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DEPARTMENT OF AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING

AE-1353 Experimental Stress Analysis

Two Mark Questions

1. Define Measurement:

The measurement of a given quantity is essentially an act or result of comparison

between a quantity whose magnitude (amount) is unknown, with a similar quantity whose

magnitude (amount) is known, the later quantity being called a standard.

2. What are the basic requirements for measurement?

(i) The standard used for comparison purposes must be accurately defined & should be

commonly acceptable.

(ii) The standard must be of the same character as the measure and (ie, the unknown

quantity or the quantity under measurement)

(iii) The apparatus used and the method accepted for the purposes of comparison must be

provable.

3. What are the methods of measurements?

(i) Direct Method: In these methods, MEASURAND is directly compared against a

STANDARD.

(ii) Indirect Method: Measuring systems are used in indirect methods for measurement

purposes

4. What are the uses of measuring instruments?

Measurements involve the use of instruments as a physical means of determining

quantities (or) variables. In simple cases, an instrument consists of a single unit which

gives an output reading or signal according to the unknown variable (MEASURAND)

applied to it.

2

5. What is dimensional measurement?

Dimensional Measurements are characterized as determination of size of an object.

These are the measurements of dimensions of an object.

6. Explain the measurements of length and displacement

A displacement means the movements of a point with respect to another point. Generally

length (or change in length) means it referring a distance between two reference points.

Thus measurement of length includes both the dimensional measurement and the

displacement measurement.

7. What are the STANDARDS for the measurement of an angle?

The primary standards of angle may be taken either as angle subtended by a circle at its

centre ie, 360 or as angle between two straight line intersecting in a manner such that all

four angles so formed are equal, ie, each angle is 90

8. How we can measure the Area of survey plats?

Measurement of area of regular and standard geometrical figures can be obtained from

the dimensions using standard mathematical relationships.

There are many engineering applications which require the measurement of plane area.

Graphical determination of the area of survey plots form maps, the integration of function

to determine the area enclosed by a curve analysis of experimental data may require the

use of measurement of plane area.

9. Give any two methods for measure an unknown force

An unknown force may be measured by the following methods,

1. Balancing the unknown force against the known gravitational force either directly

(or) indirectly using a system of levers.

2. Transferring the unknown force to a fluid pressure and then meaning the resulting

fluid pressure. Hydraulic and Pneumatic load cells are used for transferring the

force into pressure.

3

10. How we can measure the temperature changes?

Temperature is not measured directly, but is measured through indirect means; change of

temperature of a substance causes a variety of effects. These effects may be physical,

chemical, electrical (or) optical and they may be used for the measurement of temperature

through use of proper temperature sensing devices.

11. Tell some thing about static characteristics and static calibration in

measurements:

Static characteristics of a measurement system are in general those that must be

considered when the system or instrument is used to measure a condition not varying

with time. All the static performance characteristics are obtained in one form or another

by a process called static calibration

12. What is accuracy and tell about point accuracy?

Accuracy is the closeness with which an instrument reading approaches the true value of

the quantity being measured. Thus accuracy of a measurement means conformity to

truth.

Point Accuracy is the accuracy of the instrument only at one point on it scale.

13. Give the Type of errors in measurements

(i) Gross errors

(ii) Random errors

(iii) systematic errors

- Instrumental errors

- Environmental errors

- Observational errors

14. Differentiate Gross error and Instrumental Error

Gross errors mainly cover human mistakes in reading instruments and recording and

calculating measurement results.

Instrumental Error occurs due to the wrong adjustments of a measuring devices while it

construction or misalignments of its pats.

4

15. Differentiate environmental and systematic errors

Environmental errors causes due to the surrounding condition of instruments, but

systematic errors causes because of the fault of the arrangement of measuring system

during the whole measuring process.

16.. What absolute static error? Give example

Absolute static error is the difference between measured values of quantity and the

true value of quantity. ie, Eo= X(m) X(t)

Example: an error of 2mm is negligible when the length being measured is of the

order of ( 1000 mm) 1 m but the same error of 12 mm may be considerable when the

measurement of 10mm length.

17. What is relative static error?

It is the ratio between absolute error to the true value of quantity

ie, Er= Eo/Xt

18. What is static correction?

Static correction is the negative value of absolute static error ie, Cs= -Eo

19. A meter reads 127.50V and the true value of the voltage is 127.43v.

Determine (a) static error and (b) static correction for this instrument.

Sol: (a) static error (E0) = Xm- Xt = + 0.07V

(b) static correction (Cs)= Eo= -0.07V

20. a thermometer reads 95.45 0c and the static correction given in the

correction curve is 0.08 0c Determine the true value of the temperature

Sol: Cs= - ( Xm- Xt) ie, Xt= Cs + Xm = -0.08 + 95.45 = 95.37 C

21. An inclined Limb manometer is used for measurement of flow rate reads

0.161 x 10- m/s. The true value of flow rate is 0.159 x 10- m/s. Determine (a)

static error (b) static correction.

Sol: Eo= Xm Xt = ( 0.61- 0.15) x 10- = 0.002 x 10- m/s

5

22. What do you mean by limiting errors?

The limits of the deviations from the specified values of measurement datas are

defined as Limiting errors (or) Guarantee error

23. Determine relative limiting error:

The relative error (fractional error) is defined as the ratio of the error to the specified

magnitude (nominal magnitude) of a quantity.

Relative limiting error A Limiting error

( Er) = ____ = ____________________

As A Normal Value

24. What is an uncertainty in a measurement?

Un certainty of measurement is a parameter associated with the result of

measurement, that characterizes the dispersion of values that could be reasonably

attributed to the measurand.

25. Define static sensitivity

the static sensitivity of an instrument or an instrumentation system is the ratio of the

magnitude of the output quantity to the magnitude of input )quantity being measured)

26. What is known as deflection factor?

Deflection factor or inverse sensitivity is the reciprocal of the static sensitivity.

27. Define scale range:

The scale range of an instrument is defined as the difference between the largest and

the smallest reading of the instruments.

28. What is the frequency range in measurements?

Frequency range is defined as frequency over which measurements can be performed

with a specified degree of accuracy.

29. What is extensometer?

Extensometer is an instrument used top measure minute deformation of material

while it is subjected to a stress.

6

30. Classify the extensometers depending upon the magnification systems.

1. Mechanical Extensometers

2. Optical extensometers

3. Acoustical (Vibrating wire) extensometers

4. Electrical extensometers

5. Pneumatic extensometers.

31. What are the Basic Requirements of extensometer?

1. Very high magnification:The magnification required is usually greater than 1000: 1

2. Sensitivity: The relation between input and output should not be affected by the

reversal in the direction of input and this requires that the movement should not have

any friction.

3. Low input force: The input force required to cause displacement should be

extremely small thus there is no defamation of the component due to the process of

measurement.

32. Classify the mechanical extensometers depending upon the manner of

obtaining the magnification.

1. Wedge magnification

2. Screw magnification

3. Compound magnification

4. Lever magnification

33. Give the disadvantages of a simple mechanical lever magnification

For strain measurements on inner surfaces of small structures, the clearance may be in

sufficient for the gauge and all its auxiliary equipment.

34. Give the magnification and gauge length of porter- Lipp strain gauge.

Gauge length is 25 mm

Magnification is 300 times

7

35. Give the advantages of porter- Lipp gauge

1. Very compact

2. Light weight

36. Give the magnification capacity & gaugelength of Huggen-Berger tensometer

The magnification may vary from 300 to 2000 depending upon the model. The gauge

length varies from 12.5 to 25 mm.

37. What is the measurement capacity of C.E. John extensometer?

C.E. Johnson extensometer can measure strain up to 5 micro strains over a gauge

length of 50 mm.

38. Give the minimum strain value that scratch gauge can be sense.

The minimum strain that a strain gauge can sense is above 100 micro strains.

39. Give the advantages of scratch gauge

1. Compact in size

2. It can be attached to almost any surface with clamps or screws & adhesive bonding

3. It can measure scratch under all types of loading (static, shock, fatigue)

4. It can be used to record stress in all types of environments.

40. Tell something about the magnification capacity of Martens extensometer

This instrument is extremely sensitive and by using telescope, regarding may be

estimated to 1/10 mm which corresponding to a length charge of approximately

0.0002m.

41. What is the sensitivity of Tuckerman gauge?

The sensitivity of tucker man gauge is 2 micro strains

8

42. For the following reading find the deformation sensitivity & strain sensitivity

for Tuckerman optical gauge. Base length = 25 mm, d= 1/20, magnification

factor = 5

solution Ds=d/m = 1/(20x5)= 0.01mm

Ss= Ds/L = 0.01/25 = 4 x 10-4 strains

43. Give the formula to obtain fundamental frequency for a vibrating wire

F = (1/2L) (P/m) = (1/2L) |E ( L/L)/m]xA}

Where A = Cross sectional Area of vibrating wire

E = Youngs moduls of wire material

L = Length of Vibrating wire

M = Mass for unit length

P = tensioning force in the wire

L = incremention length of the vibrating wire.

44. Give the classifications of Electrical strain gauges

(a) inductance (or) magnetic strain gauges

(b) Electrical resistance strain gauges

(c) The capacitance strain gauges.

45. How strain can be measured by using Electrical strain gauges?

Electrical strain gauge is a device in which a change in length produces a change in some

electrical characteristics of the gauges.

46. Give the working principle of inductance strain gauges?

An electrical inductance gauge is a device in which the mechanical quantity to be

measured produced a change in the magnetic field, and hence in the impedance of a

current carrying coil.

47. Give the working principle of variable air gap gauges

In this types of gauges the reluctance of the magnetic field is varied by changing the air

gap.

9

48. Give the working principle of movable core solenoid gauges

In this type of gauges the reluctance of the magnetic circuit is varied by changing the

position of the iron core in the coil.

49. Give the working principle of eddy- current gauges

In this types of gauges the losses in the magnetic circuit are varied by changing the

thickness or position of the high- loss element inserted in the magnetic field.

50. Give the formula for the impedance of a coil to the passage of alternating

current.

Z= (2fl) + R

Where Z= impedance in ohms

F= frequency in herzs

L= inductance of the coil in henrys

R= resistance component in ohms

51. How the displacement of material structures can be measured by using electrical

resistance strain gauges?

In the electrical resistance strain gauges the displacement (or) strain is measured as a

function of the resistance change produce by the displacement in the gauging circuit.

52. What is known as bonded strain gauges?

A thin paper sheet or metal sheet with strain gauge wire is bonded with an adhesive

material to the structure under strictly.

53. What is the use of gauge factor in strain gauge measurements?

Gauge factor is used to determine the sensitivity of strain gauges.

54. Give the requirements for strain gauges?

Gauge factor should be high

Wires used in a strain gauge should have high resistance.

The wires should have a linear relationship between strain & resistance of the wire.

10

55. What is the resistance of material?

Resistance is the property of a material that restricts the flow of charges through the

material.

56. What is known as foil strain gauges?

The foil strain gauge has metal foil photo- etched in a grid pattern of the electric insulator

of the thin resin and gauge leads attached.

57. Give the formula for electrical capacity between parallel plates in capacitance

strain gauges

C= [8.86 x 10-3 KA (N-1)]/H

Where c- capacitance in picofoarads

K- dielectric constant of the medium between the two plates

A- area of one sife of the plate, mm2

N- No of plates

H- distance between plates in mm

58. What is the basic principle of unbonded metallic strain gauges

the principle of unbonded metallic gauges is based on change in electrical resistance of a

metallic wire due to change in tension of the wire.

59. What is photo-etching?

Photo etching is the act of producing grid configuration on metal foil with the help of

photo effect.

60. What is known as strip gauges?

The number of strain gauges are arranged in a particular manner is called strip gauges.

61. What is known as strain rosettes?

An arrangement of strain gauges in particular orientation or angle is known as strain

rosettes

11

62. Give the quantities required for a good gauge material?

High gauge factor

High resistance

Low temperature sensitivity

High electrical stability

Good corrosion resistance

High yield point stability

63. Give some arrangements of strain gauges to obtain strain rosettes

1. Two gauge rosette

2. Rectangular rosette

a) Three element

b) Four element

3. Delta (or) Equiangular rosette

4. T. Delta rosette

64. Give the formula for strain measured by a strain gauge in particular angles

= (x + y) + (x- y) cos2 + xy sin2

Where is the strain value in direction

65. Give the relation on between principal stress and principal strains

1=[E/(1-v)](1+v2) and 2=[E/(1-v)](2+v1)

where 1 and 2 are principal stresses

1 and 2 are principal strains

66.What are the methods are available for computing the strain rosette datas?

1. Analytical Solutions

2. Graphical Solutions

3. Semi graphical (or) vectorial layout method

4. Nomographic Solutions

5. Geometrical Computers.

12

67. Give the advantages of strain Rosette analysis.

(i)Extreme simplicity and speed of application.

(ii)Possibility of allowing for transverse effects.

(iii)No requirements for additional equipments.

(iv) The possibility of training relativity unskilled persons to use the method.

68.Give the type of strain gauge circuits.

1. Wheat stone bridge circuits for static strain measurements.

2. Potentiometer circuits for dynamic strain measurements.

69. Define sensitivity of potentiometer:

Sensitivity of the potentiometer circuit is defined as the ratio of the output voltage

divided by the strain.

70. Define Light

Light is usually defined as the radiation that can affect the human eye.

71. Define White light:

Light from a source that emits a continuous spectrum with equal energy for every wave

length is called white light.

72. Define monochromatic light:

Light of a single wave length is called monochromatic light.

Example: sodium vapour lamp, Hg arc lamp.

73. What is wave front?

The focus of points on different radial lines from the source exhibiting the same

disturbance at a given instant of time, in a surface known as a wave front.

74. Define Ray?

A line normal to the wave front, indicating the direction of propagation of the waves is

called a ray.

75. What are longitudinal waves?

The waves in which vibration are along the direction of their travel is known as

longitudinal waves.

13

76. What are transverse waves?

Transverse waves are waves in which vibrations are perpendicular to the direction of

wave travels.

77. What is polarized light?

The light having vibration only along a single straight line perpendicular to the

direction of propagation of light is said to be polarized.

78. What is plane of polarization?

The plane containing the direction of propogation of light, but containing no

vibrations is called the plane of polarization.

79. What are the methods are available to obtain plane polarized light?

(i) Refraction and Reflection for glass plate.

(ii) By using Nichol Prism.

80. What are the disadvantages are available in Nichol prism when we use that to

obtain plane polarized light?

1. Costly

2. Intensity is Poor.

81. What is the basic principle for photo elasticity?

When polarized light enters a loaded transparent component, it is split into two beams

both beams travel along the same path, but each vibrates along a principal direction and

travels at a speed proportional to the associated principal stress.

82. What is Refractive index?

The ratio of the velocity of light In air to the velocity in the medium is called the

refractive index of the medium and is denoted by n.

83. What is wave length?

The wave length of any given frequency in the distance traveled during one complete

vibration.

14

84. Define Amplitude?

Amplitude is a magnitude of the disturbance, the intensity of light may be taken

as directly proportional to the square of the amplitude of the vibration.

85. Define phase

The phase of vibration at any instant defines the stage of the cycle reached at that instant.

86. Give the general equation of motion of a transverse light wave propagating in Z-

direction.

E = a cos( -wt)

Where E = magnitude of light vector

t = amplitude of the wave.

87. What do you mean by Polariscope?

Polariscope is an optical instrument that utilizes the properties of polarized light in its

operation.

88. Give the types of polariscopes used in experimental stress analysis?

(i) Plane Polariscope

(ii) Circular Polariscope

89. Give the four different possible setups in circular polariscope?

Setup Polariser- Analyzer Quarter wave plates Field

1

2

3

4

Crossed

Crossed

Parallel

Parallel

Parallel

Crossed

Crossed

Parallel

Bright

Dark

Bright

Dark

90. What is the standard setup in circular polariscope?

The crossed crossed setup is called the standard setup of the circular polariscope.

15

91. State Stress optic law:

The relative change in index of refraction is proportional to the difference of principal

stresses.

92. What is known as isotropic point in a polariscope setup?

In a particular point in a stressed model where 1 2. that fringe order is zero and

permanent block dots appear at these points such are called isotropic points.

93. What is known as singular points in a polariscope setup?

If 1 = 2 0 then also the fringe order is zero at these points and permanent block dots

appear such are called singular points.

94. What are the properties of photo elastic materials?

1. Transparent to light used in the Polariscope.

2. Easily machinable by conventional means.

3. It should be force form residual stresses

4.They should have both mechanical and optical isotropy and homogeneity.

95. Give the most commonly used methods for compensation techniques

1. Babinet compensation method.

2. Babinet soleil compensation method

3. Tension or compression stop method.

4. Tardy method of compensation.

5. Senarment method of compensation

6. Photometric method.

96. What are the techniques used to determine the stresses at the inner layers of the

body in 3D photo elasticity?

1. Locking in the stresses in the model

2. Multilayer reflection technique.

16

97. Define Non destructive testing

Non destructive testing is a technique for revealing flaws and defects in a material or

device without damaging as destroying the test sample.

98. Give some advantages of NDT:

1. Can be done directly on production items without regards to part cost or

quantity available.

2. Can be done on 100% of production of on representative samples.

99. Give the limitations of NDT:

1. Results often must be interpreted by a skilled. Experienced technician.

2. In absence of contact with each other, different observers may disagree on

meaning & significance of test results.

100. What is neutron Radiography?

Radiographic inspection using a stream of neutrons known as neutron Radiography.

101. Give the advantages of Radiographic inspection.

- The ability to detect internal flows

- An ability to detect significant variations in composition.

- Permanent recording of raw inspection datas.

102. Give some advantages of Brittle coating method.

- Provides nearly whole field area

- Is non destructive if the coating is sensitive enough.

- Is simple to analyze

103. Give some advantages by using fiber optic sensors.

- Light weight (very small in size)

- Low power requirement

- Resistant to electromagnetic interference

- High sensitivity

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