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Business organizations use different promotional tools to inform customers about their goods, services, ideas etc. Among them, a modern, prominent and comparatively expensive promotional tool is advertising.

Meaning of advertising:
The advertising word comes from a Latin word Advertere which means to turn. According to American Marketing Association (AMA), Advertising is a paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of goods, services and ideas by an identified sponsor. According to Dirksen and Closure, Advertising is a form of public announcement intended to aid directly or indirectly in the sale of a commodity or service. Advertising consists of non personal communication conducted through paid media under clear sponsorship. -Philip Kotler

The advertising industry has been dynamic due to its evolution. In some cases it has reflected social trends; in other instances it has influenced social trends. The history of advertising is a perspective on how the principles and practices of multibillion-dollar industry have evolved. The evolution of advertising can be divided into seven stages reflecting historical eras and technological changes that lead to different philosophies and styles of advertising. Stage 1: Age of print: The objective of this stage was to deliver information. The primary medium of this age was newspapers, though handbills, posters were also important. Literacy levels increased due to the use of printing press and that persuade businesses to advertise.

Stage 2: Industrial revolution and emergence of consumer society: Advertisers began to give their good brand names by the end of the 19 th century, such as Bakers chocolate or ivory soap. The purpose of advertising during this period was to create demand for these new brands. Salesmanship in print-it became the guideline principle of this industry. Stage 3: Modern advertising era: In the early 20th century, modern professional advertising adopted scientific research techniques. Two leaders were Claude Hopkins and John Caples who respectively contribute to scientific advertising and changing style of advertising writing which had been wordy and full of exaggerations. During 1930s and 1940s, Daniel Starch, A.C. Nielsen and George Gallup founded research organizations that are still part of todays advertising industry. Stage 4: Age of agencies: The agency world and management of advertising developed rapidly after World War I. The husband-wife team of Stanely and Helen Rasor developed account services, innovative copywriting systems, brand names and status appeals. Young & Rubicam advertising agency was formed and its work was known for intriguing headlines and fresh, original approaches to advertising ideas. Stage 5: The creative era: The creative power of agencies culminated in the 1960s and1970s in a period marked by the resurgence of art, inspiration and intuition. Three creative geniuses named Leo Burnett, David Ogilvy and William Bernbach inspired the revolution in response to emphasis on research and science. Leo Burnett created brand icons and inherent drama in every product, Ogilvy developed research based image advertising and storytelling and Bernbach focused on the art of persuasion. Stage 6: The accountability era: During this period, an industry wide focus on effectiveness was introduced to enhance sales using research and measurement. After the internet economy downturn at the start of 21st century, accountability became more important and advertisers wanted assurance that their advertising was truly effective. Stage 7: Age of social responsibility:

Corporations took challenge not only for reasons of financial accountability but also on question of social responsibility. During this stage of advertising, companies began to think sincerely about being better corporate citizens by performing some responsibilities to society.

Different types of advertising perform different roles. Seven major types of advertising are identified considering different advertising situations. The types of advertising are: Brand advertising Retail or local advertising Direct- response advertising Business- to- business advertising Institutional advertising Nonprofit advertising Public service advertising etc.

These are briefly discussed below:Brand advertising: Brand advertising means the advertising that emphasizes on the development of a long term brand identity and image of products. Example: Advertising for Apple Macintosh or Toyota brand. Retail or local advertising: When retailers or manufacturers give message announcing facts about products that are available in local stores or within a certain geographical area, then it is called retail or local advertising. Example: Rashmalai of Comilla. Direct-response advertising: The advertising that tries to encourage a sale of products, consumer response, delivery of products etc directly is considered as direct-response advertising. Example:

Advertising through direct mail, telephone or over internet to people. Business-to-business advertising: Business-to-business (B2B) advertising is marketing communication transferred from one business to another. Companies distributors, industrial buyers and professionals are given B2B advertising. Example: Advertising in professional publications or journals. Institutional advertising: The advertising that focuses on establishing a corporate identity by doing welfare or winning the public over to the organizations point of view. Example: Giving scholarship to brilliant but poor students by Dutch Bangla Bank (DBBL). Nonprofit advertising: Advertising made by different nonprofit organizations such as charities, foundations, associations, hospitals, orchestras, museums and religious institutions for donation, volunteers or other program participation is called nonprofit advertising. Example: Advertising for volunteers of Red Cross. Public service advertising: When advertising communicates a message on behalf of a good cause that is usually created by advertising professionals for free of charge and media often donate the necessary space and time, then it is called public service advertising. Example: Advertising for preventing childhood abuse.