Android system you would like to run, the size of the SD card, the screen resolution and other relevant settings. You can define several devices with different configurations. Via the emulator you select which device should be started, you can also start several in parallel. These devices are called "Android Virtual Device" (AVD). The ADT allow to deploy and run your Android program on the AVD.

6.2. Google vrs. Android AVD

During the creation of an AVD you decide if you want an Android device or an Google device.

An AVD created for Android will contain the programs from the Android Open Source Project. An AVD created for the Google API's will also contain several Google applications, most notable the Google Maps application. If you want to use functionality which is only provided via the Google API's, e.g. Cloud2DeviceMessaging or Google Maps you must run this application on an AVD with Google API's.

6.3. Emulator Shortcuts

Obviously you can use the emulator via the keyboard on the right side of the emulator. But there are also some nice shortcuts which are useful. Alt+Enter Maximizes the emulator. Nice for demos. Ctrl+F11 changes the orientation of the emulator. F8 Turns network on / off.

6.4. Performance
Try to use a smaller resolution for your emulator as for example HVGA. The emulator gets slower the more pixels its needs to render as it is using software rendering. Also if you have sufficient memory on your computer, add at least 1 GB of memory to your emulator. This is the value "Device ram size" during the creation of the AVD. Also set the flag "Enabled" for Snapshots. This will save the state of the emulator and let it start much faster.

6.5. Hardware button

Android 4.0 introduced that devices do not have to have hardware button anymore. If you want to create such an AVD, add the "Hardware Back/Home keys" property to the device configuration and set it to "false".

7. Tutorial: Create and run Android Virtual Device

To define an Android Virtual Device (ADV) open the "AVD Manager" via Windows AVD Manager and press "New".

Enter the following.

We can also select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster. At the end press the button "Create AVD". This will create the AVD configuration and display it under the "Virtual devices". To test if your setup is correct, select your device and press "Start".

After (a long time) your AVD starts. You are able to use it via the mouse and via the virtual keyboard of the emulator.

8. Error handling and typical problems

Things are not always working as they should. This section gives an overview over typical problems and how to solve them.

8.1. Clean Project

Several users report that get the following errors: 1. Project ... is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved. 3. Unable to open class file R.java. To solve any of these errors, go to the project menu and select Project Clean.

8.2. Problems with Android Debug Bridge (adb)

The communication with the emulator or your Android device might have problems. This communication is handled by the Android Debug Bridge (adb). Eclipse allows to reset the adb in case this causes problems. Select therefore the DDMS perspective via Window Open Perspective Other DDMS To restart the adb, select the "Reset adb" in the Device View.

8.3. LogCat
The "LogCat" View shows you the log messages of your Android device and help you analyze problems. For example Java exceptions in your program would be shown here. To open this view, select Window Show View Other Android LogCat.

8.4. Emulator does not start

If your emulator does not start, make sure that the android-sdk version is in a path without any spaces in the path name.

8.5. Error message for @override

The @override annotation was introduced in Java 1.6. If you receive an error message for @override, change the Java compiler level to Java 1.6. To do this right-click on the project, select Properties Java Compiler Compiler compliance level and select "1.6" in the drop-down box.

8.6. Missing Imports

Java requires that classes which are not part of the standard Java Language be either fully qualified or declared via imports. If you see error message with "XX cannot be resolved to a variable", right-click in your Editor and select Source Organize Imports to important required packages.

8.7. Eclipse Tips

To work more efficiently with Eclipse, select Window Preferences Java Editor Save Actions and select that the source code should be formatted and that the imports should be organized at every save.

1. Conventions for the tutorials

Table of Contents 1. API version, package and application name 2. Warnings Messages for Strings

1. API version, package and application name

The tutorials of this document have been developed and tested with Android 4.0.3, API Level 15. Please use this version for all tutorials in this book. Higher version usually should also work. Lower version of the Android API might also work, but if you face issues, try the recommended version. The base package for the projects is always the same as the project name, e.g. if you are asked to create a project "de.vogella.android.example.test" then the corresponding package name is "de.vogella.android.example.test". The Application name, which must be entered on the Android project generation wizard, will not be predefined. Choose a name you like.

2. Warnings Messages for Strings

The Android development tools are show warnings if you use hard-coded strings, for example in layout files. While for real application its best practice to use string resource files we use use Strings directly to simplify the creation of the examples.

9. Your first Android project

9.1. Create Project

This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. Search for "vogella" for find this example. Select File New Other Android Android Project and create the Android project "de.vogella.android.temperature". Enter the following.

Press "Finish". This should create the following directory structure.

While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets().

9.2. Two faces of things

The Android SDK allows the developer to define certain artifacts, e.g. strings and UI's, in two ways: via a rich editor, and directly via XML. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation the resulting XML is also displayed. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main.xml".

9.3. Create attributes

Android allows you to create attributes for resources, e.g. for strings or colors. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code. Select the file "res/values/string.xml" and press "Add". Select "Color" and enter "myColor" as the name and "#3399CC" as the value.

Add also the following "String" attributes. String attributes allow the developer to translate the application at a later point. Table 1. String Attributes
Name Value


to Celsius


to Fahrenheit



Switch to the XML representation and validate the values.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World, Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources>

9.4. Add UI Elements

Select "res/layout/main.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor. For changing the position and grouping elements you can use the outline view. The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout. Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different.

Right-click on the text object Hello World, Hello! in the layout. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. Then, from the Palette view, select Text Fields and locate Plain Text. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. All object types in the section "Text Fields derive from the class "EditText", they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. Now select the Palette section Form Widgets and drag a RadioGroup object onto the layout. The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group. From the Palette section Form Widgets, drag a Button object onto the layout. The result should look like the following.

Switch to "main.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0"

android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:text="Button" android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></Button> </LinearLayout>

9.5. Edit UI properties

If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. Most of the properties can be changed via the right mouse menu. You can also edit properties of fields directy in XML. Typically you change properties directly in the XML file as this is much faster. But the right mouse functionality is nice if you are searching for a certain property. Open your file "main.xml" We will delete the initial text for the EditText field in XML. Switch to the XML tab called "main.xml" and delete the android:text="EditText" property from the EditText part. Switch back to the "Graphical Layout" tab and check that the text is removed. Use the right mouse click on the first radio button to assign the "celsius" string attribute to its "text" property. Assign the and "fahrenheit" string attribute to the second radio button.

From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements. You can either edit the XML file or modify the properties via right mouse click. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. All your other UI controls are contained in a LinearLayout. We want to assign a background color to this LinearLayout. Right-click on an empty space in Graphical Layout mode, then select Other Properties All by Name Background. Select Color and then myColor in the list.

Switch to the "main.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1"

android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout>

9.6. Code your application

During the generation of your new Android project you specified that an Activity called ConvertActivityshould get created. The project wizard also created the corresponding Java classs. Change your code in ConvertActivity.java to the following. Note that the myClickHandler will be called based on the OnClick property of your button.

package de.vogella.android.temperature;

import android.app.Activity; import android.os.Bundle; import android.view.View; import android.widget.EditText; import android.widget.RadioButton; import android.widget.Toast;

public class ConvertActivity extends Activity { private EditText text;

public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.main); text = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.editText1);

// This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button
public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.getId()) { case R.id.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.id.radio0);

RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.id.radio1); if (text.getText().length() == 0) { Toast.makeText(this, "Please enter a valid number", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show(); return; }

float inputValue = Float.parseFloat(text.getText().toString()); if (celsiusButton.isChecked()) { text.setText(String

.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))); celsiusButton.setChecked(false); fahrenheitButton.setChecked(true); } else { text.setText(String

.valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue))); fahrenheitButton.setChecked(false); celsiusButton.setChecked(true); } break; } }

// Converts to celsius

private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit - 32) * 5 / 9); }

// Converts to fahrenheit
private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32; } }

9.7. Start Project

To start the Android Application, select your project, right click on it, and select RunAs Android Application. Be patient, the emulator starts up very slowly. You should get the following result.

Type in a number, select your conversion and press the button. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.

10. Starting an deployed application

After you run your application on the virtual device you can start it again on the device. If you press the Home button you can also select your application.

11. Menus and Action Bar

11.1. Definition of menu entries
Android provides two possible ways to display global actions which the user can select. The first one is the usage of the Action Bar in the application. The Action Bar is a window feature at the top of the activity that may display the activity title, navigation modes, and other interactive items. The second option is that the app can open a menu which shows additional actions via a popup menu. Typically you define your menu entries in a way that they are added to the action bar if sufficient space is available in the action bar and if not, remaining menu items are displayed in the popup menu.

The option menu and the action bar of your activity is filled by the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity. The ActionBar also shows an icon of your application. You can also add an action to this icon. If you select this icon the onOptionsItemSelected() method will be called with the value android.R.id.home. The recommendation is to return to the main Activity in your program.

// If home icon is clicked return to main Activity

case android.R.id.home: Intent intent = new Intent(this, OverviewActivity.class); intent.addFlags(Intent.FLAG_ACTIVITY_CLEAR_TOP); startActivity(intent); break;

In this method you can create the menu programmatically or you can use a pre-defined XML resources which you inflate via the MenuInflator class. Each Activity has already an instance of the class available and this instance can get accessed via the getMenuInflator() method. The onCreateOptionsMenu() method is only called once. If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the onPrepareOptionsMenu() method.

11.2. Action bar tabs

It is also possible to add tabs to an action bar.

11.3. Context menus

You can also assign a context menu to an UI widget (view). A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view.

A context menu for a view is registered via the registerForContextMenu(view) method. TheonCreateContextMenu() method is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage. The Android platform may also add options to your View, e.g. EditText provides context options to select text, etc.

12. Tutorial: Menus and Action Bar

12.1. Project
This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu which is displayed in the action bar if sufficient space is available. This example will be extended in the chapter about preferences. Create a project called "de.vogella.android.socialapp" with the Activity called "OverviewActivity". Change the "main.xml" layout file in the diretory "/res/layout/" to the following:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="vertical" >

<Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences" > </Button>


android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences" > </Button>


12.2. Add a menu XML resource

Select your project, right click on it and select New Other Android Android XML File to create a new XML resource. Select the option "Menu", enter as File "mainmenu.xml" and press the button "Finish".

This will create a new file "mainmenu.xml" in the folder "res/menu" of your project. Android provides a nice editor to edit this file, unfortunately this editor is not always automatically used due to bugs in the ADT. If that happens, you can open this editor manually. Right-click on your menu file and select Open with Android Menu Editor. Switch if necessary to the "Layout" tab of the editor. Press Add and select "Item". Maintain the following value. This defines the entries in your menu. We will also define that the menu entry is displayed in the action bar if there is sufficient space available.

Change your Activity class "OverviewActivity" to the following. The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.

package de.vogella.android.socialapp;

import android.app.Activity; import android.os.Bundle; import android.view.Menu; import android.view.MenuInflater; import android.view.MenuItem; import android.widget.Toast;

public class OverviewActivity extends Activity {

public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.main); }

public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(); inflater.inflate(R.menu.mainmenu, menu); return true; }

public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) {

Toast.makeText(this, "Just a test", Toast.LENGTH_SHORT).show(); return true; } }

Run your application. As there is enough space in the action bar your item will be displayed there. If there would be more items you could press "Menu" on the emulator to see them. If you select the menu item you should see a small info message.

The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. We will use them in the next chapter.

13. Preferences

Android supports the usage of Preferences to allow you to save data for your application. Preferences are stored as key values. The definition of Preferences can also be done via an XML resource. Android provides the class "PreferenceActivity" which extends the class Activity. PreferenceActivity supports the simple handling of preferences. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method addPreferencesFromResource(). To communicate between different components Android uses Intents. Typically the PreferenceActivity is started from another activity via an Intent. In your application you can access the preference manager via the following:

SharedPreferences preferences = PreferenceManager.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this);

Values can get access via the key of the preference setting.

String username = preferences.getString("username", "n/a");

To create or change preferences you have to call the edit() methods. Once you have changed the value you have to call commit() to apply your changes.

Editor edit = preferences.edit(); edit.putString("username", "new_value_for_user"); edit.commit();

14. Tutorial: Preferences

14.1. Using preferences
We will continue using the example project "de.vogella.android.social". Create an Android XML resource "preferences.xml" of type "PreferenceScreen".

Open the file via right-mouse click and Open-with Android XML Resource Editor. Press Add, add a "PreferenceCategory" and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".

You can also enter values for other properties of EditTextField, e.g. the inputMethod. Add the following attribute to the XML definition of your password field to make the input quoted with *.


Create the class MyPreferencesActivity which extends PreferenceActivity. This Activity will load the "preference.xml" file and will allow the user to change the values.

package de.vogella.android.socialapp;

import android.os.Bundle; import android.preference.PreferenceActivity;

public class MyPreferencesActivity extends PreferenceActivity {

public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); addPreferencesFromResource(R.xml.preferences); } }

To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest.xml" file. Select "AndroidManifest.xml" and the tab "Application". Scroll to the botton of the view and add your new activity via the "Add" button.

To make use of our new preference activity and the preference values we adjust the "OverviewActivity". The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.

package de.vogella.android.socialapp;

import android.app.Activity; import android.content.SharedPreferences; import android.content.SharedPreferences.Editor; import android.os.Bundle; import android.preference.PreferenceManager; import android.view.Menu; import android.view.MenuInflater; import android.view.MenuItem; import android.view.View; import android.view.View.OnClickListener; import android.widget.Button; import android.widget.Toast;

public class OverviewActivity extends Activity {

SharedPreferences preferences;

public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.main); Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.id.Button01);

// Initialize preferences
preferences = PreferenceManager.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this);

button.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.getString("username", "n/a"); String password = preferences.getString("password", "n/a"); showPrefs(username, password); } });

Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.id.Button02); buttonChangePreferences.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) {

updatePreferenceValue(); } });

private void showPrefs(String username, String password){ Toast.makeText( OverviewActivity.this, "Input: " + username + " and password: " + password, Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show();

private void updatePreferenceValue(){ Editor edit = preferences.edit(); String username = preferences.getString("username", "n/a");

// We will just revert the current user name and save again
StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer(); for (int i = username.length() - 1; i >= 0; i--) { buffer.append(username.charAt(i)); } edit.putString("username", buffer.toString()); edit.commit();

// A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. We give a little feedback
Toast.makeText(OverviewActivity.this, "Reverted string sequence of user name.", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show(); }

To open the new preference Activity we will use the onOptionsItemSelected() method. Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class PreferenceManager to get the sharedPreferences.

public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(); inflater.inflate(R.menu.mainmenu, menu); return true; }

// This method is called once the menu is selected @Override

public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item.getItemId()) {

// We have only one menu option

case R.id.preferences:

// Launch Preference activity

Intent i = new Intent(OverviewActivity.this, MyPreferencesActivity.class); startActivity(i);

// Some feedback to the user

Toast.makeText(OverviewActivity.this, "Enter your user credentials.",

Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show(); break;

} return true; }

14.2. Run
Run your application. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences". You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. If you press the second button the username should be reversed.

15. Layout Manager and ViewGroups

15.1. Available Layout Manager
A layout manager is a subclass of ViewGroup and is responsible for the layout of itself and its child Views. Android supports different default layout managers. As of Android 4.0 the most relevant layout manager are LinearLayout, FrameLayout, RelativeLayout andGridLayout. All layouts allow the developer to define attributes. Children can also define attributes which may be evaluated by their parent layout.

is deprecated and TableLayout can be implemented more

effectively viaGridLayout

15.2. LinearLayout
puts all its child elements into a single column or row depending on the android:orientationattribute. Possible values for this attribute are horizontal and vertical, horizontal is the default value.
LinearLayout LinearLayout

can be nested to achieve more complex layouts.

15.3. RelativeLayout

allow to position the widget relative to each other. This allows for

complex layouts. A simple usage for RelativeLayout is if you want to center a single component. Just add one component to theRelativeLayout and set the android:layout_centerInParent attribute to true.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <RelativeLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" >

<ProgressBar android:id="@+id/progressBar1" style="?android:attr/progressBarStyleLarge" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_centerInParent="true" />


15.4. GridLayout
15.4.1. Overview was introduced with Android 4.0. This layout allows you to organize a view into a Grid. GridLayout separates its drawing area into: rows, columns, and cells.

You can specify how many columns you want for define for each View in which row and column it should be placed and how many columns and rows it should use. If not specified GridLayout uses defaults, e.g. one column, one row and the position of a View depends on the order of the declaration of the Views. 15.4.2. Tutorial GridLayout Create the project "de.vogella.android.layout.gridlayout" with the Activity called "DemoGridLayout". Change "main.xml" to the following.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <GridLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:id="@+id/GridLayout1" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:columnCount="4" android:useDefaultMargins="true" >

<TextView android:layout_column="0" android:layout_columnSpan="3"

android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal" android:layout_marginTop="40dp" android:layout_row="0" android:text="User Credentials" android:textSize="32dip" />

<TextView android:layout_column="0" android:layout_gravity="right" android:layout_row="1" android:text="User Name: " > </TextView>

<EditText android:id="@+id/input1" android:layout_column="1" android:layout_columnSpan="2" android:layout_row="1" android:ems="10" />

<TextView android:layout_column="0" android:layout_gravity="right" android:layout_row="2" android:text="Password: " > </TextView>

<EditText android:id="@+id/input1" android:layout_column="1" android:layout_columnSpan="2" android:layout_row="2" android:ems="8" />

<Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_column="2" android:layout_row="3" android:text="Login" />


Run your example. You should see a nice arranged layout. This is a layout example wherefore we have not connected any functionality to it. To extend this example you could now connect the Button with a method in the Activity via its android:onClick.

16. ScrollView
ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context. Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. Create an android project "de.vogella.android.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". Create the following layout and class.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true" android:orientation="vertical" >

<LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:orientation="vertical" >

<TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" > </TextView>

<TextView android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content"

android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1.0" android:text="@+id/TextView02" > </TextView>

<LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" >

<Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1.0" android:text="Submit" > </Button>

<Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_weight="1.0" android:text="Cancel" > </Button> </LinearLayout> </LinearLayout>


package de.vogella.android.scrollview;

import android.app.Activity; import android.os.Bundle; import android.view.View; import android.widget.TextView;

public class ScrollView extends Activity {

/** Called when the activity is first created. */

public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.main); TextView view = String s=""; for (int i=0; i < 100; i++) { s += "vogella.de "; } view.setText(s); } } (TextView) findViewById(R.id.TextView02);

The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended.

17. Fragments
17.1. Overview
components allow you to organize your application code so that it is easier to support different sized devices.

are components with their own lifecycle and their own user interface. They can be defined via layout files or via coding.

always run in the context of an Activity. If an Activity is stopped its Fragments will also be stopped; if an Activity is destroyed its Fragments will also get destroyed.

If a Fragment component is defined in an XML layout file, the android:name attribute points to the Fragmentsclass. The base class for Fragments is android.app.Fragment. For special purposes you can also use more special classes, like ListFragment or DialogFragment. The onCreateView() method is called by Android once the Fragment should create its user interface. Here you can inflate an layout. The onStart() method is called once


gets visible.

can be dynamically added and removed from an Activity via Fragment transactions. This will add the action to the history stack of the Activity, i.e. this will allow to revert the Fragment changes in theActivity via the back button.

17.2. When to use Fragments

make it easy to re-use components in different layouts, e.g. you can build single-pane layouts for handsets (phones) and multi-pane layouts for tablets.

This is not limited to tablets; for example you can use Fragments also to support different layout for landscape and portrait orientation. But as tablets offer significantly more space you typically include more views into the layout and Fragments makes that easier. The typical example is a list of items in an activity. On a tablet you see the details immediately on the same screen on the right hand side if you click on item. On a handset you jump to a new detail screen. The following discussion will assume that you have two Fragments (main and detail) but you can also have more. We will also have one main activity and one detailed activity. On a tablet the main activity contains both Fragments in its layout, on a handheld it only contains the main fragment. To check for an fragment you can use the FragmentManager.

DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager(). findFragmentById(R.id.detail_frag); if (fragment==null || ! fragment.isInLayout()) {

// start new Activity

} else { fragment.update(...); }

To create different layouts with Fragments you can:

Use one activity, which displays two Fragments for tablets and only one on handsets devices. In this case you would switch the Fragments in the activity whenever necessary. This requires that the fragment is not declared in the layout file as such Fragments cannot be removed during runtime. It also requires an

update of the action bar if the action bar status depends on the fragment. Use separate activities to host each fragment on a handset. For example, when the tablet UI uses twoFragments in an activity, use the same activity for handsets, but supply an alternative layout that includes just one fragment. When you need to switch Fragments, start another activity that hosts the other fragment.

The second approach is the most flexible and in general preferable way of using Fragments. In this case the main activity checks if the detail fragment is available in the layout. If the detailed fragment is there, the main activity tells the fragment that is should update itself. If the detail fragment is not available the main activity starts the detailed activity. It is good practice that Fragments do not manipulate each other. For this purpose a Fragment typically implements an interface to get new data from its host Activity.

18. Fragments Tutorial

18.1. Overview
The following tutorial demonstrates how to use Fragments. The entry Activity (called MainActivity of our application ) will use different layouts for portrait and for landscape mode. In portrait mode MainActivity will show one Fragment with a list of names. If the user touches an item in the list, a second Activity called DetailActivity will start and show the selected text. In landscape mode MainActivity will show two Fragments. The first is again the Fragments which shows the list of names. The second Fragment shows the text of the current selected item. This is similar to the portrait mode, but the whole information will be shown on one screen.

18.2. Create project

Create a new project de.vogella.android.fragments with an Activity called MainActivity.

18.3. Create layouts for landscape mode

Create or change the following layout files in the "res/layout/" folder. First create the following file called "details.xml". This layout will be used by the DetailFragment.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" >

<TextView android:id="@+id/detailsText" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_gravity="center_horizontal|center_vertical" android:layout_marginTop="20dip" android:text="Large Text" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:textSize="30dip" />


Change the existing "main.xml" file. This layout will be used by MainActivity in landscape mode and shows twoFragments.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" >

<fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="150dip" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.vogella.android.fragments.ListFragment" ></fragment>

<fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.vogella.android.fragments.DetailFragment" > <!-- Preview: layout=@layout/details --> </fragment>


18.4. Create Fragment classes

Create now the Fragment classes. Create the ListFragment class.

package de.vogella.android.fragments;

import android.content.Intent; import android.os.Bundle; import android.view.View; import android.widget.ArrayAdapter; import android.widget.ListView;

public class ListFragment extends android.app.ListFragment {

public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState); String[] values = new String[] { "Android", "iPhone", "WindowsMobile", "Blackberry", "WebOS", "Ubuntu", "Windows7", "Max OS X", "Linux", "OS/2" }; ArrayAdapter<String> adapter = new ArrayAdapter<String>(getActivity(), android.R.layout.simple_list_item_1, values); setListAdapter(adapter); }

public void onListItemClick(ListView l, View v, int position, long id) { String item = (String) getListAdapter().getItem(position); DetailFragment fragment = (DetailFragment) getFragmentManager() .findFragmentById(R.id.detailFragment); if (fragment != null && fragment.isInLayout()) { fragment.setText(item); } else { Intent intent = new Intent(getActivity().getApplicationContext(), DetailActivity.class);

intent.putExtra("value", item); startActivity(intent);

} }

Create the DetailFragment class.

package de.vogella.android.fragments;

import android.app.Fragment; import android.os.Bundle; import android.util.Log; import android.view.LayoutInflater; import android.view.View; import android.view.ViewGroup; import android.widget.TextView;

public class DetailFragment extends Fragment {

public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); Log.e("Test", "hello");

public void onActivityCreated(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onActivityCreated(savedInstanceState);

public View onCreateView(LayoutInflater inflater, ViewGroup container, Bundle savedInstanceState) { View view = inflater.inflate(R.layout.details, container, false); return view; }

public void setText(String item) { TextView view = (TextView) getView().findViewById(R.id.detailsText); view.setText(item); } }

18.5. Create layouts for landscape mode

We want that Android uses a different main.xml file in portrait model then in landscape mode.

For this reason create the "res/layout-port" folder. In portrait mode Android will check the "layout-port" folder for fitting layout files. Only if we would not have a "main.xml" file in "layout-port", Android would check the "layout" folder. Therefore create the following "main.mxl" layout file in "res/layout-port".

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:orientation="horizontal" >

<fragment android:id="@+id/listFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:layout_marginTop="?android:attr/actionBarSize" class="de.vogella.android.fragments.ListFragment" /> </LinearLayout>

Also create the "details_activity_layout.xml" layout file. This layout will be used in the DetailActivity which is only used in portrait mode. Please note that we could have create this file also in the "layout" folder, but as it is only used in portrait mode it is best practise to place it into this folder.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"

android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" android:orientation="vertical" >

<fragment android:id="@+id/detailFragment" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="match_parent" class="de.vogella.android.fragments.DetailFragment" />


18.6. Activities
Create a new Activity called DetailActivity with the following class.

package de.vogella.android.fragments;

import android.app.Activity; import android.os.Bundle; import android.widget.TextView;

public class DetailActivity extends Activity {

protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.details_activity_layout);

Bundle extras = getIntent().getExtras(); if (extras != null) { String s = extras.getString("value"); TextView view = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.detailsText); view.setText(s); }

} }


will remain unmodified.

package de.vogella.android.fragments;

import android.app.Activity; import android.os.Bundle;

public class MainActivity extends Activity {

/** Called when the activity is first created. */

public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.main);

} }

18.7. Run
Run your example. If you run the application in portrait mode you should see only one Fragment. Use Ctrl+F11 to switch the orientation. In horizontal mode you should see two Fragments. If you select an item in portrait mode a new Activity should get started with the selected item. In horizontal mode your second Fragment should display the select item.

19. DDMS perspective and important views

19.1. DDMS - Dalvik Debug Monitor Server
Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your Android (virtual) device and your Android application program. Select Window Open Perspective Other DDMS to open this perspective. It includes severalViews which can also be used independently and allows for example the application to place calls and send SMS to the device. It also allows the application to set the current geo position and allows you to perform a performance trace of your application.

19.2. LogCat View

You can see the log (including System.out.print() statements) via the LogCat view.

19.3. File explorer

The file explorer allows to see the files on the Android simulator.

20. Shell
20.1. Android Debugging Bridge - Shell
You can access your Android emulator also via the console. Open a shell, switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools". Start the shell via the following command "adb shell".

adb shell

You can also copy a file from and to your device via the following commands.

// Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device

adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2

This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system, e.g. ls, rm, mkdir, etc. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individual device.

# Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached # Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell

20.2. Uninstall an application via adb

You can uninstall an android application via the shell. Switch the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application. You can also uninstall an app via adb with the package name.

adb uninstall <packagename>

20.3. Emulator Console via telnet

Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. This allows you to simulate certain things, e.g. incoming call, change the network "stability", set your current geocodes, etc. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to connect to your simulated device. To exit the console session, use the command "quit" or "exit". For example to change the power settings of your phone, to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following.

# connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51

For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual

21. Deploy your application on a real device

Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. Select in the settings Applications > Development, then enable USB debugging. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone. For details please see Developing on a Device . Please note that the Android version you are developing for must be the installed version on your phone.

To select your phone, select the "Run Configurations", select "Manual" selection and select your device.

22. Thank you

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23. Questions and Discussion

Before posting questions, please see the vogella FAQ. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www.vogella.de Google Group. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you.

24. Links and Literature

24.1. Source Code
Source Code of Examples

24.2. Android Resources

Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android SQlite Database Android Widgets Android Live Wallpaper Android Services Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking Android Homepage Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs Android Google Groups Android Live Folder

24.3. vogella Resources

Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel

Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system