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Powers, Dana Wednesday, April 06, 2011 8:52 AM Lee, Richard Head Seal Leakage PCV Tests Japanese (2).pdf

Richard, Attached is some information on the head seal of Japanese reactors. I will have to get back to my office to find more. Radiation causes crosslinking that makes the polymer stiff. Note failure (leakage) occurs faster in steam than in nitrogen. Dana

(~30

-I
Nuclear Engineering and Design 145 (1993) 375-386 North-Holland calculations for REG/CR-4624, ;olumbus, Ohio

375

High-temperature leak-characteristics

of PCV hatch flange gasket


Katsumi Hirao a, Toshiyuki Zama a, Masashi Goto b, Yoshihiro Naruse b, Koichi Saito c, Takuro Suzuki d and Hiroyuki Sugino C

I Tokyo

Electric Power Company, Tokyo, Japan b Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama, Japan c Hitachi Ltd, Hitachi,Japan d HitachiEngineering Co., Ltd., Hitachi,Japan Ishikawajima-Harima I Heauy Industries Co., Ltd, Yokohama, Japan Received 9 July 1993

Small-model tests were performed to examine the integrity of the containment flange gasket in a severe accident. During a severe accident, containment structures suffer slow pressurization at relatively high temperatures. A realistic understanding of containment performance in such conditions is a major concern in developing an accident management strategy. This paper describes the results of experiments on the sealing capability of flange gaskets at high pressures and high temperatures. Silicone-rubber gaskets, which are used as the sealing material in BWR plant primary containment vessels (PCV) in Japan, were examined in small-model tests. The gaskets show sufficient sealing capability up to 225'C at 20 kgf/cm 2 . When applying the leakage characteristics specified in this paper to codes for severe accidents, the results should be examined carefully based on realistic heattransfer phenomena.

1. Introduction The PCV is an important structure preventing release of radioactive materials from a nuclear power plant into the environment. We decided to study the integrity of PCV during severe accidents after the accidents at TMI-2 and Chernobyl. Scale models (1/8 and 1/32) of a steel PCV have been pressurized by air to rupture; a 1/6 scale model of a concrete PCV has also been tested [1,2,3,4]. Leak tests of many types of gaskets at flanges and of full-scale personnel air locks have been performed successfully [5,6,7,8]. There are many reports from such tests. We formed a study group to investigate the hightemperature leak characteristics of gaskets in nuclear power plants and to establish the integrity of the PCV. This program was divided into three phases. Phase 1 Was composed of a survey of literature and test results. In phase 2, we conducted component tests and small-

Workshop on Containment Integrity [9]. The results of phase 3 were reported in SMiRT 11 [10]. In the near future, these reports will contribute to assessment of PCV integrity for licensing purposes. This report presents the details of phase 2 in which the following two tests were conducted at high temperatures: (1) Component test (2) Small-model test. Item (1) was used to clarify the gasket material properties at high temperatures, and Rein (2) evaluated the high-temperature leak characteristics and obtained the minimum temperature and pressure at which the flange gasket started leaking.

2. Tests

E (3
t-2
at

A--& Irradiated~in Steam

Ct

Fig. 1 Dimensions of test specimen for tensile test.


t. Cfl Gt C

50

0-datdn

ta

Fig. 4. Dimensi

and irradiation. In the small-model test, the pressurizing medium, temperature, tightness, pre-irradiation with y-rays and configuration of the seal were chosen as test parameters. 2.1. Component test The test pieces were made of silicone rubber with the same specifications as gaskets used in actualplants. We prepared two types of specimen: a normal and an irradiated one (80 Mrad). This condition is referred to as the electrical penetration specification. We prepared three sets of specimens for each test case. 2.1.1. Tensile test We tested the tensile strength of the specimens at high temperatures and obtained the load-deformation curve for silicone rubber. (1) Test procedures Figure 1 shows the specimen configuration. The test temperatures were room temperature, 150 0 C, 200'C, and 250'C. Each test specimen was held for 1 hour at the test temperature. Specimens were then pulled from each side and the elongation was measured. We tested each specimen type three times under the same conditions. (2) Results The results are shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The tensile strength of the non-irradiated specimen at 150"C is half that at room temperature (Fig. 2). It becomes constant from 150TC to 200TC and then decreases above 200'C. In contrast, the tensile strength of the irradiated specimens is one-quarter that of the non-irradiated specimens at room temperature, and then slowly decreases up to 250'C. As shown in Fig. 3, the elongation of the non-irradiated specimen is similar to its tensile strength.. However, the elongation of the irradiated specimen is twenty times less than that of the non-irradiated specimen at room temperature. The elongation of the non-irradiated specimen is 300% at 250'C.

I-. U IUU
2UU

Temperature (r-) Fig., 2. Effect of temperature to tensile strength. 2.1.2. Compression test We conducted these tests to investigate the resistance characteristics of the sealing material at high temperatures. (1) Test procedures The test'specimen configuration is shown, in Fig. 4. The testing temperatures were room temperature, 150-C, 200-C, 250-C, 300"C, and 350'C. The test specimen was compressed to 75% of its original height. It was held at the test temperature.for 22 hours and then the residual strain was measured. We tested three specimens under the same conditions. (2) Results The results are shown in Fig. 5. The residual strain gradually increases up to 150'C. Above this tempera1000
0-0 Non-IrradiatedIn Air

ture, it increa men reaches reaches 100% the irradiatec men was alre: 22. Small-mo We consid (1) leakage c (2) leakage c; on the secon, the test speci a groove-anc used widely was 250 mm The test gasl used in actua

&--, Non-Irradiated.In Steam 0- -0 Irradiatedin Air &--A Irradiatedjn Steam

100

0 "
C 500 0}

50 0

Ji

Temperature ('C) Fig. 3.Effect of temperature to elongation ratio.

C Fig. 5

II

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Diablo Canyon briefs HOOs that they have assumed a 'stranded plant' status (i.e. all inbound traffic to the site has been suspended). Authorities ordered local evacuations. Still on R4/EDO call: OIP went through situation in Japan. OIP extended offers to Japan to help then in any way we can with their emergency response capabilities. Plants in Japan have all lost power and are in station backout. Still on r4/EDO call: OIP mentions that we expect a significant amount of press inquiries. Next call is scheduled for 1100 EST. Still on R4/EDO call: NRC .agrees to possibly reconsider later whether to reevaluate agency posture. Still on R4/EDO call: Brian McDermott suggests we 'set up' operations center to help the Japanese visitors. Still on R4/EDO call: Eric Leeds suggests that the call reconvene around the time that the tsunami is scheduled to hit the CA coast at 20am CST. ENAC information retrieved by HOO says all units at Fukushima Daichi and Daini sites shutdown. Bridge convened early (ET-6110) by Mike Weber and Brian McDermott with Elmo Collins added. Mike Weber suggests that because of the excessive interest by both the Chairman and external agencies that the agency go to a monitoring mode where possibly R4 leads for US concerns and HQ take the lead for international activiites. Elmo Collins suggests that agency enter monitoring mode. NRR Eric Leeds concurs.
NRC enters monitoring mode.

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K_Hirao et at / High-temperatureleak-characteristics

379

20
0 Tightness Value 0.0mmr A Tightness Value 0.8mm -3 Tightness Value 1.6mm v Tightness Value 2.5mm * L Y No Leakage

Plec

"Test
C)

15

(0700)

II
0 t3 1 CD

Flange

1010( 0

200 MID Temperature (C)

Fig. 10. Effect of temperature to leak starting pressure (Semi-Round Type, steam).

tion. Our test parameters are shown in Table 1. Pressure and temperature were measured using pressure gauges and thermocouples. Gaskets were checked visually after the tests. 2.2.2. Test results a. Semi-round gasket The results are shown in Tables 2 and 3. The relationship between the leak pressure and temperature is shown in Figs. 9 and 10.
(a) Leak pressure Pressurized by N2 gas: In the non-irradiated specimens, leakage did not occur up to 275C at the lowest tightness level D1 (Table 2). At 300"C, a leak occurred around 18 kgf/cm2 at the Dl, D2, D3 and D4 tightness levels. In the irradiated specimens, leakage did not occur up to 325'C. At 350"C, a leak occurred at 17 kgf/cm 2 at D1, but did not occur at D4. Pressurized by steam: In the non-irradiated specimens, leakage did not occur up to 225'C (Table 3). At 250 0 C, a leak occurred at 20 kgf/cm 2 at D1, but no leak was found at D2. In the irradiated specimens, no leak was found at DI until 300 0 C. At 325"C, leakage occurred at 17 kgf/cm 2 at DI, but not at D4.

Fig. 8. Test facility of Groove-and-Tongue Type (case of N2 gas).

02

'If

0) _j

Temperature (C) Fig. 9. Effect of temperature to leak starting pressure (SemiRound Type, N2 gas).

(b) Changes in properties Pressurized by N2 gas: In the non-irradiated test specimens, we observed no significant changes in the material properties of the test specimens below 175C. At 250C, we found small external deformations (Fig. 11). At 300'C, each test specimen regardless of tightness was pushed out through the gap between the

380

0K Hirao et al. /

High-temperature leak-characteristics

Table 4 Leak starting pa Irradiation

Non irradiated

Irradiated @: No leakage. Value In Table:

Fig. 11. Tested specimen after cooled down (250'C, Semi-Round, N2 gas, non-irradiated).

upper and low' was deformed One part of ea 3250 C and 350' at each degre were found in specimens rani the leak line. i became more to the upper specimen mate force at high tu ing to room tel There Were fev non-irradiated deformation oj that of the n4 3250C, the ten, specimen at D men at D4 kep

Table 5 Leak starting pri Irradiation

Non irradiated

Irradiated @: No leakage. Value In Table:

Fig. 12. Tested specimen after cooled down (2250C, Semi-Round, steam, non-irradiated).

K Hiraoet aL / High-temperatureleak-characteristics Table 4 Leak starting pressure of Groove-and-Tongue Type (pressured by N2 gas) Irradiation Gasket Tightness D1 D2 D3 Water 20*C N2 20'C G 175'C 250oC 275oC 300'C 325oC 14 20 350oC 6 7 10

381

Non irradiated

0
_
-

0
_ _ _

0
_ _ _

D4
Irradiated D1 D4 0 _

0
0

0 0 0
0

0
G

0
0
@

0
...
-

&: No leakage. Value In Table: Pressure of leakage start (kgf/cm2 ).

upper and lower flange to the leak line; each specimen was deformed and resembled a sedge-hat in shape. One part of each test specimen failed significantly. At 325C and 350*C, the test specimens broke into pieces at each degree of tightness, and many small cracks were found in each specimen. We found small parts of specimens ranging from 1 mm to 2 mm in diameter at the leak line. At 350'C, damage to the test specimens became more significant because the specimens stuck to the upper flange. At 325C and 350'C, the test specimen material became soft and lost its restraining force at high temperature. It became brittle after cooling to room temperature. There were few differences between the irradiated and non-irradiated specimens up to 250C. At 275"C, the deformation of the irradiated specimen was less than that of the non-irradiated specimen. At 3000 C and 325C, the tendency was the same. At 350C, the test specimen at DI broke into small pieces but the specimen at D4 kept its original form.

Pressurized by steam: We observed large deformations in the non-irradiated specimens. The material properties became softer after cooling to room temperature. Leakage did not occur at 225C. The top part of the specimen deformed outside through the gap of both flanges in the shape of a sedge-hat (Fig. 12). The same tendency was observed at 250'C and 275'C. In the irradiated specimens, the deformation was less than that of the non-irradiated specimens at temperatures below 325'C. b Groove-and-tongue gasket b. re-are g a blet a The results are shown in Tables 4 and 5. Figures 13 and 14 show the relationship between the leak pres(a) Leak pressure Pressurized by N2 gas: In the non-irradiated specimens, leakage did not occur up to 300'C (Table 4). At 325"C, a leak occurred at 14 kgf/cm 2 at the DI tightness level, and at 20 kgf/cm 2 at D2. No leak was found

Table 5 Leak starting pressure of Groove-and-Tongue Type (pressured by steam) Irradiation Gasket Tightness DI D2 D3 Steam 175C 250'C @ .... ....
-

275C

300C 20

325C 5 8

350C 4 6 10 10 -

Non irradiated

0 @
-

D4
Irradiated DI D4

0 0

......

0:

No leakage. Value In Table: Pressure of leakage start (kgf/cm2 ).

382

K. Hirao et aL / High-temperatureleak-characteristics

o Tightness Value 0.75mm


tm _Z a A Tightness Value 1.5 mm T5 ightness Value 2.25mm 7 Tightness Value 3.0 mm 0 A * v No Leakage 10-

E.k

0 0@ Tightness Value 0.75mm A Tightness Value 1.5 mm Tightness Value 13 IV Tightness Value 2.25mm 3.0 mm v No Leaka ge

~-10
5)

at
0

5-

_j

300 100 200 Temperature (C) Fig. 13. Effect of temperature to leak starting pressure (Groove-and-Tongue Type, N2 gas).

100

200

300

Temperature ('C) Fig. 14. Effect of temperature to leak starting pressure (Groove-and-Tongue Type, steam).

when no leak curred, part ol leak line. At 3 and the tender able. Test spec came very fral pieces. Few cracks wi They failed lt specimens. . Pressurized specimens we were no leaks became more cases, the test we found smal in the irradiatr ated ones. Thi. tion with N 2 g

at D3 and D4. In the irradidated specimens, leakage did not occur up to 350'C at D1. Neither was a leak found in an extra test at 3750C.
Pressurized by steam: In the irradiated specimens,

the irradiated test specimens, no leakage was found up 0 to 325 C at 13.


(b) Change of properties Pressurized by N2 gas: In the non-irradiated test

3. Discussion 3.1. Materialpi The irradie lower tensile s gation than tht strain of the nc

no leakage was found up to 300C (Table 5). At 325C, leakage was found at 5 kgf/cm 2 at D1, and at 8 kgf/cm 2 at D2, but not at D3 and D4. At 350'C, leakage was found at 4 to 10 kgf/cm 2 at D1 to D4. In

specimens, we found no change except a tongue trace up to 300'C (Fig. 15). At 325C, we found cracks in the main part of specimens. The ring form was maintained

Fig. 15. Tested specimen soon after cooled down. (300'C, Groove-and-Tongue, N2 gas, non-irradiated).

K Hirao et aL / High-temperatureleak-characteristics when no leak occurred (Fig. 16). When a leak occurred, part of one test specimen was extended to the leak line. At 350TC, we found cracks in the main part and the tendency to external deformation was remarkable. Test specimens at temperatures above 325C became very fragile, lost their elasticity, and broke into pieces. Few cracks were found in the irradiated specimens. They failed locally compared to the non-irradiated specimens. Pressurized by steam: At 300'C, non-irradiated test specimens were largely deformed even when there were no leaks, and we found cracks. This tendency became more significant at-325C and 3500C. In these cases, the test specimens stuck to the upper flange and we found small broken parts. The deformation was less in the irradiated test specimens than in the non-irradiated ones. This is similar to the results from pressurization with N2 gas.

383

from 200C and reached 100% elongation at 250'C. These results prove that, in general, the upper limit for use of silicone rubber as a sealing material is 200'C. Silicone rubber is transformed and loses its recoverability above 250C. The irradiated specimens had greater recoverability at high temperatures, but fractured at 250*C. This shows that the specimens got harder and lost flexibility. Whether irradiated or not, silicone rubber is not applicable as a sealing material above 2500C.
3.2. Pressurizing medium

starting pressure
ti1).

e was found up

3. Discussion 3.1. Materialproperties

Leakage occurred more rapidly under steam pressure than under N2 gas pressure. This was observed clearly for both gasket types. This is explained by the material properties of silicone rubber. Silicone rubber at high temperatures and under steam pressure degrades easily compared to that under N2 gas pressure. It becomes soft and loses mechanical strength which leads to leakage. It is clear that semi-round gaskets will leak easily if there is a large area exposed to high-temperature steam.
3.3. Temperature.

-irradiated test a tongue trace id cracks in the was maintained

The irradiated specimens had two to four times lower tensile strengths and 20 to 30 times lower elongation than the non-irradiated specimens. The residual strain of the non-irradiated specimens increased rapidly

We have shown that leaks occur from 275C to 3000C under N2 gas pressure and from 2250C to 3000C under steam pressure. Similar tendencies were ob-

Fig. 16. Tested specimen soon after cooled down (325C, Groove-and-Tongue, N2 gas, non-irradiated).

384

K Hiraoet aL / High-temperatureleak-characteristics

served in both cases. As the temperature increases, the leak pressure decreases. Silicone rubber is damaged and becomes soft at high temperatures and it loses mechanical strength. The sealability of silicone rubber is lost at temperatures ranging from 2251C to 300 0 C. 3.4. Tightness We investigated the influence of the flange tightness on leakage at a high pressure of 20 kgf/cm 2 . As expected, as the flange tightness increases, the leak pressure increases. Up to 225"C, we observed no leaks at 20 kgf/cm 2 despite the tightness level (DI, D2, D3 and D4). We found leaks in some cases above 225C and below 20 kgf/cm 2 . This is explained by the material properties of the silicone rubber; damage at high temperatures leads to loss of gasket sealability. Below 20 kgf/cm 2 , it is clear that the effect of flange tightness on leakage is minimal compared to that of temperature. 3.5. y rays It is known that silicone rubber changes 'and becomes harder with irradiation. In this test, irradiated
Upper Flange Inside

gaskets became harder than non-irradiated ones. We found that the leak temperature of irradiated gaskets was higher than that of non-irradiated ones. Irradiated specimens seem to have a greater sealing capacity, because they become harder and maintain their solidity at high temperature, which makes the leak temperature higher. 3.6. Gasket type We performed leak tests for the semi-round gasket with a tightness value of 0 mm. In this case, the gasket only touched the upper flange. If the gasket and flange touch slightly, a seal effect is expected under a pressure of 20 kgf/cm 2 and a temperature of 225'C. This is considered to be an advantage of the self-sealing effect of semi-round gaskets. As shown in Fig. 17, the gasket is pushed into the groove of flange by internal pressure and maintains the seal by filling the flange gap. The groove-and-tongue gasket maintains a seal at higher temperatures than the semi-round gasket. The difference is that the gasket is flat and is pushed into the groove locally by the tongue. The cross-section area is 30% larger than that of the semi-round type. The pressurized area of the gasket is also different. These differences may account for the different test results.

perature a sented by t T=a.P+ where T is b are coeff Method. (e) The width in the tern ness of the From the abov displayed in Fi

E 20-

CD

Ouli

S555

Prest
Lower Flange

4. Leakage assessment 4.1. Leakage characteristics From the results of this study and the results of phase 3, we have shown that gasket leakage can be classified into two types: (1) leakage originating from gasket failure, and (2) leakage resulting from flange deformation. We have shown that temperature is a governing factor in gasket failure. Leakage assessment may be performed as described below. (a) The effect of flange tightness on sealing is smaller than that of temperature, so test data for each degree of tightness can be grouped together. (b) Leaks are more likely to occur under steam pressure than under N 2 gas pressure. The pressurizing medium at accidents is believed to be steam and N 2 gas. The results for each medium can be grouped together. (c) The data for the semi-round and groove-and-tongue gasket should be grouped separately. (d) The relationship between the gasket failure tem-

n- 1

(D

Groove-and-Tongue Type
Fig. 17. Movement of gasket under inner pressure.

K Hirao et aL / High-temperatureleak-characteristics

385

ated ones. We idiated gaskets ones. Irradiated aling capacity, ain their solidleak tempera-

perature and pressure is assumed to be represented by the following equation. T=a -P+b, where T is temperature, and P is pressure. a and b are coefficients determined by the Least Squares Method. (e) The width of the defined region is enhanced by 3a' in the temperature direction considering random-. ness of the data. From the above, the region where leakage will occur is displayed in Fig. 18.

4.2. PSA and accident management applications In some previous PSA studies, local leakage caused by overheating may not be well considered. However, the previous PSA results do not lose their validity because integrated severe accident codes such as MAAP, treat the containment temperature calculation using relatively-simple modeling, and the calculated temperature does not show the specific local temperature. In fact, containment is not a simple onenode structure, but a complex structure containing many components such as shield walls, thermal insulators,

ii-round gasket ase, the gasket ;ket and flange under a presE 0C. This is 225 f-sealing effect 17, the gasket ternal pressure ige gap. tains a seal at id gasket. The is pushed into ss-section area und type. The ifferent. These t test results.

o Pressured by Steam
Average Average 3 o 1,I

o Pressured by N2 Gas

o Pressured by Steam - Average -- Averaae 3 o 20


CGu I

0 Pressured by N 2 Gas

CE20 S15 a. 10
0) Ca

15
i i
CO

10 5 -i

'IIo'
C/)

__I

0 the results of akage can be iginating from g from flange s a governing ;ment may be ling is smaller data for each ogether. ,r steam prese pressurizing steam and N2
in be grouped

200 400 Temperature ( 0C) a Semi-Round


a~-

600

200 400 0 Temperature ( C) b. Groove-and-Tongue

600

E
in a)

'C3 -2

5ILeak AreaI 0

Ca

5-

INo Leak Area


200 400 Temperature (C) 600

ve-and-tongue t failure tem-

c. Leak / No Leak Area Fig. 18. Leakage prediction of silicone gasket.

1I

386

K7Hiraoel al. / High-teimperature leak-characteristics References [1] D.B. Clauss, D.S. Horshel, and T.E. Blejewas, Insights into the behavior of LWR containment buildings during severe accidents. Nucl. Engrg. Des. 100, No. 2 (1987) 189-204. [2] L.N. Koenig, Experimental results for a 1:8-scale steel model nuclear power plant containment pressurized to failure, NUREG/CR 4216 (1986) 1-86. [3] D.S. Horshel and T.E. Blejewas, An analytical investigation of the response of steel containment models to internal pressurization, Trans. 7th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, Vol. (6/4) (1983) pp. 297-304. [4] W.A. Von Riesemann, T.E. Blejewas, A.W. Dennis and R.L. Woodfin, NRC containment safety margins program for light-water reactors, Nucl. Engrg. Des. 69, No. 2 (1982) 161-167. [5] J.T. Julien and S.W. Petters, Leak rate test of containment personnel lock, Fourth Workshop on Containment Integrity, Washington, D.C. (1988) pp. 1-15. "[61 L.N. Koenig and C.V. Subramanian, Leakage potential of LWR containment penetration under severe accident conditions, Nucl. Engrg. Des. 100, No. 2 (1987)121-128. [7] D.B. Clauss, An-evaluation of the leakage potential of a personnel airlock subjected to severe accident loads, Trans. 9th Intemrational Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (1987) 147-152. [8] L.N. Koenig, Leakage potential through mechanical penetrations in a severe accident environment. NUE-REG/ CP-76, p. 557-568 (1986). [9] K. Hirao, M. Goto, Y. Naruse, K. Saito, T. Suzuki and H. Sugino, High temperature leak characteristics test of PCV hatch flanges gasket, in: Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Containment Integrity, NUREG/CP-0120, p. 457-463, May 12-14 (1992). [10] K. Hirao, M. Goto, Y. Naruse, K. Saito, K. Hasegawa and H. Sugino, Pressure test of the typical vessels flange under pressure loading, Trans. lth International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology, J02/4, (1991) pp. 25-30.

Nuclear Engine. North-Holland

pipes and valves. With high local temperatures, the flange gasket temperature would be lower than that of the local area because of thermal radiation, or heat transfer by convection, etc. These things indicate that containment heat transfer models will be important in calculating the containment response in a severe accident. Heat transfer models of interest are: (a) structureto-structure radiative heat transfer using.realistic radiative heat transfer constants and (b) natural convection. A realistic understanding of containment performance in a severe accident is a major concern in developing an accident management strategy. When applying the leakage characteristics specified in this paper to codes for severe accidents, the analytical results obtained by the codes should be examined carefully based on the effect of realistic heat-transfer phenomena.

Test

of ti
B.L. S1
Sandia h Receivec

5. Conclusions (1) Silicone-rubber gaskets in a PCV can maintain their and mechanical strength up to 200'C. (2) The pressurizing medium and temperature are governing factors in flange sealability. Flange tightness does not have a significant effect. (3) Silicone-rubber gaskets have sufficient sealability up to 225C at 20 kgf/cm2 . This pressure is approximately 5 times that of the PCV design pressure. (4) Leakage prediction criteria can be defined related to temperature and pressure. (5) When applying leakage characteristics specified in this paper to codes for severe accidents, the analytical results should be examined carefully based on realistic heat-transfer phenomena.

The o, importan paramett importan transitini three-dir data anc between specimer system d conditior

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