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Sara Nicole Eleazar Kristian Leonard Orante Experiment 3: Le Chateliers Principle

April 17, 2012 Chem 18.1 EG1

Theoretical Framework All reactions are reversible and reach a state of equilibrium in which the concentration of reactants and products no longer change after enough time (Silberberg, 2010). At the macroscopic viewpoint, the reaction seems to have stopped, but this is only because the rates of the forward (toward products) and reverse (toward reactants) reactions have balanced each other and become equal. On the molecular level, however, these forward and reverse reactions continue to occur. This is why when a stress is applied to a system in equilibrium, the system will change and shift forward or backward. This shifting is explained by Le Chateliers principle, which states that when a stress or disturbance is applied to a system in equilibrium, the system undergoes a shift or net reaction, thus relieving the stress and regaining equilibrium. Stress means a change in temperature, volume, pressure, or concentration that disrupts the equilibirum state of a system (Chang, 2010). Using Le Chateliers principle, the direction of the shift can be predicted. A shift to the left denotes a backward reaction (product to reactant), while a shift to the right means that there is a forward reaction (reactant to product). In the experiment, changes in concentration were used disturb the equilibrium of the system: for example, if the concentration of reactant increases, the system will consume it to form products and regain equilibrium; conversely, if the concentration of reactant decreases, the system produces it to regain equilibrium. Another experimental variable is change in temperature. In an equilibrium system, heat is treated as either a reactant (endothermic reaction) or product (exothermic reaction). Like in concentration changes, a change in heat will cause the system to shift: decreasing the temperature will favor the exothermic reaction, while increasing the temperature will favor the endothermic one. By observing these changes, it can be determined whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic.

Data and Results Part A: Color of the Solution: light blue Reaction Equation: Cu2+(aq) + 4NH3(aq) Cu(NH4)2+(aq) lighter blue colorless light blue Species responsible for the color of the solution: Cu2+ System S A B Observations lighter bluish color darker bluish color darker bluish color Explanation The solution was diluted. There was an increase in the concentration of reactant Cu2+. There was an increase in the concentration of reactant NH3.

slimy dark brownish-red precipitate was formed, yet the solution turned clearer lighter bluish color

lighter bluish color

F G

No change in color darker bluish color System A B C D E F G

There was a decrease in the concentration of reactant Cu2+ since it reacted with Fe(CN)64- to form Cu2Fe(CN)6. There was a decrease in the concentration of reactant NH3 since it reacted with H+ to form NH4+. There was a decrease in the concentration of reactant Cu2+ since it reacted with OH- to form Cu(OH)2. None of the ions of NaNO3 reacted with the reactants or products. The reaction is exothermic.

Direction of Shift forward forward backward/reverse backward/reverse backward/reverse no shift forward

Part B: I.

1st color change: orange 2nd color change: yellow Equation of equilibrium: 2CrO42- + 2H+ Cr2O72- + H2O yellow orange Species which predominates in: (a) acid solution: Cr2O72(b) basic solution: CrO42Equation for reaction: CrO42- + Pb2+ PbCrO4 yellow yellow Precipitate: PbCrO4 Color of the precipitate: yellow Observation after addition of 6.0 M HCl: The solution turned orange and the precipitate was also lessened. The HCl made the solution acidic which led to the consumption of CrO42- in the precipitate to make it Cr2O72-. This was the reason why the precipitate was consumed little by little. With the presence of Cr2O72-, the solution turned orange.

II.

Answers to Questions

1. Which added reagents caused a forward shift and a backward shift? Explain why. Cu(NO3)2 and NH4OH, caused a forward shift in systems A and B respectively, because the two reagents increased the concentrations of the reactants. In order for the system to relieve this stress, the added reactants were consumed and more products were formed, returning the system to equilibrium. K4Fe(CN)6, HCl, and NaOH all caused backward shifts in systems C, D, and E respectively. This is because all three reagents formed new products with the reactants, decreasing their concentrations. K4Fe(CN)6 in system C formed a brownish red precipitate (Cu2Fe(CN)6) with the reactant Cu2+. Since there was less Cu2+, the system shifted to the right to yield more of it. In system D, the concentration of reactant NH3 decreased since it reacted with the H+ ions in the added HCl to form NH4+. Finally, in system E, there was a decrease in the concentration of reactant Cu2+ since the OH- ions in the added NaOH reacted with it to form Cu(OH)2. In all three systems, the decrease in concentration of reactants caused the system to have a backward reaction in order to yield more reactants and restore equilibrium. Additionally, NaNO3 caused no shift in equilibrium in system F. This is because none of the ions in NaNO3 reacted with either the reactants or products of the system. They were merely spectator ions. 2. How will one know if a reaction is endothermic or exothermic using the Le Chatelier's Principle? In an equilibrium system, heat can be considered as a reagent in the reaction: an increase in temperature adds heat to the system and a decrease in temperature removes heat from the system. Thus, heat can act as either a reactant (in an endothermic reaction) or a product (in an exothermic reaction). Applying Le Chateliers principle, a change in heat will cause the system to shift. Increasing the temperature will favor the endothermic reaction, while decreasing the temperature will favor the exothermic one (Chang, 2010). By observing these changes, it can be determined whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic. For example, in the experiment, the system in set-up G underwent a decrease in temperature when it was cooled. It was observed that it turned darker blue in color, indicating that there was a shift to the left. This implies that heat is considered a product, since a decrease in heat caused the system to shift toward the products side. Thus, the forward reaction must be exothermic, since heat was released in order to yield more products and relieve the applied stress on the system. 3. How does the chromate ion behave in an acidic solution? In a basic solution? [answer] 4. Will one observe more precipitate or less precipitate when hydrochloric acid is added to the precipitate formed between the reaction f potassium chromate and lead nitrate? Explain. [answer]

References Chang, R. (2010). Chemistry (10th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Silberberg, M. S. (2010). Principles of General Chemistry (2nd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.