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Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

Meno Summary The Meno is probably one of Plato's earliest dialogues, with the conversation dateable to about 402 BCE. The dialogue begins with Meno asking Socrates whether virtue can be taught, and this question (along with the more fundamental question of what virtue is) occupies the two men for the entirety of the text. Important and recurring Platonic themes are introduced in the Meno, including the form of the Socratic dialogue itself. Socrates attempts to dissect an ethical term by questioning a person who claims to know the term's meaning, and eventually concludes that neither he nor the "expert" really know what the term means. Other important themes raised here in an early form include that of anamnesis (the idea that the soul is eternal, knows everything, and only has to "recollect" in order to learn) and that of virtue as a kind of wisdom. Socrates also makes a number of essential points about the nature of a definition. Socrates and Meno work through a number of possible definitions of virtue, each suggested by Meno and dismantled by Socrates. At one point, the question is raised whether it is even possible to seek for something one does not yet know (as in the case of seeking a definition of virtue), and Socrates performs a scale-model elenchus with Meno's slave to solve the problem via the theory of anamnesis. By the end of the dialogue, the participants (which include Anytus, who enters toward the end and has a minor role) have arrived at the classic state of Socratic aporia--they still do not know what virtue is, but at least they now know that they do not know. Meno and Socrates debate: -whether virtue can be taught -whether it comes by practice -whether it is acquired by birth or nature or another way When the slave figures out answer to the geometric problem: -confirms that the soul is immortal and at our birth we already possess all theoretical knowledge

Virtue and its parts: -it cannot be taught because no one can really define it

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

-no pupils of virtue -gift from the gods -virtue is a good thing -everyone has the same virtues -he opens the dialogue not by asking what virtue is, but rather if and how virtue can be taught. -that virtue must be rigorously defined before we can deal with subsequent questions about it. - Meno's most common error involves naming various examples of virtue instead of naming what is common to all the examples. In the end, Socrates has in fact made a few substantive points about virtue besides the point that to learn it (if it were knowledge) would actually be to recall it. The most important such point is that the good or virtuous depends on wisdom: "All that the soul undertakes and endures, if directed by wisdom, ends in happiness." This will be a recurring theme in the rest of Plato's work--true virtue is not a matter of custom, but rather of knowledge. In the Meno, however, this is not stated clearly. There is a lingering conflict between the conclusion that virtue is, "as a whole or in part," a kind of wisdom and the conclusion that no one can teach it (so that it cannot be knowledge). The Meno leaves us hanging between defining virtue as straight knowledge or as a kind of mysterious wisdom revealed to us by the gods "without understanding." It is seen as likely that most virtuous men are so by holding "right opinions" rather than true knowledge. Right opinions lead us to the same ends as knowledge, but do not stay with us because they are not "tied down" by an account of why they are right. Thus, we can only depend on semi-divine inspiration to keep us focused on right opinions rather than wrong ones. -Virtue is like knowledge, however, unlike knowledge virtue cannot be taught. There are no teachers for it. By the end of Meno, Socrates seems to go away from the idea that virtue and knowledge are very similar and agrees that virtue is good. Knowledge/recollection -There are two parts of knowledge -1.) the kind that can be taught, theoretical knowledge (recollection) -socrates says that the soul is immortal, that is how you recollect knowledge -how Socrates taught the slave geometry -2.)the kind that cant be taught (moral knowledge)

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

-what type of knowledge virtue is -the right opinion will only take you so far, knowledge will take you further Immortality of the soul: -The soul is immortal, which is how you recollect information. At our birth, we already possess all of our theoretical knowledge. -They say that the human soul is immortal; at times it comes to an end, which they call dying, at times it is reborn, but it is never destroyed, and one must live ones life as piously as possible. (pg 71) -the slave figures out the geometry problem due to recollection.

Right Opinion: -The right opinion is tied down, and can only help you so far. -knowledge will take you further -He who has knowledge will always be right, he who has the right opinion will not always be right. -both knowledge and the right opinion lead to virtuous acts. Ion: Summary: -Ion is a rhapsode, which is a person who recites poems. He has just gotten back from winning a contest at the festival of Asclepius at Epidaurus, and he and Socrates are conversing. Socrates continuously asks if Ion truly knows of the arts, has knowledge, or is inspired by divine dispensation, which is a divine pull to Homer. Socrates argues that Ion does not know anything about the arts due to the fact that he only knows of Homer and his poems. Socrates does not believe that Ion speaks the truth, and also believes that Ion is a rhapsode for the wrong reasons, which would be for money. They finally conclude that Ion is inspired by divine dispensation. Socrates also challenges Ion, by asking if due to the fact that he is the greatest rhapsode among the Greeks does that also mean he is the greatest general, because Homer speaks of war in his poems. Ion, of course does think that this makes him the greatest general, but Socrates proves that it does not. Knowledge: -Socrates proves that Ion does not contain any knowledge about the arts, or of the topics discussed in Homers poems. -such as being a charioteer, or a general. -Socrates believes that it is very important for a rhapsode to have a certain amount of knowledge. -Ion is taking from something so divine.

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

-Because Ion is not an expert at the arts, he is making his money off of lies. -Morals to the story: -If you have an opinion: have knowledge to back it up -Lying is unjust
Apology Summary: (basic) Aptly named Apology because Socrates apologizes for the colloquial manner in which he is about to make his defense, so that the jury will focus on his content rather than his eloquence. Apology acts as an account of Socrates trial as told by Plato: How historically accurate is this account? (We assume that it is fairly accurate). The jury was numbered at 501. Went like this: the prosecutor, after the conviction of Socrates, assesses the penalty he thought appropriate, followed by a counter assessment by defendant; then a decision made by the jury. Anytus brought up the charges on Socrates, but Metelus is his accuser/ prosecutor. He is accused of making the worse argument strongerSocrates is guilty of wrongdoing in that he busies himself with studying things in the sky and below the earth; he makes the worse argument the stronger argument, and teaches those same things to others. Corrupting young minds. Socrates claims he is wise because he does not claim to know what he does not and that poets do not understand the meaning of what they say. Socrates says he does not fear death; he is more concerned with if what he does is right or wrong. He is not a phony; what he does in his private life is how he acts in public. Socrates gets the death penalty anyways by a close vote, but says that in a way death is a blessing and he does not ever want to stop practicing philosophy for the unexamined life is not worth living (41). At the end, he also thanks his supporters and those who voted for his benefit, and condemns/ scares the ones who voted for his death. Key Terms: 1) Justice: Socrates believes that justice is executed by those who lead a private life. Those who know what it means to be just will live a life that goes against government, although he admits that this type of life will usually result in death (as it is happening to him right now). A man who really fights for justice must lead a private, not a public, life if he is to survive for even a short time (36) Do you think I would have survived all these years f I were engaged in public affairs and, acting as a good man must, came to the help of justice and considered this the most important thing? Throughout my life, in any public activity I may have engaged in, I am the same man as I am in private life (37). 2) Humility: Throughout the dialogue, Socrates portrays himself as extremely humble, stating that he does not claim to know what he does not know, and that is why many consider him to be wise. Also, he does not charge a fee for his services b/c he believes that the poor man and the rich man should have the same opportunity to examine a situation.

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

it is likely that neither of us knows anything worthwhile, but he thinks he knows something when he does not, whereas when I do not know, neither do I think I know; so I am likely to be wiser than he to this small extent (26). I am equally ready to question the rich and the poor if anyone is willing to anyone is willing to answer my questions and listen to what I say (37). 3) Death: Socrates firmly believes that nobody should ever fear death b/c nobody should fear something they do not know, death should never be a reason for acting a certain way over another way. He also says that death could be a blessing b/c it can be eternal sleep or a rebirth. To fear death, gentlemen, is no other than to think oneself wise when one is not, to think one knows what one does not know (33). If you think that a man who is any good at all should take into account the risk of life or death (32) There is good hope that death is a blessing, for it is one of two things (43). 4) The examined/ unexamined life: Quite frankly, the examined life directly relates to philosophy and those who ask questions and question every aspect of their life. In Socrates eyes, living is not living if you arent examining your life, and he would rather die than not practice philosophy. But I will obey the god rather than you, and as long as I draw breath and am able, I shall not cease to practice philosophy(34). On the other hand, if I say that it is the greatest good for a man to discuss virtue every day and those things about for the unexamined life is not worth living for men (41). Crito Summary: (basic) From the time that Socrates was first sentenced, a state galley had set out on an annual religious mission to the small Aegean island of Delos, and so no execution was allowed to take place. Socrates now has been in prison for a month when a faithful friend named Crito awakens him. Crito comes to persuade Socrates to escape into exile (either Thessaly or Megara) and Crito or someone else will pay for his release (and all other arrangements have already been made). But Socrates refuses to go because it would be unjust to do so. Athens is his home; it has nurtured him and cared for him and raised him and be leaving it, it would be like disobeying what your father instructs you to do. He was not able to persuade it so now he must oblige its request. The argument of his sentencing being wrong comes up; yet he further argues that two wrongs dont make a right: mistreating people is no different from wrongdoing. Key Terms: 1) Value of opinions: Both Crito and Socrates discuss others opinions. Crito seems to be driven by his reputation and what others will think of him. Hes scared that people will think he was a bad friend for not helping Socrates and says people will think that Socrates was foolish for not thinking of his sons and missing out on an opportunity to save his life. Socrates says that no one should ever care what the majority thinks; rather what is right or wrong. The most reasonable people, to whom one should pay more attention, will

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

believe that things were done as they were done (47). We should not then think so much of what the majority will say about us, but what he will say who understands justice and injustice, the one that is and the truth itself (50). 2) Justice: Socrates argues that the just thing to do in his situation is to obey his sentencing and go through with death b/c he entered into an agreement with this city, and just b/c their decision was wrong does not give him the right to go against it. That would be unjust. Two wrongs dont make a right. If we leave here without the citys permission, are we mistreating people whom we should least mistreat? And are we sticking to a just agreement, or not? (53). 3) The Good Life: Socrates believes that there is no distinction between the good life, the beautiful life and the just life. Furthermore he states that the most important thing of all is not life itself, but the good life. So if he wants to live the good life, he must act justly and go through with his sentencing. Examine the following statement in turnthe good life, the beautiful life, and the just life are the same (51). 4) Goodness: Socrates and Crito establish that one must never do wrong, and also that nor must one, when wronged, inflict wrong in return since no one must ever do wrong. Because mistreating people and wrongdoing is never admirable, and goodness and the good life is above all else. to do wrong is never good or admirable, as we have agreed in the past (52). Mistreating people is no different from wrongdoing (52). So one must never do wrong (52). The Politics Summary: (basic) All associations are formed with the aim of achieving some good. The Greek citystate, or polis, is the most general association in the Greek world, containing all other associations, such as families and trade associations. As such, the citystate must aim at achieving the highest good. Aristotle concludes that man is a political animal: we can only achieve the good life by living as citizens in a state. Justice belongs to the polis. Key Terms: 1) Polis: every polis is a species of association, and all associations are aimed at some good. The polis is the most general and most important of all associations. It is the most sovereign and inclusive association; it is also called the political association. The polis fulfills the nature of man. It is only natural that some rule and others be ruled. All associations have ends: the political association has the highest; but the principle of association expresses itself in different forms, and through different modes of government (25). All associations are instituted for the purpose of attaining some good(25). 2) Humans as Political Beings: The polis completes and fulfills the nature of man; it is thus natural to him, and he himself is a naturally polis animal. It is prior to him in the sense that the polis in the manifestation of his true and full life. Because humans have language, we can distinguish what is just and unjust, and thus can

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide have political associations unlike animals. Self-sufficiency means you are a god or a beast. The RepublicPlato 1. Convention Under Attack 2. The Challenge to Socrates 3. Fundamentals of Inner Politics 4. Primary Education for the Guardians 9. The Supremacy of Good 10. Educating the Philosopher Kings 11. Warped Minds, Warped Societies 12. Happiness and Unhappiness

The Basic Summary: It is through Socrates dialogue that we are able to see Platos ideas. Plato sets out to define justice and to define in terms that make it seem like a worthwhile virtue in itself to pursue. The dialogue begins with Socrates having a conversation about wealth with the elite of Athens. Cephalus, the character who most opposes Socrates words, opposes wealth. Socrates establishes the depth of justice and morality by first discussing the value of having wealth, and while it does provide security Platos strategy in The Republic is to first explicate the primary notion of societal, or political, justice, and then to derive an analogous concept of individual justice. In Books II, III, and IV, Plato identifies political justice as harmony in a structured political body. An ideal society consists of three main classes of people producers (craftsmen, farmers, artisans, etc.), auxiliaries (warriors), and guardians (rulers); a society is just when relations between these three classes are right. At the end of Book IV, Plato tries to show that individual justice mirrors political justice. He claims that the soul of every individual has a three part structure analagous to the three classes of a society. There is a rational part of the soul, which seeks after truth and is responsible for our philosophical inclinations; a spirited part of the soul, which desires honor and is responsible for our feelings of anger and indignation; and an appetitive part of the soul, which lusts after all sorts of things, but money most of all (since money must be used to fulfill any other base desire). In a just individual, the entire soul aims at fulfilling the desires of the rational part, much as in the just society the entire community aims at fulfilling whatever the rulers will. In Chapters IX onward, Socrates/Plato discusses the means by which philosopher kings and the rest of the planned community shall gain knowledge as well as introducing the Forms. By using the analogy of the cave, Socrates explains education. Using the allegory of the cave, Plato paints an evocative portrait of the philosophers soul moving through various stages of cognition (learning that the shadows upon the cave wall arent reality) through the visible realm into the intelligible (upon leaving the cave to experience the outside world

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

which is reality, Sun=goodness), and finally grasping the Form of the Good (Sun makes everything possible). The aim of education is not to put knowledge into the soul, but to put the right desires into the soulto fill the soul with a lust for truth, so that it desires to move past the visible world, into the intelligible, ultimately to the Form of the Good. In order to be Good and moral, Socrates argues that those who have had the privilege to escape the cave must return in order to teach the others who remain ignorant to the reality surrounding them. Using the allegory of the cave, Plato paints an evocative portrait of the philosophers soul moving through various stages of cognition (represented by the line) through the visible realm into the intelligible, and finally grasping the Form of the Good. The aim of education is not to put knowledge into the soul, but to put the right desires into the soulto fill the soul with a lust for truth, so that it desires to move past the visible world, into the intelligible, ultimately to the Form of the Good. Plato spends much of the Republic narrating conversations about the Ideal State. But what about other forms of government? The discussion turns to four forms of government that cannot sustain themselves: timocracy, oligarchy, aristocracy, democracy and tyranny. After comparing the philosopher king to the most unjust type of man represented by the tyrant, who is ruled entirely by his non-rational appetites Plato claims that justice is worthwhile for its own sake. In Book IX he presents three arguments for the conclusion that it is desirable to be just. By sketching a psychological portrait of the tyrant, he attempts to prove that injustice tortures a mans psyche, whereas a just soul is a healthy, happy one, untroubled and calm. Next he argues that, though each of the three main character typesmoneyloving, honor-loving, and truth-lovinghave their own conceptions of pleasure and of the corresponding good lifeeach choosing his own life as the most pleasantonly the philosopher can judge because only he has experienced all three types of pleasure. JUSTICE WINS! Key Concepts: Morality/Immorality: morality, like most virtues, is relative to individuals lives. However, we can gather from Plato/Socrates that morality should be desired because it brings about goodness. a moral mind and a moral person will live a good life, anyone who lives a good life is happy and fulfilled. To live well is to be happy and fulfilledto accomplish not for the sake of accomplishment and self-indulgence but for the sake of doing good for others and to do what one loves. Socractes/Plato also urges that in order to be moral within the ideal state, one must stay within their profession and complete ones job. Community: Community happiness is more important that individual happiness. The moral code is to stick to the caste system. As long as individuals comply with the order established and perform their tasks within their respective fields then the individuals should be happy and thus the community with thrive.

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

Principle of Specialization: guardiangold, auxillary (providing courage)silver, worksmen(providing goods)bronze/iron The principle of specialization states that every man must fulfill the societal role to which nature best suits him, and should refrain from engaging in any other business. Those naturally suited to farm should farm, those naturally suited to heal should be doctors, those naturally suited to fight should be warriors, those naturally suited to be philosophers should rule, and so on. Plato believes that this simple rule is the guiding principle of society, and the source of political justice. Guardian: those who run the ideal City State, their education is valued most out of all of the member of the society. Plato divides his just society into three classes: the producers, the auxiliaries, and the guardians. The guardians are responsible for ruling the city. They are chosen from among the ranks of the auxiliaries, and are also known as philosopher-kings. Carry the most responsibility, Censorship: because Platos ideal society thrives on a sense of self-discipline there is a need for the individual to be censored. Having temperance and remaining within your specialization ??? Education: the levels of education are specified for the levels of man (guardians get the highest level, most inclusive type of education, auxillary the second, worksmen third). Education is necessary to have the ideal city state. Knowledge - According to Plato, knowledge can only pertain to eternal, unchanging truths. I can know, for instance that two plus two equals four, because this will also be the case. I cannot know, however, that Meno is beautiful. For this reason, only the intelligible realm, the realm of the Forms can be the object of knowledge. -Opinion is the highest form of certainty that we can hope for when it comes to the visible realm, the realm of sensible particulars. -Thought is the second highest grade of cognitive activity. As with understanding, the objects of thought are the Forms of the intelligible realm. Unlike understanding, though, thought can only proceed with the crutches of images and hypotheses - Understanding is the highest grade of cognitive activity. Understanding involves the use of pure, abstract reason, and does not rely on the crutches of images and unproven assumptions. Understanding is only achieved once the Form of the Good is grasped 5 Forms of Government: Timocracy Socrates defines a timocracy as a government ruled by people who love honor and are selected according to the degree of honor they hold in society. Honor is often equated with wealth and possession so this kind of gilded government

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide

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leads to the people valuing materialism above all things. Oligarchy These temptations create a confusion between economic status and honor which is responsible for the emergence of oligarchy. In Book VIII, Socrates suggests that wealth will not help a pilot to navigate his ship. This injustice divides the rich and the poor, thus creating an environment for criminals and beggars to emerge. The rich are constantly plotting against the poor and vice versa. Democracy As this socioeconomic divide grows, so do tensions between social classes. From the conflicts arising out of such tensions, democracy replaces the oligarchy preceding it. The poor overthrow the inexperienced oligarchs and soon grant liberties and freedoms to citizens. A visually appealing demagogue is soon lifted up to protect the interests of the lower class. However, with too much freedom, the people become drunk, and tyranny takes over. Tyranny The excessive freedoms granted to the citizens of a democracy ultimately leads to a tyranny, the furthest regressed type of government. These freedoms divide the people into three socioeconomic classes: the dominating class, the elites and the commoners. Tensions between the dominating class and the elites cause the commoners to seek out protection of their democratic liberties. They invest all their power in their democratic demagogue, who, in turn, becomes corrupted by the power and becomes a tyrant with a small entourage of his supporters for protection and absolute control of his people. Ironically, the ideal state outlined by Socrates closely resembles a tyranny, but they are on opposite ends of the spectrum. This is because the philosopher king who rules in the ideal state is not self-centered but is dedicated to the good of the state insofar as the philosopher king is the one with knowledge. Artistocracy The king-subject relationship, unequal balance 3 classes of people: guardian (leaders, teachers, philosopher kings)gold, auxillary (providing courage)silver, worksmen(providing goods)bronze/iron Dialectic: Socratic dialogue, through Socrates we see Platos opinions Decision-making: Decision-making: decisions based on morality, what is just, what is right. Clouds The Basic Summary: Strepsiades, the father of spend-thrift Pheidippides, cannot sleep because he is worried about the debts that he has incurred because of Pheidippides's expensive passion for racehorses. Looking over his debts, he becomes enraged and his voice wakes Pheidippides. Strepsiades begs Pheidippides to refrain from his expensive ways and begs him to enroll in the new-fangled school next door

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide wherein he may learn about esoteric natural sciences as well as sophistry that might help him outwit their creditors in court. Pheidippides stubbornly refuses, leaving Strepsiades to enroll himself.

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Strepsiades arrives at the school and meets a Student who tells Strepsiades about Socrates's new experiments involving insects and astronomy. While the Student is showing Strepsiades their maps, Socrates appears in a balloon-basket hanging in mid-air. Socrates explains that the contraption helps him "suspend" (I.i.230) his judgment and open his mind to new ideas. Strepsiades explains his plight and asks for guidance. Socrates enlightens Strepsiades, proving to him that the gods do not exist and that the weather patterns are produced by a Chorus of Clouds. Socrates fleeces Strepsiades of his coat and hustles him inside. Socrates and Strepsiades reemerge and discuss the gender of nouns. Socrates puts Strepsiades in a louse-ridden bed to contemplate. After much agony, Strepsiades shares his ludicrous theories for how to win his court case. Socrates despairs and calls him a worthless pupil. The Chorus of Clouds convinces Strepsiades to enroll his son instead. Strepsiades runs home and quizzes Pheidippides with his newly acquired sophistry. He drags Pheidippides to the school where the two Arguments, Superior and Inferior, argue over the proper model for boys' education. Inferior is granted Pheidippides as a pupil. The Chorus of Clouds intimates that Strepsiades's forcible education of Pheidippides will be his own undoing before turning to the audience, wheedling, bribing, and even threatening them for their approval of the play. Strepsiades's day in court draws near and he goes to pick Pheidippides up at the school. Socrates promises that Pheidippides is well-versed in their special brand of specious learning which Pheidippides soon demonstrates when he attacks the idiom the day of "Old and New" as an instance of hysterical paradox. While Strepsiades is gloating that his son is a splendid example of Inferior Argument, he is visited by two creditors. The First Creditor demands that Strepsiades appear before the court. Strepsiades quizzes him about the gender of nouns and refuses to pay his debt on the basis of the First Creditor's apparent ignorance. The Second Creditor appears woefully wringing his hands and begging Strepsiades. Strepsiades berates him for his belief in the gods and uses the Inferior Argument to deny responsibility for any interest on his debt. He flogs the Second Creditor until he runs off. The Chorus sings a song warning that Strepsiades's "evil" (II.i.1303) will soon come back to him.

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Sure enough, as their song winds down, Strepsiades bursts from the house while being beaten by Pheidippides. The two have been quarreling over the recitation of traditional poetry. Pheidippides defends his beatings using sophistry. Strepsiades mourns that he has exchanged Pheidippides's obsession with expensive horses for his obsession with sophistry and rhetoric, which is proving to also have its price. Strepsiades blames the Chorus of Clouds for misleading him and they defend themselves by asserting that their deception taught Strepsiades a lesson. Strepsiades concedes that he has been wrong but still hungers to do violence against Socrates and the school. He summons his slave Xanthias and the two run over to the school and set fire to the roof. Chaerephon and a Second Student cry out from within as the building burns and finally rush outside. Strepsiades crows his "Revenge" (II.i.1506) and chases off the last of the Students by throwing rocks. The Chorus appraises the scene and takes its leave. What is the moral? -Remain spiritually loyal to gods -Never cheat or try to take the expedient or easy way out -Respect your elders, (role of family and structure) -Take responsibility for your actions -Be cautious about new (and unapproved/unreliable) educational forms -Do not believe everything you hear or everything youre told (make sure reliable source) -All actions/choices have consequences -Accept and complete punishments accordingly (or else wrongdoing is not remedied) -Lawlessness leads to complete chaos How serious should we take comedies and why? -We should take comedies very seriously because they reflect significant concerns and issues of the contemporary time. -Easy/entertaining way of showcasing problems, morals, warnings, and concernseasy for uneducated or educated audiences to understand -Reflect common values, mindsets, and social norms

Why does it matter that this was performed at a religious festival? -Because it deals with religious issues such as faith in the traditional gods -Warns against impiety against traditional gods -Shows the consequences of losing faith and/or denouncing Zeus -Shows that the gods know allforewarned Strep The difference/similarities in the portrayal of Socrates by Aristophanes and Plato

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*Similarity the disheveled, odd, eccentric, unattractive physical description of Socrates is very similar (barefoot, large nose, rolling eyes, etc.) in both Clouds and Platos Works -Platos description is to give an accurate illustration where as Aristophanes intends to portray Socrates as a madman for humor Aristophanes -Portrays Socrates as a Sophist -Depicts Socrates as a mindless buffoon -Teaches sciences, rhetoric, and senseless subjects (how high a flea jumps) -Portrays Socrates as favoring the Inferior argument -Socrates charges fees -Unethical/unconventional practicesdisrobing his students, teaching inferior argument -Unjustteaches students how to evade the law -Denounces Zeus -Insults students, impatient, condescending, arrogant -Does not believe in recollection -Does not employ dialectic as frequently -Does not care to learn all information about what he is teaching Plato -Not an actual teacher, just had followers (Apology and Meno) -Anti-sophist -Did not charge for his services (Ion, Apology) -Always employs dialectic -Continuously seeks knowledge -Well-spoken, humble -Patient, encouraging -Pious, believes in Zeus and serves the Gods (Apology p.26,30) -Defends against unjust practices -Condemns the inferior argument (Apology p.36) -Puts justice and the law above all -Believes in Recollection -Does not do anything unjust or impious (Apology p.37) -Seeks all knowledge about subject he is speaking about (Ion) Inferior Argument -Untraditional -Unjust -Ability to defend any argument/position -innovation/modern -twisting words -ugly -manipulative -complex -mean/sly/crafty

Perspectives Exam 1 Study Guide -deceptive -new model of education -myth -Trivia Superior Argument -Traditional -Just -Supported by laws -aristocratic/elite argument -traditional views of education -beauty physical fitness -can debate an unjust case and win(line115) -poetry Antigone/Oedipus Tyrannus: Basic Summary:

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Twelve years before the action of the Oedipus Tyrannus begins, Oedipus has been made King of Thebes in gratitude for his freeing the people from the pestilence brought on them by the presence of the riddling Sphinx. Since Laius, the former king, had shortly before been killed, Oedipus has been further honored by the hand of Queen Jocasta. Now another deadly pestilence is raging and the people have come to ask Oedipus to rescue them as before. In an effort to discover the murderer, whom he believes to be causing the plague, Oedipus sends for the blind seer, Tiresias. Under protest the prophet names Oedipus himself as the criminal. Oedipus is outraged, but Jocasta reminds him that seers are not always right - she cites the old prophecy that her son should kill his father and have children by his mother. She prevented its fulfillment, she confesses, by abandoning their infant son in the mountains. As for Laius, he had been killed by robbers years later at the junction of three roads on the route to Delphi. This information makes Oedipus uneasy. He recalls having killed a man answering Laius' description at this very spot when he was fleeing from his home in Corinth to avoid fulfillment of a similar prophecy. An aged messenger arrives from Corinth, at this point, to announce the death of King Polybus, supposed father of Oedipus, and the election of Oedipus as king in his stead. On account of the old prophecy Oedipus refuses to return to Corinth until his mother, too, is dead. To calm his fears the messenger assures him that he is not the blood son of Polybus and Merope, but a foundling from the house of Laius deserted in the mountains. This statement is confirmed by the old shepherd whom Jocasta had charged with the task of exposing her babe. Thus the ancient prophecy has been fulfilled in each dreadful detail. Jocasta in her horror hangs herself and Oedipus stabs out his eyes. Then he imposes on himself the penalty of exile which he had promised for the murderer of Laius.

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Antigone begins after Oedipus passes away in Colonus, and Antigone and her sister decide to return to Thebes with the intention of helping their brothers, Eteocles and Polyneices, avoid a prophecy that predicts they will kill each other in a battle for the throne of Thebes. Upon her arrival in Thebes, Antigone learns that both of her brothers are dead. Eteocles has been given a proper burial, but Creon, Antigone's uncle who has inherited the throne, has issued a royal edict banning the burial of Polyneices, who he believes was a traitor. Antigone defies the law, buries her brother, and is caught. When Creon locks her away in prison, she kills herself. Meanwhile, not realizing Antigone has taken her own life, the blind prophet Teiresias, Creon's son and Antigone's fianc Haemon, and the Chorus plead with Creon to release her. Creon finally relents, but in an instance of too-late-timing, finds her dead in her jail cell. Out of despair, Haemon and Creons wife have by now also killed themselves, and Creon is left in distress and sorrow. Natural Law: Creon, as head of state and lawgiver in Thebes, believes in obedience to manmade laws. But in defying Creons command that no one bury Polynices, Antigone appeals to a different set of guidelineswhat is often called natural law. Whether its source is in nature or in divine order, natural law states that there are standards for right and wrong that are more fundamental and universal than the laws of any particular society. Antigone believes that the gods have commanded people to give the dead a proper burial. She also believes she has a greater loyalty to her brother in performing his burial rites than she does to the law of the city of Thebes that bans her from doing so. The wishes of the gods and her sense of duty to her brother are both examples of natural law. Wisdom: Sophocles has been known for using his plays not merely to entertain his audience, but to deliver a message too. In these plays Sophocles uses the blindness of the characters to point out how wisdom and understanding are far greater than vision alone. Oedipus has sight, but no wisdom, whereas Teiresias has wisdom but no physical sight. Fate/Destiny vs. Choice: King Laius was told that his own son by Jocasta would kill him. Laius did everything possible to prevent such a disaster. Once Jocasta gave birth to a son, Laius had him chained and handed him over to a trustworthy servant with strict orders that the child be exposed on. Mt. Cithaeron and allowed to perish. But the servant, out of compassion, handed over the child to a Corinthian shepherd who passed him on to the Corinthian King. The child grew up as the son of the King and Queen of Corinth and later killed his true father, Laius, in complete ignorance. Apollos oracle was fulfilled even though Laius and Jocasta took extreme measures to escape the fate foretold by the oracle. Oedipus had also to submit to the destiny which Apollo's oracle pronounced for him. He learnt from the oracle that he would kill his own father and marry his own

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mother. He, too, tried his utmost to avert a terrible fate and fled from Corinth. Oedipus was joyfully received by Theban people for rescuing them from the curse of the Sphinx and made king, as well as being given Laiuss widow as his wife. Thus, in complete ignorance of the identity of his parents, he killed his father and married his mother. He performed these disastrous acts not only unknowingly, but as a result of his efforts to escape the cruel fate which the oracle at had communicated to him. However, if Oedipus is the innocent victim of inescapable doom, he would be a mere puppet and the play becomes a tragedy of destiny, which denies human freedom. Sophocles does not want to regard Oedipus as a puppet; there is reason to believe that Oedipus acted largely as a free agent. His hamartia, extreme pride, and his hot-headed side led him to commit the acts which led to his demise. Justice: In Oedipus Rex, Oedipus seeks to do justice by following strictly the law he has himself decreed, in a world in which, as we discover, human justice is simply not the measure of the order of things. In Antigone, Creon punishes Antigone for her crime and tries to put the state back together after a horrifyingly destructive civil war. He ends up destroying both Antigone and his own family, as well as his kingship, leaving the state once again in chaos. Family/Love/Respect: Demonstrated through Antigones overwhelming love and devotion to her dead brother risking life and limb for family love. Role of Women: Throughout most of the story, Jocasta does not conform to the ideal of womanhood. She acts as a mediator or a voice of reason when a fight ensues between Oedipus and her brother Creon. During this fight, it is revealed that Oedipus and Creon both see Jocasta as an equal. Jocasta is given power and prestige by both her brother and her husband, and she does not seem to be thought of as weaker than them. Antigone goes against Creons law and buries her brother. Instead of doing this secretly, she tells her sister, Ismene, to proclaim it to the town so that everyone knows what she has done. When Creon finds out and sentences Antigone to death, she argues with him to his face. Finally, when she is sealed in the cave to die, she kills herself first, before she dies naturally, showing her control her own over life. Ismene, in contrast to her fiery sister, shows deference to men saying we two are by nature women and not fit to fight with men and that we are ruled by others stronger than ourselves. Nicomachean Ethics The good: A human being of sound mind is forever choosing or creating something -- either

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physical or mental -- in order to get to an object or a state that would leave him better off in some way than he is at present. That is why Aristotle opens the first book in the Nicomachean Ethics with ' Every art and every investigation, and similarly every action and pursuit, is considered to aim at some good. Hence the Good has been rightly defined as 'that at which all things aim'. The final good: There seems to be an ultimate end, an ultimate good, which is hard to define with exactness, which men seek, often unawares themselves that they indeed are doing so. It is this compelling quest that makes us human. It lies within our souls. We pursue all the other goods for some reason -- usually so that we are in position to pursue the next good after that, and so on. But where does this quest for goods end? It ends with the final good which is almost divine, one that we struggle to define. Aristotle states that 'we call final without qualification that which is always desirable in itself and never for the sake of something else. Happiness more than anything else seems unconditionally complete, since we always choose it because of itself, never because of something else. Virtue: Virtue is a disposition rather than an activity. That is, a virtuous person is naturally disposed to behave in the right ways and for the right reasons, and to feel pleasure in behaving rightly. Virtue is a mean state between the extremes of excess and deficiency. This mean varies from person to person, so there are no hard and fast rules as to how best to avoid vice. Justice: Justice, for Aristotle, means the same as "righteousness" or "honesty." It is a virtue, which regulates all proper conduct within society, in the relations of individuals with one another, and to some extent event he proper attitude of an individual toward him/herself. The mean: Aristotle said that virtues are a point of moderation between two opposite vices. For instance, the virtue courage lies between the two vices of cowardice and recklessness. Recklessness is too much confidence and not enough fear, cowardice is too much fear and not enough confidence, courage is just the right amount of both. This can be expanded to most virtues and vices. The mean is about the proper emotional response to situations, rather than the proper actions. Choice: Moral virtue implies that the action is done by choice; the object of choice is the result of previous deliberation. The nature of deliberation and its objects: choice is the deliberate desire of things in our own power. States of Character: Virtues are States of Character (i.e. Dispositions) "First, then, neither virtues nor vices are feelings." "For these reasons the virtues are not capacities either." "If, then, the virtues are neither feelings nor capacities, the remaining possibility is that they are states [of character]."

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