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13 2012 at 1pm

Prof. Sahrawi Chaib, PhD

There are bullets items. every bullet is worth one point We are in the vector space so that the rules (addition, multiplication...) apply mamely 1. v w = w v (commutativity) 2. (v w) + u = v (w + u) (associativity) 3. There is a zero vector such that v 0 = v, v V 4. Each vhas an additive inverse w V such that w v = 0 5. K and v V we have v V 6. , K and v V we have ( + ) v = v v 7. K and v, w V we have (v w) = v w 8. , K and v V we have ( ) v = ( v) 9. 1 v = v 10. 0 v = 0 11. 1 v v = 0 12. 0 = 0 Suppose (x1 , x2 ) + (y1 + y2 ) is dened to be (x1 + y2 ), (x2 + y1 ). With the usual multiplication cx = (cx1 , cx2 ), which of the above condition are not satised? 1

solution: x + y = y + x and x + (y + z) = (x + y) + z and (c1 + c2 )x = c1 x + c2 x The functions f (x) = x2 and g(x) = 5x are vectors in F. This is the vector space of all real functions. The combination3f (x) 4g(x) is the function h(x)=? solution: h(x) = 3f (x) 4g(x) = 3x2 20x Which rule is broken if multiplying f (x) by c gives the fucntion f(cx)? Keep the usual addition f(x)+g(x) solution: If cf (x) is dened to be the usual f (cx) then (c1 + c2 )f = f ((c1 + c2 )x) is dierent from c1 f + c2 f = usual f (c1 x) + f (c2 x). If the sum of the vectors f(x) and g(x) is dened to be the function f(g(x)). Then the zero vector is g(x)=x. Keep the usual scalar multiplication cf(x) and nd two rules that are broken. solution: If (f + g)(x) is the usual 4f (g(x)) then (g + f )x is g(f (x)) which is di?erent. In associativity rule both sides are f (g(h(x))). Rule 11 is broken because there might be no inverse function f 1 (x) such that f (f 1 (x)) = x. If the inverse function exists it will be the vector -f . Show that the norm u |u1 | + ... + |un | = norm that is it satises the requirements that: 1. scaling: u = || u 2. nonnegative: u > 0 and zero if u is zero 3. triangle inequality: u + v u + v solution: First: u |u1 | + ...|un | then u = |u1 | + ... + |un | = |||u1 | + ... + |||un | = || u . Second: u > 0 and zero if u is zero si clearly satised since each |uj | 0. Third: u + v = (u1 + v1 , ..., un + vn ) = |u1 + v1 | + ... + |un + vn |. Now for scalars a and b it is easily seen that |a+b| |a|+|b| so u+v |u1 |+|v1 |+...+|un |+|vn | = u + v . Prove the triangle inequality

n j=1

|uj | is a legitimate

solution: since both sides are non-negative we can also work with the square of both sides and the inequality holds, we will work with, and prove ( u + v )2 ( u + v )2 ( u + v )2 = (u + v) (u + v) = u (u + v) + v (u + v) =uu+uv+vu+vv = u 2 + 2u v + v 2 u 2 + 2|u v| + v 2 cauchy schwarz u 2 + 2 u v + v 2 = ( u + v )2 qED Let S be the set of real-valued polynomial functions of degree n. dened on a a x b. If u = a0 + a1 x + ...an xn and v = b0 + b1 x + ... + bn xn are any two such functions, and is any real scalar, dene the sum = u+v and the scalar multiplication such that (u + v)(x) = (a0 + b0 ) + (a1 + b1 )x... (u)(x) = a0 + a1 x... Further lets dene the multiplication by zero by multiplying every coe. by zero and the -u as putting a negative sign in front of every coecient. SHow that S is a vector space. solution: Since it is a long problem and one has to do the 12 rules. If someone tries the 6 rules from 12 will get one point Find any two orthornormal vectors in 1. span{(1,2),(6,-1)} 2. span{(1,2,4),(2,-1,3)} 3. span{(1,-1,0),(1,2,3)} 4. span{(2,1,0),(0,1,2)} 5. span{(1,1,0,1),(0,2,-1,1)} 6. span{(-2,3,1,1),(0,2,-1,1)} 3

solution: I will do few of them since they are all similar: take the two vectors in bullet number 2: u1 = (1, 2, 4)and u2 = (2, 1, 3) + (1, 2, 4) such that u1 u2 = 12 + 21 = 0 = 12/21 = 4/7 and now u2 = (2, 1, 3) (4/7)(1, 2, 4) = (10/7, 15/7, 5/7) so an orthonor malset in span {(1, 2, 4), (2, 1, 3)} is u1 = (1/ 21)(1, 2, 4), u2 = (1/ 14)(2, 3, 1) where we have normalized them by diving them with their norms. The others are dealt with in a similar manner. You can solve it with dierent manners but the easiest (above) is also acceptable

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