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jet engine general view:

Is a reaction engine that discharges a fast moving jet


which generates thrust by jet propulsion in accordance
with Newton's laws of motion. This broad definition of jet
engines includes turbojets, turbofans, rockets, ramjets,
and pulse jets. In general, most jet engines are internal
combustion engines .
These typically consist of an engine with a rotary
(rotating) air compressor powered by a turbine ("Brayton
cycle"), with the leftover power providing thrust via a
propelling nozzle. These types of jet engines are
primarily used by jet aircraft for long distance travel.
Construction:

It can be split to 4 main areas:

 Compressor: have 2 jobs sucks air and compress it


 Combustor(combustion chamber) :where air + fuel mix &
combustion takes place
 Turbine: where some of the power is extracted to drive the
compressor
 Exhaust : where the exhaust gases exit and producing a
high velocity jet in the exhaust plume
Construction of turbojet engine
How turbojet works?

 Air is drawn into the rotating compressor via the intake and
is compressed to a higher pressure before entering the
combustion chamber.
 Some of the air is forced to combustion chamber at very
high pressure.
 Fuel is mixed with the compressed air and ignited by a flame
in the eddy of a flame holder.
 This combustion process significantly raises the
temperature of the gas. Hot combustion products leaving
the combustor expand through the turbine where some of
the power is extracted to drive the compressor.
 Although this expansion process reduces the turbine exit
gas temperature and pressure, both parameters are usually
still well above ambient conditions.
 The gas stream exiting the turbine expands to ambient pressure
via the propelling nozzle, producing a high velocity jet in the
exhaust plume.
 If the momentum of the exhaust stream exceeds the momentum
of the intake stream, the impulse is positive, thus, there is a net
forward thrust upon the airframe.
 Early generation jet engines were pure turbojets, designed
initially to use a centrifugal compressor),and very shortly
afterwards began to use Axial compressors for a smaller
diameter to the overall engine housing. They were used because
they were able to achieve very high altitudes and speeds, much
higher than propeller engines, because of a better compression
ratio and because of their high exhaust speed.
 However, they were not very fuel efficient. Modern jet engines
are mainly turbofans, where a proportion of the air entering the
intake bypasses the combustor; this proportion depends on the
engine's bypass ratio. This makes turbofans much more efficient
than turbojets at high subsonic/transonic and low supersonic
speeds
Thrust augmentation for turbojet engines

 The wide spread use of the turbojet engines has simulated interest
in the methods for increasing engine thrust for continued operation
as well as for short periods of time. This increased power results in
increased effectiveness of the turbojet engine due to attendant
improvement in airplane performance.
Methods for increasing engine thrust
 A) Tail pipe burning
Additional fuel is burned in the engine tail pipe thus increasing the
temperature of the gases entering the exhaust nozzle, and hence increasing
the exhaust jet velocity. The increased jet velocity and , to a lesser extent , the
increased fuel mass contribute to increasing the thrust produced by the
engine. Because the temperature of the gases in the tail pipe is not subject to
the limitations imposed by the turbine materials, burning to much higher
temperatures in the tail pipe burner than in the engine combustion chamber is
possible.
 B) cooling air at entrance of the compressor
In this method the air at the entrance of the compressor is cooled and
partly saturated by spraying water mixture of alcohol and water or a
refrigerant like carbon dioxide or ammonia , thus resulting the increased
mass flow passing through the whole unit and hence providing additional
thrust.
 C) bleed burning:
After the air has been compressed by the compressor , a small percentage
of it is led to an auxiliary combustion chamber where an additional fuel is
sprayed and ignited to provide a separate jet of gases which give
additional thrust to the unit.
Ramjet
 using the engine's forward motion to compress incoming
air, without a rotary compressor. Ramjets cannot produce
thrust at zero airspeed and thus cannot move an aircraft
from a standstill
Turbofan engine

 The turbofan is widely used for aircraft propulsion. The it provides


mechanical energy from combustion and the fan, which uses the
mechanical energy from the gas turbine to accelerate air rearwards. The
ratio of the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core compared to the
mass-flow of air passing through the core is referred to as the bypass
ratio. The engine produces thrust through a combination of these two
portions working in concert; engines that use more jet thrust relative to
fan thrust are known as low bypass turbofans, while those that have
considerably more fan thrust than jet are known as high bypass
Propulsion principle
Advantages of a turbojet engine:

 The construction of turbojet engine is less complex compared


to reciprocating engines
 turbo jet engines are smaller than their reciprocating
counterparts of the same Power.
 There is no need to lubrication or radiators in case of turbojet
engine.
 Much higher speed can be achieved in turbo jet engine
3000km/h.
 The engine vibration are absent.
 The power supplied from turbojet engine is uninterrupted and
smooth due to continuous combustion.
 The fuel can be burnt over a large range of mixture strength.
 superior weight to power ratio (or specific power) compared to
that of reciprocating types of aero-engines
𝑎(𝑡) 𝑣(𝑡)
𝑝. 𝑡𝑜. 𝑤 =
𝑔

a(t):is acceleration of the center of mass of the body, changing with


time.
v(t):is velocity of the center of mass of the body, changing with
time.
Also the high speed of drag is also reduced as there is no propeller
or propeller turbulence overr the air craft is absent .
 much less radio interference and this is often use in the military
purposes.
 very little power is suffered in transmission because the trust is
applied directly. Turbojet engines maintain and even increase their
efficiency at high altitudes.
 less frequent major overhauls are required.
 smaller frontal area of the engine

Cross sectional area of a turbojet


engine
 Maximum altitude ceiling as compared to turbo-prop and
conventional piston type engines.
 Higher rate of climb.
 Due to absence of propeller pilot forward view from the cock pit
can be improved.
 The general shape of engine is superior from the aerodynamic
point of view.

Different Types of
turbojet engines
DISADVANTAGES OF TURBOJET ENGINES :

 The thrust is low at take-off. This defect is removed by boosting.


Factors affecting jet thrust:
a) Air velocity.
Turbine engines produce thrust by increasing the velocity of the air
flowing through the engine.
b) Air temperature.
The thrust generated by a jet engine is inversely proportional with the
ambient air temperature, thus the thrust decreases as the air
temperature increases.
c) Altitude.
The effect of altitude on thrust is a function of density. As the altitude
increases, the pressure and density decreases so does the thrust.
 The materials required are quite expensive.Because they spin at such
high speeds and because of the high operating temperatures,
designing and manufacturing gas turbines is a tough problem from
both the engineering and materials standpoint.
 The turbojet is less efficient. The total weight of the engine and fuel is
equivalent to a reciprocating engine.

Turbojet engine
 At speeds below 450 kilometers per hour the turbojet becomes
rapidly inefficient.
Turboprops have an optimum speed below about 450 mph (700
km/h). The reason is that all propellers lose efficiency at high speed,
due to an effect known as wave drag that occurs just below
supersonic speeds. This powerful form of drag has a sudden onset,
and led to the concept of a sound barrier when it was first
encountered in the 1940s.
The most effective way to counteract this problem (to some degree)
is by adding more blades to the propeller, allowing it to deliver more
power at a lower rotational speed. This is why many World War II
fighter designs started with two or three-blade propellers and by the
end of the war were using up to five blades in some cases as the
engines were upgraded and new propellers were needed to more
effectively absorb that power.
A method of decreasing wave drag was discovered by German
researchers in 1935—sweeping the wing backwards. Today, almost
all aircraft designed to fly much above 450 mph (700 km/h) use a
swept wing.
 The life of the unit is comparatively shorter.
As the aircraft was refined, the BMW 003 engines were
abandoned due to poor performance and replaced by the
Junkers Jumo 004. Though an improvement, the early jet
engines possessed incredibly short operational lives, typically
lasting only 12-25 hours. Faster than any Allied fighter,
production of the Me 262 became a priority for the Luftwaffe.
Due to Allied bombing, production was distributed to small
factories in German territory, with around 1,400 ultimately being
built.

 Length of take off too much ; thus requiring longer strip.


A reduction method intended for routine use is derived
whereby the take-off distance required for a turbo-jet aircraft to
clear a 50-ft screen under a specified set of standard conditions
of air temperature and pressure, wind speed, aircraft weight
and engine speed can be deduced from the distance measured
in an arbitrary set of conditions.
The method is basically similar to that used for piston-engined aircraft
and the only information required in addition to that which can be
observed is a numerical constant for the engine type. The method is
shown to be not inconsistent with available experimental data.
The aircraft used reheat (afterburners) at takeoff and to pass through the
transonic regime (i.e., "go supersonic") between Mach 0.95 and Mach
1.7. The afterburners were switched off at all other times.
 There is a huge fuel consumption. At low altitudes and speeds
below 550 kilometers/hour, it consumes 2-3 times of fuel as
compared to a reciprocating engine . Hence there is a small time
of flight requiring refueling.
• A closely related (but different) concept to energy efficiency is the
rate of consumption of propellant mass. Propellant consumption in
jet engines is measured by Specific Fuel Consumption, Specific
impulse or Effective exhaust velocity. They all measure the same
thing. Specific impulse and effective exhaust velocity are strictly
proportional, whereas specific fuel consumption is inversely
proportional to the others.
• For air breathing engines such as turbojets energy efficiency and
propellant (fuel) efficiency are much the same thing, since the
propellant is a fuel and the source of energy. In rocketry, the
propellant is also the exhaust, and this means that a high energy
propellant gives better propellant efficiency but can in some cases
actually can give lower energy efficiency.
 The unit gives out more noise than a reciprocating engine.
•Noise is due to shockwaves that form when the exhaust jet interacts with
the external air. The intensity of the noise is proportional to the thrust as
well as proportional to the fourth power of the jet velocity. Generally then,
the lower speed exhaust jets emitted from engines such as high bypass
turbofans are the quietest, whereas the fastest jets, such as rockets and
turbojets and ramjets are the loudest.
•Although some variation in jet speed can often be arranged from a jet
engine (such as by throttling back and adjusting the nozzle) it is difficult to
vary the jet speed from an engine over a very wide range. Engines for
supersonic vehicles such as Concorde, military jets and rockets need to
have supersonic exhaust to support their top speeds, making them
especially noisy even at low speed.

 At low and medium altitude the turbojet unit is less efficient.


•With the exception of scramjets, jet engines, deprived of their inlet
systems can only accept air at around half the speed of sound. The inlet
system's job for transonic and supersonic aircraft is to slow the air and
perform some of the compression.
•The limit on maximum altitude for engines is set by flammability- at very
high altitudes the air becomes too thin to burn, or after compression, too
hot. For turbojet engines altitudes of about 40 km appear to be possible,
whereas for ramjet engines 55 km may be achievable. Scramjets may
theoretically manage 75 km. Rocket engines of course have no upper limit.
Some applications of turbojet engines:

 A turbojet engine is used primarily to propel aircraft, but has been used
for other vehicles, such as cars. Air is drawn into the rotating
compressor via the intake and is compressed to a higher pressure
before entering the combustion chamber. Fuel is mixed with the
compressed air and ignited by a flame in the eddy of a flame holder.
This combustion process significantly raises the temperature of the
gas. Hot combustion products leaving the combustor expand through
the turbine where power is extracted to drive the compressor. Although
this expansion process reduces the turbine exit gas temperature and
pressure, both parameters are usually still well above ambient
conditions. The gas stream exiting the turbine expands to ambient
pressure via the propelling nozzle, producing a high velocity jet in the
exhaust plume. If the momentum of the exhaust stream exceeds the
momentum of the intake stream, the impulse is positive, thus, there is a
net forward thrust upon the airframe.
 Early generation jet engines were pure turbojets, designed initially to
use a centrifugal compressor (as in the Heinkel HeS 3), and very
shortly afterwards began to use Axial compressors (as in the Junkers
Jumo 004) for a smaller diameter to the overall engine housing. They
were used because they were able to achieve very high altitudes and
speeds, much higher than propeller engines, because of a better
compression ratio and because of their high exhaust speed. However,
they were not very fuel efficient. Modern jet engines are mainly
turbofans, where a proportion of the air entering the intake bypasses
the combustor; this proportion depends on the engine's bypass ratio.
This makes turbofans much more efficient than turbojets at high
subsonic/transonic and low supersonic speeds.
 One of the most recent uses of turbojet engines was the
Olympus 593 on Concorde. Concorde used turbojet engines
because it turns out that the small cross-section and high
exhaust speed is ideal for operation at Mach 2.
 Turbojet engines had a significant impact on commercial
aviation. Aside from being faster than piston engines, turbojets
had greater reliability, with some models demonstrating
dispatch reliability rating in excess of 99.9%. Pre-jet commercial
aircraft were designed with as many as 4 engines in part
because of concerns over in-flight failures. Overseas flight
paths were plotted to keep planes within an hour of a landing
field, lengthening flights. Turbojets' reliability allowed for three
and two-engine designs, and more direct long-distance flights.
 THE MESSERSCHMITT Me 262 :
The Messerschmitt Me 262 was the world's first operational jet-
powered fighter aircraft. In combat, when properly flown, it
proved to be essentially untouchable, able to outrun its Allied
counterparts by as much as 100 mph.
 CONCORDE:
One of the most recent uses of turbojet engines was the
Olympus 593 on Concorde.
Concorde used turbojet engines because it turns out that the
small cross-section and high exhaust speed is ideal for
operation at Mach 2.
 THRUST 2:
In 1983 the car reached a top speed of 650.88 mph
(1,047.49 km/h) and broke the record at 633.468 mph
(1,019.468 km/h). It is powered by a single Rolls-Royce Avon jet
engine sourced from an English Electric Lightning.

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