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Energy: capacity to do work (heat--.

quantity, temp--intensity) Conduction (through matter), convection (mass movement), radiation (all directions) Radiation: travels through vacuum at 300 000km/s, electromagnetic waves of radiation, (radio L- gamma S, visible, UV, infrared, microwave) 1) all objects emit radiant energy 2) hotter objects emit more E/unit area 3) hotter, shorter __ 4) objects good absorbers, good emitters Results: absorbed, transmitted, reflected (scattered) Atm absorb terresterial radiation (earth __) --> water vapour(5 time more inc temp), CO2 Atm heated ground up Radiometric Dating 1) alpha particle (2 protons, 2neutrons) is emitted from the nuclie, mass # of isotope reduced by 4, atomic # by 2 2) beta particles (electrons) given off from nuclie, atomic # increase by 1 3) electron captured in nulcie, combines w/ proton, forms neutron, atomic# decrease 1 % stays same, actual mass lost dec. Rb-87, thorium-32, uranium-238 and -235 are used for radiometric dating of million year old rocks k-40 is used for rocks less than 100, 000 years old, its daughter isotope ar-40 is used precise radiometric dating: necessary no loss in material in mineral (closed system) C-14 is used to date recent rocks half life is about 5730 yrs, produced in atm by cosmic-ray bomabrdment, associated with CO2, in living organisms (C-12) organism alive C-14 C-12 are replaced, when organism dies c-14 starts to decay, amount of c-14 compared to c-12 to determine dates measurement of the parent/daughter isotope must be precise

System: closed: energy flow, open: matter+energy flow Positive Feedback: change Negative: constant Solar eneergy: 50% absorbed top atm, 30% reflected (same __, albedo), 20% absorbed by clouds (diffused light or absorbed by gas, inc temp)O absorb UV in atm, ozone absorb UV in stratosphere, visible light not absorbed Latitude: 0 deg at equator 90 deg N, -90 S Longitude: prime mederian 0, W -180, E 180 UTM zone: start at west thats 1 go 6 deg, east fro each zone goes till 60? CAN 7-22 Mapping: draw a line between two points of the same altitude which intersect the contact line (angle from north, clockwise--strike, dip 90 to strike), when drawing seams move strike lines, and make points at intersecting altitude, outcrop is in the opposite direction of contact lines Minerals: natural occurring inorganic solid with orderly crystalline structure, welldefined chemical composition Rock: solid mass of mineral

Proton proton chain (1H 2H 3He 4He) Triple process (4He 8Be 12 Triple process ( He Be C) C) CNO cycle (makes 12C and 4 He) burning (ex: 4He +12C 16O) we will group together all of the 12C 16O 20 Ne burning reactions on up to iron in this category. Rprocess (rapid bomardment of neutrons followed by decayy to increase pproton number)). Sprocess (same as Rprocess, but slower, origin of neutrons from subset of reactions that occur during the burning process)