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Energy Policy 35 (2007) 14521463 www.elsevier.com/locate/enpol

Estimation of the potential for reduced greenhouse gas emission in North-East Russia: A comparison of energy use in mining, mineral processing and residential heating in Kiruna and Kirovsk-Apatity
Gudrun Keikkalaa,, Andrey Kaskb, Jan Dahla, Vladimir Malyshevb, Viktor Kotomkinc
b

, Lulea University of Technology, SE-971 87 Lulea Sweden Murmansk State Technical University, Sportivnaj.str, Murmansk, Russia c Kola Energy Efciency Centre, Lenin Avenue 7, Kirovsk, Russia Available online 9 June 2006

Abstract The energy demand at Murmansk Oblast in North-East Russia is covered at 60% by fossil fuels and at 40% by electricity. This study estimates the potential for reduction of fossil fuel consumption and CO2-emissions at Murmansk Oblast. The study focus on the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk and the apatite ore mining company Apatit JSC . The potential for energy efciency, reduced fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions is estimated by comparison with the of city Kiruna in Northern Sweden, with a climate similar to that of North-East Russia, and with the iron ore mining company LKAB. This study shows that the potential for reduced CO2emissions is about 630,700 tons CO2 annually in the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk or 6.3 tons of CO2 per capita, Apatit JSC not included. These results applied on Murmansk Oblast gives a potential for reduced CO2-emissions of about 6 Mtons annually in the municipalities together. The specic energy consumption at Apatit JSC is 67 times per ton product compared to LKAB. The mining has 4 times higher specic energy consumption per ton raw ore compared to LKAB. r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: CO2-emission; North-East Russia; Energy efciency

1. Introduction 1.1. Background The onshore industries in Murmansk Oblast, North-East Russia, and adjacent areas are dominated by the mining sector industry, including ore extraction, minerals processing and process metallurgy. This sector dominates the industrial energy use. The industries are located close to the mineral deposits with an adjacent town where the employees of the industry live. The towns are heated by district heating systems fuelled by coal or heavy oil-red boilers located within, or close to, the industrial area. Residual energy from the industries is generally not utilised for heating purposes.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +46 920 49 1677; fax: +46 920 49 1047.

E-mail address: gudrun.keikkala@ltu.se (G. Keikkala). 0301-4215/$ - see front matter r 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.023

The total energy demand in the Oblast is covered at 60% by fuel oil or coal and at 40% by electricity, making the contribution from solid fuels an insignicant gure. The main supply of electricity is from the nuclear power plant Polyarnij Zori, situated in the Oblast. A minor part of the electricity is produced in heat and power plants based on fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are imported from other regions. The heavy energy intensive industry consumes approximately 75% of the generated electricity and more than 85% of the boiler fuel oil. The burning of the low rened and sulphur-rich mazut (grade ve) fuel oil amounts to more than 2 million tons annually at a sulphur content of about 34%. With the present level of stack gas cleaning, some 6080,000 tons of sulphur are emitted annually to the atmosphere. The large dependence on fossil fuel for the industrial processes and the heat supply to the cities can probably not be reduced signicantly by substitution of the fossil fuel by renewable energy sources. Energy efciency is more likely

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to lead to cost effective reduction of the fossil fuel use. Improved integration of the industrial processes and better integration of the energy systems of the industries and the adjacent towns is one of the routes for cost effective measures for reducing the consumption of fossil fuel. The industrial processes and the energy utilising and generating equipment in the heavy industries in Murmansk Oblast have been designed for low energy prices. The energy prices are now increasing and have led to high production costs. Modernisation of the plants is progressing, but slowly. The energy consumption per produced unit is much higher in the Kola industries compared to similar industries in for instance Sweden. This indicates that there is a considerable potential for improvement of the energy efciency in the heavy industry in Murmansk Oblast. Improvements of energy efciency for buildings, heat production and distribution that leading to reduced energy costs are also important for the people living in the industrial towns, if the savings lead to lower heating and electricity bills. The recent increases of the tariffs have led to difculties for large groups of the population with potentially serious social problems, (Apatity municipality, 2003). Some energy efciency projects are being carried out (Kola Energy Efciency Centre (KEEC), 1999, 2002) which shows that there is a signicant potential for energy efciency in residential buildings. The government has also recognised the need to save energy (The Ministry of Energy, 2002, Energy strategy, 2020), as one of the main points of the energy policy in the country. The current level of energy efciency has potential to retard the economic recovery of the country and cause problems on the energy sector. Russia is one of the worlds largest emitters of greenhouse gases according to the World Bank estimation in 1996. The main source of CO2emissions is the energy sector. Fuel combustion contributes to about 9698% of the total CO2 emissions. The rest are produced by industrial processes and fugitive fuels. Russia has been part of the process of international climate change regime formation from the very beginning and was among the rst to sign and ratify the FCCC in the mid-1990s. The State Duma has also ratied the Kyoto protocol. The goal in the energy strategy is to return to the level of CO2- and other GHG-emissions of 1990, as a base year. The main tool is energy saving and energy efciency (Nikitina, 2001). The government and the Ministry of Energy have local organisations, Energonadzor, to full the energy strategy. At Murmansk Oblast the Energonadzor for each city documents the energy situation regularly and initiates energy activities. In an industry-related environment like that in Murmansk Oblast overall process integration system solutions aimed at energy saving and applied energy research and development aimed at improving the energy efciency in municipalities as well as in industries appear to have a considerable potential for reduction of fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions.

1.2. Objective The main objective of this study is to estimate the potential for reduction of fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions by energy conservation in towns with heavy industries at Murmansk Oblast. This publication focuses on the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk and the apatite ore mining company Apatit JSC as a basis for assessment of the methodological adaptation. The potential is estimated by comparison with the municipality of Kiruna in Sweden, with a climate similar to that of NorthEast Russia, and with the iron ore mining company LKAB. 2. Method Benchmarking is used as method for estimation of the potential for energy efciency and reduced CO2 emissions. The municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk are compared with Kiruna with a similar climate. The mining industry Apatit JSC is compared with the iron ore mining industry LKAB in Kiruna. There is almost no permanent measurement equipment in district heating systems in Kirovsk and Apatity as well as in other towns at Murmansk Oblast. The method for fact collection used in this study has mainly been interviews with people at heating companies, local governments and industries. Data from the operation of industries, heat and power plants, and distribution companies are used if available. Energy efciency projects that are being carried out have been used. For Kiruna, data was collected from measurements and operating data for the municipality-owned heating company and the local mining industry, LKAB. The method used to estimate the potential for greenhouse gas emission described step-wise in the following (for nomenclature see Supplementary Appendix A): 1. Conrmation of the entire fuel consumption, FCHP, and heat delivered from each heat and power plant, HCHP. 2. Conrmation of fuel consumption, FIND, and energy use, HIND, for each industry. 3. Energy delivered to each municipality, HMUN, and heated area, AMUN, conrmed. 4. Specic heat delivered to the municipalities, HSMUN, estimated as 5. HSMUN H MUN =AMUN kWh=m2 . (1) 6. Specic heat consumption in buildings, HSBUI estimated with data from the heat and power plant in Kiruna and from energy efciency projects (KEEC, 2002) in Apatity. 7. Energy efciency potential in municipality buildings, EEPBUI, is estimated as 8. EEPBUI HSMUN;Apatity HSMUN;Kiruna AMUN;Apatity MWh. (2) 9. Distribution losses from the district heating system estimated as

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10. PDHLOSS HSMUN HSBUI =HSMUN %, 11. DHLOSS HSMUN HSBUI AMUN MWh.

(3) (4)

Table 1 Climate and heating data for Kiruna, Sweden and Apatit-Kirovsk, Russia City Average outdoor temperature over the year (1C) 0.5 +1.0 1.2 Dimensional temperature for heating systems (1C) 30 29 28 Heating period (h)

12. The potential to reducing distribution losses in district heating systems in Apatity and Kirovsk is estimated as 13. EEPDH PDHLOSS;Apatity and Kirovsk PDHLOSS;Kiruna DHLOSS;Apatity and Kirovsk MWh. 5 14. Greenhouse gas emission reduction in Apatity and Kirovsk is estimated with the energy efciency potential and fuel consumption of coal and oil as a basis. This gives s potential for CO2 emission reduction in the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk as (6) 15. GHGRed EEPBUI EEPDH =HVRCO2EM . 16. Identication of possibilities to use waste energy from Apatit JSC and the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk. Estimation of inuences on CO2 emissions. 17. Application of results in Apatity and Kirovsk to the region of Murmansk Oblast.

Apatit Kirovsk Kiruna

6816 6816 7550

20

Average temperature, C

15 10 5 0
Ja n Fe b Ju n Ju l ay Au g Se M

Kiruna Apatity Kirovsk

-5 -10 -15 -20

3. Conditions 3.1. Municipalities Kiruna is located in the northern part of Sweden about 1400 km north of Stockholm and 20 km north of the Arctic Circle with a population of about 19,000 people. The town has the same climate as the studied towns at Murmansk Oblast in North-East Russia. The mining company LKAB is located in Kiruna with an iron ore extraction by underground mining. LKAB has an iron concentrating plant in Kiruna and iron pellet production in Kiruna and in Svappavaara, about 30 km from Kiruna. Kirovsk is situated at the geographical centre of the Kola Peninsula on the shore of the lake Bolshoy Vudyavr in a valley of the Kibiny Mountains. The town was founded in 1929. Today Kirovsk has a population of about 31,600 people. The mining and concentrating industry Apatit JSC is the dominating industry in the area and the largest apatite and nepheline production company in Europe. The mining is situated in or close to Kirovsk. The central mine and Vostoc mines are open pits. The Rasvumchor and Kirovsk mines are underground mines. The apatite deposit is the largest in the world. The rst mineral concentrating plant, ANOF-1, was situated in Kirovsk but has been closed for long time. The town of Apatity, located on the shore of the lake Imandra about 15 km from Kirovsk, was founded in 1966 with the opening of the apatitenepheline concentrating factory ANOF-2 incorporated in Apatit JSC. Today Apatity has a population of about 68,300 people. Apatit JSC has also an apatite concentrating plant, ANOF-3, located between Kirovsk and Apatity. Climate and heating data for the towns are shown in Table 1 and the monthly average outdoor temperature is shown in Fig. 1 (Swedish Meotrology and Hydrology

Month
Fig. 1. Monthly average temperatures in Kiruna, Apatity and Kirovsk, (statistically normal year).

Institute (SMHI), Sweden, 2002; Kola Energy Efciency Centre (KEEC), 2003; SNIP, Russia, 2002). The municipality structure is very different in Apatity Kirovsk compared to Kiruna. Residential buildings dominate in ApatityKirovsk and almost all are multi-family buildings built up very densely. Apatity has 24 singlefamily houses or 0.1% of the residential building area. In Kiruna 24% of the residential building area are singlefamily buildings. The multi-family buildings are not so densely built up in Kiruna as in Apatity and Kirovsk and other cities at Murmansk Oblast. The building standard in Apatity and Kirovsk can be classied by the periods when they were constructed and they are not sufcient for the climate. Constructions built in the same period in the North and South of Russia are of the same standard in terms of climate shelter. The heating and ventilation standard is the same in almost all types of buildings. Natural ventilation is dominating. Almost no buildings have mechanical ventilation. The heating systems have almost no thermostatic valves for room temperature control. There are buildings with other standards such as hotels for example but they are very few. In Sweden, the building standard varies depending on the climate zone. In the northern part of Sweden, as in Kiruna, houses are more insulated. The heating and ventilation standard is different depending on what kind of building it is. Almost all buildings built later than 1965 have mechanical ventilation and after 1980 also systems for heat recovery and in some buildings also cooling systems. Heating systems with thermostatic valves for room temperature control are dominating.

ct N ov D ec

ar

Ap

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G. Keikkala et al. / Energy Policy 35 (2007) 14521463 Table 2 Specic heat use for multi-family buildings in Sweden and Norrbotten using district heating Specic heat use (kWh/m2) Built before 1940 165 Built 19411960 168 Built 19611975 160 Built after 1976 140 Buildings in Norrbotten 202 National mean 160 1455

Table 3 Specic heat use for non-residential buildings in Sweden (ofce buildings, shops, public buildings etc) using district heating Specic heat use (kWh/m2) Built before 1940 133 Built 19411960 Built 19611975 Built 19761980 Built 19811985 Built after 1986 National mean

137

143

124

117

104

131

Table 4 Heated area and heat use in Apatity, Kirovsk and Kiruna in 2002 City Heated area, residential buildings (m2) 1,461,363 808,145a 603,809 Heated area, other buildings (m2) 203,848 324,740 Distributed heat (MWh) Length of distribution system, 2 pipes (m) 107,000 56,326 95,000

Apatity Kirovsk Kiruna


a

1,145,000 552,000 248,649

Includes all heated area.

Tables 2 and 3 show statistics (Swedish Statistics, 2002) for specic heat consumption for buildings from different periods in Sweden and in the county of Norrbotten. Heated areas and heat delivered to the studied municipalities are shown in Table 4 (Kiruna heat and power plant, 2002b; Kirovsk municipality, 2003; Kirovsk heating plant, 2003; Energonadzor Kirovsk, 2003; Apatity heat and power plant, 2003; Apatity municipality, 2003; MUEC, 2003; Energonadzor Apatity, 2003). The district heating system in Kiruna is designed as a closed system with heat exchangers between the district heating system and the residential systems and controlled output temperature to buildings by outdoor temperature. The warm tap water systems are also closed and have a small amount of water circulating in the building to avoid an output of warm tap water not used. The district heating systems in Apatity and Kirovsk, as well as in other towns at Murmansk Oblast, are designed as open systems. The heating and the warm tap water systems in buildings are directly connected with the district heating system without any heat exchanger. There are shut down period during the summer from June to September. During this period there is no heat or warm tap water available. The design of the open and closed systems is described in Supplementary Appendix A. The municipality of Kiruna is supplied by the municipality owned heat and power plant and uses a mix of fuels shown in Table 5 (Kiruna heat and power plant, 2002b). Apatity is supplied from a coal-based heat and power plant owned by the energy production company Kolenergo. The heat and power plant also supply the mining industry Apatit JSC with heat. The municipality of Kirovsk has heat supply from a heating plant owned by Apatit JSC. Heavy

oil, grade 5, called mazut is used. The fuels used at the heating plant and heat and power plants are shown in Table 5 (Apatity heat and power plant, 2003; Kirovsk heating plant, 2003). Electricity to Kirovsk and Apatit JSC is supplied from the nuclear power plant Polijarniy Zori situated at Kola Peninsula. The municipality of Apatit has electricity supply from the heat and power plant and from the nuclear power plant. 3.2. Industries 3.2.1. LKAB LKAB is the local iron ore mining industry in Kiruna with production of nes and iron pellets. The raw ore extraction in 2002 was 19.6 Mton at a level of 1045 m underground. The nes production was 2.9 Mton and the pellets production 7.1 Mton in Kiruna. In Svappavaara, the pellets production was 3.1 Mton. LKAB has oil-based heating plants in the industrial area. They also use coal for the pelletizing process. Electricity is bought from the electricity market. Waste heat from the pellets production of 126 GWh is mainly used for their own needs. 91 GWh is used for heating the mine ventilation of 1600 m3/s outdoor air. The rest 35 GWh is sold to the municipality heat and power plant (LKAB Kiruna, 2002a,b). LKABs operations include a process chain stretched all the way from the iron ore reserves to the customer. It starts with the production of crude ore in underground mines, continues with upgrading of iron ore in processing plants at surface level, and ends with the rail transport of nished products to shipping harbours for further delivery to customers around the world. For a detailed process description see Supplementary Appendix C.

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1456 G. Keikkala et al. / Energy Policy 35 (2007) 14521463 Table 5 Fuel consumption for municipalities, 2002 (tons/year) City Apatity Kirovsk Kiruna
a b

Heavy Oila (tons/year) 650 89,630 1960

Coalb (tons/year) 375,140

Peat (tons/year)

Wood chips (tons/year)

Municipality solid waste (tons/year)

24,960

12,280

41,920

Real heating value HVR5.8 MWh/ton. Real heating value HVR8.8 MWh/ton.

Enrichment plant

Energy consumption and fuels used for each part of the process are shown in Fig. 2 (LKAB Kiruna, 2002a). The consumption is also presented in detail in Supplementary Appendix B. Besides the processes described in Supplementary Appendix C, there are services supporting the mining and product productions such as heating plants, compressed air production, workshops and ofces above ground presented in Fig. 2 as over all uses. The environmental data is updated every year at LKAB. The material and energy balance, emissions and water pollution for the entire company LKAB, including all the production in 2001, are shown in Fig. 3 (LKAB, 2001). The annual specic CO2 emissions at LKAB Kiruna in kg/ton pellets are shown in Fig. 4 (LKAB Kiruna, 2002b; LKAB Svappavaara, 2002). The total fuel consumption and CO2 emissions in 2002 are shown in Table 6 (LKAB Kiruna, 2002a, b; LKAB Svappavaara, 2002). 3.2.2. Apatit JSC Apatit JSC operates four mines (2 underground units and 2 open pits), two dressing plants (ANOF-2 and ANOF-3) and over 20 auxiliary divisions ensuring smooth operations of motors and railway conveyances, water and power supply, spare parts of manufacture and maintenance of machinery, buildings and constructions. In 2002, the two open pits extracted about 73.1 Mtons raw ore and the underground mines extracted about 11.6 Mtons. The total raw ore extraction was 84.7 Mtons in 2002. The apatite concentrate production was 5.0 Mtons at ANOF-2 and the nepherline concentrate production 1.1 Mtons. ANOF-3 produced 3.6 Mtons apatite concentrate (Apatit JSC, 2003; KEEC, 2003). Apatit JSC in Apatity, ANOF-2, buys energy for heating and electricity from the coal-based heat- and power plant located near the industry. The plant is owned by the energy company Kolenergo. In Kirovsk, the Apatit Company owns the oil-based heating plant that distributes heat to both town and the mining. Electricity is also supplied from the nuclear power station Polnjary Zori located at Murmansk Oblast. ANOF-3 has its own oil-based heating plant (Apatit JSC, 2003; KEEC, 2003). Apatite concentrate is the main product of the company Apatit JSC. The concentrate is extracted by a otation method from the crushed apatitenepherline ore. After

Energy consumption LKAB Kiruna and Svappavaara 2002


800 700 600 500
Electricity Coal Heavy oil Oil Eo1 Diesel Waste heat recovery

GWh

400 300 200 100 0 Mining Dressing plant Pelletizing Ower all uses

Fig. 2. Energy consumption at LKAB Kiruna and Svappavara in year 2002.

production of apatite concentrate a number of products are extracted in course in intensied processing of tailings, the major of which are nepherline concentrates. For a detailed process description see Supplementary Appendix D. The energy use and fuels consumption at each plant are shown in Tables 7 and 8 (Apatit JSC, 2002, 2003; Apatity heat and power plant, 2003; KEEC, 2003; Kirovsk heating plant, 2003). Fuel consumption, coal, at the heat and power plant for heat supply to ANOF-2 is included in the gures. 4. Results 4.1. Municipalities Fig. 5 shows heat distributed from the heat and power plants to the municipalities and what fuels are used (Kiruna heat and power plant, 2002b; Kirovsk heating plant, 2003; Apatity heat and power plant, 2003). The specic heat distributed to the municipalities per square metre heated area, distribution losses included, is shown in Fig. 6 (Kiruna heat and power plant, 2002b;

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G. Keikkala et al. / Energy Policy 35 (2007) 14521463
Particulates 1760 tons SO2 1385 tons HF 127 tons HCl 330 tons NOX 2620 tons CO2 434 tons

1457

Atmospheric emissions Crude ore 31.5 Mtons

Pellets 14.1 Mt

Explosives 12.3 ktons Inputs Additives 536 Mtons - olivine - dolomite - bentonite - lime - quartzite LKABs PRODUCTION Outputs

Fines 6.2 Mt

Residual products - waste rock 9.6 Mt - tailings 3.6 Mt

Energy 2741 GWh Nitrogen 211 tons

Discharges to water Total phosphorus 364 kg Trace metals 187 kg

Excess heat 126 GWh

Fig. 3. The material and energy balance, emissions and water pollutions for LKAB in 2001.

Fig. 4. (a) Specic CO2 emissions at LKAB Kiruna, (b) Specic CO2 emissions at LKAB Svappavaara.

Kirovsk heating plant, 2003; Kirovsk municipality, 2003; Apatity heat and power plant, 2003; Apatity municipality, 2003; MUEC, 2003).

These gures show that the specic heat consumption, distribution losses included, is 2.5 times higher in Apatity and Kirovsk compared to Kiruna. In Kiruna almost no fossil fuels are used while in Apatity and Kirovsk only fossil fuels such as oil and coal are used. Table 9 (Kiruna heat and power plant, 2002b; Kirovsk heating plant, 2003; Apatity heat and power plant, 2003) shows the emissions in 2002 with fuel consumption as in Table 5 and CO2 emission values as in Table 6 as a basis. The district heating delivered to consumers in Kiruna shown in Table 4 are measured for each consumer. The gures in Table 4 give an average specic heat of 276 kWh/ m2 (Kiruna heat and power plant, 2002b) shown in Fig. 6, including distribution losses. Measurements of the entire heat distributed from the heat and power plant and measurements in each building show that the overall distribution losses are about 12.1%. The average specic energy consumption in buildings is thus 243 kWh/m2. The specic heat output, 688 kWh/m2 and 683 kWh/m2in Table 4 and Fig. 6, from the heating plant in Kirovsk and heat and power plants in Apatity are measured. These gures include the distribution losses. The heat consumption in each building in Apatity and Kirovsk is not measured. There are a few energy conservation projects (KEEC, 2002, 1999) with energy use measured before and after energy saving measures. These measurements yield a specic energy use in residential buildings of 420 kWh/m2 before energy conservation. The gap between the specic heat output from the heat and power plants and the specic heat consumption in buildings is distribution losses. These gures give overall distribution losses of about 40%.

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1458 G. Keikkala et al. / Energy Policy 35 (2007) 14521463 Table 6 Fuel consumption and CO2 emission, LKAB Kiruna and Svappavaara (2002) Fuel Fuel consumption (tons/ year) 82,395 15,160 1690 CO2-emission factor, CO2EM (tons/ton fuel) 3.3 3.1 3.1 CO2-emission (tons/year) CO2-emission (kg/ton product annually) 20.8 3.6 0.4 28.0

Coal Heavy oil, grade 5 Oil, grade 1 Total

271,900 46,990 5250 367,000

Table 7 Energy consumption data for Apatit JSC (GWh) (2002) Consumer Kirovsk mine Vostochniy mine Rasvumchorr mine Central mine Other plants for mining ANOF-2 ANOF-3 Other boiler plants Total
a b

Raw ore production (Mtons) 9.1 35.4 2.5 37.7 35.4a 49.0b 84.7

Electricity 180 68 67 33 356 607 356 1667

Coal

Heavy oil Mazut 187 91 35 98 23 1272 1138 810 3654

Total consumption 367 159 102 131 379 2354 1494 810 5796

475

475

Raw ore amount used to produce 5.0 Mtons apatite and 1.1 Mtons nepherline. Raw ore amount used to produce 3.6 Mtons apatite.

Table 8 Fuel consumption, Apatit JSC, year (2002) Fuel Coal Heavy oil, mazut
a

Heat production for municipality MWh/year


1200000 1000000

Fuel consumption (tons/year) 81,896 415,227a

MWh/year

800000 600000 400000

Calculated from heat consumption. Heating value see Table 5.

Heat production for municipality MWh/year


1200000 1000000 MWh/year 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 Kiruna Kirovsk Apatity Coal Electricity Peat Biomass Industrial waste heat Municipality waste Oil

200000 0 Kiruna
Coal Electricity Peat Biomass

Kirovsk

Apatity

Industrial waste heat Municipality waste Oil

Fig. 6. Specic heat distributed to the municipalities in 2002.

Fig. 5. Heat distributed to the municipalities and fuels used in 2002.

The energy saving potential will be about 410 kWh/m2 heated building area compared to Kiruna or;

The cost effective energy efciency improvements necessary to get close to the standard in Kiruna and Sweden are 1. Energy improvements for residential buildings:  sealing windows and doors;  installation of automatic closed district heating subcentral;  installation of energy meters in buildings;

 

177 kWh/m2 heated area in residential buildings about 30% of the distribution losses.

The energy saving projects carried out in residential buildings (KEEC, 2002) conrm the gures for energy saving potential in buildings.

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balancing heating system; installation of thermostatic valves in residential buildings;  installation of new closed system for hot tap water with economical consuming hot tap water devices;  installation of water saving showers and bathroom and kitchen taps. 2. Energy improvements in district heating distribution system:  installation of pre-insulated district heating pipes.

 

sions will be as shown in Table 10 (based on Eq. (2)(6); Table 5; Table 6). Table 10 shows that the entire potential for CO2 emission reduction in the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk is 630,700 tons CO2 annually or 6.3 tons CO2 per capita annually.

4.2. Industries The specic fuel consumption is presented in Figs. 7 and 8 (LKAB Kiruna, 2002a; KEEC, 2003; Apatit JSC, 2002, 2003) for each company. However this comparison is not sufcient. Most of the raw ore extraction at the Apatit JSC is open cuts. These must be separated to get a sufcient comparison. The energy used for mining is shown in Fig. 9 for each mine (LKAB Kiruna, 2002a; KEEC, 2003; Apatit JSC, 2002, 2003). The gures show that the specic energy consumption per ton product at Apatit JSC is 67 times higher compared to LKAB. The specic energy consumption per ton raw ore is higher at LKAB compared to Apatit JSC. This is due to the open cuts mining dominating at Apatit JSC. The specic energy use per ton raw ore in underground mining is 4 times higher at Apatit JSC compared to LKAB. The fossil fuel used at LKAB is coal for the pelletizing process at LKAB. Apatit JSC uses heavy oil, mazut, for drying of concentrates and for overall heating. District heating produced from coal is also delivered from the heat and power plant in Apatity. Table 11 shows the CO2 emissions for 2002 for both industries. The CO2 emission reduction through energy efciency at Apatit JSC is not possible to estimate only by comparing with LKAB. The processes are too complicated and there are differences in the separation and concentration processes. The big difference in energy consumption between LKAB and Apatit JSC indicates that there is a

Measures included are based on energy projects carried out (KEEC, 1999, 2002) and are realistic to implement. Measures as insulation of walls are not included thus this measure is not cost effective and should be done in steps trough some years. Possible waste heat recovery in the municipality has also been identied. District heating production is possible by use of sewage in heat pumps. This is a well-known technology in Sweden. The heat pump technology used for calculation is the well-established compressor technology with a coefcient performance of three, COP 3. The medium used is cleaned sewage. With the energy efciency improvements described above and waste heat recovery from sewage, the potential for reduced energy consumption and reduced CO2 emis-

Table 9 CO2 emissions for heat and power plants in Kiruna and Apatity and heating plant in Kirovsk, 2002, [tons/ year] City Kiruna Apatity Kirovsk CO2-emission 178,730 1,697,870 277,850 CO2-emission/capita 9.41 24.85 8.79

Table 10 Potential of energy consumption and reduced CO2 emissions in the municipalities of Apatity and Kirovsk Apatity annual saving (GWh) (tons coal) Apatity CO2-emission reduction tons/year tons/capita annually 167,845 2.46 267,982 3.92 217,629 3.19 66,000 0.97 33,000 0.48 Kirovsk Annual saving (GWh) (tons oil) Kirovsk CO2-emission reduction tons/year tons/capita annually 5075 1.60 58,829 1.86 43,329 1.37 19,643 0.62 9822 0.31

Residential buildings Distribution system (before building saving) Distribution system (after building saving) Heat recovery from sewage (before building saving) Heat recovery from sewage (after building saving)

295 50,862 471 81,206 382 65,948 136 23,448 68 11,724

143 16 50 167 18,977 123 13,977 59 6336 28 3168

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potential for energy efciency. This will be studied in further work. In this study waste energy from recycling process water has been identied. 115,174 m3/year or 9000 m3/h wastewater, during operating time, with a temperature of 15 1C is available to use in heat pumps for district heating. The reduction of coal consumption and CO2 emissions are presented in Table 12. The CO2 emissions in the cities, municipalities and industry together, are shown in Table 13. Emissions from mines are included in the data for Kirovsk. Emissions from ANOF-3 are included in the data for Apatity.

Fuel consumption kWh/ton product

600 kWh/ton product 500 400 300 200 100 0 LKAB Electricity Oil Apatit Coal

Fuel consumption kWh/ton raw ore


Fig. 9. Specic energy use for mining at Apatit JSC mines, 2002.
100 kWh/ton raw ore 80 Electricity 60 40 20 0 LKAB Apatit Oil Coal

Table 11 CO2 emissions at LKAB and Apatit JSC (2002) Industry CO2-emission (tons/year) CO2-emission (kg/ton product annually) 28.0 132.7

(a)

Fuel consumption kWh/ton product


600 kWh/ton product 500 400 300 200 100 0 LKAB Apatit Electricity Oil Coal

LKAB, Kiruna and Svappavaara Apatit JSC, Apatity and Kirovsk

367,000 1,287,200

5. Discussion This paper conrms the indications that there is a signicant potential for fossil fuel reduction by energy efciency at Murmansk Oblast. The energy consumption in the residential buildings, the district heating system and industry has been mapped out. Cost effective energy efciency measures for the municipalities and possible waste heat recovery have been identied. There are almost no measured data available on the district heating system. The heat delivered from the heat and power plant and heating plant was measured but there are no measurements in the district heating distribution system or in the buildings. It was not possible to make any measurements in this study. The method used to map out the energy situation was to use operating data available from the heat and power plant, the heating plant and the industry, interviews with people responsible for energy production and distribution and also with energy specialists at the municipalities and at the County Government Board, Energonadzor. To avoid uncertainty the data was checked from different sources. Comparison with Kiruna was also one more method for validating the data. The data was also compared with available data in Murmansk (Murmansk Oblast Energy Efciency Centre (MOEEC), 2003) and Kandalaksha (Kandalakhsa munici-

(b)

Fig. 7. (a) Specic fuel consumption per ton raw ore at LKAB and Apatit JSC, 2002. (b) Specic fuel consumption per ton product at LKAB and Apatit JSC, 2002.

Fuel consumption kWh/ton raw ore

100

kWh/ton raw ore

80 60 40 20 0 LKAB
Electricity Oil

Apatit
Coal

Fig. 8. Specic energy use for mining (raw ore extraction), 2002.

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G. Keikkala et al. / Energy Policy 35 (2007) 14521463 Table 12 Potential for CO2 reduction by use of heat pumps at Apatit JSC Consumer Energy efciency potential (GWh/ year) 544.0 Potential of reduction of CO2emissions (tons/year) 309,520 Potential for CO2-emission reduction (tons/capita yearly) 4.53 1461

Apatit JSC

Table 13 CO2 emissions in municipalities and industries (2002) CO2-emission (ton/year) Kiruna Apatity Kirovsk 402,604 2,547,905 716,075 CO2-emission (ton/capita, year) 21.2 37.3 22.6

pality, 2003). These comparisons showed that the energy consumption data was reliable. The ndings showed that the CO2 emissions were 24.8 tons per capita in Apatity, 8.8 tons per capita in Kirovsk and 9.4 tons per capita in Kiruna. Despite the fact that the values in Kiruna and Kirovsk are almost similar there is a signicant potential for CO2-emission reduction in Kirovsk. Kirovsk has only heat production in a heating plant while Kiruna has both heat and power production. Kirovsk is very densely built and more people are live per square meter heated building area compared to Kiruna. The whole population in Kirovsk lives in multi-family buildings. In Kiruna, 23% of the heated residential building area consists of single-family houses. Apatity has both heat and power production and is more suitable for comparision with Kiruna. In Apatity, the municipality structure is also different from that of Kiruna. There are more people living per square meter of heated building area compared to Kiruna and the whole population lives in multi-family buildings. For industries this study shows that there is a signicant potential for energy efciency. The specic energy consumption per ton product is 67 times higher at Apatit JSC compared to LKAB. For mining the specic energy consumption per ton raw ore is 4 times higher at Apatit compared to LKAB. The raw extraction is 1045 m underground at LKAB compared to 340 m underground at Rasvumchorsky mine in Kirovsk. According to our ndings (KEEC, 2003; Apatit JSC, 2003) there is no need to pump water from the mine in Kirovsk. LKAB would need more energy for ventilation and water pumping. However, this study shows that Apatit JSC has the higher consumption. The specic energy consumption per ton raw ore is possible to compare for the underground mines. For the upgrading processes it is not possible to compare specic energy consumption for the entire process chain although the processes are very different. The processes must be studied more in detail. It is not possible to identify energy efciency measures that have an impact on the CO2 emissions by benchmarking these complex processes. This

will be studied in further work. This study can determine that there is signicant energy efciency potential in optimizing fans, ventilation ows, pumps and water use. Possible waste heat recovery in the industry has been identied. Recycling process water can be used in heat pumps for district heating production or/and the industrys own needs. The measure gives considerable fossil fuel reduction. This measure gives a CO2 reduction of 309,500 tons per year or an annual reduction of 4.5 tons per capita. Integration of municipality district heating systems, industry energy systems and future heat pump systems in Apatity and Kirovsk could also be an energy effective measure. This will be studied further. The energy efciency measures described above will probably give spin off effects and further reduction of fossil fuel consumption. Installation of energy meters in buildings will increase the awareness of energy consumption among the population. Efforts to reduce energy consumption will directly have effect on the energy costs for apartments and other building areas. This will stimulate energy consumption reduction and would lead to an even larger potential for CO2 emission reduction than estimated above. The population would have lower costs for energy consumption and could pay the energy bills. Today the municipalities economy is not in balance due to all missing energy bill payments. Another important measure for achieving fossil fuel and CO2 emission reduction is to increase the awareness among decision-makers in Murmansk Oblast of the potential of cost effective energy conservation measures and how of reorganize the heat supply to municipalities in order to lower the heating costs. The co-operation among local municipality governments, district heating production companies, district heating distribution companies and industries could be much better. In some parts there is no co-operation. Increasing co-operation toward the same goal would lead to decreasing fossil fuel consumption, lower costs and CO2 emission reduction. The energy situation is similar in other cities and industries at Murmansk Oblast and other parts of Russia. The climate shelter in residential buildings in Russia are depending of in what time, era, they were built not by climate. The district heating systems are also similar in the cities of Russia. This study can be applied in other parts of Russia with corrections for the local climate. The benchmarking methodology used in this study is well established and can be used for energy situation studies also in other part of the world.

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1462 G. Keikkala et al. / Energy Policy 35 (2007) 14521463

6. Conclusions From this study it can be concluded that: 1. The energy delivered to the municipality of Apatity and Kirovsk is 2.5 times higher compared to Kiruna. 2. The energy efciency potential in buildings in the municipalities is 3035%. The hot tap water consumption can be reduced two times. 3. Distribution losses, about 40%, in the district heating system can be saved by improvement of the distribution system with a level of 30%. 4. The mining industry in Apatity and Kirovsk, Apatit JSC, has 4 times higher specic energy consumption per ton raw ore and 67 times higher per ton product compared to LKAB mining company in Kiruna. 5. Additional possibilities are identied:  District heating production from wastewater with heat pumps at Apatit JSC0 s.  Concentrate industry, ANOF-2.  District heating production from municipality sewage with heat pumps.  Integration of municipality district heating systems and industry energy systems in Apatity and Kirovsk. 6. The potential for reducing CO2-emission for the municipalities is 630,700 tons. 7. CO2 per year or 6.3 tons CO2 per capita for Apatity and Kirovsk. The other towns at Murmansk Oblast have the same structure as ApatityKirovsk. In 2002, Murmansk Oblast had a population of 0.96 million people. This would give a potential for reduced CO2 emissions of 6.1 Mtons per year. 8. The potential for CO2 emission reduction at Apatit JSC by use of waste energy from recycling process water in heat pumps is 30,9500 tons per year or 4.5 tons per capita. 9. The big difference in energy use between LKAB and Apatit JSC indicates that there are a large potential for energy efciency improvements and a potential for CO2 emissions reduction in Apatit JSC.

of energonathzor Vjcheslav Simanovskij, Vice mayor of Apatity Andrey Konovalov, Director of MUEC Apattitckaj elektroploset Tatiana Basareva, Apatity, Vice Director of MUEC Alexandr Dimenshtein in Apatity, Engineer MUEC Marij Borodina in Apatity, Engineer Tatiana Jashina in Apatity, Vice Director of sales energy Ludmila Bobileva in Apatity, Energy supervisor Energonadzor Ludmila Isaeva in Apatity, Vice of mayor of Kandalaksha Andrey Ivanov, Nina Hoptuk Hoptiuk, Larisa Gorbatcheva, Ludmila Mishustina, Aleksey Karasev all in Kandalaksha municipality and for Kandalaksha Aluminum Factory,Chief power engineers Viktor Priclonov, Vera Voronina, Valentina Korshunova, Chief of specialists at heat and water supply department Nikolay Obuhov, and specialists at MUP Nivateplovodokanal. Appendix A. Supplementary materials Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.023. References
ANOF-2, Russia, 1996. Technical process description of factory, R-09AP-71-96. Apatity heat and power plant, Russia, 2003. Personal communications. Sobakin A, Engineer. Balakireva E. Engineer. Apatit JSC, Russia, 2002. Energy account. Apatit JSC, Russia, 2003. Personal communications, Samaphalov G, Main supervisor of Energy Department. Gud, S., Engineer. Rogov A, Engineer. Apatity municipality, Russia, 2003. Personal communication, Konovalov A, Vice mayor of Apatity. Energonadzor Apatity, Russia, 2003. Personal communication, Isaeva L, Energy supervisor. Energonadzor Kirovsk, Russia, 2003. Personal communication, Vorobjev N, Director of heat inspection, Simanovskij V, Director Department of Energy Saving. Kandalaksha municipality, Russia, 2003. Personal communication, Ivanov A, Vice mayor of Kandalaksha. Kirovsk heating plant, Russia, 2003. Personal communication, Perepechin S, Chief of Kirovsk heating. Kirovsk municipality, Russia, 2003. Personal communication, Drozdov A, Vice mayor of Kirovsk. Konstantinova E, Main engineer. Kiruna heat and power plant, Sweden, 2002a. Environment report. Kiruna heat and power plant, Sweden, 2002b. Production statistics. Kola Energy Efciency Centre, KEEC, Russia, 1999. Kirovsk kindergarten No. 12. Energy Efciency Demonstration Project. Kola Energy Efciency Centre, KEEC, Russia, 2002. Energy saving measures and capital renovation at Fersman 22, Apatity. Kola Energy Efciency Centre, KEEC, Russia, 2003. Personal communication, Kotomkin V, Director. LKAB, Sweden, 2001. Annual report. LKAB Kiruna, Sweden, 2002a. Energy account. LKAB Kiruna, Sweden, 2002b. Environment report. LKAB Svappavaara, Sweden, 2002. Environment report. MUEC Apatitckaj elektroteploset, Russia, 2003. Personal communications, Basareva T, Director. Dimenshtein A, Vice director. Borodina M, Engineer. Jashina T, Engineer. Bobileva L, Vice director of sales energy. Murmansk Oblast Energy Efciency Centre, MOEEC, Russia, 2002. Personal communication, Glukhikh V.

Acknowledgments We like to thank the Swedish Energy Agency for its nancial support of this work. We would also like thank Emeritus Professor Bjorn Kjellstrom, Lulea University of Technology, for initiating this project, for his great support and for sharing experiences from Kola Peninsula. We would also like to express our gratitude to persons in the local governments, local heating and distribution companies and at industries that have been helpful with information. We wish to express our gratitude to: Vice major of Kirovsk Anatolij Drozdor, Director of heat inspection Nikolaj Vorobjev, Kirovsk, Main engineer Elena Kostantinova, Kirovsk, Director of department of energy saving

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G. Keikkala et al. / Energy Policy 35 (2007) 14521463 Nikitina, E., 2001. Russia: climate policy formation and implementation during 1990s. Climate Policy 2001 1 (3), 289308. SNIP, Russia, 2002. Standards 2.01.01. Swedish Meotrology and Hydrology Institute, SMHI, 2002. Stastistics. Swedish Statistics, 2002. Energy consumption in Sweden, Table 12. The Ministry of Energy, 2002. Energy Strategy of Russia for the period ending 2020: Main Provisions. Institute for Energy Strategy, Moscow, October. 1463 Gosselin, A., Blackburn, D., Bergeron M., 1999. Assessment protocol of the applicability of ore-processing technology to treat contaminated soils, sediments and sludges. http://www.lkab.com, 2002. http://www.maden.hacettepe.edu.tr/dmmrt/, 2002. Mining dictionary. Kozin, V.E., Levina, T.A., Markov, A.P., 1989. Heat supplying. Handbook for Heat Calculations. Moscow, Russia. Swedish District Heating Association, 2000. Statistics. Swedish Heating Plant Association, 1984. Instruction for district heating systems. Gorbachev, Golovanov, Apatit JSC, 1998. Policy of JSC Apatit in improving ITS Apatit concentrate for consumer needs. Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1997. Cat. No. En 40542/5-1997E, ISBN: 0-662-82406-7.

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